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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Very Low Birth Weight, Infant Growth, and Autism-Spectrum Traits in Adulthood.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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We examined whether adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) differ from term-born adults in autism-spectrum traits, and whether among VLBW adults, growth in infancy is associated with these traits.
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Insulin Sensitivity and Secretory Response in Adults Born Preterm - the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Context: Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adult life. The mechanisms are poorly known. Objective: We studied insulin sensitivity and secretion in adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1,500 g). Design: Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study (Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults). Setting: Uusimaa, Finland Participants: 107 adults born at VLBW and 100 controls born at term not small for gestational age (SGA), group-matched for sex, age and birth hospital. Mean age 25.0 years. Main outcome measures: We performed a 14-sample intravenous glucose tolerance test and calculated insulin sensitivity (Si), insulin secretory response (AIR), and disposition index, by Minimal Model (Minmod Millennium®). Results: Compared with controls, VLBW adults had lower Si (mean difference -11.9%, 95% CI -22.1 to -0.4%, adjusted for sex, age and body mass index) and higher AIR (19.9%; 4.4 to 37.7%). The association with Si attenuated when further adjusted for height, parental diabetes, parental education, smoking, maternal smoking, hormonal contraception and physical activity, but the association with AIR remained. Disposition index was similar. There was no difference between the 40 VLBW adults born SGA and the remaining VLBW adults. Conclusions: Adults born preterm at VLBW have lower insulin sensitivity than their term-born peers with a similar body size. In young adulthood, this remains compensated by higher insulin secretion. We suggest that this represents an early stage in the pathway leading to type 2 diabetes. Our results underline the importance of a healthy lifestyle and prompt vigilance in the screening of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in adults born preterm.
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Genome-wide association study of sleep duration in the Finnish population.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Sleep duration is genetically regulated, but the genetic variants are largely unknown. We aimed to identify such genes using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) combined with RNA expression at the population level, and with experimental verification. A GWAS was performed in a Finnish sample (n = 1941), and variants with suggestive association (P < 5 × 10(-5) ) were tested in a follow-up sample from the same population with sleep duration (n = 6834) and time in bed (n = 1720). Variants with pointwise association of P < 0.05 in the follow-up sample were analysed further. First, we correlated genotypes with transcript expression levels with sleep duration (n = 207). The expression levels of significant transcripts were further studied in experimental sleep restriction. Of the 31 variants with P < 5 × 10(-5) in the discovery sample, three variants showed nominal allelic association (P < 0.05) in the follow-up sample: rs10914351, near PTPRU (P = 0.049), rs1037079 in PCDH7-CENTD1 (P = 0.011) and rs2031573 near KLF6 (P = 0.044). The risk alleles for shorter sleep (rs2031573 and rs1037079) were also associated with higher KLF6 and PCDH7 expression levels (P < 0.05). Experimental sleep restriction increased the expression of KLF6 (P < 0.01). These data suggest that rs2031573 near KLF6 or related loci and rs1037079 between PCDH7-CENTD1 or related loci may contribute to the regulation of sleep duration via gene expression. These results illustrate the utility of combining different analytical approaches to identify genetic determinants for traits related to sleep physiology. However, additional studies are needed in order to understand the roles of KLF6 and PCDH7 in sleep regulation.
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Genome wide association identifies common variants at the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influencing plasma cortisol and corticosteroid binding globulin.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Variation in plasma levels of cortisol, an essential hormone in the stress response, is associated in population-based studies with cardio-metabolic, inflammatory and neuro-cognitive traits and diseases. Heritability of plasma cortisol is estimated at 30-60% but no common genetic contribution has been identified. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium undertook genome wide association meta-analysis for plasma cortisol in 12,597 Caucasian participants, replicated in 2,795 participants. The results indicate that <1% of variance in plasma cortisol is accounted for by genetic variation in a single region of chromosome 14. This locus spans SERPINA6, encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG, the major cortisol-binding protein in plasma), and SERPINA1, encoding ?1-antitrypsin (which inhibits cleavage of the reactive centre loop that releases cortisol from CBG). Three partially independent signals were identified within the region, represented by common SNPs; detailed biochemical investigation in a nested sub-cohort showed all these SNPs were associated with variation in total cortisol binding activity in plasma, but some variants influenced total CBG concentrations while the top hit (rs12589136) influenced the immunoreactivity of the reactive centre loop of CBG. Exome chip and 1000 Genomes imputation analysis of this locus in the CROATIA-Korcula cohort identified missense mutations in SERPINA6 and SERPINA1 that did not account for the effects of common variants. These findings reveal a novel common genetic source of variation in binding of cortisol by CBG, and reinforce the key role of CBG in determining plasma cortisol levels. In turn this genetic variation may contribute to cortisol-associated degenerative diseases.
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Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk: a mendelian randomisation study.
