JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Plasma cytokine levels and risk of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition: a nested case-control study among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?A heightened pro-inflammatory state has been hypothesized to enhance HIV-1 transmission - both susceptibility of HIV-1-exposed persons and infectiousness of HIV-1-infected persons.
Related JoVE Video
Single-agent tenofovir versus combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 acquisition: an update of data from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine, has been shown to be efficacious for HIV-1 prevention. Although the use of more than one antiretroviral agent is essential for effective HIV-1 treatment, more than one agent might not be required for effective prophylaxis. We assessed the efficacy of single-agent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate relative to combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as PrEP.
Related JoVE Video
Lay Social Resources for Support of Adherence to Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Among Serodiscordant Couples in sub-Saharan Africa: A Qualitative Study.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Effectiveness of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention will require high adherence. Using qualitative data, this paper identifies potential lay social resources for support of PrEP adherence by HIV serodiscordant couples in Uganda, laying the groundwork for incorporation of these resources into adherence support initiatives as part of implementation. The qualitative analysis characterizes support for PrEP adherence provided by HIV-infected spouses, children, extended family members, and the larger community. Results suggest social resources for support of PrEP adherence in Africa are plentiful outside formal health care settings and health systems and that couples will readily use them. The same shortage of health professionals that impeded scale-up of antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS in Africa promises to challenge delivery of PrEP. Building on the treatment scale-up experience, implementers can address this challenge by examining the value of lay social resources for adherence support in developing strategies for delivery of PrEP.
Related JoVE Video
Pre-exposure prophylaxis does not affect the fertility of HIV-1-uninfected men.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a paucity of data on the effect of antiretroviral medications on male fertility. Couples affected by HIV-1 often have fertility intentions, and antiretroviral medications, as both treatment of HIV-1-infected persons and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for uninfected persons, are part of peri-conception risk reduction.
Related JoVE Video
High medication adherence during periconception periods among HIV-1-uninfected women participating in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be an important safer conception strategy for HIV-1-uninfected women with HIV-1-infected partners. Understanding medication adherence in this population may inform whether PrEP is a feasible safer conception strategy.
Related JoVE Video
Pregnancy incidence and outcomes among women receiving preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a randomized clinical trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and combination emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC+TDF), is efficacious for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. PrEP could reduce periconception HIV risk, but the effect on pregnancy outcomes is not well defined.
Related JoVE Video
Daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir preexposure prophylaxis reduces herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition among heterosexual HIV-1-uninfected men and women: a subgroup analysis of a randomized trial.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using the antiretroviral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) alone or in combination with emtricitabine (FTC-TDF) reduces the risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Tenofovir has in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).
Related JoVE Video
Preferences for daily or intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis regimens and ability to anticipate sex among HIV uninfected members of Kenyan HIV serodiscordant couples.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intermittent dosing for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proposed as an alternative to daily PrEP to reduce cost and patient drug exposure and to improve adherence. One possible dosing regimen is pre-intercourse PrEP, which requires anticipating sex in advance. We examined preferences for daily versus pre-intercourse PrEP and ability to anticipate sex among 310 HIV uninfected members of HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Thika, Kenya, with high HIV knowledge and experience with daily PrEP use in a clinical trial setting. Preferences were evenly split between daily PrEP (47.4 %) and pre-intercourse PrEP (50.7 %). Participants were more likely to prefer daily PrEP if they reported unprotected sex during the prior month (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.48, 95 % CI 1.20-1.81) or <80 % adherence to study drug (aPR 1.50, 95 % CI 1.25-1.79), and were less likely to prefer daily PrEP if sex was usually planned, versus spontaneous (aPR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.61-0.96). A minority (24.2 %) reported anticipating sex >3 h in advance, with younger participants being less likely to do so (aPR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.23-0.83 for ages 18-29 vs. ?40). Findings suggest that intermittent PrEP could be a popular option in this population, but that optimal adherence and sufficient drug levels might be challenging with a pre-intercourse regimen.
