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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Medical management of invasive fungal infections of the central nervous system in pediatric cancer patients.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with high mortality rates in immunocompromised patients. Surgical intervention is a mainstay of therapy, but not always possible. We describe the use of medical therapy for the treatment of CNS fungal infections in four pediatric cancer patients. Definitive resection was not performed in any patient. All patients initially received combination antifungal therapy with good clinical response; long-term survival was documented in two patients able to transition to long-term azole therapy. Prolonged antifungal therapy is an important option for treating invasive CNS fungal infections when surgery is not feasible. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Clinical and immune responses to inactivated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in children.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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As the influenza A H1N1 pandemic emerged in 2009, children were found to experience high morbidity and mortality and were prioritized for vaccination. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, age-stratified trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine in healthy children aged 6 months to 17 years.
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Swab sample transfer for point-of-care diagnostics: characterization of swab types and manual agitation methods.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The global need for disease detection and control has increased effort to engineer point-of-care (POC) tests that are simple, robust, affordable, and non-instrumented. In many POC tests, sample collection involves swabbing the site (e.g., nose, skin), agitating the swab in a fluid to release the sample, and transferring the fluid to a device for analysis. Poor performance in sample transfer can reduce sensitivity and reproducibility.
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Elevated fluoride levels and periostitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving long-term voriconazole.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Azole therapy is widely utilized in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients for the treatment of aspergillus. Complications of voriconazole treatment related to its elevated fluoride content have been described in adults, including reports of symptomatic skeletal fluorosis. We review fluoride levels, clinical, and laboratory data in five pediatric HCT recipients on long-term voriconazole therapy, all found to have elevated serum fluoride levels. Two patients had toxic fluoride levels, one infant had symptoms of significant pain with movement and radiographs confirmed skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring fluoride levels in children, especially with skeletal symptoms, should be considered in patients on long-term voriconazole. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;9999:1-3. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Safety of immunization during pregnancy: A review of the evidence of selected inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines.
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Treosulfan-Based Conditioning and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Nonmalignant Diseases: A Prospective Multicenter Trial.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with nonmalignant diseases and for many is the only known cure. Conventional myeloablative regimens have been associated with unacceptably high early transplant-related mortality (TRM), particularly in patients with comorbid conditions. This prospective multicenter trial was designed to determine the safety and engraftment efficacy of treosulfan-based conditioning in patients with nonmalignant diseases. Thirty-one patients received HLA-matched related (n = 4) or unrelated (n = 27) grafts after conditioning with treosulfan (total dose, 42 g/m(2)), fludarabine (total dose, 150 mg/m(2)), ± thymoglobulin (6 mg/kg; n = 22). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of tacrolimus and methotrexate. All patients engrafted. Day-100 TRM was 0%. With a median follow-up of 2 years, the 2-year survival was 90%. Three patients died of GVHD, recurrent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and a surgical complication, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grades II to IV and III to IV acute GVHD at day 100 and chronic GVHD at 2 years were 62%, 10%, and 21%, respectively. Patients who received thymoglobulin had a significantly lower incidence of grades III to IV acute GVHD (0% versus 33%; P = .005). These results indicate that the combination of treosulfan, fludarabine, and thymoglobulin is effective at establishing donor engraftment with low toxicity and improved survival in patients with nonmalignant diseases and support the need for future disease-specific clinical trials.
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Respiratory syncytial virus transplacental antibody transfer and kinetics in mother-infant pairs in bangladesh.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality globally. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of pneumonia. Maternal serum antibody protects infants from RSV disease. The objective of our study was to characterize RSV antibody levels in mother-infant pairs.
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Maternal immunization.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines.
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Intestinal decontamination of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae after recurrent infections in an immunocompromised host.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae infections are associated with increased morbidity. We describe a 20-year-old hematopoietic cell transplantation recipient with recurrent MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, prolonged intestinal colonization, and subsequent intestinal decontamination. Further study should evaluate stool surveillance, molecular typing, and fecal microbiota transplantation for patients with intestinal MDR Enterobacteriaceae carriage.
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Parainfluenza virus lower respiratory tract disease after hematopoietic cell transplant: viral detection in the lung predicts outcome.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Parainfluenza virus (PIV) commonly infects patients following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), frequently causing lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD). The definition of LRTD significantly differs among studies evaluating the impact of PIV after HCT.
