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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
PTCH1 expression at diagnosis predicts imatinib failure in chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in chronic phase.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib has revolutionized the management of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). However, around 25% of patients fail to sustain an adequate response. We sought to identify gene-expression biomarkers that could be used to predict imatinib response. The expression of 29 genes, previously implicated in CML pathogenesis, were measured by TaqMan Low Density Array in 73 CML patient samples. Patients were divided into low and high expression for each gene and imatinib failure (IF), probability of achieving CCyR, progression free survival and CML related OS were compared by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank. Results were validated in a second cohort of 56 patients, with a further technical validation using custom gene-expression assays in a conventional RT-qPCR in a sub-cohort of 37 patients. Patients with low PTCH1 expression showed a worse clinical response for all variables in all cohorts. PTCH1 was the most significant predictor in the multivariate analysis compared with Sokal, age and EUTOS. PTCH1 expression assay showed the adequate sensitivity, specificity and predictive values to predict for IF. Given the different treatments available for CML, measuring PTCH1 expression at diagnosis may help establish who will benefit best from imatinib and who is better selected for second generation TKI. Am. J. Hematol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Early administration of donor lymphocyte infusions upon molecular relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: a study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors and/or by donor lymphocyte infusions. The best strategies and timing of administration of lymphocytes are unclear. We analyzed 155 patients who relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with disease detectable only by molecular methods and who subsequently received lymphocytes. Transplants were performed in first chronic phase (n=125) or in advanced disease (n=29) from identical siblings (n=84) or unrelated donors (n=71) between 1986 and 2003. They received lymphocytes either during molecular relapse (n=85) or upon progression to more advanced disease (1993 to 2004). The median interval from relapse to lymphocyte infusion was 210 (0-1673) days. The median follow up after it was 46 (3-135) months. Overall survival was 76±4% at five years after lymphocyte infusions (89±8% with sibling donors and 63±13% with unrelated donors (P=0.003)). Survival was 69±14% when lymphocytes were given within six months of the detection of molecular relapse and 81±10% (P=0.061) when given later; 81±11% if given at molecular relapse versus 71±12% (P=0.26) with more advanced disease. In multivariate analysis survival was worse if the donor was unrelated (HR 2.54 (95% CI: 1.15-5.53), P=0.021) and better with lymphocyte infusions beyond six months from molecular relapse (HR 0.4 (95%CI: 0.19-0.84), P=0.018). These data confirm the remarkable efficacy of lymphocyte infusions for this disease. There appears to be no advantage from administering it early upon detection of molecular relapse in patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia.
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Patients with myeloid malignancies bearing PDGFRB fusion genes achieve durable long-term remissions with imatinib.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Myeloid neoplasms and eosinophilia with rearrangements of PDGFRB are uncommon Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Patients are typically male, with morphologic features of a Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative syndrome or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia. Reciprocal translocations involving PDGFRB result in fusion genes with constitutively activated receptor tyrosine kinase sensitive to inhibition with imatinib. We present an updated and expanded analysis of a cohort of 26 such patients treated with imatinib. After a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range, 1.8-17 years), the 10-year overall survival rate was 90% (95% confidence interval, 64%-97%); after median imatinib duration of 6.6 years (range, 0.1-12 years), the 6-year progression-free survival rate was 88% (95% confidence interval, 65%-96%). Of the patients, 96% responded; no patients who achieved a complete cytogenetic (n = 13) or molecular (n = 8) remission lost their response or progressed to blast crisis. Imatinib is well-tolerated and achieves excellent long-term responses in patients with PDGFRB rearrangements.
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Leukemia-induced phenotypic and functional defects in natural killer cells predict failure to achieve remission in acute myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia will relapse, and older patients often fail to achieve remission with induction chemotherapy. We explored the possibility that leukemic suppression of innate immunity might contribute to treatment failure. Natural killer cell phenotype and function was measured in 32 consecutive acute myeloid leukemia patients at presentation, including 12 achieving complete remission. Compared to 15 healthy age-matched controls, natural killer cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients were abnormal at presentation, with downregulation of the activating receptor NKp46 (P=0.007) and upregulation of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A (P=0.04). Natural killer cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients had impaired effector function against autologous blasts and K562 targets, with significantly reduced CD107a degranulation, TNF-? and IFN-? production. Failure to achieve remission was associated with NKG2A overexpression and reduced TNF-? production. These phenotypic and functional abnormalities were partially restored in the 12 patients achieving remission. In vitro co-incubation of acute myeloid leukemia blasts with natural killer cells from healthy donors induced significant impairment in natural killer cell TNF-? and IFN-? production (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively) against K562 targets and a trend to reduced CD107a degranulation (P=0.07). Under transwell conditions, the inhibitory effect of AML blasts on NK cytotoxicity and effector function was still present, and this inhibitory effect was primarily mediated by IL-10. These results suggest that acute myeloid leukemia blasts induce long-lasting changes in natural killer cells, impairing their effector function and reducing the competence of the innate immune system, favoring leukemia survival.
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Use of the quality management system "JACIE" and outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Competent authorities, healthcare payers and hospitals devote increasing resources to quality management systems but scientific analyses searching for an impact of these systems on clinical outcome remain scarce. Earlier data indicated a stepwise improvement in outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with each phase of the accreditation process for the quality management system "JACIE". We therefore tested the hypothesis that working towards and achieving "JACIE" accreditation would accelerate improvement in outcome over calendar time. Overall mortality of the entire cohort of 107,904 patients who had a transplant (41,623 allogeneic, 39%; 66,281 autologous, 61%) between 1999 and 2006 decreased over the 14-year observation period by a factor of 0.63 per 10 years (hazard ratio: 0.63; 0.58-0.69). Considering "JACIE"-accredited centers as those with programs having achieved accreditation by November 2012, at the latest, this improvement was significantly faster in "JACIE"-accredited centers than in non-accredited centers (approximately 5.3% per year for 49,459 patients versus approximately 3.5% per year for 58,445 patients, respectively; hazard ratio: 0.83; 0.71-0.97). As a result, relapse-free survival (hazard ratio 0.85; 0.75-0.95) and overall survival (hazard ratio 0.86; 0.76-0.98) were significantly higher at 72 months for those patients transplanted in the 162 "JACIE"-accredited centers. No significant effects were observed after autologous transplants (hazard ratio 1.06; 0.99-1.13). Hence, working towards implementation of a quality management system triggers a dynamic process associated with a steeper reduction in mortality over the years and a significantly improved survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Our data support the use of a quality management system for complex medical procedures.
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Treatment and management of graft-versus-host disease: improving response and survival.
Ther Adv Hematol
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following allogenic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and thus the focus of much ongoing research. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and predisposing factors for both acute and chronic forms of the disease, a standardised therapeutic strategy is still lacking. There is good evidence for initial treatment of both acute and chronic forms of the disease with corticosteroid therapy. However, the most effective approach to steroid-refractory disease remains controversial, with current practice based mainly on smaller studies and varying considerably between local institutions. Timely diagnosis, multidisciplinary working and good supportive care, including infection prophylaxis, are clearly important in optimizing response and survival in such patients. It is hoped that in the future systematic research strategies and the identification of novel therapeutic targets may improve outcome further. The following review aims to outline some of the existing options for the treatment and management of acute and chronic GVHD.