Related JoVE Video
An intervention to support HIV preexposure prophylaxis adherence in HIV-serodiscordant couples in Uganda.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention strategy, but adherence is required for maximum benefit. To date, there are no empirically supported PrEP adherence interventions. This article describes the process of developing a PrEP adherence intervention and presents results on its impact on adherence.
Related JoVE Video
Successful discontinuation of the placebo arm and provision of an effective HIV prevention product after a positive interim efficacy result: the partners PrEP study experience.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dissemination of research results to study participants and stakeholders and provision of proven effective products in the immediate post-trial period are core elements of the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention clinical trials. Few biomedical HIV prevention trials have demonstrated HIV protection with novel interventions, and thus, communication of positive trial results and provision of an effective product have not been tested in many situations.
Related JoVE Video
Delay of antiretroviral therapy initiation is common in East African HIV-infected individuals in serodiscordant partnerships.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
WHO guidance recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for all persons with a known HIV-uninfected partner, as a strategy to prevent HIV transmission. Uptake of ART among HIV-infected partners in serodiscordant partnerships is not known, which we evaluated in African HIV serodiscordant couples.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
HIV protective efficacy and correlates of tenofovir blood concentrations in a clinical trial of PrEP for HIV prevention.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel HIV prevention strategy for which adherence is a known determinant of efficacy. Blood concentrations of PrEP medications are one objective marker of adherence.
Related JoVE Video
My intention was a child but I was very afraid: fertility intentions and HIV risk perceptions among HIV-serodiscordant couples experiencing pregnancy in Kenya.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We sought to understand fertility intentions and HIV risk considerations among Kenyan HIV-serodiscordant couples who became pregnant during a prospective study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews (n = 36) and focus group discussions (n = 4) and performed qualitative data analysis and interpretation using an inductive approach. Although most of the couples were aware of the risk of horizontal and vertical HIV transmission, almost all couples reported that they had intended to become pregnant and that the desire for children superseded HIV risk considerations. Motivations for pregnancy were numerous and complex: satisfying desired family size, desire for biological children, maintaining stability of the union, and sociocultural pressures. Couples desired strategies to reduce HIV risk during conception, but expressed hesitation toward assisted reproductive technologies as unnatural. HIV prevention programs should therefore address conception desires and counsel about coordinated periconception risk-reduction strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Mannose-binding lectin and ficolin-2 do not influence humoral immune response to hepatitis B vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Host genetics appear to be an important factor in the failure to generate a protective immune response after hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-2 (FCN2), two pattern recognition receptors of the lectin pathway of complement, influence the clinical outcome of HBV, and MBL deficiency has been shown to augment the humoral response to HBV vaccination in several experimental models. Here, we investigated the association of MBL and FCN2 with the humoral response to HBV vaccination in a candidate gene and functional study.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective study of the effect of pregnancy on CD4 counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations of antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected women.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In HIV-1-infected women, CD4 count declines occur during pregnancy, which has been attributed to hemodilution. However, for women who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy, it is unclear if CD4 declines are sustained beyond pregnancy and accompanied by increased viral levels, which could indicate an effect of pregnancy on accelerating HIV-1 disease progression.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 subtype C is not associated with higher risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission: a multinational study among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-1 subtype C has emerged as the most prevalent strain of HIV-1 worldwide, leading to speculation that subtype C may be more transmissible than other subtypes. We compared the risk of HIV-1 transmission for subtype C versus non-C subtypes (A, D, G and recombinant forms) among heterosexual African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples.