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The Safety and Immunogenicity of Rotavirus Vaccination in Infants With Intestinal Failure.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Young children with intestinal failure are at risk for complications from rotavirus gastroenteritis. To date, the safety and immunogenicity of rotavirus vaccines in these children are not known. We hypothesized that rotavirus vaccination would be safe and confer immunity to infants with intestinal failure and a history of abdominal surgery.
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Nosocomial transmission of respiratory syncytial virus in an outpatient cancer center.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreaks in inpatient settings are associated with poor outcomes in cancer patients. The use of molecular epidemiology to document RSV transmission in the outpatient setting has not been well described. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2 nosocomial outbreaks of RSV at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Subjects included patients seen at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance with RSV detected in 2 outbreaks in 2007-2008 and 2012 and all employees with respiratory viruses detected in the 2007-2008 outbreak. A subset of samples was sequenced using semi-nested PCR targeting the RSV attachment glycoprotein coding region. Fifty-one cases of RSV were identified in 2007-2008. Clustering of identical viral strains was detected in 10 of 15 patients (67%) with RSV sequenced from 2007 to 2008. As part of a multimodal infection control strategy implemented as a response to the outbreak, symptomatic employees had nasal washes collected. Of 254 employee samples, 91 (34%) tested positive for a respiratory virus, including 14 with RSV. In another RSV outbreak in 2012, 24 cases of RSV were identified; 9 of 10 patients (90%) had the same viral strain, and 1 (10%) had another viral strain. We document spread of clonal strains within an outpatient cancer care setting. Infection control interventions should be implemented in outpatient, as well as inpatient, settings to reduce person-to-person transmission and limit progression of RSV outbreaks.
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Respiratory syncytial virus disease: prevention and treatment.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most clinically important viruses infecting young children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. Over the past decade, the most significant advance in the prevention of RSV disease has been the development of high-titered antibody products. Infection control is the only other strategy to prevent RSV disease. A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the fusion (F) protein palivizumab, (Synagis®, MedImmune, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD), is given routinely on a monthly basis to premature infants and young children less than 24 months of age with underlying medical problems including prematurity, chronic lung disease, or cardiac disease to prevent RSV disease and hospitalization. Other products utilizing polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies or antibody fragments against the F protein have been developed and some already tested in patient populations. The only licensed antiviral treatment available today is ribavirin, a guanosine analogue generally administered as a small particle aerosol to immunocompromised patients with lower respiratory tract disease due to RSV. This drug has also been utilized in oral and intravenous forms, again mainly in immunocompromised patients. Promising new antiviral agents under development by multiple pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies include small molecule fusion inhibitors, attachment inhibitors, inhibitors of RNA synthesis, and small interfering RNA particles (siRNA).
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Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Factors Determining Progression to Lower Respiratory Tract Disease.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Background.?Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) is a life-threatening complication in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Lymphopenia has been associated with an increased risk of progression from upper respiratory tract infection (URI) to LRD.Methods.?This study retrospectively analyzed the significance of lymphocyte engraftment dynamics, lung function, smoking history, corticosteroids, antiviral treatment, viral subtypes and RSV-specific neutralizing antibodies for the progression to LRD in 181 HCT recipients with RSV URI.Results.?In multivariable models, smoking history, conditioning with high dose total body irradiation, and an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ?100/mm(3) at the time of URI onset were significantly associated with disease progression. No progression occurred in patients with ALCs of >1,000/mm(3) at URI onset. Lymphocyte engraftment dynamics were similar in progressors and non-progressors. Pre- and posttransplant donor and posttransplant recipient RSV subtype-specific neutralizing antibody levels, RSV viral subtypes, and corticosteroids also were not significantly associated with LRD progression.Conclusions.?Host and transplant related factors appear to determine the risk of progression to LRD more than viral factors. Dysfunctional cell-mediated immunity appears to be important in the pathogenesis of progressive RSV disease after HCT. A characterization of RSV-specific T cell immunity is warranted.