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How I treat leukemia during pregnancy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Leukemia in pregnancy remains a challenging therapeutic prospect. The prevalence is low at approximately 1 in 10,000 pregnancies, and as a result data are limited to small retrospective series and case reports, rendering evidence-based recommendations for management strategies difficult. The management of the leukemias in pregnancy requires close collaboration with obstetric and neonatology colleagues as both the maternal and fetal outcomes must be taken into consideration. The decision to introduce or delay chemotherapy must be balanced against the impact on maternal and foetal survival and morbidity. Invariably, acute leukemia diagnosed in the first trimester necessitates intensive chemotherapy that is likely to induce fetal malformations. As delaying treatment in this situation is usually inappropriate, counselling with regard to termination of pregnancy is often essential. For chronic disease and acute leukemia diagnosed after the second trimester, therapeutic termination of the pregnancy is not inevitable and often standard management approaches similar to those in non-gravid patients can be employed. Here the management of the acute and chronic leukemias will be addressed.
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Preclinical and clinical efficacy of XPO1/CRM1 inhibition by the karyopherin inhibitor KPT-330 in Ph+ leukemias.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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As tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) fail to induce long-term response in blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BC) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), novel therapies targeting leukemia-dysregulated pathways are necessary. Exportin-1 (XPO1), also known as chromosome maintenance protein 1, regulates cell growth and differentiation by controlling the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins and RNAs, some of which are aberrantly modulated in BCR-ABL1(+) leukemias. Using CD34(+) progenitors from CML, B-ALL, and healthy individuals, we found that XPO1 expression was markedly increased, mostly in a TKI-sensitive manner, in CML-BC and Ph(+) B-ALL. Notably, XPO1 was also elevated in Ph(-) B-ALL. Moreover, the clinically relevant XPO1 inhibitor KPT-330 strongly triggered apoptosis and impaired the clonogenic potential of leukemic, but not normal, CD34(+) progenitors, and increased survival of BCR-ABL1(+) mice, 50% of which remained alive and, mostly, became BCR-ABL1 negative. Moreover, KPT-330 compassionate use in a patient with TKI-resistant CML undergoing disease progression significantly reduced white blood cell count, blast cells, splenomegaly, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and bone pain. Mechanistically, KPT-330 altered the subcellular localization of leukemia-regulated factors including RNA-binding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and the oncogene SET, thereby inducing reactivation of protein phosphatase 2A tumor suppressor and inhibition of BCR-ABL1 in CML-BC cells. Because XPO1 is important for leukemic cell survival, KPT-330 may represent an alternative therapy for TKI-refractory Ph(+) leukemias.
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Antagonistic activities of the immunomodulator and PP2A-activating drug FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya) in Jak2-driven hematologic malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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FTY720 (Fingolimod, Gilenya) is a sphingosine analog used as an immunosuppressant in multiple sclerosis patients. FTY720 is also a potent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-activating drug (PAD). PP2A is a tumor suppressor found inactivated in different types of cancer. We show here that PP2A is inactive in polycythemia vera (PV) and other myeloproliferative neoplasms characterized by the expression of the transforming Jak2(V617F) oncogene. PP2A inactivation occurs in a Jak2(V617F) dose/kinase-dependent manner through the PI-3K?-PKC-induced phosphorylation of the PP2A inhibitor SET. Genetic or PAD-mediated PP2A reactivation induces Jak2(V617F) inactivation/downregulation and impairs clonogenic potential of Jak2(V617F) cell lines and PV but not normal CD34(+) progenitors. Likewise, FTY720 decreases leukemic allelic burden, reduces splenomegaly, and significantly increases survival of Jak2(V617F) leukemic mice without adverse effects. Mechanistically, we show that in Jak2(V617F) cells, FTY720 antileukemic activity requires neither FTY720 phosphorylation (FTY720-P) nor SET dimerization or ceramide induction but depends on interaction with SET K209. Moreover, we show that Jak2(V617F) also utilizes an alternative sphingosine kinase-1-mediated pathway to inhibit PP2A and that FTY720-P, acting as a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1 agonist, elicits signals leading to the Jak2-PI-3K?-PKC-SET-mediated PP2A inhibition. Thus, PADs (eg, FTY720) represent suitable therapeutic alternatives for Jak2(V617F) MPNs.
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Syngeneic transplantation in aplastic anemia: pre-transplant conditioning and peripheral blood are associated with improved engraftment: an observational study on behalf of the Severe Aplastic Anemia and Pediatric Diseases Working Parties of the European
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Aplastic anemia is usually treated with immunosuppression or allogeneic transplant, depending on patient and disease characteristics. Syngeneic transplant offers a rare treatment opportunity with minimal transplant-related mortality, and offers an insight into disease mechanisms. We present here a retrospective analysis of all syngeneic transplants for aplastic anemia reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Between 1976 and 2009, 88 patients received 113 transplants. Most transplants (n=85) were preceded by a conditioning regimen, 22 of these including anti-thymocyte globulin. About half of transplants with data available (39 of 86) were followed by posttransplant immunosuppression. Graft source was bone marrow in the majority of cases (n=77). Transplant practice changed over time with more transplants with conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin as well as peripheral blood stem cells performed in later years. Ten year overall survival was 93% with 5 transplant-related deaths. Graft failure occurred in 32% of transplants. Risk of graft failure was significantly increased in transplants without conditioning, and with bone marrow as graft source. Lack of posttransplant immunosuppression also showed a trend towards increased risk of graft failure, while anti-thymocyte globulin did not have an influence. In summary, syngeneic transplant is associated with a significant risk of graft failure when no conditioning is given, but has an excellent long-term outcome. Furthermore, our comparatively large series enables us to recommend the use of pre-transplant conditioning rather than not and possibly to prefer peripheral blood as a stem cell source.
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European LeukemiaNet recommendations for the management of chronic myeloid leukemia: 2013.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Advances in chronic myeloid leukemia treatment, particularly regarding tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mandate regular updating of concepts and management. A European LeukemiaNet expert panel reviewed prior and new studies to update recommendations made in 2009. We recommend as initial treatment imatinib, nilotinib, or dasatinib. Response is assessed with standardized real quantitative polymerase chain reaction and/or cytogenetics at 3, 6, and 12 months. BCR-ABL1 transcript levels ?10% at 3 months, <1% at 6 months, and ?0.1% from 12 months onward define optimal response, whereas >10% at 6 months and >1% from 12 months onward define failure, mandating a change in treatment. Similarly, partial cytogenetic response (PCyR) at 3 months and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) from 6 months onward define optimal response, whereas no CyR (Philadelphia chromosome-positive [Ph+] >95%) at 3 months, less than PCyR at 6 months, and less than CCyR from 12 months onward define failure. Between optimal and failure, there is an intermediate warning zone requiring more frequent monitoring. Similar definitions are provided for response to second-line therapy. Specific recommendations are made for patients in the accelerated and blastic phases, and for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Optimal responders should continue therapy indefinitely, with careful surveillance, or they can be enrolled in controlled studies of treatment discontinuation once a deeper molecular response is achieved.
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A common novel splice variant of SLC22A1 (OCT1) is associated with impaired responses to imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Approximately one-third of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia will fail to achieve or maintain responses to imatinib. Changes in solute carrier family 22 (organic cation transporter), member 1 (SLC22A1, also termed OCT1), the main transporter for imatinib, have been proposed as a possible predictive factor. We analysed SLC22A1 mRNA levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in exon 7 in 153 diagnostic whole blood samples from two patient cohorts. The level of SLC22A1 expression did not significantly correlate with imatinib failure or achievement of molecular remission. The SNP 408V>M (g.1222G>A) was present in 65% of patients and was associated in all cases with an eight base-pair insertion (8(+) allele) at the 3 end of exon 7. The latter generates an alternative splice site, leading to a premature stop codon. M420del was found in 33% of patients and never in cis with 8(+) (the 3(-) allele). Significantly longer times to 1% and 0·1% molecular responses (by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) were seen in patients with 8(+) 8(+) or 8(+) N compared to those with the remaining four genotypes (N = no insertion or deletion). Patients lacking 8(+) and 3(-) (NN, 18%) showed the best outcomes overall. Thus, while SLC22A1 expression does not appear to affect response, alterations in its splicing or amino acid sequence may do so.