Related JoVE Video
'If I am given antiretrovirals I will think I am nearing the grave': Kenyan HIV serodiscordant couples' attitudes regarding early initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) - that is, at higher CD4 cell counts (>350?cells/?l) - is a potent HIV prevention strategy. The WHO recommends ART initiation by all HIV-infected individuals in HIV serodiscordant relationships to prevent HIV transmission, yet the acceptability of early ART among couples has not been well studied.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic cytokine levels show limited correlation with risk of HIV-1 acquisition.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been hypothesized that immune activation and inflammation may increase HIV-1 susceptibility, and that cytokines may be useful biomarkers for risk. Within a prospective cohort, we conducted a nested case-control analysis of plasma cytokine levels among women who acquired HIV-1 <3 months after sampling, compared with 3 different control groups. We observed associations between lower interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 and higher IL-7 levels with HIV-1 acquisition, however, these associations were inconsistent when comparing with different control groups. Inconsistent results within our study and among previous studies suggest that reproducible findings are needed before cytokines are useful biomarkers for HIV-1 susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced and efficient detection of virus-driven cytokine expression by human NK and T cells.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cutting edge immune monitoring techniques increasingly measure multiple functional outputs for various cell types, such as intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays that measure cytokines expressed by T cells. To date, however, there is no precise method to measure virus-specific cytokine production by both T cells as well as NK cells in the same well, which is important to a greater extent given recent identification of NK cells expressing a memory phenotype. This study describes an adaptable and efficient ICS assay platform that can be used to detect antigen-driven cytokine production by human T cells and NK cells, termed "viral ICS". Importantly, this assay uses limited amount of cryopreserved PBMCs along with autologous heat-inactivated serum, thereby allowing for this assay to be performed when sample is scarce as well as geographically distant from the laboratory. Compared to a standard ICS assay that detects antigen-specific T cell cytokine expression alone, the viral ICS assay is comparable in terms of both HIV-specific CD4 and CD8T cell cytokine response rates and magnitude of response, with the added advantage of ability to detect virus-specific NK cell responses.
Related JoVE Video
Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection Increases the Risk of Subsequent Episodes of Bacterial Vaginosis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected women have a higher prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) compared to HSV-2-seronegative women. To explore the temporal association between these conditions, we evaluated the frequency of BV episodes before and after HSV-2 acquisition in a prospective study of 406 HSV-2/HIV-1-seronegative Kenyan women, of whom 164 acquired HSV-2. Incident HSV-2 was associated with increased likelihood of BV (adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56; P = .01). Our findings strengthen the evidence for a causal link between genital HSV-2 infection and disruption of the vaginal microbiota.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among high-risk heterosexuals: subgroup analyses from a randomized trial.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Daily oral antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising strategy for prevention of HIV-1 acquisition. Three clinical trials demonstrated PrEP efficacy; however, two PrEP trials among women did not find protection against HIV-1. One hypothesis proposed for these divergent results is that PrEP efficacy may be reduced in populations with higher HIV-1 incidence.
Related JoVE Video
Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour.
Related JoVE Video
Adherence to antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a substudy cohort within a clinical trial of serodiscordant couples in East Africa.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Randomized clinical trials of oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention have widely divergent efficacy estimates, ranging from 0% to 75%. These discrepancies are likely due to differences in adherence. To our knowledge, no studies to date have examined the impact of improving adherence through monitoring and/or intervention, which may increase PrEP efficacy, or reported on objective behavioral measures of adherence, which can inform PrEP effectiveness and implementation.
Related JoVE Video
An empiric risk scoring tool for identifying high-risk heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples for targeted HIV-1 prevention.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples are increasingly recognized as an important source of new HIV-1 infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A simple risk assessment tool could be useful for identifying couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation between pill counts and biologic effects in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial: implications for measuring adherence.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clinic-based pill counts of unused study medication are frequently used to measure adherence in HIV-1 prevention trials. Monthly pill count adherence data from the Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study, a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of twice-daily acyclovir suppression of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in HIV-1 infected persons was used to compare changes between 3,381 placebo and active arm participants in two objective biologic measures of acyclovirs drug activity: reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 genital ulcer disease (GUD). Higher acyclovir pill count adherence was associated with greater reductions in plasma HIV-1 RNA and GUD, indicating pill count data is strongly correlated with biological effects of adherence. However, when calculated adherence exceeded 102 % (i.e., fewer pills returned than expected) and when pill counts were missing because bottles were not returned, plasma HIV-1 RNA and GUD effects were diminished, likely indicating periods of non-adherence.