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Respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory disease in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: viral RNA detection in blood, antiviral treatment, and clinical outcomes.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Background.?Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is associated with severe morbidity. Although RSV RNA has been detected in serum from patients with RSV lower respiratory disease (LRD) after HCT, the association with clinical outcomes has not been well established in multivariable models. Additionally, the role of antiviral treatment in HCT recipients has not been previously analyzed in multivariable models. Methods.?We retrospectively identified HCT recipients with virologically confirmed RSV LRD and tested stored plasma/serum samples by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for RSV RNA. Risk factors for RSV RNA detection and the impact of RSV RNA in serum and antiviral therapy on outcomes were analyzed using multivariable Cox models. Results.?RSV RNA was detected in plasma or serum from 28 of 92 (30%) patients at a median of 24.5 days following HCT and 2 days following LRD. In multivariable models, neutropenia, monocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and mechanical ventilation increased the risk of plasma/serum RSV RNA detection; lymphopenia and steroid use did not. RSV RNA detection increased the risk of overall mortality in multivariable models (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.09 [P = .02]), whereas treatment with aerosolized ribavirin decreased the risk of overall mortality and pulmonary death (aHR, 0.33 [P = .001] and aHR 0.31 [P = .003], respectively). Conclusions.?RSV RNA detection in plasma or serum may be a marker for lung injury and poor outcomes in HCT recipients with RSV LRD. Treatment with aerosolized ribavirin appeared to be protective against overall and pulmonary mortality.
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Safety and infectivity of two doses of live-attenuated recombinant cold-passaged human parainfluenza type 3 virus vaccine rHPIV3cp45 in HPIV3-seronegative young children.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. Live-attenuated cold-adapted HPIV3 vaccines have been evaluated in infants but a suitable interval for administration of a second dose of vaccine has not been defined.
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Mortality rates of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infections in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a common respiratory virus, can cause severe disease in pre- and post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis in HCT patients with HMPV (n = 23) or respiratory syncytial virus (n = 23) detected in bronchoalveolar lavage samples by reverse transcription PCR between 2006 and 2011 to determine disease characteristics and factors associated with outcome. Mortality rates at 100 days were 43% for both HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract disease. Steroid therapy, oxygen requirement >2 L or mechanical ventilation, and bone marrow as cell source were significant risk factors for overall and virus-related mortality in multivariable models, whereas the virus type was not. The presence of centrilobular/nodular radiographic infiltrates was a possible protective factor for mechanical ventilation. Thus, HMPV lower respiratory tract disease is associated with high mortality in HCT recipients. Earlier detection in combination with new antiviral therapy is needed to reduce mortality among HCT recipients.
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Implementation of filmarray respiratory viral panel in a core laboratory improves testing turnaround time and patient care.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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The FilmArray respiratory virus panel detects 15 viral agents in respiratory specimens using polymerase chain reaction. We performed FilmArray respiratory viral testing in a core laboratory at a regional childrens hospital that provides service 24 hours a day 7 days a week. The average and median turnaround time were 1.6 and 1.4 hours, respectively, in contrast to 7 and 6.5 hours documented 1 year previously at an on-site reference laboratory using a direct fluorescence assay (DFA) that detected 8 viral agents. During the study period, rhinovirus was detected in 20% and coronavirus in 6% of samples using FilmArray; these viruses would not have been detected with DFA. We followed 97 patients with influenza A or influenza B who received care at the emergency department (ED). Overall, 79 patients (81%) were given oseltamivir in a timely manner defined as receiving the drug in the ED, a prescription in the ED, or a prescription within 3 hours of ED discharge. Our results demonstrate that molecular technology can be successfully deployed in a nonspecialty, high-volume, multidisciplinary core laboratory.
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Molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus transmission in childcare.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of serious respiratory infections in young children. No prior studies using molecular techniques to examine RSV transmission in the community childcare setting have been performed.
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Outcome of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract disease in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients receiving aerosolized ribavirin: significance of stem cell source and oxygen requirement.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important complication after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and RSV lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) results in substantial early mortality and late airflow obstruction among survivors. Factors associated with poor outcome are unknown. We evaluated the effect of transplant and treatment factors on overall survival, mortality from respiratory failure, and pulmonary function among 82 HCT recipients who had RSV LRD between 1990 and 2011. All patients received aerosolized ribavirin. In multivariable analyses, only the use of marrow or cord blood as graft source (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 9.0; P < .001) and oxygen requirement (aHR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5 to 6.7; P = .003) remained independently associated with overall mortality and death due to respiratory failure (aHR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.8 to 13; P = .002 and aHR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.8 to 16; P = .002, respectively). Antibody-based treatments, including intravenous immunoglobulin and palivizumab, were not independently associated with improved outcome and did not alter the associations of the graft source and oxygen requirements in statistical models. In conclusion, use of peripheral blood stem cells as graft source and lack of oxygen requirement at diagnosis appear to be important factors associated with improved survival of HCT recipients with RSV LRD. These results may explain differences in outcomes reported from RSV infection over time and may guide the design of future interventional trials.