Karani S Vimaleswaran, Alana Cavadino, Diane J Berry, , Rolf Jorde, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Chen Lu, Alexessander Couto Alves, Hiddo J Lambers Heerspink, Emmi Tikkanen, Joel Eriksson, Andrew Wong, Massimo Mangino, Kathleen A Jablonski, Ilja M Nolte, Denise K Houston, Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia, Peter J van der Most, Dorota Pasko, Lina Zgaga, Elisabeth Thiering, Veronique Vitart, Ross M Fraser, Jennifer E Huffman, Rudolf A de Boer, Ben Schöttker, Kai-Uwe Saum, Mark I McCarthy, Josée Dupuis, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Sylvain Sebert, Anneli Pouta, Jaana Laitinen, Marcus E Kleber, Gerjan Navis, Mattias Lorentzon, Karen Jameson, Nigel Arden, Jackie A Cooper, Jayshree Acharya, Rebecca Hardy, Olli Raitakari, Samuli Ripatti, Liana K Billings, Jari Lahti, Clive Osmond, Brenda W Penninx, Lars Rejnmark, Kurt K Lohman, Lavinia Paternoster, Ronald P Stolk, Dena G Hernandez, Liisa Byberg, Emil Hagström, Håkan Melhus, Erik Ingelsson, Dan Mellström, Osten Ljunggren, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Stela McLachlan, Evropi Theodoratou, Carla M T Tiesler, Antti Jula, Pau Navarro, Alan F Wright, Ozren Polašek, James F Wilson, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Joachim Heinrich, Harry Campbell, Jacqueline F Price, Magnus Karlsson, Lars Lind, Karl Michaëlsson, Stefania Bandinelli, Timothy M Frayling, Catharina A Hartman, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Bente Lomholt Langdahl, Johan G Eriksson, Jose C Florez, Tim D Spector, Terho Lehtimäki, Diana Kuh, Steve E Humphries, Cyrus Cooper, Claes Ohlsson, Winfried März, Martin H de Borst, Meena Kumari, Mika Kivimäki, Thomas J Wang, Chris Power, Hermann Brenner, Guri Grimnes, Pim van der Harst, Harold Snieder, Aroon D Hingorani, Stefan Pilz, John C Whittaker, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Elina Hyppönen.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with blood pressure and hypertension risk.
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The associations between adolescent sleep, diurnal cortisol patterns and cortisol reactivity to dexamethasone suppression test.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Information on the associations between objectively measured sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in early adolescence is scarce. We examined associations between average sleep duration and quality (sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset) over 8 days with actigraphs and (1) diurnal cortisol patterns and (2) cortisol reactivity to a low-dose (3 ?g/kg) overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in a birth cohort born in 1998 (N=265 participants, mean age 12.3 years, SD=0.5). We also explored (3) if sleep duration and quality were affected the nights after the DST exposure. Cortisol was measured during 2 days, and participants were exposed to dexamethasone in the evening of first day. In boys, short sleep duration was associated with higher cortisol upon awakening and lower cortisol awakening response (CAR; P<0.05 and P<0.01). Long sleep duration in boys associated with higher CAR (P<0.02). Lower sleep quality in boys associated with lower CAR, but fell slightly short of significance (P<0.06). In girls, no significant associations were detected. Sleep quantity and quality were not associated with responses to the DST. There were no effects of DST on sleep (P>0.15 in between-subject analyses). The average sleep patterns showed associations with diurnal cortisol patterns during early adolescence, but only in boys. Sleep was not associated with cortisol reactivity to DST and the exogenous corticosteroid exposure did not affect sleep significantly.
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A central role for GRB10 in regulation of islet function in man.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Variants in the growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) gene were in a GWAS meta-analysis associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) if inherited from the father, but inexplicably reduced fasting glucose when inherited from the mother. GRB10 is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and imprinted in a parent-of-origin fashion in different tissues. GRB10 knock-down in human pancreatic islets showed reduced insulin and glucagon secretion, which together with changes in insulin sensitivity may explain the paradoxical reduction of glucose despite a decrease in insulin secretion. Together, these findings suggest that tissue-specific methylation and possibly imprinting of GRB10 can influence glucose metabolism and contribute to T2D pathogenesis. The data also emphasize the need in genetic studies to consider whether risk alleles are inherited from the mother or the father.
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Advanced sleep-wake rhythm in adults born prematurely: confirmation by actigraphy-based assessment in the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Previous studies have suggested a propensity towards morningness in teenagers and adults born preterm. We set out to study sleep in a subsample from The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort, with emphasis on sleep timing, duration, and quality. We compared young adults who were born prematurely at very low birth weight (VLBW;?<1500?g) with controls born at term.
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Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory.
Behav. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.
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Physical activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in adolescents.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Little is known about the associations between physical activity (PA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA) activity in adolescents. This knowledge could offer insight into the links between PA and well-being in youth. We studied whether objectively-measured PA is associated with diurnal salivary cortisol responses and morning salivary cortisol responses after a low-dose overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in adolescent girls and boys. We conducted a cross-sectional birth cohort study in Helsinki, Finland. At a mean age of 12.4 (SD=0.5) years, 150 girls and 133 boys wore wrist-worn accelerometers over at least 4 days to measure PA. Their salivary cortisol was measured across 1 day and upon awakening after a low-dose overnight DST (3 ?g/kg of weight). Girls with higher overall PA and vigorous PA (VPA), and less sedentary time had lower salivary cortisol upon awakening and/or after (decreases between |0.17| and |0.25| SDs per SD increase in overall PA, VPA and decrease in sedentary time; P-values<0.039). Boys with higher overall PA, and less sedentary time had greater suppression of salivary cortisol following overnight DST (suppression between |0.24| and |0.27| SDs per SD increase in overall PA and decrease in sedentary time; P-values<0.012). Overall PA, VPA and sedentary time did not associate with DST suppression in girls or with diurnal salivary cortisol in boys. These results show that PA is associated with altered HPAA function in early adolescents, and that the associations are sex specific.
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Infant Growth after Preterm Birth and Neurocognitive Abilities in Young Adulthood.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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To examine whether faster growth from birth to term (40 postmenstrual weeks) and during the first year thereafter was associated with better neurocognitive abilities in adults born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g).
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Continuity and change in poor sleep from childhood to early adolescence.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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We examined associations between pubertal maturation and sleep in early adolescence, at age 12 y, and continuity and change in actigraphy-based sleep and parent-reported sleep disorders from age 8 to 12 y. We also explored longitudinal associations between actigraph estimates of sleep and sleep disorders.