Related JoVE Video
Daily acyclovir to decrease herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) transmission from HSV-2/HIV-1 coinfected persons: a randomized controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Daily suppressive therapy with valacyclovir reduces risk of sexual transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in HSV-2-serodiscordant heterosexual couples by 48%. Whether suppressive therapy reduces HSV-2 transmission from persons coinfected with HSV-2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Differential regulatory T cell activity in HIV type 1-exposed seronegative individuals.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The potential role of conventional and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in protection from HIV-1 infection remains unclear. To address this question, we analyzed samples from 129 HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (HESN) from an HIV-1-serodiscordant couples cohort. To assess the presence of HIV-specific T cell responses and Treg function, we measured the proliferation of T cells in response to HIV-1 peptide pools in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PBMCs depleted of Tregs. We identified HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses and, surprisingly, the overall CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response rate was not increased when Tregs were removed from cell preparations. Of the 20 individuals that had HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell responses, only eight had Tregs that could suppress this proliferation. When compared with individuals whose Tregs could suppress HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation, individuals with Tregs unable to suppress showed a trend toward increased T cell activation and Treg frequency and a significant increase in HIV-1-specific production of microphage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) by CD4(+) T cells, autocrine production of which has been shown to be protective in terms of HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T cells.
Related JoVE Video
Summary measures of adherence using pill counts in two HIV prevention trials: the need for standardisation in reporting.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For trials of user-dependent HIV prevention products, accurate adherence measurements are essential to interpret and compare results across trials. We used pill count data from two recent HIV prevention trials of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression, to show that estimates of adherence vary substantially depending on assumptions that are made in analysing pill count data. We associate calculated adherence with biological markers of anti-HSV-2 activity. In both trials, calculated adherence varied considerably, depending on the summary measure used, and the handling of intervals with apparent over-adherence (fewer pills returned than expected), and unreturned pills. Intervals of apparent over-adherence were associated with reduced antiviral effects on biological markers of herpes reactivation, indicating these are likely to represent periods of non-adherence. Our results demonstrate the clear need for standardisation in reporting of adherence data that are based on pill counts.
Related JoVE Video
Integrated strategies for combination HIV prevention: principles and examples for men who have sex with men in the Americas and heterosexual African populations.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Combination HIV prevention is of high priority for increasing the impact of partially efficacious HIV prevention interventions for specific populations and settings. Developing the package requires critical review of local epidemiology of HIV infection regarding most-impacted populations and those at high risk of HIV transmission and acquisition, drivers of HIV infection, and available interventions to address these risk factors. Interventions should be considered in terms of the evidence basis for efficacy, potential synergies, and feasibility of delivery at scale, which is important to achieve high coverage and impact, coupled with high acceptability to populations, which will impact uptake, adherence, and retention. Evaluation requires process measures of uptake, adherence, retention, and outcome measures of reduction in HIV infectiousness and acquisition. Three examples of combination prevention concepts are summarized for men who have sex with men in the Americas, young women in sub-Saharan Africa, and HIV serodiscordant couples.
Related JoVE Video
Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: where have we been and where are we going?
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in which HIV-uninfected persons with ongoing HIV risk use antiretroviral medications to reduce their risk of acquiring HIV infection, is an efficacious and promising new HIV prevention strategy. The past 2 years have seen significant new advances in knowledge regarding PrEP, including definitive demonstration that PrEP reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, regulatory approval of combination oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as the first PrEP agent with a label indication for sexual HIV prevention, and the development of normative guidance for clinical prescribing of PrEP. In PrEP clinical trials, HIV protection was strongly correlated with PrEP adherence; therefore, understanding and supporting adherence to PrEP are key to maximizing its public health impact. As would be expected for any new HIV prevention approach, questions remain, including how to motivate uptake of and sustain adherence to PrEP for HIV prevention in high-risk populations, how much use is sufficient to achieve HIV protection, and the potential of "next-generation" PrEP agents to improve this effective prevention strategy. At this important transition point-from demonstration of efficacy in clinical trials to thinking about implementation and effectiveness-this review addresses where we have been and where we are going with PrEP for HIV prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 disease progression.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For HIV-1-infected women, hormonal contraception prevents unintended pregnancy, excess maternal morbidity, and vertical HIV-1 transmission. Hormonal contraceptives are widely used but their effects on HIV-1 disease progression are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Partner characteristics predicting HIV-1 set point in sexually acquired HIV-1 among African seroconverters.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected "source partner" and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point ( + 0.44 log10 copies/ml per log(10) source partner plasma HIV-1, p < 0.001). In addition, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female source partners near the time of infection was associated with higher set point in their male seroconverters ( + 0.49 log(10), p = 0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision ( - 0.63 log(10), p = 0.03) and assignment to acyclovir ( - 0.44 log10, p = 0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners genital compartment.