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors impair B-cell immune responses in CML through off-target inhibition of kinases important for cell signaling.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have significant off-target multikinase inhibitory effects. We aimed to study the impact of TKIs on the in vivo B-cell response to vaccination. Cellular and humoral responses to influenza and pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in 51 chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients on imatinib, or second-line dasatinib and nilotinib, and 24 controls. Following vaccination, CML patients on TKI had significant impairment of IgM humoral response to pneumococcus compared with controls (IgM titer 79.0 vs 200 U/mL, P = .0006), associated with significantly lower frequencies of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. To elucidate whether CML itself or treatment with TKI was responsible for the impaired humoral response, we assessed memory B-cell subsets in paired samples collected before and after imatinib therapy. Treatment with imatinib was associated with significant reductions in IgM memory B cells. In vitro coincubation of B cells with plasma from CML patients on TKI or with imatinib, dasatinib, or nilotinib induced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of Brutons tyrosine kinase and indirectly its downstream substrate, phospholipase-C-?2, both important in B-cell signaling and survival. These data indicate that TKIs, through off-target inhibition of kinases important in B-cell signaling, reduce memory B-cell frequencies and induce significant impairment of B-cell responses in CML.
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The BCR-ABLT315I mutation compromises survival in chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, in a matched pair analysis.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The BCR-ABL T315I mutation confers resistance to currently licensed tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myelogenous leukemia. However, the impact of this mutation on survival in early stages of disease, in chronic phase, has never been detailed. Using matched pair analysis, a cohort of 64 patients with chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia harboring a T315I mutation and resistant to imatinib mesylate was compared to a similar cohort of 53 chronic phase patients resistant to imatinib, but with no detectable T315I mutation, in the pre-ponatinib era. These patients were matched according to age at diagnosis, interval between disease diagnosis and start of imatinib treatment, and duration of imatinib therapy. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated the significant negative impact of the presence of the T315I mutation on overall survival (since imatinib-resistance: 48.4 months for T315I(+) patients versus not reached for T315I(-) ones; P=0.006) and failure-free survival (since imatinib-resistance: 34.7 months for T315I(+) patients versus not reached for T315I(-) patients; P=0.003). In addition, Cox proportional hazard models adjusted on overall survival demonstrated the negative influence of the T315I mutation (P=0.02, HR=2.54). These results confirm early assumptions concerning the poor prognosis of chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients with the T315I mutation who are not eligible for allogeneic transplantation, and demonstrate the need for more therapeutic options.
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Regulation of advanced therapy medicinal products in Europe and the role of academia.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2013
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Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are gene therapy, somatic cell therapy or tissue-engineered products regulated under (EC) No. 1394/2007 to ensure their free movement within the European Union while guaranteeing the highest level of health protection for patients. Academic good manufacturing practice (GMP) centers are major contributors in the development of ATMPs and this study assessed the impact of regulations on them.
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Salvage autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma relapsing or progressing after up-front autologous transplantation.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Progression or relapse occurs in the vast majority of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who undergo up-front autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT1), which remains a cornerstone of treatment in the era of novel agents. Limited data are available regarding the value of salvage therapy with a second AHCT (AHCT2) in patients who relapse/progress after AHCT1. We analyzed the outcome of 83 patients who underwent salvage AHCT2 between 1994 and 2011. Most patients (77%) had received treatment with novel agents between AHCT1 and AHCT2, and 28% of patients were from ethnic minority groups. Median overall survival (OS) from AHCT2 was 31.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22-41), and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 15.5 months (95% CI: 11-20). In multivariate analysis, only disease status (? PR) at AHCT2 was associated with better OS. The 3-year OS rates for patients receiving AHCT2 in > PR and PR were 85.9% (95% CI: 61-96) and 51.3% (95% CI: 34-68), respectively. Disease status at AHCT2 and time to progression/relapse after AHCT1 were associated with PFS in multivariate analysis. In summary, salvage AHCT2 is an effective treatment option in patients with chemosensitive relapse/progression and prolonged remission after a prior autograft.
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PP2A-activating drugs selectively eradicate TKI-resistant chronic myeloid leukemic stem cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) depends on the requirement for BCR-ABL1 kinase activity in CML progenitors. However, CML quiescent HSCs are TKI resistant and represent a BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent disease reservoir. Here we have shown that persistence of leukemic HSCs in BM requires inhibition of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and expression--but not activity--of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene. Examination of HSCs from CML patients and healthy individuals revealed that PP2A activity was suppressed in CML compared with normal HSCs. TKI-resistant CML quiescent HSCs showed increased levels of BCR-ABL1, but very low kinase activity. BCR-ABL1 expression, but not kinase function, was required for recruitment of JAK2, activation of a JAK2/?-catenin survival/self-renewal pathway, and inhibition of PP2A. PP2A-activating drugs (PADs) markedly reduced survival and self-renewal of CML quiescent HSCs, but not normal quiescent HSCs, through BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent and PP2A-mediated inhibition of JAK2 and ?-catenin. This led to suppression of human leukemic, but not normal, HSC/progenitor survival in BM xenografts and interference with long-term maintenance of BCR-ABL1-positive HSCs in serial transplantation assays. Targeting the JAK2/PP2A/?-catenin network in quiescent HSCs with PADs (e.g., FTY720) has the potential to treat TKI-refractory CML and relieve lifelong patient dependence on TKIs.
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Combined inhibition of p97 and the proteasome causes lethal disruption of the secretory apparatus in multiple myeloma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Inhibition of the proteasome is a widely used strategy for treating multiple myeloma that takes advantage of the heavy secretory load that multiple myeloma cells (MMCs) have to deal with. Resistance of MMCs to proteasome inhibition has been linked to incomplete disruption of proteasomal endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) and activation of non-proteasomal protein degradation pathways. The ATPase p97 (VCP/Cdc48) has key roles in mediating both ERAD and non-proteasomal protein degradation and can be targeted pharmacologically by small molecule inhibition. In this study, we compared the effects of p97 inhibition with Eeyarestatin 1 and DBeQ on the secretory apparatus of MMCs with the effects induced by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and the effects caused by combined inhibition of p97 and the proteasome. We found that p97 inhibition elicits cellular responses that are different from those induced by proteasome inhibition, and that the responses differ considerably between MMC lines. Moreover, we found that dual inhibition of both p97 and the proteasome terminally disrupts ER configuration and intracellular protein metabolism in MMCs. Dual inhibition of p97 and the proteasome induced high levels of apoptosis in all of the MMC lines that we analysed, including bortezomib-adapted AMO-1 cells, and was also effective in killing primary MMCs. Only minor toxicity was observed in untransformed and non-secretory cells. Our observations highlight non-redundant roles of p97 and the proteasome in maintaining secretory homeostasis in MMCs and provide a preclinical conceptual framework for dual targeting of p97 and the proteasome as a potential new therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In recent years new, more potent tyrosine-kinase inhibitors have been introduced to accompany imatinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Most patients in chronic phase obtain an optimal response to these oral agents with minimal toxicity. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is therefore indicated only in a minority of patients who do not achieve an adequate response to first, second or third generation agents. Patients in accelerated phase have a lower chance of achieving an optimal response on these drugs. For patients in blast phase, transplantation remains the only therapy with curative potential, although now it is increasingly used in combination with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. In this review we address the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of this disease and how patients should be transplanted.