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Identification of novel genetic Loci associated with thyroid peroxidase antibodies and clinical thyroid disease.
Marco Medici, Eleonora Porcu, Giorgio Pistis, Alexander Teumer, Suzanne J Brown, Richard A Jensen, Rajesh Rawal, Greet L Roef, Theo S Plantinga, Sita H Vermeulen, Jari Lahti, Matthew J Simmonds, Lise Lotte N Husemoen, Rachel M Freathy, Beverley M Shields, Diana Pietzner, Rebecca Nagy, Linda Broer, Layal Chaker, Tim I M Korevaar, Maria Grazia Plia, Cinzia Sala, Uwe Völker, J Brent Richards, Fred C Sweep, Christian Gieger, Tanguy Corre, Eero Kajantie, Betina Thuesen, Youri E Taes, W Edward Visser, Andrew T Hattersley, Jürgen Kratzsch, Alexander Hamilton, Wei Li, Georg Homuth, Monia Lobina, Stefano Mariotti, Nicole Soranzo, Massimiliano Cocca, Matthias Nauck, Christin Spielhagen, Alec Ross, Alice Arnold, Martijn van de Bunt, Sandya Liyanarachchi, Margit Heier, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Corrado Masciullo, Tessel E Galesloot, Ee M Lim, Eva Reischl, Peter J Leedman, Sandra Lai, Alessandro Delitala, Alexandra P Bremner, David I W Philips, John P Beilby, Antonella Mulas, Matteo Vocale, Goncalo Abecasis, Tom Forsén, Alan James, Elisabeth Widén, Jennie Hui, Holger Prokisch, Ernst E Rietzschel, Aarno Palotie, Peter Feddema, Stephen J Fletcher, Katharina Schramm, Jerome I Rotter, Alexander Kluttig, Dörte Radke, Michela Traglia, Gabriela L Surdulescu, Huiling He, Jayne A Franklyn, Daniel Tiller, Bijay Vaidya, Tim de Meyer, Torben Jørgensen, Johan G Eriksson, Peter C O'Leary, Eric Wichmann, Ad R Hermus, Bruce M Psaty, Till Ittermann, Albert Hofman, Emanuele Bosi, David Schlessinger, Henri Wallaschofski, Nicola Pirastu, Yurii S Aulchenko, Albert de la Chapelle, Romana T Netea-Maier, Stephen C L Gough, Henriette Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Timothy M Frayling, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Allan Linneberg, Katri Räikkönen, Johannes W A Smit, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G Uitterlinden, John P Walsh, Christa Meisinger, Martin den Heijer, Theo J Visser, Timothy D Spector, Scott G Wilson, Henry Völzke, Anne Cappola, Daniela Toniolo, Serena Sanna, Silvia Naitza, Robin P Peeters.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). As the possible causative genes of TPOAbs and AITD remain largely unknown, we performed GWAS meta-analyses in 18,297 individuals for TPOAb-positivity (1769 TPOAb-positives and 16,528 TPOAb-negatives) and in 12,353 individuals for TPOAb serum levels, with replication in 8,990 individuals. Significant associations (P<5×10(-8)) were detected at TPO-rs11675434, ATXN2-rs653178, and BACH2-rs10944479 for TPOAb-positivity, and at TPO-rs11675434, MAGI3-rs1230666, and KALRN-rs2010099 for TPOAb levels. Individual and combined effects (genetic risk scores) of these variants on (subclinical) hypo- and hyperthyroidism, goiter and thyroid cancer were studied. Individuals with a high genetic risk score had, besides an increased risk of TPOAb-positivity (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 1.68-2.81, P?=?8.1×10(-8)), a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.26-1.82, P?=?2.9×10(-6)), as well as a decreased risk of goiter (OR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.66-0.89, P?=?6.5×10(-4)). The MAGI3 and BACH2 variants were associated with an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, which was replicated in an independent cohort of patients with Graves' disease (OR: 1.37, 95% CI 1.22-1.54, P?=?1.2×10(-7) and OR: 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.39, P?=?6.2×10(-5)). The MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.10, P?=?1.9×10(-3)). This first GWAS meta-analysis for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease. With these markers we identified a large subgroup in the general population with a substantially increased risk of TPOAbs. The results provide insight into why individuals with thyroid autoimmunity do or do not eventually develop thyroid disease, and these markers may therefore predict which TPOAb-positives are particularly at risk of developing clinical thyroid dysfunction.
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Outcome predictors for problem drinkers treated with combined cognitive behavioral therapy and naltrexone.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The opioid antagonist naltrexone, combined with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), has proven efficacious for patients with alcohol dependence, but studies examining how this treatment works in a naturalistic treatment setting are lacking.
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The effect of personality on daily life emotional processes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life.
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Prenatal and childhood growth, and hospitalization for alcohol use disorders in adulthood: the Helsinki birth cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Small birth size - an indicator of a sub-optimal prenatal environment - and variation in growth after birth have been associated with non-communicable diseases in later life. We tested whether birth size or growth in childhood associated with the risk of hospital admission for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) from early to late adulthood.
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DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to about 50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain <15% of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits, to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA). However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P=1.9x10(-9)), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility.
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[Motivating interview and its effectiveness in the treatment of dual diagnosis patients].