Related JoVE Video
High HIV testing uptake and linkage to care in a novel program of home-based HIV counseling and testing with facilitated referral in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For antiretroviral therapy (ART) to have a population-level HIV prevention impact, high levels of HIV testing and effective linkages to HIV care among HIV-infected persons are required.
Related JoVE Video
Daily short message service surveys to measure sexual behavior and pre-exposure prophylaxis use among Kenyan men and women.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a novel HIV prevention strategy which requires high adherence. We tested the use of daily short message service (i.e., SMS/text message) surveys to measure sexual behavior and PrEP adherence in Kenya. Ninety-six HIV-uninfected adult individuals, taking daily oral PrEP in a clinical trial, received daily SMS surveys for 60 days. Most participants (96.9 %) reported taking PrEP on ?80 % days, but 69.8 % missed at least one dose. Unprotected sex was reported on 4.9 % of days; however, 47.9 % of participants reported unprotected sex at least once. Unprotected sex was not correlated with PrEP use (OR = 0.95). Participants reporting more sex were less likely to report PrEP non-adherence and those reporting no sex were most likely to report missing a PrEP dose (adjusted OR = 1.87). PrEP adherence was high, missed doses were correlated with sexual abstinence, and unprotected sex was not associated with decreased PrEP adherence.
Related JoVE Video
High-dose valacyclovir decreases plasma HIV-1 RNA more than standard-dose acyclovir in persons coinfected with HIV-1 and HSV-2: a randomized crossover trial.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standard doses of herpes simplex virus (HSV) suppressive therapy reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (0.25-0.53 log10 copies per milliliter) among HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected persons. Postulated mechanisms for this effect include direct inhibition of HIV-1 by acyclovir or indirect reduction by decreasing HSV-associated inflammation. We hypothesized that high-dose valacyclovir would further reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA and that the effect would be mediated by greater suppression of HSV shedding.
Related JoVE Video
Use of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention: what do we know and what dont we know?
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in which HIV uninfected persons with ongoing HIV risk use antiretroviral medications as chemoprophylaxis against sexual HIV acquisition, is a promising new HIV prevention strategy. Proof-of-concept that PrEP, as oral or vaginal topical tenofovir-based products, protects against sexual HIV acquisition has been demonstrated in clinical trials conducted among men who have sex with men and heterosexual men and women. The degree of HIV protection in these trials was strongly related to the level of adherence to PrEP. Many questions are yet unanswered--including how to motivate uptake of and sustain adherence to PrEP for HIV prevention, how much PrEP use is enough to achieve HIV protection, and the potential of "next-generation" PrEP agents to improve on this effective technology.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a high-risk cohort of Kenyan women.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In Africa, data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection are scarce because reliable diagnosis is costly and not widely available. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence and correlates of C. trachomatis infection among high-risk Kenyan women.
Related JoVE Video
Understanding the potential impact of a combination HIV prevention intervention in a hyper-endemic community.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite demonstrating only partial efficacy in preventing new infections, available HIV prevention interventions could offer a powerful strategy when combined. In anticipation of combination HIV prevention programs and research studies we estimated the population-level impact of combining effective scalable interventions at high population coverage, determined the factors that influence this impact, and estimated the synergy between the components.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma viral loads during early HIV-1 infection are similar in subtype C- and non-subtype C-infected African seroconverters.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent data suggest that infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C results in prolonged high-level viremia (>5 log10 copies/mL) during early infection. We examined the relationship between HIV-1 subtype and plasma viremia among 153 African seroconverters. Mean setpoint viral loads were similar for C and non-C subtypes: 4.36 vs 4.42 log10 copies/mL (P = .61). The proportion of subtype C-infected participants with viral loads >5 log10 copies/mL was not greater than the proportion for those with non-C infection. Our data do not support the hypothesis that higher early viral load accounts for the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in southern Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients hospitalized with severe sepsis in Uganda-high frequency, low clinical sand derivation of a clinical prediction score.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
When manifested as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteremia, disseminated MTB infection clinically mimics other serious blood stream infections often hindering early diagnosis and initiation of potentially life-saving anti-tuberculosis therapy. In a cohort of hospitalized HIV-infected Ugandan patients with severe sepsis, we report the frequency, management and outcomes of patients with MTB bacteremia and propose a risk score based on clinical predictors of MTB bacteremia.
