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The sulfur-fumigation reduces chemical composition and biological properties of Angelicae Sinensis Radix.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Angelica Sinensis Radix (roots of Angelica sinensis; ASR) is a popular herbal supplement in China for promoting blood circulation. Today, sulfur-fumigation is commonly used to treat ASR as a means of pest control; however, the studies of sulfur-fumigation on the safety and efficacy of ASR are very limited. Here, we elucidated the destructive roles of sulfur-fumigation on ASR by chemical and biological assessments. After sulfur-fumigation, the chemicals in ASR were significantly lost. The biological activities of anti-platelet aggregation, induction of NO production and estrogenic properties were compared between the water extracts of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated ASR. In all cases, the sulfur-fumigation significantly reduced the biological properties of ASR. In addition, application of water extract deriving from sulfur-fumigated ASR showed toxicity to cultured MCF-7 cells. In order to ensure the safety and to achieve the best therapeutic effect, it is recommended that sulfur-fumigation is an unacceptable approach for processing herbal materials.
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Identification of Angelica oil as a suppressor for the biological properties of Danggui Buxue tang: a Chinese herbal decoction composes of Astragali Radix and Angelica Sinensis Radix.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a Chinese herbal decoction commonly used in treating women?s ailments, contains two herbs: Angelica Sinensis Radix (ASR) and Astragali Radix (AR). Traditionally, ASR had to be pre-treated with yellow wine before the herbal preparation, which reduced the amount of volatile oil in water extract of ASR and DBT, and meanwhile the volatile oil-reduced DBT processed better bioactivities in cell cultures. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of volatile oil from ASR (Angelica oil) on the solubility of AR-derived ingredients and the biological properties of DBT.
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White pepper and piperine have different effects on pharmacokinetics of puerarin in rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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This study attempted to explore the effects of white pepper and its major component piperine on puerarin administered to rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin in rats were determined by oral administration (400?mg/kg) or intravenous injection (40?mg/kg) of puerarin, pretreated with or without white pepper and piperine given orally. Compared to the control group given oral puerarin only, the combined use of piperine (10 or 20?mg/kg) increased the C max of puerarin by 1.30-fold or 1.64-fold and the AUC0-? by 133% or 157%, respectively. In contrast, coadministration of white pepper (125 or 250?mg/kg) decreased oral absorption of puerarin to 83% or 74%, respectively. On the other hand, pretreatment with piperine orally did not alter the intravenous pharmacokinetics of puerarin, while the AUC of puerarin after intravenous administration was increased by pretreatment with white pepper. The results indicate that pretreatment with piperine or pepper exerts different effects on pharmacokinetics of puerarin administrated via intragastric and intravenous routes. Therefore, it is suggested that the combined application of piperine or white pepper with puerarin should be carefully monitored for potential diet-drug interactions.
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Hydrolysis of Glycosidic Flavonoids during the Preparation of Danggui Buxue Tang: An Outcome of Moderate Boiling of Chinese Herbal Mixture.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Chemical change during boiling of herbal mixture is a puzzle. By using Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction that contains Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), we developed a model in analyzing the hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides during the boiling of herbal mixture in water. A proper preparation of DBT is of great benefit to the complete extraction of bioactive ingredients. Boiling of DBT in water increased the solubility of AR-derived astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin, calycosin-7-O- ? -D-glucoside, and ononin in a time- and temperature-dependent manner: the amounts of these chemicals reached a peak at 2?h. The glycosidic resides of AR, calycosin-7-O- ? -D-glucoside, and ononin could be hydrolyzed during the moderate boiling process to form calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The hydrolysis efficiency was strongly affected by pH, temperature, and amount of herbs. Interestingly, the preheated herbs were not able to show this hydrolytic activity. The current results supported the rationality of ancient preparation of DBT in boiling water by moderate heat.
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Prevention of UV radiation-induced cutaneous photoaging in mice by topical administration of patchouli oil.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Pogostemon cablin has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including skin disorders. In the skin beauty and care prescriptions, Pogostemon cablin is one of the top ten frequently used traditional Chinese medicines.