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Responses to second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors are durable: an intention-to-treat analysis in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G-TKIs) are effective at inducing complete cytogenetic responses (CCyRs) in approximately half of chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated while still in the chronic phase and after failing imatinib. It is less clear whether these responses are durable. In the present study, we report the clinical outcome of 119 patients who received a 2G-TKI as second-line treatment while still in the chronic phase. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the 4-year probabilities of overall and event-free survival were 81.9% and 35.3%, respectively. Sixty-two patients discontinued the initial 2G-TKI because of resistance or intolerance. To further explore the durability of cytogenetic responses, irrespective of the need for a third-line TKI, we used the concept of "current CCyR-survival" (c-CCyRS). The c-CCyRS at 4 years was 54.4%. After introduction of a 2G-TKI, 77 patients had a 3-month BCR-ABL1/ABL1 transcript ratio of ? 10% and had significantly superior overall survival (91.3% vs 72.1%, P = .02), event-free survival (49.3% vs 13.0%, P < .001), and c-CCyRS (67.2% vs 11.2%, P = .0001) compared with the 33 patients with ratios > 10%. The 3-month molecular response was the only independent predictor for overall survival. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, we have shown that the responses to second-line therapies are durable. Patients destined to fare poorly can be identified early during therapy.
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Assessment of BCR-ABL1 transcript levels at 3 months is the only requirement for predicting outcome for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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We studied BCR-ABL1 transcript levels in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) at 3, 6, and 12 months after starting imatinib to identify molecular milestones that would predict for overall survival (OS) and other outcomes more reliably than serial marrow cytogenetics.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients harboring T315I BCR-ABL mutated leukemias.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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T315I(+) Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias are inherently resistant to all licensed tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and therapeutic options remain limited. We report the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in 64 patients with documented BCR-ABL(T315I) mutations. Median follow-up was 52 months from mutation detection and 26 months from transplantation. At transplantation, 51.5% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia were in the chronic phase and 4.5% were in advanced phases. Median overall survival after transplantation was 10.3 months (range 5.7 months to not reached [ie, still alive]) for those with chronic myeloid leukemia in the blast phase and 7.4 months (range 1.4 months to not reached [ie, still alive]) for those with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia but has not yet been reached for those in the chronic and accelerated phases of chronic myeloid leukemia. The occurrence of chronic GVHD had a positive impact on overall survival (P = .047). Transplant-related mortality rates were low. Multivariate analysis identified only blast phase at transplantation (hazard ratio 3.68, P = .0011) and unrelated stem cell donor (hazard ratio 2.98, P = .011) as unfavorable factors. We conclude that allogeneic stem cell transplantation represents a valuable therapeutic tool for eligible patients with BCR-ABL(T315I) mutation, a tool that may or may not be replaced by third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors improve the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in whom imatinib therapy has failed.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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It has not been clearly established whether second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors actually improve the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase who are given nilotinib or dasatinib therapy after treatment failure with imatinib.
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Plerixafor for autologous peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in patients previously treated with fludarabine or lenalidomide.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Fludarabine and lenalidomide are essential drugs in the front-line treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM), respectively. Data suggests that fludarabine and lenalidomide therapy may have a deleterious effect on stem cell mobilization. In the European compassionate use program, 48 patients (median age 57 years) previously treated with fludarabine (median 5 cycles; range: 1-7 cycles) were given plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for remobilization following a primary mobilization attempt. The overall median number of CD34+ cells collected was 2.3 × 10(6)/kg (range: 0.3-13.4). The minimum required number of CD34+ cells (?2.0 × 10(6)/kg) was collected from 58% of patients in a median of 2 days. Thirty-five patients (median age = 57 years) previously treated with lenalidomide (median 5 cycles; range: 1-10 cycles) were given plerixafor plus G-CSF for remobilization. The overall median number of CD34+ cells collected was 3.4 × 10(6)/kg (range: 1.1-14.8). The minimum required number of CD34+ cells (?2.0 × 10(6) per kg) was collected from 69% of patients in a median of 2 days. In conclusion, salvage mobilization with plerixafor plus G-CSF is successful in the majority of patients with MM previously treated with lenalidomide. In fludarabine-exposed patients, only 58% of patients will achieve successful salvage mobilization with plerixafor plus G-CSF, suggesting the need for novel mobilization regimens algorithms in this subgroup of patients.
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EBMT risk score predicts outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients who have failed a previous transplantation procedure.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Increasing numbers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) are being performed for patients who have failed a previous allogeneic or autologous SCT. We investigated whether the EBMT risk score could predict outcome after a subsequent allo-SCT. We analyzed prognostic factors in 124 consecutive patients who underwent a second transplantation using an allogeneic donor at our institution. Patients with either a first autologous (N = 64) or first allogeneic (N = 60) SCT were included. Age, disease stage, time interval from diagnosis to transplantation, donor type, and donor-recipient sex combination were used to establish a score from 0 to 7 points, from which 3 groups were identified. The 5-year survival probability decreased from 51.7% for risk scores 0-3 (low, n = 25), to 29.3% for risk score 4 (intermediate, n = 42), and only 10.4% for risk scores 5-7 (high, n = 57), P = .001. We propose that the EBMT risk score can identify patients most likely to benefit from a second transplantation.
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Introduction of a quality management system and outcome after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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A comprehensive quality management system called JACIE (Joint Accreditation Committee International Society for Cellular Therapy and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation), was introduced to improve quality of care in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We therefore tested the hypothesis that the introduction of JACIE improved patient survival.
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Unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplants incorporating pre-transplant in-vivo alemtuzumab are not associated with any increased risk of significant acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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There is little information published comparing peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) with bone marrow (BM) as the stem cell source in the long-term outcome in recipients of T-cell depleted (TCD) unrelated donor (UD) transplants. We present retrospective outcome data on 306 recipients of myeloablative, human leucocyte antigen-matched UD allografts using pre-transplant in-vivo Alemtuzumab. Transplants were performed between 2000 and 2007 for chronic myeloid leukaemia in first chronic phase and acute leukaemia in first or second complete remission; 184 patients received BM and 122 PBSC. The median age was 28·9 years (<1-58) and the median follow-up was 48 months. Overall survival at 8 years was 53%. The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was significantly higher in PBSC (65%) than BM recipients (49%; P=0·012). This represented only grade 1 GvHD with no difference in grade II-IV aGvHD (BM 23% PBSC 24%). The incidence of chronic GvHD, either overall (BM 47%, PBSC 49%) or extensive (BM 15%, PBSC 13%) was not increased with PBSC. The incidence of relapse, non-relapse mortality and survival were not significantly different. Whilst accepting the limitations of retrospective analyses, we suggest the increased risk of GvHD in recipients of PBSC in T-replete transplants is offset by in-vivo Alemtuzumab, and that either stem cell source can be used with good outcomes in this setting.
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Nilotinib: evaluation and analysis of its role in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Nilotinib, formally known as AMN107, is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, rationally designed from its revolutionary parent compound imatinib, to produce a 30-40-fold enhancement in the inhibition of the BCR-ABL1-derived oncoprotein associated with chronic myeloid leukemia. In clinical trials, nilotinib has proven to be a useful agent in the treatment of imatinib-refractory disease and was initially approved by both the US FDA and EMA in 2007 for use in adults as a second-line therapy. More recently, data from the first randomized controlled trials of the front-line use of nilotinib in newly diagnosed patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia have demonstrated superiority in the rates of major molecular responses at 12 months over the gold standard-imatinib 400 mg. As such, in June 2010, the FDA granted accelerated approval for its use in newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia. Nilotinib is well tolerated, with a favorable side-effect profile. With the emergence of supportive trial data, it is likely to have a leading role both in the front-line management of newly presenting patients and in the second-line treatment of patients resistant to or intolerant of imatinib and other second-line agents.