Related JoVE Video
A qualitative study of barriers to consistent condom use among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study explored barriers to consistent condom use among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples who were aware of the HIV-1 serodiscordant status and had been informed about condom use as a risk reduction strategy. We conducted 28 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among purposively selected heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Thika and Nairobi districts in Kenya. We analyzed the transcribed data with a grounded theory approach. The most common barriers to consistent condom use included male partners reluctance to use condoms regardless of HIV-1 status coupled with female partners inability to negotiate condom use, misconceptions about HIV-1 serodiscordance, and desire for children. Specific areas of focus should include development of skills for women to effectively negotiate condom use, ongoing information on HIV-1 serodiscordance and education on safer conception practices that minimize risk of HIV-1 transmission.
Related JoVE Video
High-dose valacyclovir HSV-2 suppression results in greater reduction in plasma HIV-1 levels compared with standard dose acyclovir among HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfected persons: a randomized, crossover trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standard-dose HSV-2 suppressive therapy (acyclovir 400 mg twice daily) reduces plasma HIV-1 levels by 0.25-0.50 log(10) copies/mL. It is not known if higher doses might further suppress HIV-1 levels.
Related JoVE Video
Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. We aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners.
Related JoVE Video
A post-trial assessment of factors influencing study drug adherence in a randomized biomedical HIV-1 prevention trial.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High adherence and maintenance of blinding are critical for placebo-controlled efficacy trials of HIV-1 biomedical prevention strategies. We assessed adherence to study drug and factors affecting adherence, including perceived randomization group, in a post-trial questionnaire of participants who completed HPTN 039, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of HSV-2 suppression with twice-daily acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 acquisition. Of the 3172 trial participants, 2003 (63%) completed the post-trial questionnaire. Of these 2003, 72% reported missing a dose of study drug less than twice a week. Study drug adherence was not compromised by perceived randomization or genital ulcer symptoms during the study. Alcohol use was cited as an adherence barrier in some populations. Assessment of study drug adherence during and at the end of trials can evaluate perceptions of randomization and adherence by randomization arm, help to better understand barriers to and motivations for adherence, and develop interventions to increase adherence for future trials.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective study of frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence among African heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common worldwide and is an important consideration in couples HIV voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT), especially for HIV-serodiscordant couples (i.e. in which only one member is HIV-infected).
Related JoVE Video
Increased risk of HIV-1 transmission in pregnancy: a prospective study among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Physiologic and behavioral changes during pregnancy may alter HIV-1 susceptibility and infectiousness. Prospective studies exploring pregnancy and HIV-1 acquisition risk in women have found inconsistent results. No study has explored the effect of pregnancy on HIV-1 transmission risk from HIV-1-infected women to male partners.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.
Related JoVE Video
Male circumcision and risk of HIV acquisition among MSM.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the association between male circumcision, insertive anal sex practices, and HIV acquisition in a cohort of MSM.