Duodecim
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Motivating interview is a talking therapeutic way to meet with the patient. The aim is to increase the patients readiness for change by making her/him talk in favor of the change. In dual diagnosis patients, motivating interview has been found to improve commitment to treatment and to decrease drug abuse more than other equally brief interventions at least over a follow-up period of 3 to 6 months. When integrated with a more extensive therapy, motivating interview improved the treatment response to conventional therapy. The approach seems to be especially suitable for incoherent and reluctant patients
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Predictors of dropout in an outpatient treatment for problem drinkers including cognitive-behavioral therapy and the opioid antagonist naltrexone.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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This study investigated predictors of dropout in an outpatient treatment program for problem drinking that included individual cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with naltrexone. Specifically, we investigated whether sociodemographic factors, severity of alcohol dependence, history of problem drinking, or intensity of alcohol craving assessed at the beginning of the treatment predicted dropout from an outpatient program among a sample of 372 patients (65% male). We also investigated whether the effectiveness of the treatment (the change in alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol craving) or adherence to naltrexone was related to dropout.
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Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease.
Maria Sabater-Lleal, Jie Huang, Daniel Chasman, Silvia Naitza, Abbas Dehghan, Andrew D Johnson, Alexander Teumer, Alex P Reiner, Lasse Folkersen, Saonli Basu, Alicja R Rudnicka, Stella Trompet, Anders Malarstig, Jens Baumert, Joshua C Bis, Xiuqing Guo, Jouke J Hottenga, So-Youn Shin, Lorna M Lopez, Jari Lahti, Toshiko Tanaka, Lisa R Yanek, Tiphaine Oudot-Mellakh, James F Wilson, Pau Navarro, Jennifer E Huffman, Tatijana Zemunik, Susan Redline, Reena Mehra, Drazen Pulanić, Igor Rudan, Alan F Wright, Ivana Kolčić, Ozren Polašek, Sarah H Wild, Harry Campbell, J David Curb, Robert Wallace, Simin Liu, Charles B Eaton, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Stefania Bandinelli, Katri Räikkönen, Elisabeth Widén, Aarno Palotie, Myriam Fornage, David Green, Myron Gross, Gail Davies, Sarah E Harris, David C Liewald, John M Starr, Frances M K Williams, Peter J Grant, Timothy D Spector, Rona J Strawbridge, Angela Silveira, Bengt Sennblad, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G Uitterlinden, Oscar H Franco, Albert Hofman, Jenny van Dongen, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Jie Yao, Nancy Swords Jenny, Talin Haritunians, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Lumley, Kent D Taylor, Jerome I Rotter, Bruce M Psaty, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Thomas Illig, Anne Grotevendt, Georg Homuth, Henry Völzke, Thomas Kocher, Anuj Goel, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Udo Seedorf, Robert Clarke, Maristella Steri, Kirill V Tarasov, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, David J Stott, Naveed Sattar, Brendan M Buckley, Ann Rumley, Gordon D Lowe, Wendy L McArdle, Ming-Huei Chen, Geoffrey H Tofler, Jaejoon Song, Eric Boerwinkle, Aaron R Folsom, Lynda M Rose, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Martina Teichert, M Arfan Ikram, Thomas H Mosley, Steve Bevan, Martin Dichgans, Peter M Rothwell, Cathie L M Sudlow, Jemma C Hopewell, John C Chambers, Danish Saleheen, Jaspal S Kooner, John Danesh, Christopher P Nelson, Jeanette Erdmann, Muredach P Reilly, Sekar Kathiresan, Heribert Schunkert, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Luigi Ferrucci, Johan G Eriksson, David Jacobs, Ian J Deary, Nicole Soranzo, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Eco J C de Geus, Russell P Tracy, Caroline Hayward, Wolfgang Koenig, Francesco Cucca, J Wouter Jukema, Per Eriksson, Sudha Seshadri, Hugh S Markus, Hugh Watkins, Nilesh J Samani, , Henri Wallaschofski, Nicholas L Smith, David Tregouet, Paul M Ridker, Weihong Tang, David P Strachan, Anders Hamsten, Christopher J O'Donnell.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation.
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Sleep problems and cardiovascular function in children.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To assess the associations of sleep problems with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity in children.
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?-Opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G: lack of association in Finnish populations with alcohol dependence or alcohol consumption.
Alcohol Alcohol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The molecular epidemiological studies on the association of the opioid receptor µ-1 (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) and alcohol use disorders have given conflicting results. The aim of this study was to test the possible association of A118G polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption in three large cohort-based study samples.
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GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.