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Protection Effect of Zhen-Wu-Tang on Adriamycin-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome via Inhibiting Oxidative Lesions and Inflammation Damage.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT), a well-known formula in China, is widely used to treat chronic kidney diseases. However, very little information on ZWT's mechanism of action is currently available. In this study, we investigated the possible protective role and underlying mechanism of ZWT on nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by Adriamycin (intravenous injection, 6.0?mg/kg) in rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. ZWT decreased urine protein excretion and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin was also recorded in nephropathic rats. Pathological results show an improved pathological state and recovering glomerular structure in ZWT treatment groups. ZWT decreased renal IL-8 level but increased renal IL-4 level. In addition, rats subjected to ZWT exhibited less IgG deposition in glomerulus compared with model group. RT-PCR results showed that ZWT decreased the mRNA expression of NF- ? B p65 and increased the mRNA expression of I ? B. Furthermore, ZWT reduced the level of MDA and increased SOD activity. These results demonstrated that ZWT ameliorated Adriamycin-induced NS in rats possibly by inhibiting Adriamycin-induced inflammation damage, enhancing body's antioxidant capacity, thereby protecting glomerulus from injury.
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Chemical changes of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Chuanxiong Rhizoma by wine treatment: chemical profiling and marker selection by gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR) can be treated with wine to promote their biological functions in Chinese medicine. Both ASR and CR contain similar volatile chemicals that could be altered after wine treatment. This study aims to identify the differential chemical profiles and to select marker chemicals of ASR and CR before and after wine treatment.
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Can Hedysari Radix replace Astragali Radix in Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese herbal decoction for woman aliment?
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Astragali Radix (AR) has been used for over 2000 years in China for the enrichment of "Qi". Hedysari Radix (HR), a herb having similar chemical composition with AR, has been commonly used as a substitute of AR in herbal decoction. In order to evaluate the possible replacement of HR for AR in Chinese herbal decoction, systematic comparison of AR and HR was done by chemical and biological assessments. The water extract of AR contained higher levels of calycosin, calycosin-glucoside, ononin, astragaloside III and astragaloside IV, while higher amount of formononetin was found in the HR extract. The estrogenic, erythropoetic and osteogenic effects were compared between the water extracts of AR and HR, and in all cases AR extract showed higher biological activities. Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is a very common herbal decoction for woman aliment, and which contains AR and Angelica Sinensis Radix. Here, we generated two forms of DBT having either AR or HR as the major herbs. Chemically, AR-contained DBT showed higher amounts of various active chemicals, except formononetin that was higher in HR-contained DBT. In parallel, the estrogenic, osteogenic and erythropoetic effects of DBT containing AR showed better activities than that of DBT having HR. Thus, AR and HR showed distinct differences in terms of chemical and biological properties. In order to achieve the best therapeutical effect, as well as to guarantee the safety, AR is recommended here to be used for making DBT.
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Chemical and biological assessment of Angelica herbal decoction: comparison of different preparations during historical applications.
Phytomedicine
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The commonly used Angelica herbal decoction today is Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), which is a dietary supplement in treating menopausal irregularity in women, i.e. to nourish "Qi" and to enrich "Blood". According to historical record, many herbal decoctions were also named DBT, but the most popular formulation of DBT was written in Jin dynasty (1247 AD) of China, which contained Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) with a weight ratio of 5:1. However, at least two other Angelica herbal decoctions recorded as DBT were prescribed in Song (1155 AD) and Qing dynasties (1687 AD). Although AR and ASR are still the major components in the DBT herbal decoctions, they are slightly varied in the herb composition. In order to reveal the efficiency of different Angelica herbal decoctions, the chemical and biological properties of three DBT herbal extracts were compared. Significantly, the highest amounts of AR-derived astragaloside III, astragaloside IV, calycosin and formononetin and ASR-derived ferulic acid were found in DBT described in 1247 AD: this preparation showed stronger activities in osteogenic, estrogenic and erythropoetic effects than the other two DBT. The current results supported the difference of three DBT in chemical and biological properties, which could be a result of different herbal combinations. For the first time, this study supports the popularity of DBT described in 1247 AD.
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Salidroside stimulates the accumulation of HIF-1? protein resulted in the induction of EPO expression: a signaling via blocking the degradation pathway in kidney and liver cells.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
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Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma (Rhodiola), the root and rhizome of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to increase the body resistance to mountain sickness in preventing hypoxia; however, the functional ingredient responsible for this adaptogenic effect has not been revealed. Here, we have identified salidroside, a glycoside predominantly found in Rhodiola, is the chemical in providing such anti-hypoxia effect. Cultured human embryonic kidney fibroblast (HEK293T) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) were used to reveal the mechanism of this hematopoietic function mediated by salidroside. The application of salidroside in cultures induced the expression of erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA from its transcription regulatory element hypoxia response element (HRE), located on EPO gene. The application of salidroside stimulated the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) protein, but not HIF-2? protein: the salidroside-induced HIF-1? protein was via the reduction of HIF-1? degradation but not the mRNA induction. The increased HIF-1? could account for the activation of EPO gene. These results supported the notion that hematopoietic function of Rhodiola was triggered, at least partially, by salidroside.
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