Related JoVE Video
Combination HIV prevention: significance, challenges, and opportunities.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
No single HIV prevention strategy will be sufficient to control the HIV pandemic. However, a growing number of interventions have shown promise in partially protecting against HIV transmission and acquisition, including knowledge of HIV serostatus, behavioral risk reduction, condoms, male circumcision, needle exchange, treatment of curable sexually transmitted infections, and use of systemic and topical antiretroviral medications by both HIV-infected and uninfected persons. Designing the optimal package of interventions that matches the epidemiologic profile of a target population, delivering that package at the population level, and evaluating safety, acceptability, coverage, and effectiveness, all involve methodological challenges. Nonetheless, there is an unprecedented opportunity to develop "prevention packages" that combine various arrays of evidence-based strategies, tailored to the needs of diverse subgroups and targeted to achieve high coverage for a measurable reduction in population-level HIV transmission. HIV prevention strategies that combine partially effective interventions should be scaled up and evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Circumcision of male children for reduction of future risk for HIV: acceptability among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ultimate success of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention may depend on targeting male infants and children as well as adults, in order to maximally reduce new HIV infections into the future.
Related JoVE Video
Genital HIV-1 RNA predicts risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Although plasma and genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are correlated, no study has evaluated the relationship between genital HIV-1 RNA and the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. In a prospective study of 2521 African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we assessed genital HIV-1 RNA quantity and HIV-1 transmission risk. HIV-1 transmission linkage was established within the partnership by viral sequence analysis. We tested endocervical samples from 1805 women, including 46 who transmitted HIV-1 to their partner, and semen samples from 716 men, including 32 who transmitted HIV-1 to their partner. There was a correlation between genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations: For endocervical swabs, Spearmans rank correlation coefficient ? was 0.56, and for semen, ? was 0.55. Each 1.0 log(10) increase in genital HIV-1 RNA was associated with a 2.20-fold (for endocervical swabs: 95% confidence interval, 1.60 to 3.04) and a 1.79-fold (for semen: 95% confidence interval, 1.30 to 2.47) increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Genital HIV-1 RNA independently predicted HIV-1 transmission risk after adjusting for plasma HIV-1 quantity (hazard ratio, 1.67 for endocervical swabs and 1.68 for semen). Seven female-to-male and four male-to-female HIV-1 transmissions (incidence <1% per year) occurred from persons with undetectable genital HIV-1 RNA, but in all 11 cases, plasma HIV-1 RNA was detected. Thus, higher genital HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with greater risk of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission, and this effect was independent of plasma HIV-1 concentrations. These data suggest that HIV-1 RNA in genital secretions could be used as a marker of HIV-1 sexual transmission risk.
Related JoVE Video
Risk Factors for HSV-2 Infection among Sexual Partners of HSV-2/HIV-1 Co-Infected Persons.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most frequent cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and has been associated with increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of risk factors for HSV-2 infection among HIV-1 uninfected partners, whose partners were co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.
Related JoVE Video
Optimal uses of antiretrovirals for prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples in South Africa: a modelling study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Antiretrovirals have substantial promise for HIV-1 prevention, either as antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV-1-infected persons to reduce infectiousness, or as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1-uninfected persons to reduce the possibility of infection with HIV-1. HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in long-term partnerships (one member is infected and the other is uninfected) are a priority for prevention interventions. Earlier ART and PrEP might both reduce HIV-1 transmission in this group, but the merits and synergies of these different approaches have not been analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
Performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay for the detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in seven African countries.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the performance of the Focus HerpeSelect-2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the gold standard herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 western blot, among HIV-1-uninfected men and women in east and southern Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.
Related JoVE Video
Herpes simplex virus type 2 suppressive therapy with acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for specific HIV-1 resistance in HIV-1/HSV-2 dually infected persons.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent in vitro studies suggest that acyclovir may directly inhibit HIV-1 replication and can select for a specific HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutation (V75I) with concomitant loss of an anti-HIV-1 effect. We tested for HIV-1 genotypic resistance at reverse transcriptase codon 75 in plasma from 168 HIV-1-infected persons from Botswana, Kenya, Peru, and the United States taking daily acyclovir or valacyclovir for between 8 weeks and 24 months. No V75I cases were detected (95% confidence interval, 0%-2.2%). These prospective in vivo studies suggest that standard-dose acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for HIV-1 resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identifying modifiable factors that increase womens vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary objectives were to investigate associations between intravaginal practices and disrupted vaginal flora; and between disrupted vaginal flora and HIV acquisition.