Cornelius A Rietveld, Sarah E Medland, Jaime Derringer, Jian Yang, Tonu Esko, Nicolas W Martin, Harm-Jan Westra, Konstantin Shakhbazov, Abdel Abdellaoui, Arpana Agrawal, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, John Barnard, Sebastian E Baumeister, Kelly S Benke, Lawrence F Bielak, Jeffrey A Boatman, Patricia A Boyle, Gail Davies, Christiaan de Leeuw, Niina Eklund, Daniel S Evans, Rudolf Ferhmann, Krista Fischer, Christian Gieger, Håkon K Gjessing, Sara Hägg, Jennifer R Harris, Caroline Hayward, Christina Holzapfel, Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas, Erik Ingelsson, Bo Jacobsson, Peter K Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika Kaakinen, Stavroula Kanoni, Juha Karjalainen, Ivana Kolčić, Kati Kristiansson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jari Lahti, Sang H Lee, Peng Lin, Penelope A Lind, Yongmei Liu, Kurt Lohman, Marisa Loitfelder, George McMahon, Pedro Marques Vidal, Osorio Meirelles, Lili Milani, Ronny Myhre, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Christopher J Oldmeadow, Katja E Petrovic, Wouter J Peyrot, Ozren Polašek, Lydia Quaye, Eva Reinmaa, John P Rice, Thais S Rizzi, Helena Schmidt, Reinhold Schmidt, Albert V Smith, Jennifer A Smith, Toshiko Tanaka, Antonio Terracciano, Matthijs J H M van der Loos, Veronique Vitart, Henry Völzke, Jürgen Wellmann, Lei Yu, Wei Zhao, Jüri Allik, John R Attia, Stefania Bandinelli, François Bastardot, Jonathan Beauchamp, David A Bennett, Klaus Berger, Laura J Bierut, Dorret I Boomsma, Ute Bültmann, Harry Campbell, Christopher F Chabris, Lynn Cherkas, Mina K Chung, Francesco Cucca, Mariza de Andrade, Philip L De Jager, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Ian J Deary, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Maria Dimitriou, Guðný Eiríksdóttir, Martin F Elderson, Johan G Eriksson, David M Evans, Jessica D Faul, Luigi Ferrucci, Melissa E Garcia, Henrik Grönberg, Vilmundur Guðnason, Per Hall, Juliette M Harris, Tamara B Harris, Nicholas D Hastie, Andrew C Heath, Dena G Hernandez, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Adriaan Hofman, Rolf Holle, Elizabeth G Holliday, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, William G Iacono, Thomas Illig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Matthew Kowgier, Antti Latvala, Lenore J Launer, Debbie A Lawlor, Terho Lehtimäki, Jingmei Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter Lichtner, David C Liewald, Pamela A Madden, Patrik K E Magnusson, Tomi E Mäkinen, Marco Masala, Matt McGue, Andres Metspalu, Andreas Mielck, Michael B Miller, Grant W Montgomery, Sutapa Mukherjee, Dale R Nyholt, Ben A Oostra, Lyle J Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Brenda W J H Penninx, Markus Perola, Patricia A Peyser, Martin Preisig, Katri Räikkönen, Olli T Raitakari, Anu Realo, Susan M Ring, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Antti-Pekka Sarin, David Schlessinger, Rodney J Scott, Harold Snieder, Beate St Pourcain, John M Starr, Jae Hoon Sul, Ida Surakka, Rauli Svento, Alexander Teumer, , Henning Tiemeier, Frank J A van Rooij, David R Van Wagoner, Erkki Vartiainen, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Judith M Vonk, Gérard Waeber, David R Weir, H-Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widén, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Alan F Wright, Dalton Conley, George Davey-Smith, Lude Franke, Patrick J F Groenen, Albert Hofman, Magnus Johannesson, Sharon L R Kardia, Robert F Krueger, David Laibson, Nicholas G Martin, Michelle N Meyer, Danielle Posthuma, A Roy Thurik, Nicholas J Timpson, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Peter M Visscher, Daniel J Benjamin, David Cesarini, Philipp D Koellinger.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ? 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ?2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.
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Trajectories of physical growth and personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model.
J Pers Soc Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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Although physical growth in early life is associated with the risk of somatic illnesses and psychological disorders in adulthood, few studies have focused upon the associations between growth and dimensional personality traits. We examined the associations between pre- and postnatal growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) and Five-Factor Model dimensions in adulthood. From the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 1,682 participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) at an average age of 63 years. Growth estimates were derived based on medical records. Adjusting for gestational length and sociodemographic variables, birth weight showed a quadratic association with neuroticism; participants with low birth weight scored the highest on neuroticism. Larger ponderal index at birth predicted higher agreeableness, while average ponderal index predicted higher conscientiousness. BMI and weight growth trajectories from birth to adulthood were associated with agreeableness and conscientiousness. More specifically, less BMI and weight gain between 7 and 11 years and/or between 11 years and adulthood were associated with higher conscientiousness and higher agreeableness. Height and weight growth trajectories from birth to adulthood were associated with extraversion: faster height and weight growth between birth and 6 months, slower height growth between 7 and 11 years, and faster weight gain between 11 years and adulthood were associated with higher extraversion. Openness to experience was not associated with growth. This longitudinal study supports an association between pre- and postnatal physical growth and 4 of the Five-Factor Model personality dimensions in adulthood.
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Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity to psychosocial stress in children.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Children who undertake more physical activity (PA) not only have more optimal physical health but also enjoy better mental health. However, the pathways by which PA affects well-being remain unclear.
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A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.
Eleonora Porcu, Marco Medici, Giorgio Pistis, Claudia B Volpato, Scott G Wilson, Anne R Cappola, Steffan D Bos, Joris Deelen, Martin den Heijer, Rachel M Freathy, Jari Lahti, Chunyu Liu, Lorna M Lopez, Ilja M Nolte, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Toshiko Tanaka, Stella Trompet, Alice Arnold, Stefania Bandinelli, Marian Beekman, Stefan Böhringer, Suzanne J Brown, Brendan M Buckley, Clara Camaschella, Anton J M de Craen, Gail Davies, Marieke C H de Visser, Ian Ford, Tom Forsén, Timothy M Frayling, Laura Fugazzola, Martin Gögele, Andrew T Hattersley, Ad R Hermus, Albert Hofman, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Richard A Jensen, Eero Kajantie, Margreet Kloppenburg, Ee M Lim, Corrado Masciullo, Stefano Mariotti, Cosetta Minelli, Braxton D Mitchell, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Romana T Netea-Maier, Aarno Palotie, Luca Persani, Maria G Piras, Bruce M Psaty, Katri Räikkönen, J Brent Richards, Fernando Rivadeneira, Cinzia Sala, Mona M Sabra, Naveed Sattar, Beverley M Shields, Nicole Soranzo, John M Starr, David J Stott, Fred C G J Sweep, Gianluca Usala, Melanie M van der Klauw, Diana van Heemst, Alies van Mullem, Sita H Vermeulen, W Edward Visser, John P Walsh, Rudi G J Westendorp, Elisabeth Widén, Guangju Zhai, Francesco Cucca, Ian J Deary, Johan G Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Caroline S Fox, J Wouter Jukema, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Peter P Pramstaller, David Schlessinger, Alan R Shuldiner, Eline P Slagboom, André G Uitterlinden, Bijay Vaidya, Theo J Visser, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Ingrid Meulenbelt, Jerome I Rotter, Tim D Spector, Andrew A Hicks, Daniela Toniolo, Serena Sanna, Robin P Peeters, Silvia Naitza.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
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Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline.
