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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
STIL mutation causes autosomal recessive microcephalic lobar holoprosencephaly.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Holoprosencephaly is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous midline brain malformation associated with neurologic manifestations including developmental delay, intellectual disability and seizures. Although mutations in the sonic hedgehog gene SHH and more than 10 other genes are known to cause holoprosencephaly, many patients remain without a molecular diagnosis. Here we show that a homozygous truncating mutation of STIL not only causes severe autosomal recessive microcephaly, but also lobar holoprosencephaly in an extended consanguineous Pakistani family. STIL mutations have previously been linked to centrosomal defects in primary microcephaly at the MCPH7 locus. Our results thus expand the clinical phenotypes associated with biallellic STIL mutations to include holoprosencephaly.
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A missense mutation in the PISA domain of HsSAS-6 causes autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in a large consanguineous Pakistani family.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Asymmetric cell division is essential for normal human brain development. Mutations in several genes encoding centrosomal proteins that participate in accurate cell division have been reported to cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH). By homozygosity mapping including three affected individuals from a consanguineous MCPH family from Pakistan, we delineated a critical region of 18.53 Mb on Chromosome 1p21.3-1p13.1. This region contains the gene encoding HsSAS-6, a centrosomal protein primordial for seeding the formation of new centrioles during the cell cycle. Both next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous c.185T>C missense mutation in the HsSAS-6 gene, resulting in a p.Ile62Thr substitution within a highly conserved region of the PISA domain of HsSAS-6. This variant is neither present in any single-nucleotide polymorphism or exome sequencing databases nor in a Pakistani control cohort. Experiments in tissue culture cells revealed that the Ile62Thr mutant of HsSAS-6 is substantially less efficient than the wild-type protein in sustaining centriole formation. Together, our findings demonstrate a dramatic impact of the mutation p.Ile62Thr on HsSAS-6 function and add this component to the list of genes mutated in primary microcephaly.
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Analysis of ELP4, SRPX2, and interacting genes in typical and atypical rolandic epilepsy.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Rolandic epilepsy (RE) and its atypical variants (atypical rolandic epilepsy, ARE) along the spectrum of epilepsy-aphasia disorders are characterized by a strong but largely unknown genetic basis. Two genes with a putative (ELP4) or a proven (SRPX2) function in neuronal migration were postulated to confer susceptibility to parts of the disease spectrum: the ELP4 gene to centrotemporal spikes and SRPX2 to ARE. To reexamine these findings, we investigated a cohort of 280 patients of European ancestry with RE/ARE for the etiological contribution of these genes and their close interaction partners. We performed next-generation sequencing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array based genotyping to screen for sequence and structural variants. In comparison to European controls we could not detect an enrichment of rare deleterious variants of ELP4, SRPX2, or their interaction partners in affected individuals. The previously described functional p.N327S variant in the X chromosomal SRPX2 gene was detected in two affected individuals (0.81%) and also in controls (0.26%), with some preponderance of male patients. We did not detect an association of SNPs in the ELP4 gene with centrotemporal spikes as previously reported. In conclusion our data do not support a major role of ELP4 and SRPX2 in the etiology of RE/ARE.
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Mutation of POC1B in a severe syndromic retinal ciliopathy.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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We describe a consanguineous Iraqi family with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), Joubert syndrome (JBTS), and polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Targeted next-generation sequencing for excluding mutations in known LCA and JBTS genes, homozygosity mapping, and whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense variant, c.317G>C (p.Arg106Pro), in POC1B, a gene essential for ciliogenesis, basal body, and centrosome integrity. In silico modeling suggested a requirement of p.Arg106 for the formation of the third WD40 repeat and a protein interaction interface. In human and mouse retina, POC1B localized to the basal body and centriole adjacent to the connecting cilium of photoreceptors and in synapses of the outer plexiform layer. Knockdown of Poc1b in zebrafish caused cystic kidneys and retinal degeneration with shortened and reduced photoreceptor connecting cilia, compatible with the human syndromic ciliopathy. A recent study describes homozygosity for p.Arg106ProPOC1B in a family with nonsyndromic cone-rod dystrophy. The phenotype associated with homozygous p.Arg106ProPOC1B may thus be highly variable, analogous to homozygous p.Leu710Ser in WDR19 causing either isolated retinitis pigmentosa or Jeune syndrome. Our study indicates that POC1B is required for retinal integrity, and we propose POC1B mutations as a probable cause for JBTS with severe PKD.
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Deciphering the genetic basis of microcystin tolerance.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Cyanobacteria constitute a serious threat to freshwater ecosystems by producing toxic secondary metabolites, e.g. microcystins. These microcystins have been shown to harm livestock, pets and humans and to affect ecosystem service and functioning. Cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide in intensity and frequency due to eutrophication and global warming. However, Daphnia, the main grazer of planktonic algae and cyanobacteria, has been shown to be able to suppress bloom-forming cyanobacteria and to adapt to cyanobacteria that produce microcystins. Since Daphnia's genome was published only recently, it is now possible to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of microcystin tolerance of Daphnia.
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Mutations in PLK4, encoding a master regulator of centriole biogenesis, cause microcephaly, growth failure and retinopathy.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Centrioles are essential for ciliogenesis. However, mutations in centriole biogenesis genes have been reported in primary microcephaly and Seckel syndrome, disorders without the hallmark clinical features of ciliopathies. Here we identify mutations in the genes encoding PLK4 kinase, a master regulator of centriole duplication, and its substrate TUBGCP6 in individuals with microcephalic primordial dwarfism and additional congenital anomalies, including retinopathy, thereby extending the human phenotypic spectrum associated with centriole dysfunction. Furthermore, we establish that different levels of impaired PLK4 activity result in growth and cilia phenotypes, providing a mechanism by which microcephaly disorders can occur with or without ciliopathic features.
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Genome-wide CNV analysis in 221 unrelated patients and targeted high-throughput sequencing reveal novel causative candidate genes for colorectal adenomatous polyposis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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To uncover novel causative genes in patients with unexplained adenomatous polyposis, a model disease for colorectal cancer, we performed a genome-wide analysis of germline copy number variants (CNV) in a large, well characterized APC and MUTYH mutation negative patient cohort followed by a targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Genomic DNA from 221 unrelated German patients was genotyped on high-resolution SNP arrays. Putative CNVs were filtered according to stringent criteria, compared with those of 531 population-based German controls, and validated by qPCR. Candidate genes were prioritized using in silico, expression, and segregation analyses, data mining and enrichment analyses of genes and pathways. In 27% of the 221 unrelated patients, a total of 77 protein coding genes displayed rare, nonrecurrent, germline CNVs. The set included 26 candidates with molecular and cellular functions related to tumorigenesis. Targeted high-throughput sequencing found truncating point mutations in 12% (10/77) of the prioritized genes. No clear evidence was found for autosomal recessive subtypes. Six patients had potentially causative mutations in more than one of the 26 genes. Combined with data from recent studies of early-onset colorectal and breast cancer, recurrent potential loss-of-function alterations were detected in CNTN6, FOCAD (KIAA1797), HSPH1, KIF26B, MCM3AP, YBEY and in three genes from the ARHGAP family. In the canonical Wnt pathway oncogene CTNNB1 (?-catenin), two potential gain-of-function mutations were found. In conclusion, the present study identified a group of rarely affected genes which are likely to predispose to colorectal adenoma formation and confirmed previously published candidates for tumor predisposition as etiologically relevant.