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Poor adherence is the main reason for loss of CCyR and imatinib failure for chronic myeloid leukemia patients on long-term therapy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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We studied the relation between adherence to imatinib measured with microelectronic monitoring systems and the probabilities of losing a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and of imatinib failure in 87 CCyR chronic myeloid leukemia patients receiving long-term therapy. We included in our analysis the most relevant prognostic factors described to date. On multivariate analysis, the adherence rate and having failed to achieve a major molecular response were the only independent predictors for loss of CCyR and discontinuation of imatinib therapy. The 23 patients with an adherence rate less than or equal to 85% had a higher probability of losing their CCyR at 2 years (26.8% vs 1.5%, P = .0002) and a lower probability of remaining on imatinib (64.5% vs 90.6%, P = .006) than the 64 patients with an adherence rate more than 85%. In summary, we have shown that poor adherence is the principal factor contributing to the loss of cytogenetic responses and treatment failure in patients on long-term therapy.
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The European LeukemiaNet: achievements and perspectives.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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The only way to cure leukemia is by cooperative research. To optimize research, the European LeukemiaNet integrates 105 national leukemia trial groups and networks, 105 interdisciplinary partner groups and about 1,000 leukemia specialists from 175 institutions. They care for tens of thousands of leukemia patients in 33 countries across Europe. Their ultimate goal is to cure leukemia. Since its inception in 2002, the European LeukemiaNet has steadily expanded and has unified leukemia research across Europe. The European LeukemiaNet grew from two major roots: 1) the German Competence Network on Acute and Chronic Leukemias; and 2) the collaboration of European Investigators on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. The European LeukemiaNet has improved leukemia research and management across Europe. Its concept has led to funding by the European Commission as a network of excellence. Other sources (European Science Foundation; European LeukemiaNet-Foundation) will take over when the support of the European Commission ends.
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Repeated vaccination is required to optimize seroprotection against H1N1 in the immunocompromised host.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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In 2009 the declaration by the World Health Organization of a global pandemic of influenza-H1N1 virus led to a vaccination campaign to ensure protection for immunocompromised patients. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine in patients with hematologic malignancies.
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Efficacy and outcome of autologous transplantation in rare myelomas.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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As rare myelomas, i.e. the IgD, IgE, IgM and non-secretory forms, constitute only a small proportion of any study, relatively little is known about their prognosis in the era of peripheral stem cell transplantation.
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Three decades of transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: what have we learned?
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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Last year marked 30 years of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as a curative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Initially studies used stem cells from identical twins but techniques rapidly developed to use cells first from HLA-identical siblings and later unrelated donors. During the 1990s CML became the most frequent indication for allogeneic transplantation worldwide. This, together with the relative biologic homogeneity of CML in chronic phase, its responsiveness to graft-versus-leukemia effect and the ability to monitor low level residual disease placed CML at the forefront of research into different strategies of stem cell transplantation. The introduction of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors during the last decade resulted in long-term disease control in the majority of patients with CML. In those who fail to respond and/or develop intolerance to these agents, transplantation remains an effective therapeutic solution. The combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with transplantation is an exciting new strategy and it provides inspiration for similar approaches in other malignancies.
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EVI-1 oncogene expression predicts survival in chronic-phase CML patients resistant to imatinib treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Activation of the EVI-1 oncogene has been reported in acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis, and less commonly, in chronic-phase CML patients. We screened an unselected cohort of 75 chronic-phase CML patients who had failed imatinib for expression of EVI-1 and sought a correlation with subsequent outcome on the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors dasatinib (n = 61) or nilotinib (n = 14). The 8 patients (10.7%) who expressed EVI-1 transcripts detectable by real-time polymerase chain reaction had significantly lower event-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival than patients with undetectable transcript. The predictive value of EVI-1 expression was validated in an independent cohort. In a multivariate analysis, EVI-1 expression status and the best cytogenetic response obtained on imatinib were the only independent predictors for overall survival, progression-free survival, and event-free survival. Our data suggest that screening for EVI-1 expression at the time of imatinib failure may predict for response to second-line TKI therapy and consequently aid clinical management.
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Efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as third-line therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase who have failed 2 prior lines of TKI therapy.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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We analyzed a cohort of 26 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who had failed imatinib and a second tyrosine kinase inhibitor but were still in first chronic phase and identified prognostic factors for response and outcomes. The achievement of a prior cytogenetic response on imatinib or on second-line therapy were the only independent predictors for the achievement of complete cytogenetic responses on third-line therapy. Younger age and the achievement of a cytogenetic response on second line were the only independent predictors for overall survival (OS). At 3 months, the 9 patients who had achieved a cytogenetic response had better 30-month probabilities of complete cytogenetic responses and OS than the patients who had failed to do so. Factors measurable before starting treatment with third line therapy and cytogenetic responses at 3 months can accurately predict subsequent outcome and thus guide clinical decisions.
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Long-term physiological side effects after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) or stem cell transplantation has the potential to cure a significant proportion of patients with otherwise fatal diseases. At present, immediate survival is no longer the sole concern after allo-BMT, because many patients can survive the acute complications of the procedure and remain free of their original disease for several years. Although long-term allo-BMT survivors generally enjoy good health, for many others cure or control of the underlying disease is not accompanied by full restoration of health. The long-term physiologic effects after allo-BMT include nonmalignant organ or tissue dysfunction; changes in quality of life; infections related to delayed, or abnormal, immune reconstitution; and secondary cancers. These long-term complications and the features of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) symptoms are heterogeneous in nature, time of onset, duration, and severity. The underlying origin of these complications is often multifactorial, with chronic GVHD being the most challenging risk factor. The main aims of this review are to present transplant physicians and health care providers with an overview of these malignant and nonmalignant late complications, with a special focus on chronic GVHD. A close partnership between the transplant center, organ-specific specialties, and local primary care providers is a key component of preventive medicine. The patient can play a major role through engagement in health maintenance behaviors.
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Humoral and cellular immunity to primary H1N1 infection in patients with hematologic malignancies following stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Limited data are available on immunologic responses to primary H1N1 infection in patients with hematologic malignancies. We present a prospective, case-surveillance study of such patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed H1N1-influenza who presented to our institution between September 2009 and January 2010. Ninety-two patients presented with influenza-like symptoms, and 13 had H1N1 infection confirmed by RT-PCR, including 4 allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients (1 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 1 with chronic lymphoblastic leukemia [CLL], 1 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 1 with chronic myelogenous leukemia), 5 patients with multiple myeloma following autologous stem cell transplantation, 1 patient with multiple myeloma perimobilization, 2 patients with NHL post chemotherapy, and 1 patient with CLL. All 13 patients required hospitalization. Six (43%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), of whom 4 (67%) died. We evaluated B cell and T cell responses to H1N1 infection prospectively in these patients compared with those in 4 otherwise healthy controls. Within 12 weeks of diagnosis, only 6 of 11 patients developed seropositive antibody titers as measured by hemagglutination-inhibition or microneutralization assays, compared with 4 of 4 controls. H1N1-specific T cells were detected in only 2 of 8 evaluable patients compared with 4 of 4 controls. H1N1-specific T cells were functional, capable of producing interferon ?, tumor necrosis factor ?, and CD107a mobilization. Furthermore, CD154 was up-regulated on CD4(+) T cells in 3 of 4 controls and 2 of 2 patients who had both B cell and T cell responses to H1N1. Post-H1N1 infection, 5 of 8 patients developed seasonal influenza-specific T cells, suggesting cross-reactivity induced by H1N1 infection. These data offer novel insights into humoral and cell-mediated immunologic responses to primary H1N1 infection.