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A genome-wide association study of depressive symptoms.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms.
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Personality and dietary intake - findings in the Helsinki birth cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Personality traits are associated with health outcomes including non-communicable diseases. This could be partly explained by lifestyle related factors including diet. The personality traits neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are linked with resilience, meaning adaptability in challenging situations. Resilient people usually comply with favorable health behaviors.
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The molecular genetic architecture of self-employment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Economic variables such as income, education, and occupation are known to affect mortality and morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease, and have also been shown to be partly heritable. However, very little is known about which genes influence economic variables, although these genes may have both a direct and an indirect effect on health. We report results from the first large-scale collaboration that studies the molecular genetic architecture of an economic variable-entrepreneurship-that was operationalized using self-employment, a widely-available proxy. Our results suggest that common SNPs when considered jointly explain about half of the narrow-sense heritability of self-employment estimated in twin data (?(g)(2)/?(P)(2)?=?25%, h(2)?=?55%). However, a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies across sixteen studies comprising 50,627 participants did not identify genome-wide significant SNPs. 58 SNPs with p<10(-5) were tested in a replication sample (n?=?3,271), but none replicated. Furthermore, a gene-based test shows that none of the genes that were previously suggested in the literature to influence entrepreneurship reveal significant associations. Finally, SNP-based genetic scores that use results from the meta-analysis capture less than 0.2% of the variance in self-employment in an independent sample (p?0.039). Our results are consistent with a highly polygenic molecular genetic architecture of self-employment, with many genetic variants of small effect. Although self-employment is a multi-faceted, heavily environmentally influenced, and biologically distal trait, our results are similar to those for other genetically complex and biologically more proximate outcomes, such as height, intelligence, personality, and several diseases.
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Poor sleep and cardiovascular function in children.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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We investigated whether sleep quantity and quality were related to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity in children. We studied term-born, healthy 8.0-year olds (SD: 1.4 years) without sleep-disordered breathing (231 and 265 children provided valid data for analyses of ambulatory blood pressure and cardiovascular reactivity, respectively). Sleep was registered with an actigraph for 6 nights on average (SD: 1.2; range: 3 to 13 nights). Ambulatory blood pressure was measured for 24-hours (41% nonschool days) with an oscillometric device. The children underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Children, during which blood pressure, electrocardiography, and thoracic impedance were recorded and processed offline to give measures of cardiovascular and autonomic function. Neither quantity nor quality of sleep was related to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure or cardiovascular reactivity after accounting for major covariates (sex, age, height, body mass index, and parental education). Although lower sympathetic nervous system activation and higher cardiac activation under stress were found in the group of children who slept for short duration when they were compared with the average sleep duration group, these associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing and were not seen in linear regression models of the effects of sleep duration. These findings do not support the mainstream of epidemiological findings, derived from samples more heterogeneous in age, sociodemographic characteristics, and health, suggesting that poor sleep is associated with an unhealthy cardiovascular phenotype.
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Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children are associated with cortisol responses to psychosocial stress but not with daily cortisol levels.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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We tested associations of diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) activity and its response to stress with behavioral symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among 272 eight-year-old children. We measured their diurnal salivary cortisol and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Mothers rated their childs behavior with the ADHD-IV Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). There were no significant associations between ADHD symptoms and diurnal cortisol concentrations. The boys with predominantly inattentive symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-I; scores at or above the 90th percentile) had 26% lower mean salivary cortisol levels during the TSST-C than the boys with scores below this cutoff. In the girls with symptoms of ADHD-I, initial salivary cortisol levels prior to the TSST-C were higher and fell more rapidly during and after the TSST-C, which was not seen in the remaining girls (P = 0.007 for interaction ADHD-I × sampling time). Controlling for Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and Anxiety Disorder or excluding children with these comorbid problems did not substantially affect these findings. We conclude that the boys and the girls with behavioral symptoms of ADHD-I had reduced HPAA responsiveness to stress, which is also seen in people after traumatic events or with chronic stress. Their diurnal cortisol rhythm was not affected. Thus, ADHD-I may be associated with dysregulation of the HPAA or reduced engagement with stressful stimuli.
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Glucocorticoid receptor gene haplotype predicts increased risk of hospital admission for depressive disorders in the Helsinki birth cohort study.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Although glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are involved in mediating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis functioning, which is altered in acute depression, data on associations between GR gene (NR3C1) polymorphisms and depression are scarce. We examined if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes spanning the entire NR3C1 are associated with depressive disorders and with self-reported depressive symptoms in adulthood.
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Sex-specific associations between sleep problems and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in children.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Sleep problems are associated with reduced physical and mental health. Altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA) may be one underlying mechanism. We studied the associations between sleep problems and HPAA activity in children.
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Morningness propensity in young adults born prematurely: the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2010
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The authors explored morningness-eveningness propensity in adults born prematurely at very low birth weight (VLBW; ?
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Whole genome association scan for genetic polymorphisms influencing information processing speed.