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Mutations in SPRTN cause early onset hepatocellular carcinoma, genomic instability and progeroid features.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Age-related degenerative and malignant diseases represent major challenges for health care systems. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and age-associated pathologies is thus of growing biomedical relevance. We identified biallelic germline mutations in SPRTN (also called C1orf124 or DVC1) in three patients from two unrelated families. All three patients are affected by a new segmental progeroid syndrome characterized by genomic instability and susceptibility toward early onset hepatocellular carcinoma. SPRTN was recently proposed to have a function in translesional DNA synthesis and the prevention of mutagenesis. Our in vivo and in vitro characterization of identified mutations has uncovered an essential role for SPRTN in the prevention of DNA replication stress during general DNA replication and in replication-related G2/M-checkpoint regulation. In addition to demonstrating the pathogenicity of identified SPRTN mutations, our findings provide a molecular explanation of how SPRTN dysfunction causes accelerated aging and susceptibility toward carcinoma.
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Frequent mutations in chromatin-remodelling genes in pulmonary carcinoids.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Pulmonary carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine tumours of the lung. The molecular alterations underlying the pathogenesis of these tumours have not been systematically studied so far. Here we perform gene copy number analysis (n=54), genome/exome (n=44) and transcriptome (n=69) sequencing of pulmonary carcinoids and observe frequent mutations in chromatin-remodelling genes. Covalent histone modifiers and subunits of the SWI/SNF complex are mutated in 40 and 22.2% of the cases, respectively, with MEN1, PSIP1 and ARID1A being recurrently affected. In contrast to small-cell lung cancer and large-cell neuroendocrine lung tumours, TP53 and RB1 mutations are rare events, suggesting that pulmonary carcinoids are not early progenitor lesions of the highly aggressive lung neuroendocrine tumours but arise through independent cellular mechanisms. These data also suggest that inactivation of chromatin-remodelling genes is sufficient to drive transformation in pulmonary carcinoids.
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DEPDC5 mutations in genetic focal epilepsies of childhood.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Recent studies reported DEPDC5 loss-of-function mutations in different focal epilepsy syndromes. Here we identified 1 predicted truncation and 2 missense mutations in 3 children with rolandic epilepsy (3 of 207). In addition, we identified 3 families with unclassified focal childhood epilepsies carrying predicted truncating DEPDC5 mutations (3 of 82). The detected variants were all novel, inherited, and present in all tested affected (n=11) and in 7 unaffected family members, indicating low penetrance. Our findings extend the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in DEPDC5 and suggest that rolandic epilepsy, albeit rarely, and other nonlesional childhood epilepsies are among the associated syndromes.
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CD74-NRG1 Fusions in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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We discovered a novel somatic gene fusion, CD74-NRG1, by transcriptome sequencing of 25 lung adenocarcinomas of never smokers. By screening 102 lung adenocarcinomas negative for known oncogenic alterations, we found four additional fusion-positive tumors, all of which were of the invasive mucinous subtype. Mechanistically, CD74-NRG1 leads to extracellular expression of the EGF-like domain of NRG1 III-?3, thereby providing the ligand for ERBB2-ERBB3 receptor complexes. Accordingly, ERBB2 and ERBB3 expression was high in the index case, and expression of phospho-ERBB3 was specifically found in tumors bearing the fusion (P < 0.0001). Ectopic expression of CD74-NRG1 in lung cancer cell lines expressing ERBB2 and ERBB3 activated ERBB3 and the PI3K-AKT pathway, and led to increased colony formation in soft agar. Thus, CD74-NRG1 gene fusions are activating genomic alterations in invasive mucinous adenocarcinomas and may offer a therapeutic opportunity for a lung tumor subtype with, so far, no effective treatment.
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Exonic microdeletions of the gephyrin gene impair GABAergic synaptic inhibition in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Gephyrin is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, essential for the clustering of glycine and ?-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs) at inhibitory synapses. An impairment of GABAergic synaptic inhibition represents a key pathway of epileptogenesis. Recently, exonic microdeletions in the gephyrin (GPHN) gene have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia and epileptic seizures. Here we report the identification of novel exonic GPHN microdeletions in two patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), representing the most common group of genetically determined epilepsies. The identified GPHN microdeletions involve exons 5-9 (?5-9) and 2-3 (?2-3), both affecting the gephyrin G-domain. Molecular characterization of the GPHN ?5-9 variant demonstrated that it perturbs the clustering of regular gephyrin at inhibitory synapses in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons in a dominant-negative manner, resulting in a significant loss of ?2-subunit containing GABAARs. GPHN ?2-3 causes a frameshift resulting in a premature stop codon (p.V22Gfs*7) leading to haplo-insufficiency of the gene. Our results demonstrate that structural exonic microdeletions affecting the GPHN gene constitute a rare genetic risk factor for IGE and other neuropsychiatric disorders by an impairment of the GABAergic inhibitory synaptic transmission.
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Mutations in POGLUT1, encoding protein O-glucosyltransferase 1, cause autosomal-dominant Dowling-Degos disease.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis characterized by progressive and disfiguring reticulate hyperpigmentation. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in KRT5 but were only able to detect pathogenic mutations in fewer than half of our subjects. To identify additional causes of DDD, we performed exome sequencing in five unrelated affected individuals without mutations in KRT5. Data analysis identified three heterozygous mutations from these individuals, all within the same gene. These mutations, namely c.11G>A (p.Trp4*), c.652C>T (p.Arg218*), and c.798-2A>C, are within POGLUT1, which encodes protein O-glucosyltransferase 1. Further screening of unexplained cases for POGLUT1 identified six additional mutations, as well as two of the above described mutations. Immunohistochemistry of skin biopsies of affected individuals with POGLUT1 mutations showed significantly weaker POGLUT1 staining in comparison to healthy controls with strong localization of POGLUT1 in the upper parts of the epidermis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that translation of either wild-type (WT) POGLUT1 or of the protein carrying the p.Arg279Trp substitution led to the expected size of about 50 kDa, whereas the c.652C>T (p.Arg218*) mutation led to translation of a truncated protein of about 30 kDa. Immunofluorescence analysis identified a colocalization of the WT protein with the endoplasmic reticulum and a notable aggregating pattern for the truncated protein. Recently, mutations in POFUT1, which encodes protein O-fucosyltransferase 1, were also reported to be responsible for DDD. Interestingly, both POGLUT1 and POFUT1 are essential regulators of Notch activity. Our results furthermore emphasize the important role of the Notch pathway in pigmentation and keratinocyte morphology.