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Interaction between KIR3DS1 and HLA-Bw4 predicts for progression-free survival after autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Natural killer (NK) cells exert antimyeloma cytotoxicity. The balance between inhibition and activation of NK-cells played by the inherited repertoire of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes therefore may influence prognosis. One hundred eighty-two patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were analyzed for KIR repertoire. Multivariate analysis showed that progression-free survival (PFS) after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was significantly shorter for patients who are KIR3DS1(+) (P = .01). This was most evident for patients in complete or partial remission (good risk; GR) at ASCT. The relative risk (RR) of progression or death for patients with KIR3DS1(+) compared with KIR3DS1(-) was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1; P = .002). The most significant difference in PFS was observed in patients with GR KIR3DS1(+) in whom HLA-Bw4, the ligand for the corresponding inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1, was missing. Patients with KIR3DS1(+) KIR3DL1(+) HLA-Bw4(-) had a significantly shorter PFS than patients who were KIR3DS1(-), translating to a difference in median PFS of 12 months (12.2 vs 24 months; P = .002). Our data show that KIR-human leukocyte antigen immunogenetics represent a novel prognostic tool for patients with myeloma, shown here in the context of ASCT, and that KIR3DS1 positivity may identify patients at greater risk of progression.
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Hematology. Imatinib--should we have more of a good thing?
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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Imatinib 400 mg has been the first-line therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) since 2001 but may have been licensed at too low a dose. A recent study compared the standard dose with higher doses in patients with newly diagnosed CML and found no difference in response rates at 12 months. But, is the devil in the detail?
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In search of the original leukemic clone in chronic myeloid leukemia patients in complete molecular remission after stem cell transplantation or imatinib.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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It is not clear if absence of BCR-ABL transcripts--complete molecular response (CMR)--is synonymous with, or required for, cure of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Some patients achieve CMR with imatinib (IM), but most relapse shortly after treatment discontinuation. Furthermore, most patients in long-term remission (LTR) post-stem cell transplantation (SCT) are considered functionally cured, although some remain occasionally positive for low-level BCR-ABL mRNA. Interpretation of the latter is complicated because it has been observed in healthy subjects. We designed a patient-specific, highly sensitive, DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction to test follow-up samples for the original leukemic clone, identified by its unique genomic BCR-ABL fusion (gBCR-ABL). In 5 IM-treated patients in CMR, gBCR-ABL was detected in transcript-negative samples; 4 patients became gBCR-ABL-negative with continuing IM therapy. In contrast, of 9 patients in LTR (13-27 years) post-SCT, gBCR-ABL was detected in only 1, despite occasional transcript-positive samples in 8 of them. In conclusion, in IM-treated patients, absence of transcripts should not be interpreted as absence of the leukemic clone, although continuing IM after achievement of CMR may lead to further reduction of residual disease. Post-SCT, we found little evidence that the transcripts occasionally detected originate from the leukemic clone.
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Pregnancy after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the late effects working committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Preservation of fertility after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can have a significant influence on the quality of life of transplant survivors. We describe 178 pregnancies in HCT recipients that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) between 2002 and 2007. There were 83 pregnancies in female HCT recipients and 95 pregnancies in female partners of male HCT recipients. Indications for transplantation included hematologic and other malignancies (N = 99) and nonmalignant disorders (N = 79, of which 75 patients had severe aplastic anemia). The cohort included recipients of autologous HCT (20 women, 13 men), myeloablative (MA) allogeneic HCT (12 women, 50 men), and nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT (2 women, 2 men). Age at HCT was <20 years for 50% of women and 19% of men. Conditioning regimens included total body irradiation (TBI) in 16% of women and 19% of men; doses were MA in 10% of women and in 16% of men. Live births were reported in 86% of pregnancies in partners of male transplant patients and 85% of pregnancies in female transplant patients, with most pregnancies occurring 5 to 10 years after HCT. We conclude that some HCT recipients can retain fertility, including patients who have received TBI and/or MA conditioning. Young patients undergoing HCT should be counseled both before and after HCT about potential loss of fertility, methods for preserving fertility, and planning for future pregnancy. Fertility and outcomes of pregnancy after HCT need prospective evaluation in large transplant cohorts.
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Primary plasma cell leukemia and autologous stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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Primary plasma cell leukemia is a rare disorder accounting for less than 5% of malignant plasma cell diseases. It has a poor prognosis compared to multiple myeloma, with a median survival of 8-12 months. The results of conventional therapy are disappointing though autologous stem cell transplantation may improve survival.
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Adherence is the critical factor for achieving molecular responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who achieve complete cytogenetic responses on imatinib.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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There is a considerable variability in the level of molecular responses achieved with imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). These differences could result from variable therapy adherence.
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Changes in the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a model for diffusion of medical technology.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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Innovations in hematology spread rapidly. Factors affecting the speed of introduction, international diffusion, and durability of use of innovations are, however, poorly understood.
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Impact of genomic risk factors on outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Non-HLA gene polymorphisms have been shown to influence outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Results were derived from heterogeneous, small populations and their value remains a matter of debate.
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Optimizing patient selection for myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Outstanding results have been obtained in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with first-line imatinib therapy. However, approximately 35% of patients will not obtain long-term benefit with this approach. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is a valuable second- and third-line therapy for appropriately selected patients. To identify useful prognostic indicators of transplantation outcome in postimatinib therapeutic interventions, we investigated the role of the HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI) together with levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) before HCT in 271 patients who underwent myeloablative HCT for CML in first chronic phase. Multivariate analysis showed both an HCT-CI score higher than 0 and CRP levels higher than 9 mg/L independently predict inferior survival and increased nonrelapse mortality at 100 days after HCT. CML patients without comorbidities (HCT-CI score 0) with normal CRP levels (0-9 mg/L) may therefore be candidates for early allogeneic HCT after failing imatinib.
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LACE-conditioned autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: treatment outcome and risk factor analysis from a single centre.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a recognized treatment option for patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We have analysed 51 patients who underwent ASCT after LACE (lomustine (CCNU), cytarabine (Ara-C), cyclophosphamide, etoposide) conditioning for relapsed (n?=?34, 67%) or primary refractory (n?=?17, 33%) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. With a median follow-up of 60 months (range 2-216) the probabilities of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years were 47 and 42%, respectively. The cumulative treatment-related mortality was 10% (n?=?5). Probabilities for OS and PFS at 5 years were 56 and 50% for patients with chemosensitive and 29 and 27% for patients with chemorefractory disease. In multivariate analysis abnormal pre-ASCT levels of C-reactive protein (>5?mg/L) were identified as a risk factor for worse OS, whereas abnormal pre-ASCT levels of C-reactive protein and chemoresistance predicted inferior PFS. LACE followed by ASCT is an effective treatment for approximately half of patients with chemosensitive relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and a proportion of chemorefractory patients also benefit.
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells non-selectively protect chronic myeloid leukemia cells from imatinib-induced apoptosis via the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Residual chronic myeloid leukemia disease following imatinib treatment has been attributed to the presence of quiescent leukemic stem cells intrinsically resistant to imatinib. Mesenchymal stromal cells in the bone marrow may favor the persistence and progression of leukemia by preserving the proliferation and self-renewal capacities of the malignant progenitor cells.