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Epidemiology of multiple respiratory viruses in childcare attendees.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The identification of multiple viruses during respiratory illness is increasing with advances in rapid molecular testing; however, the epidemiology of respiratory viral coinfections is not well known.
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Respiratory viruses in children with cystic fibrosis: viral detection and clinical findings.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Viral detection from different respiratory sample types in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is facilitated by available molecular methods, but optimum sampling strategies have not been identified. In addition, associations between viral detection and respiratory symptoms are not well described.
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Multiple versus single virus respiratory infections: viral load and clinical disease severity in hospitalized children.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Molecular testing for viral pathogens has resulted in increasing detection of multiple viruses in respiratory secretions of ill children. The clinical impact of multiple virus infections on clinical presentation and outcome is unclear.
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Emergence of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic H1N1 in an immunocompetent child with severe status asthmaticus.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) may cause severe illness in pediatric patient with chronic lung disease.
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H275Y mutant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in immunocompromised patients.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Most oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses have been isolated from immunocompromised patients. To describe the clinical features, treatment, outcomes, and virologic data associated with infection from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with H275Y mutation in immunocompromised patients, we retrospectively identified 49 hematology-oncology patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Samples from 33 of those patients were tested for H275Y genotype by allele-specific real-time PCR. Of the 8 patients in whom H275Y mutations was identified, 1 had severe pneumonia; 3 had mild pneumonia with prolonged virus shedding; and 4 had upper respiratory tract infection, of whom 3 had prolonged virus shedding. All patients had received oseltamivir before the H275Y mutation was detected; 1 had received antiviral prophylaxis. Three patients excreted resistant virus for >60 days. Emergence of oseltamivir resistance is frequent in immunocompromised patients infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and can be associated with a wide range of clinical disease and viral kinetics.
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Shedding of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus among health care personnel, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that health care personnel (HCP) infected with pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus not work until 24 hours after fever subsides without the use of antipyretics. During an influenza outbreak, we examined the association between viral shedding and fever among infected HCP. Participants recorded temperatures daily and provided nasal wash specimens for 2 weeks after symptom onset. Specimens were tested by using PCR and culture. When they met CDC criteria for returning to work, 12 of 16 HCP (75%) (95% confidence interval 48%-93%) had virus detected by PCR, and 9 (56%) (95% confidence interval 30%-80%) had virus detected by culture. Fever was not associated with shedding duration (p = 0.65). HCP might shed virus even when meeting CDC exclusion guidelines. Further research is needed to clarify the association between viral shedding, symptoms, and infectiousness.
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Safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in mild to moderately immunocompromised children with cancer.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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The safety of intranasal live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in immunocompromised children with cancer is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the safety and immunogenicity of LAIV in mild to moderately immunocompromised children with cancer.
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Emerging oseltamivir resistance in seasonal and pandemic influenza A/H1N1.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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The emergence of oseltamivir resistance in seasonal and pandemic influenza A/H1N1 has created challenges for diagnosis and clinical management. This review discusses how clinical virology laboratories have handled diagnosis of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 and what we have learned from clinical studies and case series. Immunocompetent patients infected with oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 have similar outcomes as patients infected with oseltamivir-susceptible H1N1. However, immunocompromised patients infected with oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 experience potentially more risks of complication and transmissibility with few therapeutic options.
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Differences in clinical outcomes after 2009 influenza A/H1N1 and seasonal influenza among hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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It is not known whether pandemic 2009 influenza A/H1N1 (2009 H1N1) leads to more serious disease than seasonal influenza in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. In a retrospective study in HCT recipients with virologically proven influenza virus infection, a total of 161 HCT recipients (18 2009 H1N1, 103 seasonal influenza A, and 40 seasonal influenza B) were analyzed. In multivariable analyses, more patients with 2009 H1N1 had lower respiratory tract disease (LRD), hypoxemia, and prolonged viral shedding compared with seasonal influenza A. Seasonal influenza A and B outcomes were similar. There was no difference in overall and influenza-associated mortality among influenza virus types. Both early and delayed administration of antiviral therapy was shown to be beneficial in terms of decreased rates of development of LRD, although earlier intervention appeared to be more effective. Profound lymphopenia and lack of early antiviral therapy were associated significantly with LRD, hypoxemia, and death. High-dose corticosteroid treatment (? 1 mg/kg) given at the time of influenza diagnosis was associated with a reduced risk for mechanical ventilation. Thus, our data suggest that infection with 2009 influenza A/H1N1 resulted in more severe respiratory disease in HCT recipients compared with seasonal influenza.