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Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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The soluble cleaved urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (scuPAR) is a circulating protein detected in multiple diseases, including various cancers, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, where elevated levels of scuPAR have been associated with worsening prognosis and increased disease aggressiveness. We aimed to identify novel genetic and biomolecular mechanisms regulating scuPAR levels. Elevated serum scuPAR levels were identified in asthma (n=514) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n=219) cohorts when compared to controls (n=96). In these cohorts, a genome-wide association study of serum scuPAR levels identified a human plasma kallikrein gene (KLKB1) promoter polymorphism (rs4253238) associated with serum scuPAR levels in a control/asthma population (P=1.17×10(-7)), which was also observed in a COPD population (combined P=5.04×10(-12)). Using a fluorescent assay, we demonstrated that serum KLKB1 enzymatic activity was driven by rs4253238 and is inverse to scuPAR levels. Biochemical analysis identified that KLKB1 cleaves scuPAR and negates scuPARs effects on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Chymotrypsin was used as a proproteolytic control, while basal HBECs were used as a control to define scuPAR-driven effects. In summary, we reveal a novel post-translational regulatory mechanism for scuPAR using a hypothesis-free approach with implications for multiple human diseases.-Portelli, M. A., Siedlinski, M., Stewart, C. E., Postma, D. S., Nieuwenhuis, M. A., Vonk, J. M., Nurnberg, P., Altmuller, J., Moffatt, M. F., Wardlaw, A. J., Parker, S. G., Connolly, M. J., Koppelman, G. H., Sayers, I. Genome-wide protein QTL mapping identifies human plasma kallikrein as a post-translational regulator of serum uPAR levels.
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Sensitive detection of viral transcripts in human tumor transcriptomes.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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In excess of 12% of human cancer incidents have a viral cofactor. Epidemiological studies of idiopathic human cancers indicate that additional tumor viruses remain to be discovered. Recent advances in sequencing technology have enabled systematic screenings of human tumor transcriptomes for viral transcripts. However, technical problems such as low abundances of viral transcripts in large volumes of sequencing data, viral sequence divergence, and homology between viral and human factors significantly confound identification of tumor viruses. We have developed a novel computational approach for detecting viral transcripts in human cancers that takes the aforementioned confounding factors into account and is applicable to a wide variety of viruses and tumors. We apply the approach to conducting the first systematic search for viruses in neuroblastoma, the most common cancer in infancy. The diverse clinical progression of this disease as well as related epidemiological and virological findings are highly suggestive of a pathogenic cofactor. However, a viral etiology of neuroblastoma is currently contested. We mapped 14 transcriptomes of neuroblastoma as well as positive and negative controls to the human and all known viral genomes in order to detect both known and unknown viruses. Analysis of controls, comparisons with related methods, and statistical estimates demonstrate the high sensitivity of our approach. Detailed investigation of putative viral transcripts within neuroblastoma samples did not provide evidence for the existence of any known human viruses. Likewise, de-novo assembly and analysis of chimeric transcripts did not result in expression signatures associated with novel human pathogens. While confounding factors such as sample dilution or viral clearance in progressed tumors may mask viral cofactors in the data, in principle, this is rendered less likely by the high sensitivity of our approach and the number of biological replicates analyzed. Therefore, our results suggest that frequent viral cofactors of metastatic neuroblastoma are unlikely.
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CDK6 associates with the centrosome during mitosis and is mutated in a large Pakistani family with primary microcephaly.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is characterized by reduced head circumference, reduction in the size of the cerebral cortex with otherwise grossly normal brain structure and variable intellectual disability. MCPH is caused by mutations of 11 different genes which code for proteins implicated in cell division and cell cycle regulation. We studied a consanguineous eight-generation family from Pakistan with ten microcephalic children using homozygosity mapping and found a new MCPH locus at HSA 7q21.11-q21.3. Sanger sequencing of the most relevant candidate genes in this region revealed a homozygous single nucleotide substitution c.589G>A in CDK6, which encodes cyclin-dependent kinase 6. The mutation changes a highly conserved alanine at position 197 into threonine (p.Ala197Thr). Post hoc whole-exome sequencing corroborated this mutations identification as the causal variant. CDK6 is an important protein for the control of the cell cycle and differentiation of various cell types. We show here for the first time that CDK6 associates with the centrosome during mitosis; however, this was not observed in patient fibroblasts. Moreover, the mutant primary fibroblasts exhibited supernumerary centrosomes, disorganized microtubules and mitotic spindles, an increased centrosome nucleus distance, reduced cell proliferation and impaired cell motility and polarity. Upon ectopic expression of the mutant protein and knockdown of CDK6 through shRNA, we noted similar effects. We propose that the identified CDK6 mutation leads to reduced cell proliferation and impairs the correct functioning of the centrosome in microtubule organization and its positioning near the nucleus which are key determinants during neurogenesis.
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A comprehensive molecular study on Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes identifies a broad molecular and clinical spectrum converging on altered chromatin remodeling.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Chromatin remodeling complexes are known to modify chemical marks on histones or to induce conformational changes in the chromatin in order to regulate transcription. De novo dominant mutations in different members of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex have recently been described in individuals with Coffin-Siris (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser (NCBRS) syndromes. Using a combination of whole-exome sequencing, NGS-based sequencing of 23 SWI/SNF complex genes, and molecular karyotyping in 46 previously undescribed individuals with CSS and NCBRS, we identified a de novo 1-bp deletion (c.677delG, p.Gly226Glufs*53) and a de novo missense mutation (c.914G>T, p.Cys305Phe) in PHF6 in two individuals diagnosed with CSS. PHF6 interacts with the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex implicating dysfunction of a second chromatin remodeling complex in the pathogenesis of CSS-like phenotypes. Altogether, we identified mutations in 60% of the studied individuals (28/46), located in the genes ARID1A, ARID1B, SMARCB1, SMARCE1, SMARCA2, and PHF6. We show that mutations in ARID1B are the main cause of CSS, accounting for 76% of identified mutations. ARID1B and SMARCB1 mutations were also found in individuals with the initial diagnosis of NCBRS. These individuals apparently belong to a small subset who display an intermediate CSS/NCBRS phenotype. Our proposed genotype-phenotype correlations are important for molecular screening strategies.
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Mutations in GRIN2A cause idiopathic focal epilepsy with rolandic spikes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Idiopathic focal epilepsy (IFE) with rolandic spikes is the most common childhood epilepsy, comprising a phenotypic spectrum from rolandic epilepsy (also benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, BECTS) to atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE), Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) and epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS). The genetic basis is largely unknown. We detected new heterozygous mutations in GRIN2A in 27 of 359 affected individuals from 2 independent cohorts with IFE (7.5%; P = 4.83 × 10(-18), Fishers exact test). Mutations occurred significantly more frequently in the more severe phenotypes, with mutation detection rates ranging from 12/245 (4.9%) in individuals with BECTS to 9/51 (17.6%) in individuals with CSWS (P = 0.009, Cochran-Armitage test for trend). In addition, exon-disrupting microdeletions were found in 3 of 286 individuals (1.0%; P = 0.004, Fishers exact test). These results establish alterations of the gene encoding the NMDA receptor NR2A subunit as a major genetic risk factor for IFE.
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A de novo gain-of-function mutation in SCN11A causes loss of pain perception.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The sensation of pain protects the body from serious injury. Using exome sequencing, we identified a specific de novo missense mutation in SCN11A in individuals with the congenital inability to experience pain who suffer from recurrent tissue damage and severe mutilations. Heterozygous knock-in mice carrying the orthologous mutation showed reduced sensitivity to pain and self-inflicted tissue lesions, recapitulating aspects of the human phenotype. SCN11A encodes Nav1.9, a voltage-gated sodium ion channel that is primarily expressed in nociceptors, which function as key relay stations for the electrical transmission of pain signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Mutant Nav1.9 channels displayed excessive activity at resting voltages, causing sustained depolarization of nociceptors, impaired generation of action potentials and aberrant synaptic transmission. The gain-of-function mechanism that underlies this channelopathy suggests an alternative way to modulate pain perception.