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Fusion of PDGFRB to two distinct loci at 3p21 and a third at 12q13 in imatinib-responsive myeloproliferative neoplasms.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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We identified four patients who presented with BCR-ABL1 negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and cytogenetically visible abnormalities of chromosome band 5q31-35. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta gene (PDGFRB) was disrupted in all four cases and 5 rapid amplification of cDNA ends identified in-frame mRNA fusions between PDGFRB and WDR48 (3p21), GOLGA4 (3p21) and BIN2 (12q13). Strikingly, all three genes encode proteins involving intracellular trafficking. Imatinib, a known inhibitor of PDGFRbeta, selectively blocked the growth of t(3;5) myeloid colonies and produced clinically significant responses in all patients. We conclude that PDGFRB fuses to diverse partner genes in atypical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Although very rare, identification of these fusions is critical for proper management of affected individuals.
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Immune response to the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine after the 7-valent conjugate vaccine in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: results from the EBMT IDWP01 trial.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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The current recommendations for active immunization after stem cell transplant (SCT) include 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) from 3 months after transplant, followed by a 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23). However, until now, the immune response to PPV23 after PCV7 has not been assessed after SCT. In the EBMT IDWP01 trial, 101 patients received 1 dose of PPV23 at 12 or 18 months, both after 3 doses of PCV7. The efficacy of PPV23 was assessed 1 month later and at 24 months after transplant by the pneumococcal serotype 1 and 5 antibody levels. Serotype 1 and 5 are not included in PCV7. Although the geometric mean concentrations were significantly higher 1 month after PPV23, for both antigens, the response rates (> or =0.15 microg/mL), in the range of 68-94%, were not different between groups independent of the assessment date. One PPV23 dose after 3 PCV7 doses, already known to increase the response to PCV7, also extends the serotype coverage given 12 or 18 months after transplant.
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JACIE accreditation in 2008: demonstrating excellence in stem cell transplantation.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2009
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JACIE was initiated as a small pilot project in Spain in 2000 and launched as a formal Europe-wide inspection program in January 2004. Since 2000, over 150 applications for accreditation have been received by the JACIE Office and more than 130 inspections have been completed in European centers and facilities. Almost all of these were found to be functioning at a high level of excellence, with the majority having only minor deficiencies in compliance with the standards. In one-third of centers there were more significant deficiencies. The most common deficiencies were in quality management. Following correction of deficiencies 86 centers have to date achieved full accreditation and many more are nearing the completion of the process. Implementation of JACIE involves a significant investment of time and resources by applicant centers. The majority require at least 18 months to prepare for accreditation and 85% have needed to employ a quality manager and/or data manager on an ongoing basis. However, all centers felt their program had benefited from the implementation of JACIE. JACIE is also working closely with other international organisations related to cellular therapy as part of the Alliance for the Harmonisation of Cell Therapy Accreditation (AHCTA), which is examining the differences in existing standards and aiming to develop international standards for all aspects of stem cell transplantation. In particular the requirements for safety of imported tissues and cells has emphasised the need for global harmonisation. The recent implementation of Directive 2004/23/EC and the associated Commission Directives 2006/17/EC and 2006/86/EC has provided an impetus for the implementation of JACIE in European Union (EU) member states. It will be important in the future to examine how JACIE can co-operate with the EU Competent Authorities (CA) to ease the burden of the inspection process for haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant programs.
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Mechanisms of Resistance to Imatinib and Second-Generation Tyrosine Inhibitors in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Targeted therapy in the form of selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has transformed the approach to management of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and dramatically improved patient outcome to the extent that imatinib is currently accepted as the first-line agent for nearly all patients presenting with CML, regardless of the phase of the disease. Impressive clinical responses are obtained in the majority of patients in chronic phase; however, not all patients experience an optimal response to imatinib, and furthermore, the clinical response in a number of patients will not be sustained. The process by which the leukemic cells prove resistant to TKIs and the restoration of BCR-ABL1 signal transduction from previous inhibition has initiated the pursuit for the causal mechanisms of resistance and strategies by which to surmount resistance to therapeutic intervention. ABL kinase domain mutations have been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of TKI resistance, however, it is increasingly evident that the presence of mutations does not explain all cases of resistance and does not account for the failure of TKIs to eliminate minimal residual disease in patients who respond optimally. The focus of exploring TKI resistance has expanded to include the mechanism by which the drug is delivered to its target and the impact of drug influx and efflux proteins on TKI bioavailability. The limitations of imatinib have inspired the development of second generation TKIs in order to overcome the effect of resistance to this primary therapy. (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(24):7519-27).
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CML in pregnancy and childhood.
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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With the improved survivals offered by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors has come the necessity to address issues relating to quality of life and one such area is that of fertility and parenting. Animal data suggest that imatinib at standard dosages is unlikely to impair fertility in either adult males or females but human data remain limited. Children born to men who are actively taking imatinib at the time of conception appear healthy and current advice is not to discontinue treatment. In contrast the data relating to children born to women exposed to imatinib during pregnancy are less encouraging. Although numbers are small there has been a disturbing cluster of rare congenital malformations such that imatinib cannot be safely recommended, particularly during the period of organogenesis. The appropriate management of children with CML has also been radically changed by the advent of imatinib. The features of the disease at presentation, the natural history and the response to therapy seem to be identical in children to that seen in adults. Now that imatinib has been in clinical use for almost ten years without severe long-term side effects, most physicians are now comfortable advising a trial of imatinib prior to consideration of transplant. Data relating to the efficacy and safety of second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in childhood is entirely absent and transplant remains the first choice for patients failing imatinib and perhaps also for young patients with sub-optimal responses.
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Chronic myeloid leukemia: an update of concepts and management recommendations of European LeukemiaNet.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2009
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To review and update the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) recommendations for the management of chronic myeloid leukemia with imatinib and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including monitoring, response definition, and first- and second-line therapy.
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Epidemiologic study on survival of chronic myeloid leukemia and Ph(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with BCR-ABL T315I mutation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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The BCR-ABL T315I mutation represents a major mechanism of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The objectives of this retrospective observational study were to estimate overall and progression-free survival for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic-phase (CP), accelerated-phase (AP), or blastic-phase (BP) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph)(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with T315I mutation. Medical records of 222 patients from 9 countries were reviewed; data were analyzed using log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models. Median age at T315I mutation detection was 54 years; 57% cases were men. Median time between TKI treatment initiation and T315I mutation detection was 29.2, 15.4, 5.8, and 9.1 months, respectively, for CP, AP, BP, and Ph(+) ALL patients. After T315I mutation detection, second-generation TKIs were used in 56% of cases, hydroxyurea in 39%, imatinib in 35%, cytarabine in 26%, MK-0457 in 11%, stem cell transplantation in 17%, and interferon-alpha in 6% of cases. Median overall survival from T315I mutation detection was 22.4, 28.4, 4.0, and 4.9 months, and median progression-free survival was 11.5, 22.2, 1.8, and 2.5 months, respectively, for CP, AP, BP, and Ph(+) ALL patients. These results confirm that survival of patients harboring a T315I mutation is dependent on disease phase at the time of mutation detection.
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Early prediction of success or failure of treatment with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors induce cytogenetic responses in approximately 50% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase in whom imatinib treatment has failed. However, it has not yet been established which of the patients in whom imatinib treatment fails are likely to benefit from therapy with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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Risk score for outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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It was investigated whether the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation risk score, previously established for chronic myeloid leukemia, could be used to predict outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematological disease in general.