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Influenza vaccine for pregnant women in resource-constrained countries: a review of the evidence to inform policy decisions.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Seasonal influenza is responsible for three to five million severe cases of disease annually, and up to 500,000 deaths worldwide. Pregnant women and infants suffer disproportionately from severe outcomes of influenza. The excellent safety profile and reliable immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine support WHO recommendations that pregnant women be vaccinated to decrease complications of influenza disease during pregnancy. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine is not routinely used in most low-and middle-income countries and is not widely used in pregnant women worldwide. Two recent prospective, controlled trials of maternal influenza vaccination in Bangladesh and US Native American reservations demonstrated that inactivated influenza vaccine given to pregnant women can decrease laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection in their newborn children. These studies support consideration of the feasibility of targeted influenza vaccine programs in resource-constrained countries. Platforms exist for the delivery of influenza vaccine to pregnant women worldwide. Even in the least developed countries, an estimated 70% of women receive antenatal care, providing an opportunity for targeted influenza vaccination. Challenges to the introduction of maternal influenza vaccination in resource-constrained countries exist, including issues regarding vaccine formulation, availability, and cost. Nonetheless, maternal influenza vaccination remains an important and potentially cost-effective approach to decrease influenza morbidity in two high-risk groups - pregnant women and young infants.
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A prospective study of parainfluenza virus type 4 infections in children attending daycare.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Studies of parainfluenza virus type 4 (PIV-4) have been limited by difficulty in culturing. We prospectively studied a cohort of 225 young children attending daycare followed for 165 child-years, using polymerase chain reaction to detect 12 viruses, including PIV-4. PIV-4 was second only to PIV-3, occurring in 9 of 87 (10%) PIV+ illnesses. PIV-4 illnesses were not more severe and not associated with a specific clinical syndrome.
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Introduction of a novel parechovirus RT-PCR clinical test in a regional medical center.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Although data documenting the severity and frequency of human parechovirus (HPeV) infections have been published, detection of HPeV is not routinely performed in most clinical virology laboratories.
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Outpatient upper respiratory tract viral infections in children with malaria symptoms in Western Kenya.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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A cross-sectional study was performed in children 5 through 10 years of age presenting to outpatient clinics in Nyanza Province, Kenya, in which nasal swab and blood specimens were collected during the high malaria transmission season. Patients presenting with malaria-like symptoms within 4 days of fever onset were enrolled in the study. Plasmodium parasitemia was determined by blood smear microscopy. Nasal swabs were screened for a panel of respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. Influenza A, rhinoviruses, and other respiratory viruses were detected in 18%, 26%, and 12% of 197 specimens, respectively. Four of 36 patients with influenza A had a positive malaria blood slide, compared with 20 of 52 patients with rhinovirus. A significant burden of disease caused by influenza A in febrile children during the study period was observed, highlighting the need for further research into the burden of influenza disease in regions where malaria is holoendemic.
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Impact of corticosteroid treatment and antiviral therapy on clinical outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplant patients infected with influenza virus.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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The impact of cytokines induced during influenza infection has been described, but the effect of corticosteroids on clinical outcomes is unclear. Although antiviral therapy has been well studied in immunocompetent subjects, few data exist on its clinical efficacy in immunocompromised populations. Data from 143 hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with documented seasonal influenza infection were reviewed to examine the impact of different corticosteroid regimens and antiviral therapy on clinical outcomes. In multivariable analyses, there was no observed difference between patients who received no, low doses (<1 mg/kg/day), or high doses (? 1 mg/kg/day) of corticosteroids with regard to the development of lower respiratory tract disease (LRD), hypoxemia, need for mechanical ventilation, or death. However, treatment with high-dose steroids was associated with a trend toward prolonged viral shedding (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-11; P = .05). In multivariable analyses, antiviral therapy initiated to treat upper respiratory tract infection (URI) was associated with fewer cases of LRD (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0-0.2; P < .01) and fewer hypoxemia episodes (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P = .03). Our results suggest that corticosteroids are not associated with adverse clinical outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients infected with influenza, although use of higher doses may delay viral clearance. Antiviral therapy initiated during the URI phase reduced the risk of LRD and hypoxemia.