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The genome of Romanomermis culicivorax: revealing fundamental changes in the core developmental genetic toolkit in Nematoda.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The genetics of development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been described in exquisitedetail. The phylum Nematoda has two classes: Chromadorea (which includes C. elegans) and theEnoplea. While the development of many chromadorean species resembles closely that of C. elegans,enoplean nematodes show markedly different patterns of early cell division and cell fate assignment.Embryogenesis of the enoplean Romanomermis culicivorax has been studied in detail, but the geneticcircuitry underpinning development in this species has not been explored.
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Fine mapping and chromosome walking towards the Ror1 locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The Ror1 gene was fine-mapped to the pericentric region of barley chromosome 1HL. Recessively inherited loss-of-function alleles of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) gene confer durable broad-spectrum disease resistance against the obligate biotrophic fungal powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Previous genetic analyses revealed two barley genes, Ror1 and Ror2, that are Required for mlo-specified resistance and basal defence. While Ror2 was cloned and shown to encode a t-SNARE protein (syntaxin), the molecular nature or Ror1 remained elusive. Ror1 was previously mapped to the centromeric region of the long arm of barley chromosome 1H. Here, we narrowed the barley Ror1 interval to 0.18 cM and initiated a chromosome walk using barley yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, next-generation DNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two non-overlapping YAC contigs containing Ror1 flanking genes were identified. Despite a high degree of synteny observed between barley and the sequenced genomes of the grasses rice (Oryza sativa), Brachypodium distachyon and Sorghum bicolor across the wider chromosomal area, the genes in the YAC contigs showed extensive interspecific rearrangements in orientation and order. Consequently, the position of a Ror1 homolog in these species could not be precisely predicted, nor was a barley gene co-segregating with Ror1 identified. These factors have prevented the molecular identification of the Ror1 gene for the time being.
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Recessive TRAPPC11 mutations cause a disease spectrum of limb girdle muscular dystrophy and myopathy with movement disorder and intellectual disability.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Myopathies are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous group of disorders that can range from limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) to syndromic forms with associated features including intellectual disability. Here, we report the identification of mutations in transport protein particle complex 11 (TRAPPC11) in three individuals of a consanguineous Syrian family presenting with LGMD and in five individuals of Hutterite descent presenting with myopathy, infantile hyperkinetic movements, ataxia, and intellectual disability. By using a combination of whole-exome or genome sequencing with homozygosity mapping, we identified the homozygous c.2938G>A (p.Gly980Arg) missense mutation within the gryzun domain of TRAPPC11 in the Syrian LGMD family and the homozygous c.1287+5G>A splice-site mutation resulting in a 58 amino acid in-frame deletion (p.Ala372_Ser429del) in the foie gras domain of TRAPPC11 in the Hutterite families. TRAPPC11 encodes a component of the multiprotein TRAPP complex involved in membrane trafficking. We demonstrate that both mutations impair the binding ability of TRAPPC11 to other TRAPP complex components and disrupt the Golgi apparatus architecture. Marker trafficking experiments for the p.Ala372_Ser429del deletion indicated normal ER-to-Golgi trafficking but dramatically delayed exit from the Golgi to the cell surface. Moreover, we observed alterations of the lysosomal membrane glycoproteins lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) and LAMP2 as a consequence of TRAPPC11 dysfunction supporting a defect in the transport of secretory proteins as the underlying pathomechanism.
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Mutations in GMPPA cause a glycosylation disorder characterized by intellectual disability and autonomic dysfunction.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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In guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-mannose pyrophosphorylase A (GMPPA), we identified a homozygous nonsense mutation that segregated with achalasia and alacrima, delayed developmental milestones, and gait abnormalities in a consanguineous Pakistani pedigree. Mutations in GMPPA were subsequently found in ten additional individuals from eight independent families affected by the combination of achalasia, alacrima, and neurological deficits. This autosomal-recessive disorder shows many similarities with triple A syndrome, which is characterized by achalasia, alacrima, and variable neurological deficits in combination with adrenal insufficiency. GMPPA is a largely uncharacterized homolog of GMPPB. GMPPB catalyzes the formation of GDP-mannose, which is an essential precursor of glycan moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids and is associated with congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies with hypoglycosylation of ?-dystroglycan. Surprisingly, GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase activity was unchanged and GDP-mannose levels were strongly increased in lymphoblasts of individuals with GMPPA mutations. This suggests that GMPPA might serve as a GMPPB regulatory subunit mediating feedback inhibition of GMPPB instead of displaying catalytic enzyme activity itself. Thus, a triple-A-like syndrome can be added to the growing list of congenital disorders of glycosylation, in which dysregulation rather than mere enzyme deficiency is the basal pathophysiological mechanism.
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Inhibition of TFG function causes hereditary axon degeneration by impairing endoplasmic reticulum structure.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of gait disorders. Their pathological hallmark is a length-dependent distal axonopathy of nerve fibers in the corticospinal tract. Involvement of other neurons can cause additional neurological symptoms, which define a diverse set of complex hereditary spastic paraplegias. We present two siblings who have the unusual combination of early-onset spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, and neuropathy. Genome-wide SNP-typing, linkage analysis, and exome sequencing revealed a homozygous c.316C>T (p.R106C) variant in the Trk-fused gene (TFG) as the only plausible mutation. Biochemical characterization of the mutant protein demonstrated a defect in its ability to self-assemble into an oligomeric complex, which is critical for normal TFG function. In cell lines, TFG inhibition slows protein secretion from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and alters ER morphology, disrupting organization of peripheral ER tubules and causing collapse of the ER network onto the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton. The present study provides a unique link between altered ER architecture and neurodegeneration.
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Recessive mutations in DGKE cause atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Pathologic thrombosis is a major cause of mortality. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) features episodes of small-vessel thrombosis resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. Atypical HUS (aHUS) can result from genetic or autoimmune factors that lead to pathologic complement cascade activation. Using exome sequencing, we identified recessive mutations in DGKE (encoding diacylglycerol kinase ?) that co-segregated with aHUS in nine unrelated kindreds, defining a distinctive Mendelian disease. Affected individuals present with aHUS before age 1 year, have persistent hypertension, hematuria and proteinuria (sometimes in the nephrotic range), and develop chronic kidney disease with age. DGKE is found in endothelium, platelets and podocytes. Arachidonic acid-containing diacylglycerols (DAG) activate protein kinase C (PKC), which promotes thrombosis, and DGKE normally inactivates DAG signaling. We infer that loss of DGKE function results in a prothrombotic state. These findings identify a new mechanism of pathologic thrombosis and kidney failure and have immediate implications for treating individuals with aHUS.