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Issues of imatinib and pregnancy outcome.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors into clinical practice now offers most patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia lengthy remissions and the possibility of normal life expectancies. These improved survivals have resulted in the need to address issues relating to quality of life, including fertility and procreation. Treatment may require lifelong daily therapy with drugs that might inhibit proteins essential to gonadal function, implantation, and embryogenesis. Animal data suggest that imatinib at standard dosages is unlikely to impair fertility in either adult male or female animals. However, human data remain limited, particularly in children and adolescents. Children born to men who are actively taking imatinib at conception seem healthy, and current advice is not to discontinue treatment. In contrast, data are less encouraging for children born to women exposed to imatinib during pregnancy. Although numbers are small, a disturbing cluster of rare congenital malformations has prevented imatinib from being recommended safely, particularly during the period of organogenesis. Alternative strategies for managing pregnancy in chronic myelogenous leukemia include one or both of regular leukapheresis and interferon-alpha. Pregnancy in advanced-phase disease presents particular problems.
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A gene expression signature of primary resistance to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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Using gene expression profiling we show that the expression of 105-probe sets in mononuclear cells collected from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) chronic phase (CP) patients with raised leukocyte counts who subsequently achieved complete cytogenetic response after 12 months on imatinib, differed substantially from that of patients who failed to achieve any degree of cytogenetic response. In the non-responder cohort, 9 of the 50 overexpressed genes were involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, whereas 36 genes, including PTEN, were downregulated. This pattern of altered gene expression in responders and non-responders was validated in another independent dataset. These findings may prove useful for identifying at the time of diagnosis a subset of CP-CML patients who are likely to be resistant to imatinib and require an alternative treatment.
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Dasatinib in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia in accelerated phase after imatinib failure: the START a trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
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PURPOSE Patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in accelerated phase (CML-AP) that is resistant or intolerant to imatinib have limited therapeutic options. Dasatinib, a potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL and SRC-family kinases, has efficacy in patients with CML-AP who have experienced treatment failure with imatinib. We now report follow-up data from the full patient cohort of 174 patients enrolled onto a phase II trial to provide a more complete assessment of the efficacy and safety of dasatinib in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with imatinib-resistant (n = 161) or -intolerant (n = 13) CML-AP received dasatinib 70 mg orally twice daily. Results At a median follow-up of 14.1 months (treatment duration, 0.1 to 21.7 months), major and complete hematologic responses were attained by 64% and 45% of patients, respectively, and major and complete cytogenetic responses were achieved in 39% and 32% of patients, respectively. Responses were achieved irrespective of imatinib status (resistant or intolerant), prior stem-cell transplantation, or the presence of prior BCR-ABL mutation. The 12-month progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 82%, respectively. Dasatinib was generally well tolerated; the most frequent nonhematologic severe treatment-related adverse event was diarrhea (52%; grade 3 to 4, 8%). Cytopenias were common, including grade 3 to 4 neutropenia (76%) and thrombocytopenia (82%). Pleural effusion occurred in 27% of patients (grade 3 to 4, 5%). CONCLUSION Dasatinib is effective in patients with CML-AP after imatinib treatment failure.
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Defining the intensity of conditioning regimens: working definitions.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Defining conditioning regimen intensity has become a critical issue for the hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) community. In the present report we propose to define conditioning regimens in 3 categories: (1) myeloablative (MA) conditioning, (2) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), and (3) nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning. Assignment to these categories is based on the duration of cytopenia and on the requirement for stem cell (SC) support: MA regimens cause irreversible cytopenia and SC support is mandatory. NMA regimens cause minimal cytopenia, and can be given also without SC support. RIC regimens do not fit criteria for MA or NMA regimens: they cause cytopenia of variable duration, and should be given with stem cell support, although cytopenia may not be irreversible. This report also assigns commonly used regimens to one of these categories, based upon the agents, dose, or combinations. Standardized classification of conditioning regimen intensities will allow comparison across studies and interpretation of study results.
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The level of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity before treatment does not identify chronic myeloid leukemia patients who fail to achieve a complete cytogenetic response on imatinib.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Imatinib is currently the first line therapy for newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. However, 20-25% of patients do not achieve durable complete cytogenetic responses. The mechanism underlying this primary resistance is unknown, but variations in BCR-ABL1 kinase activity may play a role and can be investigated by measuring the autophosphorylation levels of BCR-ABL1 or of a surrogate target such as Crkl. In this study we used flow cytometry to investigate the in vitro inhibition of Crkl phosphorylation by imatinib in CD34(+) cells in diagnostic samples from two groups of patients distinguished by their cytogenetic response. No difference in inhibition of Crkl phosphorylation was observed in the two groups. The observation that increasing the dose of imatinib in vivo did not increase the level of cytogenetic response in some non-responders suggests that in at least a proportion of patients imatinib resistance may be due to activation of BCR-ABL1-independent pathway.
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Randomized study of early versus late immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Invasive pneumococcal disease is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, and at least 20% of cases occur within 1 year after transplantation. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has limited efficacy, especially during the first year after transplantation. The immune response to the conjugated vaccines is expected to be better than that to the polysaccharide vaccine, but the optimal timing of vaccination is not defined. Our objective was to show that a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar) was not inferior when first given 3 months after transplantation, compared with when first given 9 months after transplantation.
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Does a rise in the BCR-ABL1 transcript level identify chronic phase CML patients responding to imatinib who have a high risk of cytogenetic relapse?
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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BCR-ABL1 transcript numbers were monitored in 161 patients who started treatment with imatinib early after diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase and achieved complete cytogenetic responses (CCyR). A confirmed doubling in BCR-ABL1/ABL1 transcript levels was found to be a significant factor for predicting loss of CCyR [relative risk (RR) 8.3, P < 0.0001] and progression to advanced phase (RR 0.07, P = 0.03) provided that the eventual BCR-ABL1/ABL1 transcript level exceeded 0.05%; increases that never exceeded 0.05% had no predictive value. The finding of a kinase domain mutation in a patient in CCyR, though rare, also predicted for loss of CCyR.
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Phenotype of blasts in chronic myeloid leukemia in blastic phase-Analysis of bone marrow trephine biopsies and correlation with cytogenetics.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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We identified different phenotypic subsets among 62 cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis (BC) (26% B-lymphoblastic, and 74% various myeloblastic subsets) on bone marrow trephines and correlated the blast-phenotype with cytogenetics. Five of myeloid-BC had an associated 3q26 abnormality and two of these showed a megakaryoblastic-phenotype. While myeloid-BC was associated with additional copies of Philadelphia (Ph) (29%) (p=0.08), numerical abnormalities (51%) (p=0.007), trisomy-8 (29%) (p=0.08) and 17p-loss (22%), none of lymphoid-BC showed these abnormalities. Among myeloid-BC, CD34-negative cases were more often associated with trisomy-8, 17p-loss and numerical abnormalities, and the CD117-negative subset with additional copies of Ph (p<0.05).
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Severe events in donors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell donation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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The risk for donors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplants is generally considered negligible. Scattered reports of severe complications and a recent controversy on hematopoietic malignancies after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration have challenged this opinion.
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Lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by donor leukocytes for post-transplantation relapse of myelofibrosis after previous donor leukocyte infusion failure.
Eur. J. Haematol.
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Treatment of relapse after allogenic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is challenging. The efficacy of donor leukocyte infusions (DLI) is excellent in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukaemia but limited in other disorders. We present a patient who relapsed 10 months after reduced intensity conditioning allo-SCT for a myelodysplastic/ myeloproliferative neoplasm with myelofibrosis despite receiving escalating doses of DLI for incomplete chimerism. He finally achieved complete remission with full whole blood and T-cell donor chimerism after DLI preceded by lymphodepletion chemotherapy. This case demonstrates that chemotherapy prior to DLI is a useful approach for treating relapses of relatively slowly progressive diseases, such as myeloproliferative diseases or myelodysplastic syndromes.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.