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Development of a symptom score for clinical studies to identify children with a documented viral upper respiratory tract infection.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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The objective of this study was to develop a symptom scoring system for use in clinical studies that differentiates children with cold symptoms who have an identifiable viral etiology for their upper respiratory tract infection (URI) from those in whom no virus is detected. Nasal swabs for PCR testing for identification of respiratory viruses were obtained on children aged 2-11 y at baseline and when parents thought their child was developing a cold. Parental-recorded severity of specific symptoms in children with and without a documented viral URI were compared. Nasal swabs were obtained on 108 children whose parents reported their child was developing a cold. A viral etiology was identified in 62 of 108 (57.4%) samples. Symptom measures that best differentiated children with a viral etiology from those without were significant runny nose and significant cough on days 1-4 of the illness. A URI symptom score was developed based on these symptoms, with a sensitivity of 81.4%, specificity of 61.9%, and accuracy of 73.3%. Parental impression is only a moderately accurate predictor of viral URI in children. Our URI symptom score provided a more accurate method for identifying children with viral URIs for clinical studies.
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Viral respiratory infections in hospitalized and community control children in Alaska.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Alaska Native children from the Yukon Kuskokwim (YK) Delta is associated with a hospitalization rate five times higher than that reported for the general US child population. The role of other viral respiratory pathogens has not been studied in this population. YK Delta children <3 years of age hospitalized with respiratory infections and same aged community control children were prospectively enrolled between October 2005 and September 2007. Polymerase chain reaction detection of viruses was performed on nasopharyngeal samples. Characteristics of hospitalized and asymptomatic control children were analyzed. From October 2005 to September 2007, 440 hospitalized and 425 control children were analyzed. Respiratory viruses were detected in 90% (395) of hospitalized children: 194 (44%) rhinovirus, 131 (30%) adenovirus, 102 (23%) RSV, 77 (18%) para influenza viruses (PIV), 66 (15%) human metapneumovirus (hMPV), 23 (5%) influenza, and 25 (6%) coronavirus. Fifty-two percent (221) of control children had a virus detected, most commonly rhinovirus (33%), and adenovirus (16%). RSV, PIV, hMPV, and influenza were significantly more common in hospitalized cases than control children, but rhinovirus, adenovirus, and coronavirus were not. RSV and hMPV were associated with higher severity of illness. In this study, RSV remains the most important virus associated with respiratory hospitalization, although hMPV and PIV were also common. RSV and hMPV were associated with more severe illness. Rhinovirus and adenovirus were detected in two-thirds of hospitalized children, but their frequent detection in control children made their role in respiratory hospitalization uncertain.
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Stable hematopoietic cell engraftment after low-intensity nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is characterized by severe systemic autoimmunity caused by mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) gene. Hematopoietic cell transplantation is currently the only viable option for long-term survival, but patients are frequently very ill and may not tolerate traditional myeloablative conditioning regimens.
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Frequent and prolonged shedding of bocavirus in young children attending daycare.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Little is known about human bocavirus (HBoV) persistence and shedding and the association between HBoV detection and the onset and resolution of respiratory symptoms.
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Respiratory virus pneumonia after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT): associations between viral load in bronchoalveolar lavage samples, viral RNA detection in serum samples, and clinical outcomes of HCT.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Few data exist on respiratory virus quantitation in lower respiratory samples and detection in serum from hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients with respiratory virus-associated pneumonia.
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Epidemiology of viral respiratory tract infections in a prospective cohort of infants and toddlers attending daycare.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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The epidemiology of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in a daycare cohort has not been explored using molecular techniques.
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Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) immunogenicity in children 6 through 23 months of age: do children of all ages respond equally?
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2010
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We assessed the effect of age on immunogenicity to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) by comparing the immune responses to influenza vaccine antigens among three age cohorts of vaccine-naïve children aged 6-11 months, 12-17 months, and 18-23 months. In children 6-23 months of age, antibody responses to TIV appear to increase with increasing age. Despite this finding, TIV was immunogenic even in the youngest age group evaluated, further establishing its value as a tool to protect young children from influenza. The role of age should be considered when assessing improved vaccines to enhance TIV immunogenicity and effectiveness in younger children.