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Impaired epidermal ceramide synthesis causes autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis and reveals the importance of ceramide acyl chain length.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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The barrier function of the human epidermis is supposed to be governed by lipid composition and organization in the stratum corneum. Disorders of keratinization, namely ichthyoses, are typically associated with disturbed barrier activity. Using autozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, we have identified a homozygous missense mutation in CERS3 in patients with congenital ichthyosis characterized by collodion membranes at birth, generalized scaling of the skin, and mild erythroderma. We demonstrate that the mutation inactivates ceramide synthase 3 (CerS3), which is synthesized in skin and testis, in an assay of N-acylation with C26-CoA, both in patient keratinocytes and using recombinant mutant proteins. Moreover, we show a specific loss of ceramides with very long acyl chains from C26 up to C34 in terminally differentiating patient keratinocytes, which is in line with findings from a recent CerS3-deficient mouse model. Analysis of reconstructed patient skin reveals disturbance of epidermal differentiation with an earlier maturation and an impairment of epidermal barrier function. Our findings demonstrate that synthesis of very long chain ceramides by CerS3 is a crucial early step for the skin barrier formation and link disorders presenting with congenital ichthyosis to defects in sphingolipid metabolism and the epidermal lipid architecture.
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Human trace amine-associated receptor TAAR5 can be activated by trimethylamine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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In addition to the canonical olfactory receptors, TAARs were currently suggested to be a second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium of vertebrates. In contrast to several deorphanized murine TAARs, agonists for the intact human TAAR genes 2, 5, 6, 8 and 9 that are potentially expressed in the human olfactory epithelium have not been determined so far. Moreover, the physiological relevance of TAARs still remains elusive. We present the first successful functional expression of a human TAAR and agonists of human TAAR5. We performed a ligand screening using recombinantly expressed human TAAR5 in HANA3A cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes. In order to measure receptor activity, we used a cAMP-dependent reporter gene assay and two-electrode voltage clamp technique. As a result, human TAAR5 can be activated in a concentration-dependent manner by trimethylamine and with less efficacy by dimethylethylamine. It could neither be activated by any other of the tested single amines with a related chemical structure (42 in total), nor by any of the tested odorant mixtures. The hypothesis that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) within the reading frame of an olfactory receptor gene can cause a specific anosmia, formed the basis for clarifying the question, if anosmia for trimethylamine is caused by a SNP in a TAAR coding sequence. All functional human TAAR gene reading frames of subjects with specific anosmia for trimethylamine were amplified and products analyzed regarding SNP distribution. We demonstrated that the observed specific anosmia for trimethylamine is not correlated with a SNP in the coding sequence of one of the putatively functional human TAAR genes.
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Do not trust the pedigree: reduced and sex-dependent penetrance at a novel mutation hotspot in ATL1 blurs autosomal dominant inheritance of spastic paraplegia.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs), a group of neurodegenerative movement disorders, are among the genetically most heterogeneous clinical conditions. Still, the more than 50 forms known so far apparently explain less than 80% of cases. The present study identified two large HSP families, which seemed to show an autosomal recessive and an X-linked inheritance pattern. A set of genetic analyses including exome sequencing revealed plausible mutations only when assuming incomplete/sex-dependent penetrance of adjacent alterations in the autosomal dominant HSP gene ATL1 (c.1243C>T and c.1244G>A, respectively). By screening of additional HSP patients for the presence of these alterations, we identified three more cases and obtained additional evidence for reduced penetrance. Bisulfate sequencing and haplotype analysis indicated that c.1243C and c.1244G constitute a mutational hotspot. Our findings suggest that misinterpretation of inheritance patterns and, consequently, misselection of candidate genes to be screened in gene-focused approaches contribute to the apparently missing heritability in HSP and, potentially, in other genetically heterogeneous disorders.
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Comprehensive RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Sensory Ganglia with a Focus on Ion Channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal Ganglia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain.
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A novel large in-frame deletion within the CACNA1F gene associates with a cone-rod dystrophy 3-like phenotype.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cone-rod dystrophies (CORDs) represent a heterogeneous group of monogenic diseases leading to early impairment of vision. The majority of CORD entities show autosomal modes of inheritance and X-linked traits are comparably rare. So far, three X-chromosomal entities were reported (CORDX1, -X2 and -X3). In this study, we analysed a large family of German origin with solely affected males over three generations showing a CORDX-like phenotype. Due to the heterogeneity of cone-rod dystrophies, we performed a combined linkage and X-exome sequencing approach and identified a novel large intragenic in-frame deletion encompassing exons 18 to 26 within the CACNA1F gene. CACNA1F is described causative for CORDX3 in a single family originating from Finland and alterations in this gene have not yet been reported in other CORDX pedigrees. Our data independently confirm CACNA1F as the causative gene for CORDX3-like phenotypes and detailed clinical characterization of the family expands the knowledge about the phenotypic spectrum of deleterious CACNA1F alterations.
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SOX9 duplication linked to intersex in deer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A complex network of genes determines sex in mammals. Here, we studied a European roe deer with an intersex phenotype that was consistent with a XY genotype with incomplete male-determination. Whole genome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a triple dose of the SOX9 gene, allowing insights into a new genetic defect in a wild animal.
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RBFOX1 and RBFOX3 mutations in rolandic epilepsy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Partial deletions of the gene encoding the neuronal splicing regulator RBFOX1 have been reported in a range of neurodevelopmental diseases, including idiopathic generalized epilepsy. The RBFOX1 protein and its homologues (RBFOX2 and RBFOX3) regulate alternative splicing of many neuronal transcripts involved in the homeostatic control of neuronal excitability. In this study, we explored if structural microdeletions and exonic sequence variations in RBFOX1, RBFOX2, RBFOX3 confer susceptibility to rolandic epilepsy (RE), a common idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy. By high-density SNP array screening of 289 unrelated RE patients, we identified two hemizygous deletions, a 365?kb deletion affecting two untranslated 5-terminal exons of RBFOX1 and a 43 kb deletion spanning exon 3 of RBFOX3. Exome sequencing of 242 RE patients revealed two novel probably deleterious variants in RBFOX1, a frameshift mutation (p.A233Vfs*74) and a hexanucleotide deletion (p.A299_A300del), and a novel nonsense mutation in RBFOX3 (p.Y287*). Although the three variants were inherited from unaffected parents, they were present in all family members exhibiting the RE trait clinically or electroencephalographically with only one exception. In contrast, no deleterious mutations of RBFOX1 and RBFOX3 were found in the exomes of 6503 non-RE subjects deposited in the Exome Variant Server database. The observed RBFOX3 exon 3 deletion and nonsense mutation suggest that RBFOX3 represents a novel risk factor for RE, indicating that exon deletions and truncating mutations of RBFOX1 and RBFOX3 contribute to the genetic variance of partial and generalized idiopathic epilepsy syndromes.
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Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor M3 Mutation Causes Urinary Bladder Disease and a Prune-Belly-like Syndrome.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Urinary bladder malformations associated with bladder outlet obstruction are a frequent cause of progressive renal failure in children. We here describe a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3) (1q41-q44) homozygous frameshift mutation in familial congenital bladder malformation associated with a prune-belly-like syndrome, defining an isolated gene defect underlying this sometimes devastating disease. CHRM3 encodes the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which we show is present in developing renal epithelia and bladder muscle. These observations may imply that M3 has a role beyond its known contribution to detrusor contractions. This Mendelian disease caused by a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mutation strikingly phenocopies Chrm3 null mutant mice.