Biol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Processing speed is an important cognitive function that is compromised in psychiatric illness (e.g., schizophrenia, depression) and old age; it shares genetic background with complex cognition (e.g., working memory, reasoning). To find genes influencing speed we performed a genome-wide association scan in up to three cohorts: Brisbane (mean age 16 years; N = 1659); LBC1936 (mean age 70 years, N = 992); LBC1921 (mean age 82 years, N = 307), and; HBCS (mean age 64 years, N =1080). Meta-analysis of the common measures highlighted various suggestively significant (p < 1.21 × 10??) SNPs and plausible candidate genes (e.g., TRIB3). A biological pathways analysis of the speed factor identified two common pathways from the KEGG database (cell junction, focal adhesion) in two cohorts, while a pathway analysis linked to the GO database revealed common pathways across pairs of speed measures (e.g., receptor binding, cellular metabolic process). These highlighted genes and pathways will be able to inform future research, including results for psychiatric disease.
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Maternal prenatal licorice consumption alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in children.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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Overexposure to glucocorticoids has been proposed as a mechanism by which prenatal adversity programs the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA), thereby increasing the risk of adult diseases. Glycyrrhizin, a natural constituent of licorice, potently inhibits 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, the feto-placental barrier to the higher maternal cortisol levels. We studied if maternal consumption of glycyrrhizin in licorice associates with HPAA function in children. Diurnal salivary cortisol and salivary cortisol during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) were measured in children (n=321, mean age=8.1, SD=0.3 years) whose mothers consumed varying levels of glycyrrhizin in licorice during pregnancy; exposure-level groups were labeled high (?500 mg/week), moderate (250-499 mg/week) and zero-low (0-249 mg/week). In comparison to the zero-low exposure group, children in the high exposure group had 19.2% higher salivary cortisol awakening peak, 33.1% higher salivary cortisol awakening slope, 15.4% higher salivary cortisol awakening area under the curve (AUC), 30.8% higher baseline TSST-C salivary cortisol levels, and their salivary cortisol levels remained high throughout the TSST-C protocol (P-values <0.05). These effects appeared dose-related. Our findings lend support to prenatal programming of HPAA function by overexposure to glucocorticoids.
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Parental bonding after preterm birth: child and parent perspectives in the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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To examine whether parenting behavior recalled by very low birth weight (VLBW) adults or their parents differs from that of term-born control subjects or their parents.
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Sleep quality and cognitive performance in 8-year-old children.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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The present study examined how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with cognitive performance in 8-year-old children using standardized neurocognitive tests.
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Poor sleep and altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and sympatho-adrenal-medullary system activity in children.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Neuroendocrine alterations, with well-known links with health, may offer insight into why poor sleep is associated with poor health. Yet, studies testing associations between sleep and neuroendocrine activity in children are scarce.
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Maternal licorice consumption and detrimental cognitive and psychiatric outcomes in children.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2009
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Overexposure to glucocorticoids may link prenatal adversity with detrimental outcomes in later life. Glycyrrhiza, a natural constituent of licorice, inhibits placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, the feto-placental "barrier" to higher maternal levels of cortisol. The authors studied whether prenatal exposure to glycyrrhiza in licorice exerts detrimental effects on cognitive performance (subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III as well as the Childrens Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment and the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration) and psychiatric symptoms (Child Behavior Checklist) in 321 Finnish children 8.1 years of age born in 1998 as healthy singletons at 35-42 weeks of gestation. In comparison to the group with zero-low glycyrrhiza exposure (0-249 mg/week), those with high exposure (>or=500 mg/week) had significant decrements in verbal and visuospatial abilities and in narrative memory (range of mean differences in standard deviation units, -0.31 to -0.41; P < 0.05) and significant increases in externalizing symptoms and in attention, rule-breaking, and aggression problems (range of odds ratios, 2.15 to 3.43; P < 0.05). The effects on cognitive performance appeared dose related. Data are compatible with adverse fetal "programming" by overexposure to glucocorticoids and caution against excessive intake of licorice-containing foodstuffs during pregnancy.
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Prenatal origins of poor sleep in children.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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We examined whether small body size at birth and prenatal tobacco or alcohol exposure predict poor sleep and more sleep disturbances in children.
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Early-life origins of schizotypal traits in adulthood.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Although schizotypal traits, such as anhedonia and aberrant perceptions, may increase the risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, little is known about early-life characteristics that predict more pronounced schizotypal traits.
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Short sleep duration and behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in healthy 7- to 8-year-old children.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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It has been hypothesized that sleep deprivation may manifest in children as behavioral symptoms rather than as tiredness, but only a few studies have investigated this hypothesis. The objective of our study was to evaluate whether short sleep is associated with behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 7- to 8-year-old children.
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Age at onset of first depressive episode as a predictor for escitalopram treatment of major depression comorbid with alcohol dependence.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2009
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The aim of this study was to determine predictors of the response to escitalopram, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressant and memantine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor blocker, for the treatment of major depression comorbid with alcohol dependence. Eighty alcohol dependent treatment-seeking adult patients with comorbid major depressive disorder were randomized to receive either memantine 20 mg or escitalopram 20 mg for 26 weeks. In both treatment groups, depression was reduced significantly. Comparisons were made between patients in remission (final Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)
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Maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and self-reported cognitive impairment of the offspring 70 years later: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
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We tested whether maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy predict self-reported cognitive impairment, which is one of the earliest behavioral markers of dementia, of the offspring 70 years later.