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Human rhinovirus and coronavirus detection among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Little is known about clinical and virologic manifestations of rhinovirus (HRV) and coronavirus (HCoV) infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We performed surveillance for 1 year and describe the natural history of these infections during the first 100 days after allogeneic HCT, when symptom surveys and upper respiratory samples were collected weekly. Samples were tested using RT-PCR for HRVs and HCoVs (OC43, 229E, HKU1, and NL63). Among 215 patients, 64 (30%) patients had 67 infections. Day 100 cumulative incidence estimate was 22.3% for HRV and 11.1% for HCoV. Median duration of viral shedding was 3 weeks; prolonged shedding of at least 3 months occurred in 6 of 45 patients with HRV and 3 of 22 with HCoV. Six patients with HRV and 9 with HCoV were asymptomatic. HRV infection was associated with rhinorrhea, congestion, postnasal drip, sputum, and cough; HCoV infection was not associated with respiratory symptoms or hepatic dysfunction. Lower respiratory infection developed in 2 patients with HRV before day 100, and 1 each with HRV and HCoV after day 100. HRV and HCoV infections are common in the first 100 days after HCT, viral shedding lasts more than 3 weeks in half, and lower respiratory infection is rare.
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BK nephropathy in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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BK nephropathy is a known cause of renal insufficiency in kidney transplant recipients. Activation of the polyoma virus may also occur in the native kidneys of non-renal allograft recipients. BK nephropathy has only been reported in a few patients after HCT, most being adult patients, and the single reported pediatric case had evidence of hemorrhagic cystitis. The response to antiviral therapy also seems to differ widely. Here, we describe two cases of BK nephropathy in the native kidneys of HCT recipients exposed to high levels of immunosuppression because of GVHD. Neither of our patients had any evidence of hemorrhagic cystitis. We present definitive renal pathology and detailed chronological evidence of the rising serum creatinine with simultaneous serum and urine BK PCR titers. In one of our cases, antiviral therapy did not seem beneficial as documented by continued renal dysfunction and elevated serum/urine BK PCR titers. Based on our report, intense immunosuppression in pediatric HCT recipients seems to be involved in the activation of BK virus and BK nephropathy should be suspected even in the absence of hematuria in HCT recipients with unexplained renal dysfunction.
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How I treat influenza in patients with hematologic malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2009
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The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic has heightened the interest of clinicians for options in the prevention and management of influenza virus infection in immunocompromised patients. Even before the emergence of the novel 2009 H1N1 strain, influenza disease was a serious complication in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we review the clinical manifestations of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza and discuss current diagnosis, antiviral treatment, and prophylaxis options. We also summarize infection control and vaccination strategies for patients, family members, and caregivers.
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Trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine given to two-month-old children: an off-season pilot study.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Although children less than 6 months of age have the highest risk for hospitalization related to influenza infection, influenza vaccine is not approved for these children.
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Detection of bocavirus in saliva of children with and without respiratory illness.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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We evaluated saliva samples from 149 children 2 to 11 years old for human bocavirus (hBoV) DNA. hBoV was detected in saliva samples at asymptomatic enrollment in 3% (5/149) and during respiratory illness in 2% (2/106) of the cases. hBoV was detected in only 1/149 asymptomatic and 0/106 illness nasal samples.
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Multiple viral respiratory pathogens in children with bronchiolitis.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of viral pathogens and relative frequency of co-infections in nasal specimens obtained from young children with bronchiolitis receiving care at a childrens hospital.
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Seasonal influenza in adults and children--diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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Guidelines for the treatment of persons with influenza virus infection were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The evidence-based guidelines encompass diagnostic issues, treatment and chemoprophylaxis with antiviral medications, and issues related to institutional outbreak management for seasonal (interpandemic) influenza. They are intended for use by physicians in all medical specialties with direct patient care, because influenza virus infection is common in communities during influenza season and may be encountered by practitioners caring for a wide variety of patients.