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Benchmarking of mutation diagnostics in clinical lung cancer specimens.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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Treatment of EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer patients with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib results in high response rates and prolonged progression-free survival. Despite the development of sensitive mutation detection approaches, a thorough validation of these in a clinical setting has so far been lacking. We performed, in a clinical setting, a systematic validation of dideoxy Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing against massively parallel sequencing as one of the most sensitive mutation detection technologies available. Mutational annotation of clinical lung tumor samples revealed that of all patients with a confirmed response to EGFR inhibition, only massively parallel sequencing detected all relevant mutations. By contrast, dideoxy sequencing missed four responders and pyrosequencing missed two responders, indicating a dramatic lack of sensitivity of dideoxy sequencing, which is widely applied for this purpose. Furthermore, precise quantification of mutant alleles revealed a low correlation (r(2)?=?0.27) of histopathological estimates of tumor content and frequency of mutant alleles, thereby questioning the use of histopathology for stratification of specimens for individual analytical procedures. Our results suggest that enhanced analytical sensitivity is critically required to correctly identify patients responding to EGFR inhibition. More broadly, our results emphasize the need for thorough evaluation of all mutation detection approaches against massively parallel sequencing as a prerequisite for any clinical implementation.
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Nonsense mutations in SMPX, encoding a protein responsive to physical force, result in X-chromosomal hearing loss.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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The fact that hereditary hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in humans is reflected by, among other things, an extraordinary allelic and nonallelic genetic heterogeneity. X-chromosomal hearing impairment represents only a minor fraction of all cases. In a study of a Spanish family the locus for one of the X-chromosomal forms was assigned to Xp22 (DFNX4). We mapped the disease locus in the same chromosomal region in a large German pedigree with X-chromosomal nonsyndromic hearing impairment by using genome-wide linkage analysis. Males presented with postlingual hearing loss and onset at ages 3-7, whereas onset in female carriers was in the second to third decades. Targeted DNA capture with high-throughput sequencing detected a nonsense mutation in the small muscle protein, X-linked (SMPX) of affected individuals. We identified another nonsense mutation in SMPX in patients from the Spanish family who were previously analyzed to map DFNX4. SMPX encodes an 88 amino acid, cytoskeleton-associated protein that is responsive to mechanical stress. The presence of Smpx in hair cells and supporting cells of the murine cochlea indicates its role in the inner ear. The nonsense mutations detected in the two families suggest a loss-of-function mechanism underlying this form of hearing impairment. Results obtained after heterologous overexpression of SMPX proteins were compatible with this assumption. Because responsivity to physical force is a characteristic feature of the protein, we propose that long-term maintenance of mechanically stressed inner-ear cells critically depends on SMPX function.
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Frequent and focal FGFR1 amplification associates with therapeutically tractable FGFR1 dependency in squamous cell lung cancer.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in developed countries. Although lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or EML4-ALK fusions respond to treatment by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibition, respectively, squamous cell lung cancer currently lacks therapeutically exploitable genetic alterations. We conducted a systematic search in a set of 232 lung cancer specimens for genetic alterations that were therapeutically amenable and then performed high-resolution gene copy number analyses. We identified frequent and focal fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification in squamous cell lung cancer (n = 155), but not in other lung cancer subtypes, and, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, confirmed the presence of FGFR1 amplifications in an independent cohort of squamous cell lung cancer samples (22% of cases). Using cell-based screening with the FGFR inhibitor PD173074 in a large (n = 83) panel of lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that this compound inhibited growth and induced apoptosis specifically in those lung cancer cells carrying amplified FGFR1. We validated the FGFR1 dependence of FGFR1-amplified cell lines by FGFR1 knockdown and by ectopic expression of an FGFR1-resistant allele (FGFR1(V561M)), which rescued FGFR1-amplified cells from PD173074-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, we showed that inhibition of FGFR1 with a small molecule led to significant tumor shrinkage in vivo. Thus, focal FGFR1 amplification is common in squamous cell lung cancer and associated with tumor growth and survival, suggesting that FGFR inhibitors may be a viable therapeutic option in this cohort of patients.
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Genetic determinants of circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor receptor II and their association with TNF-RII gene polymorphisms.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a cytokine involved in inflammatory, immune, and metabolic events. TNFalpha signals are mediated through activation of two receptors, one of which is tumor necrosis factor receptor TNF-RII.
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Association of ALPL and ENPP1 gene polymorphisms with bone strength related skeletal traits in a Chuvashian population.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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Mineralization of the extracellular matrix of bone is an essential element of bone development, maintenance and repair. ALPL and ENPP1 genes and their products are known to be central in local regulation of bone mineralization. The present study investigates potential associations of ENPP1 and ALPL polymorphisms with several phenotypes reflecting bone size and hand BMD. The study sample included 310 Caucasian nuclear families. Forty SNPs in ALPL and 14 SNPs in ENPP1 genetic loci as well as pairwise haplotypes were tested for association with bone strength related traits. Our findings suggest that the region corresponding to exons 7 through 9 of the ALPL gene harbors functional polymorphism affecting both bone size at various skeletal sites (p-value ranged from 0.01 to 0.0001) and hand bone mineral density (p-value=0.0007). The other important finding of consistent association between bone size phenotypes and the 3 untranslated region of ENPP1 gene (p-value ranged from 0.01 to 0.001) imply functional significance of this region to bone growth. The considered anthropometric and radiographic bone phenotypes are closely related to bone fragility thus suggesting a role for both genes in osteoporosis. Further research is required to validate the relevancy of the potentially functional regions identified by our and other studies to normal and pathologic bone development as well as to determine the relevancy of the polymorphisms in ALPL and ENPP1 gene loci to clinical practice.
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X chromosomal variation is associated with slow progression to AIDS in HIV-1-infected women.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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AIDS has changed from a mostly male-specific health problem to one that predominantly affects females. Although sex differences in HIV-1 susceptibility are beyond doubt, the extent to which sex affects the onset and progression of AIDS has remained elusive. Here, we provide evidence for an influence of X chromosomal variation on the course of retroviral infection, both in HIV-1-infected patients and in the rhesus macaque model of AIDS. A two-stage, microsatellite-based GWAS of SIV-infected monkeys revealed MHC class I markers and a hitherto-unknown X chromosomal locus as being associated with a nominal score measuring progression to AIDS (Fishers exact p < 10(-6)). The X chromosomal association was subsequently confirmed in HIV-1-infected patients with published SNP genotype data. SNP rs5968255, located at human Xq21.1 in a conserved sequence element near the RPS6KA6 and CYLC1 genes, was identified as a significant genetic determinant of disease progression in females (ANOVA p = 8.8 x 10(-5)), but not in males (p = 0.19). Heterozygous female carriers of the C allele showed significantly slower CD4 cell decline and a lower viral load at set point than TT homozygous females and than males. Inspection of HapMap revealed that the CT genotype is significantly more frequent among Asians than among Europeans or Africans. Our results suggest that, in addition to the individual innate and adaptive immunity status, sex-linked genetic variation impacts upon the rate of progression to AIDS. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying this sex-specific effect will promote the development of antiretroviral therapies with high efficacy in both sexes.