Related JoVE Video
Hormonal contraception and HIV-1 transmission.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Safe and effective contraceptive choices are essential for women with HIV-1 infection and at risk for HIV-1 infection. Epidemiological and laboratory-based studies suggest that hormonal contraception may influence HIV-1 transmission. Several large studies in high-risk populations indicate that hormonal contraceptive use may modestly increase the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. In addition, HIV-1-infected users of hormonal contraceptives may be more infectious to their uninfected partners, although no studies have directly measured HIV-1 transmission risk from women to men. However, several studies failed to demonstrate a link between contraceptive use and HIV-1 acquisition or transmission, and interpretation of many studies limited by methodological considerations, such as infrequent measurements of contraceptive exposure and HIV-1 status. As a result, many questions remain, and high-quality studies remain needed. It is clear that hormonal contraceptives are not protective against HIV-1 infection and that dual protection with condoms should be the goal for women using hormonal contraception.
Related JoVE Video
Will circumcision provide even more protection from HIV to women and men? New estimates of the population impact of circumcision interventions.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mathematical modelling has indicated that expansion of male circumcision services in high HIV prevalence settings can substantially reduce population-level HIV transmission. However, these projections need revision to incorporate new data on the effect of male circumcision on the risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV.
Related JoVE Video
Periconception pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV transmission: benefits, risks, and challenges to implementation.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV-serodiscordant couples face complicated choices between fulfilling reproductive desire and risking HIV transmission to their partners and children. Sexual HIV transmission can be dramatically reduced through artificial insemination and sperm washing; however, most couples cannot access these resources. We propose that periconception pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could offer an important, complementary therapy to harm reduction counseling programs that aim to decrease HIV transmission for couples who choose to conceive. In this paper, we describe the potential benefits of periconception PrEP and define critical points of clarification prior to implementation of PrEP as part of a reproductive health program. We consider sexual transmission risk, current risk reduction options, PrEP efficacy, cost, adherence, resistance, fetal toxicity, and impact of PrEP counseling on entry into health services. We address PrEP in the context of other periconception HIV-prevention strategies, including antiretroviral treatment of the HIV-infected partner. We conclude that, should PrEP prove safe and efficacious in ongoing trials, periconception PrEP may offer a useful approach to minimize risk of HIV transmission for individuals of reproductive age in HIV-endemic countries.
Related JoVE Video
A prospective study of contraceptive use among African women in HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dual contraception is important for averting HIV-1 transmission, unintended pregnancy, and maternal-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Few studies have explored contraceptive use in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, a population at high risk for HIV-1 transmission.
Related JoVE Video
Estimating the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission risk.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART), therapeutic vaccines, and other non-ART interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of ART use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners.
Related JoVE Video
Knowledge and attitudes about male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships in Kampala, Uganda.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention will require high uptake among at-risk populations. 318 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kampala, Uganda [155 (48.7%) with HIV-1 uninfected male partners] were interviewed about male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention. 77.1% of men and 89.6% of women were aware that circumcision reduces mens risk for HIV-1 acquisition. Almost all understood the partial protective efficacy of circumcision for HIV-1 acquisition and lack of reduced HIV-1 transmission from circumcising HIV-1 infected men. Among couples with uncircumcised HIV-1 negative men (n = 92), 53.3% of men and 88.1% of female partners expressed interest in male circumcision. Previous discussion within the couple about circumcision for HIV-1 prevention was significantly associated with interest in the procedure. HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Uganda demonstrated a high level of understanding of the partial protective effect of male circumcision for HIV-1 prevention, but only half of HIV-1 uninfected uncircumcised men expressed interest in the procedure.
Related JoVE Video
Frequent detection of human adenovirus from the lower gastrointestinal tract in men who have sex with men.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between baseline seropositivity to human adenovirus (HAdV) type 5 and increased HIV acquisition in the Step HIV Vaccine Study has raised questions concerning frequency of acquired and/or persistent Adenovirus infections among adults at high risk of HIV-1 infection.
Related JoVE Video
Successful increase in contraceptive uptake among Kenyan HIV-1-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an HIV-1 prevention trial.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate a multipronged approach to promote dual contraceptive use by women within heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant partnerships.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.