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HIV knowledge and attitudes toward HIV testing of South Side Chicago Housing Authority residents.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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High HIV infection rates in the United States are increasingly due to heterosexual risk behaviors, with increased rates in blacks and women. A survey of HIV knowledge and attitudes about HIV testing was conducted in an inner-city public housing population that included a convenience sample of residents of South Side Chicago Housing Authority facilities. The questionnaire addressed knowledge about HIV transmission and disease, health care options, condom use, prior HIV testing, and preferred places for HIV testing and education. Five hundred residents, ages 13-50 years completed the survey, during the period from November 2002 until April 2003. Eighty-three percent of the respondents were female and 50% of those surveyed were from 18-30 years of age. Race/ethnicity was not questioned in order to improve response rate. A comparable sample conducted earlier showed that population was 99% black race. Most respondents were knowledgeable about HIV transmission risk factors, although misinformation about transmission, treatment and prevention existed. Knowledge that HIV therapy is available was high (71%), while 25% thought an HIV vaccine was available and 13% thought there was a cure for HIV. Two thirds of sexually active respondents reported condom use in the past year. Three quarters reported previous testing for HIV and 90% of those tested returned for results. Most respondents wanted to learn more about HIV risk factors, testing and treatment but preferred primary care clinics to specialized places for HIV testing. Targeted HIV education interventions in the public housing facilities or primary care clinics are warranted.
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Galactomannan Antigen Testing for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis in Pediatric Hematology Patients.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc
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Invasive aspergillosis (IA) can cause significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. The galactomannan (GM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been shown in adult studies to be a useful adjunct in diagnosing IA. Data on this assay in children are limited by small sample sizes and conflicting results; false-positive assays were a concern in historical studies. We sought to evaluate the GM EIA in a large cohort of children who received intensive chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. A focus was placed on evaluating the assay specificity, and the potential of measuring GM antigen in urine.
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Combination therapy with amantadine, oseltamivir and ribavirin for influenza A infection: safety and pharmacokinetics.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
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Antiviral resistance among influenza A viruses is associated with high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. However, treatment strategies for drug-resistant influenza A are not established. A triple-combination antiviral drug (TCAD) regimen consisting of amantadine (AMT), oseltamivir (OSL) and ribavirin (RBV) demonstrated good efficacy in an animal model.
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Self-collection of foam nasal swabs for respiratory virus detection by PCR among immunocompetent subjects and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Self-collected foam nasal swabs (NS) obtained after instillation of saline spray were compared with nasal washes from immunocompetent subjects during 146 upper respiratory infections (URIs); the sensitivities for reverse transcription (RT)-PCR respiratory virus detection were 95% and 88%, respectively (P = 0.06). The sensitivities from NS collected with and without saline spray during 142 URIs from immunocompetent subjects were 96% and 86% (P = 0.004), respectively, and those from 140 URI samples from hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients were 88% and 85% (P = 0.56), respectively.
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Influenza viral RNA detection in blood as a marker to predict disease severity in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Influenza RNA in blood (viremia) was detected in 9 of 79 (11.4%) hematopoietic cell transplant recipients with influenza, and was less frequently observed in patients with upper respiratory tract disease only and more frequently in patients infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 strain (versus seasonal strains). Viremia increased the risk of progression to lower respiratory tract disease (LRD), hypoxemia, respiratory failure, and overall and influenza-related death. Among patients with LRD, viremia was associated with increased hazards of overall and influenza-associated death (hazard ratio 3.5, 1.1-12). Thus, influenza viremia may serve as marker for overall poor outcome.
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WU and KI polyomaviruses in respiratory samples from allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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Data are limited regarding 2 new human polyomaviruses, KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) and WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), in immunocompromised patients. We used real-time PCR to test for these and 12 respiratory viruses in 2,732 nasal wash samples collected during the first year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from 222 patients. Specimens were collected weekly until day 100; then at least every 3 months. One year after hematopoietic cell transplantation, the cumulative incidence estimate was 26% for KIPyV and 8% for WUPyV. Age <20 years predicted detection of KIPyV (hazard ratio [HR] 4.6) and WUPyV (HR 4.4), and detection of a respiratory virus in the previous 2 weeks predicted KIPyV detection (HR 3.4). Sputum production and wheezing were associated with detection of KIPyV in the past week and WUPyV in the past month. There were no associations with polyomavirus detection and acute graft versus host disease, cytomegalovirus reactivation, neutropenia, lymphopenia, hospitalization, or death.
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Antiviral therapy of respiratory viruses in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
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The treatment of respiratory viruses is extremely challenging in haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Outcomes related to these infections have improved over the past decade. More recently, studies have looked at respiratory virus epidemiology using molecular assays to understand the wide range of diseases in HSCT recipients. The emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 encouraged implementation of molecular assays in many clinical laboratories and broadened influenza resistance detection. Finally, new drugs have been developed to treat influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus and adenovirus with some promising results.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.