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Sequence variants affecting eosinophil numbers associate with asthma and myocardial infarction.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of inflammatory responses and thus have important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we describe a genome-wide association scan for sequence variants affecting eosinophil counts in blood of 9,392 Icelanders. The most significant SNPs were studied further in 12,118 Europeans and 5,212 East Asians. SNPs at 2q12 (rs1420101), 2q13 (rs12619285), 3q21 (rs4857855), 5q31 (rs4143832) and 12q24 (rs3184504) reached genome-wide significance (P = 5.3 x 10(-14), 5.4 x 10(-10), 8.6 x 10(-17), 1.2 x 10(-10) and 6.5 x 10(-19), respectively). A SNP at IL1RL1 associated with asthma (P = 5.5 x 10(-12)) in a collection of ten different populations (7,996 cases and 44,890 controls). SNPs at WDR36, IL33 and MYB that showed suggestive association with eosinophil counts were also associated with atopic asthma (P = 4.2 x 10(-6), 2.2 x 10(-5) and 2.4 x 10(-4), respectively). We also found that a nonsynonymous SNP at 12q24, in SH2B3, associated significantly (P = 8.6 x 10(-8)) with myocardial infarction in six different populations (6,650 cases and 40,621 controls).
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Deficiency for the ubiquitin ligase UBE3B in a blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual-disability syndrome.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Ubiquitination plays a crucial role in neurodevelopment as exemplified by Angelman syndrome, which is caused by genetic alterations of the ubiquitin ligase-encoding UBE3A gene. Although the function of UBE3A has been widely studied, little is known about its paralog UBE3B. By using exome and capillary sequencing, we here identify biallelic UBE3B mutations in four patients from three unrelated families presenting an autosomal-recessive blepharophimosis-ptosis-intellectual-disability syndrome characterized by developmental delay, growth retardation with a small head circumference, facial dysmorphisms, and low cholesterol levels. UBE3B encodes an uncharacterized E3 ubiquitin ligase. The identified UBE3B variants include one frameshift and two splice-site mutations as well as a missense substitution affecting the highly conserved HECT domain. Disruption of mouse Ube3b leads to reduced viability and recapitulates key aspects of the human disorder, such as reduced weight and brain size and a downregulation of cholesterol synthesis. We establish that the probable Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of UBE3B, oxi-1, functions in the ubiquitin/proteasome system in vivo and is especially required under oxidative stress conditions. Our data reveal the pleiotropic effects of UBE3B deficiency and reinforce the physiological importance of ubiquitination in neuronal development and function in mammals.
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Trigeminal ganglion neurons of mice show intracellular chloride accumulation and chloride-dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses.
PLoS ONE
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Intracellular Cl(-) concentrations ([Cl(-)](i)) of sensory neurons regulate signal transmission and signal amplification. In dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), Cl(-) is accumulated by the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), resulting in a [Cl(-)](i) above electrochemical equilibrium and a depolarizing Cl(-) efflux upon Cl(-) channel opening. Here, we investigate the [Cl(-)](i) and function of Cl(-) in primary sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG) of wild type (WT) and NKCC1(-/-) mice using pharmacological and imaging approaches, patch-clamping, as well as behavioral testing. The [Cl(-)](i) of WT TG neurons indicated active NKCC1-dependent Cl(-) accumulation. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor activation induced a reduction of [Cl(-)](i) as well as Ca(2+) transients in a corresponding fraction of TG neurons. Ca(2+) transients were sensitive to inhibition of NKCC1 and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs). Ca(2+) responses induced by capsaicin, a prototypical stimulus of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member-1 (TRPV1) were diminished in NKCC1(-/-) TG neurons, but elevated under conditions of a lowered [Cl(-)](o) suggesting a Cl(-)-dependent amplification of capsaicin-induced responses. Using next generation sequencing (NGS), we found expression of different Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) in TGs of mice. Pharmacological inhibition of CaCCs reduced the amplitude of capsaicin-induced responses of TG neurons in Ca(2+) imaging and electrophysiological recordings. In a behavioral paradigm, NKCC1(-/-) mice showed less avoidance of the aversive stimulus capsaicin. In summary, our results strongly argue for a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-)-dependent signal amplification mechanism in TG neurons that requires intracellular Cl(-) accumulation by NKCC1 and the activation of CaCCs.
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eIF2? mutation that disrupts eIF2 complex integrity links intellectual disability to impaired translation initiation.
Mol. Cell
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Together with GTP and initiator methionyl-tRNA, translation initiation factor eIF2 forms a ternary complex that binds the 40S ribosome and then scans an mRNA to select the AUG start codon for protein synthesis. Here, we show that a human X-chromosomal neurological disorder characterized by intellectual disability and microcephaly is caused by a missense mutation in eIF2? (encoded by EIF2S3), the core subunit of the heterotrimeric eIF2 complex. Biochemical studies of human cells overexpressing the eIF2? mutant and of yeast eIF2? with the analogous mutation revealed a defect in binding the eIF2? subunit to eIF2?. Consistent with this loss of eIF2 integrity, the yeast eIF2? mutation impaired translation start codon selection and eIF2 function in vivo in a manner that was suppressed by overexpressing eIF2?. These findings directly link intellectual disability to impaired translation initiation, and provide a mechanistic basis for the human disease due to partial loss of eIF2 function.
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Next generation sequencing of the Ago2 interacting transcriptome identified chemokine family members as novel targets of neuronal microRNAs in hepatic stellate cells.
J. Hepatol.
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After myofibroblastic transdifferentiation, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), mainly involved in liver fibrosis by extracellular matrix production, exhibit an altered growth factor profile including increased expression of neuronal mediators. Here, we analyzed putative targets of neuronal microRNAs miR-9, miR-125b, and miR-128 by deep sequencing of the transcript population, interacting with the miRNA/Argonaute 2 (Ago2) complex in myofibroblastic HSC.
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Integrative genome analyses identify key somatic driver mutations of small-cell lung cancer.
Martin Peifer, Lynnette Fernandez-Cuesta, Martin L Sos, Julie George, Danila Seidel, Lawryn H Kasper, Dennis Plenker, Frauke Leenders, Ruping Sun, Thomas Zander, Roopika Menon, Mirjam Koker, Ilona Dahmen, Christian Müller, Vincenzo Di Cerbo, Hans-Ulrich Schildhaus, Janine Altmüller, Ingelore Baessmann, Christian Becker, Bram de Wilde, Jo Vandesompele, Diana Böhm, Sascha Ansén, Franziska Gabler, Ines Wilkening, Stefanie Heynck, Johannes M Heuckmann, Xin Lu, Scott L Carter, Kristian Cibulskis, Shantanu Banerji, Gad Getz, Kwon-Sik Park, Daniel Rauh, Christian Grütter, Matthias Fischer, Laura Pasqualucci, Gavin Wright, Zoe Wainer, Prudence Russell, Iver Petersen, Yuan Chen, Erich Stoelben, Corinna Ludwig, Philipp Schnabel, Hans Hoffmann, Thomas Muley, Michael Brockmann, Walburga Engel-Riedel, Lucia A Muscarella, Vito M Fazio, Harry Groen, Wim Timens, Hannie Sietsma, Erik Thunnissen, Egbert Smit, Daniëlle A M Heideman, Peter J F Snijders, Federico Cappuzzo, Claudia Ligorio, Stefania Damiani, John Field, Steinar Solberg, Odd Terje Brustugun, Marius Lund-Iversen, Jörg Sänger, Joachim H Clement, Alex Soltermann, Holger Moch, Walter Weder, Benjamin Solomon, Jean-Charles Soria, Pierre Validire, Benjamin Besse, Elisabeth Brambilla, Christian Brambilla, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Philippe Lorimier, Peter M Schneider, Michael Hallek, William Pao, Matthew Meyerson, Julien Sage, Jay Shendure, Robert Schneider, Reinhard Büttner, Jürgen Wolf, Peter Nürnberg, Sven Perner, Lukas C Heukamp, Paul K Brindle, Stefan Haas, Roman K Thomas.
Nat. Genet.
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Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung tumor subtype with poor prognosis. We sequenced 29 SCLC exomes, 2 genomes and 15 transcriptomes and found an extremely high mutation rate of 7.4±1 protein-changing mutations per million base pairs. Therefore, we conducted integrated analyses of the various data sets to identify pathogenetically relevant mutated genes. In all cases, we found evidence for inactivation of TP53 and RB1 and identified recurrent mutations in the CREBBP, EP300 and MLL genes that encode histone modifiers. Furthermore, we observed mutations in PTEN, SLIT2 and EPHA7, as well as focal amplifications of the FGFR1 tyrosine kinase gene. Finally, we detected many of the alterations found in humans in SCLC tumors from Tp53 and Rb1 double knockout mice. Our study implicates histone modification as a major feature of SCLC, reveals potentially therapeutically tractable genomic alterations and provides a generalizable framework for the identification of biologically relevant genes in the context of high mutational background.
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Lifestyle transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses.
Nat. Genet.
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Colletotrichum species are fungal pathogens that devastate crop plants worldwide. Host infection involves the differentiation of specialized cell types that are associated with penetration, growth inside living host cells (biotrophy) and tissue destruction (necrotrophy). We report here genome and transcriptome analyses of Colletotrichum higginsianum infecting Arabidopsis thaliana and Colletotrichum graminicola infecting maize. Comparative genomics showed that both fungi have large sets of pathogenicity-related genes, but families of genes encoding secreted effectors, pectin-degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism enzymes, transporters and peptidases are expanded in C. higginsianum. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that these genes are transcribed in successive waves that are linked to pathogenic transitions: effectors and secondary metabolism enzymes are induced before penetration and during biotrophy, whereas most hydrolases and transporters are upregulated later, at the switch to necrotrophy. Our findings show that preinvasion perception of plant-derived signals substantially reprograms fungal gene expression and indicate previously unknown functions for particular fungal cell types.
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Heterozygous de-novo mutations in ATP1A3 in patients with alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a whole-exome sequencing gene-identification study.
Lancet Neurol
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Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disorder characterised by early-onset episodes of hemiplegia, dystonia, various paroxysmal symptoms, and developmental impairment. Almost all cases of AHC are sporadic but AHC concordance in monozygotic twins and dominant transmission in a family with a milder phenotype have been reported. Thus, we aimed to identify de-novo mutations associated with this disease.
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Apoptotic cleavage of DNA in human lymphocyte chromatin shows high sequence specificity.
J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn.
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Apoptotic digestion of human lymphocyte chromatin results in the appearance of large amounts of nucleosome size DNA fragments. Sequencing of these fragments and analysis of the distribution of bases around the apoptotic nucleases cutting sites revealed a rather strong consensus sequence, not observed earlier. The consensus TAAAgTAcTTTA is characterized by complementary symmetry, resembling prokaryotic restriction sites. This consensus also possesses three TA dinucleotide steps, separated by five bases (corresponding to a half-period of the DNA double helix), suggesting strong bending of the DNA at the cut sites which is perhaps required for cutting.
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A truncating mutation of CEP135 causes primary microcephaly and disturbed centrosomal function.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Autosomal-recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by intellectual disability, reduced brain and head size, but usually without defects in cerebral cortical architecture, and other syndromic abnormalities. MCPH is heterogeneous. The underlying genes of the seven known loci code for centrosomal proteins. We studied a family from northern Pakistan with two microcephalic children using homozygosity mapping and found suggestive linkage for regions on chromosomes 2, 4, and 9. We sequenced two positional candidate genes and identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding the 135 kDa centrosomal protein (CEP135), located in the linkage interval on chromosome 4, in both affected children. Post hoc whole-exome sequencing corroborated this mutations identification as the causal variant. Fibroblasts obtained from one of the patients showed multiple and fragmented centrosomes, disorganized microtubules, and reduced growth rate. Similar effects were reported after knockdown of CEP135 through RNA interference; we could provoke them also by ectopic overexpression of the mutant protein. Our findings suggest an additional locus for MCPH at HSA 4q12 (MCPH8), further strengthen the role of centrosomes in the development of MCPH, and place CEP135 among the essential components of this important organelle in particular for a normal neurogenesis.
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Attenuated BMP1 function compromises osteogenesis, leading to bone fragility in humans and zebrafish.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) is an astacin metalloprotease with important cellular functions and diverse substrates, including extracellular-matrix proteins and antagonists of some TGF? superfamily members. Combining whole-exome sequencing and filtering for homozygous stretches of identified variants, we found a homozygous causative BMP1 mutation, c.34G>C, in a consanguineous family affected by increased bone mineral density and multiple recurrent fractures. The mutation is located within the BMP1 signal peptide and leads to impaired secretion and an alteration in posttranslational modification. We also characterize a zebrafish bone mutant harboring lesions in bmp1a, demonstrating conservation of BMP1 function in osteogenesis across species. Genetic, biochemical, and histological analyses of this mutant and a comparison to a second, similar locus reveal that Bmp1a is critically required for mature-collagen generation, downstream of osteoblast maturation, in bone. We thus define the molecular and cellular bases of BMP1-dependent osteogenesis and show the importance of this protein for bone formation and stability.
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Assessing the enrichment performance in targeted resequencing experiments.
Hum. Mutat.
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Target enrichment strategies are a very common approach to sequence a predefined part of an individuals genome using second-generation sequencing technologies. While highly dependent on the technology and the target sequences selected, the performance of the various assays is also variable between samples and is influenced by the way how the libraries are handled in the laboratory. Here, we show how to find detailed information about the enrichment performance using a novel software package called NGSrich, which we developed as a part of a whole-exome resequencing pipeline in a medium-sized genomics center. Our software is suitable for high-throughput use and the results can be shared using HTML and a web server. Finally, we have sequenced exome-enriched DNA libraries of 18 human individuals using three different enrichment products and used our new software for a comparative analysis of their performance.
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Enrichment of target sequences for next generation sequencing applications in research and diagnostics.
Biol. Chem.
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Abstract Targeted re-sequencing such as gene panel sequencing (GPS) has become very popular in medical genetics, both for research projects and in diagnostic settings. The technical principles of the different enrichment methods have been reviewed several times before, however new enrichment products are constantly entering the market and researchers are often puzzled about the requirement to take decisions about long-term commitments, both for the enrichment product and the sequencing technology. This review summarizes important considerations for the experimental design, and provides helpful recommendations in choosing the best sequencing strategy for various research projects and diagnostic applications.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.