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Gain-of-function lipoprotein lipase variant rs13702 modulates lipid traits through disruption of a microRNA-410 seed site.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of genetic variants that are associated with lipid phenotypes. However, data supporting a functional role for these variants in the context of lipid metabolism are scarce. We investigated the association of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) variant rs13702 with plasma lipids and explored its potential for functionality. The rs13702 minor allele had been predicted to disrupt a microRNA (miR) recognition element (MRE) seed site (MRESS) for the human microRNA-410 (miR-410). Furthermore, rs13702 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with several SNPs identified by GWAS. We performed a meta-analysis across ten cohorts of participants that showed a statistically significant association of rs13702 with triacylglycerols (TAG) (p = 3.18 × 10(-42)) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 1.35 × 10(-32)) with each copy of the minor allele associated with 0.060 mmol/l lower TAG and 0.041 mmol/l higher HDL-C. Our data showed that an LPL 3 UTR luciferase reporter carrying the rs13702 major T allele was reduced by 40% in response to a miR-410 mimic. We also evaluated the interaction between intake of dietary fatty acids and rs13702. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between rs13702 and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with respect to TAG concentrations (p = 0.00153), with the magnitude of the inverse association between dietary PUFA intake and TAG concentration showing -0.007 mmol/l greater reduction. Our results suggest that rs13702 induces the allele-specific regulation of LPL by miR-410 in humans. This work provides biological and potential clinical relevance for previously reported GWAS variants associated with plasma lipid phenotypes.
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Self- and parent-rated executive functioning in young adults with very low birth weight.
Pediatrics
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Adults born preterm score lower on performance-based tests of executive functioning (EF) than their term-born peers. These test scores do not necessarily translate to application of these skills in an everyday environment. The objective of the study was to test differences between very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) adults and their term-born peers in self- and parent-rated EF and examine concordance between self- and parent-rated EF and performance-based tests of EF.
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Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cognitive decline in the offspring up to old age.
Neurology
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We tested whether maternal hypertensive disorders in pregnancy predict age-related change in cognitive ability in the offspring up to old age.
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Maintenance of genetic variation in human personality: testing evolutionary models by estimating heritability due to common causal variants and investigating the effect of distant inbreeding.
Evolution
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Personality traits are basic dimensions of behavioral variation, and twin, family, and adoption studies show that around 30% of the between-individual variation is due to genetic variation. There is rapidly growing interest in understanding the evolutionary basis of this genetic variation. Several evolutionary mechanisms could explain how genetic variation is maintained in traits, and each of these makes predictions in terms of the relative contribution of rare and common genetic variants to personality variation, the magnitude of nonadditive genetic influences, and whether personality is affected by inbreeding. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from > 8000 individuals, we estimated that little variation in the Cloninger personality dimensions (7.2% on average) is due to the combined effect of common, additive genetic variants across the genome, suggesting that most heritable variation in personality is due to rare variant effects and/or a combination of dominance and epistasis. Furthermore, higher levels of inbreeding were associated with less socially desirable personality trait levels in three of the four personality dimensions. These findings are consistent with genetic variation in personality traits having been maintained by mutation-selection balance.
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History of mental disorders and leukocyte telomere length in late adulthood: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS).
J Psychiatr Res
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Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been linked with mental disorders and with other manifestations of chronic non-communicable diseases. Mental disorders are associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality. It remains unclear if shorter LTL characterizes patients who have been diagnosed with mental disorders in the past, and who have survived till late adulthood. 1051 women and 905 men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participated in this study. LTL was measured by using the real-time quantitative PCR method for subjects and patients at the mean age of 61.5 years. Patients with a mental disorder severe enough to warrant hospitalization (n = 116) were identified by their case records in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and the use of psychotropic medication by reimbursement entitlements or prescription fills (n = 665) data in the Finnish Social Insurance Register. Participants hospitalized for any mental or substance use disorders had longer LTL than non-hospitalized controls (p-values < 0.042). Moreover, only those any mental disorder patients who had psychotropic medication use had longer LTL than non-hospitalized controls (p = 0.02). Adjustment for a number of covariates did not attenuate the association. Our findings suggest that shorter LTL may not be an intrinsic feature of mental disorders. Future research is needed to elucidate if psychotropic medication is involved in leukocyte telomere length maintenance in subjects with mental disorders.
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Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.
Ruth McQuillan, Niina Eklund, Nicola Pirastu, Maris Kuningas, Brian P McEvoy, Tonu Esko, Tanguy Corre, Gail Davies, Marika Kaakinen, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Kati Kristiansson, Aki S Havulinna, Martin Gögele, Veronique Vitart, Albert Tenesa, Yurii Aulchenko, Caroline Hayward, Asa Johansson, Mladen Boban, Sheila Ulivi, Antonietta Robino, Vesna Boraska, Wilmar Igl, Sarah H Wild, Lina Zgaga, Najaf Amin, Evropi Theodoratou, Ozren Polašek, Giorgia Girotto, Lorna M Lopez, Cinzia Sala, Jari Lahti, Tiina Laatikainen, Inga Prokopenko, Mart Kals, Jorma Viikari, Jian Yang, Anneli Pouta, Karol Estrada, Albert Hofman, Nelson Freimer, Nicholas G Martin, Mika Kähönen, Lili Milani, Markku Heliövaara, Erkki Vartiainen, Katri Räikkönen, Corrado Masciullo, John M Starr, Andrew A Hicks, Laura Esposito, Ivana Kolčić, Susan M Farrington, Ben Oostra, Tatijana Zemunik, Harry Campbell, Mirna Kirin, Marina Pehlić, Flavio Faletra, David Porteous, Giorgio Pistis, Elisabeth Widén, Veikko Salomaa, Seppo Koskinen, Krista Fischer, Terho Lehtimäki, Andrew Heath, Mark I McCarthy, Fernando Rivadeneira, Grant W Montgomery, Henning Tiemeier, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Pamela A F Madden, Pio D'Adamo, Nicholas D Hastie, Ulf Gyllensten, Alan F Wright, Cornelia M van Duijn, Malcolm Dunlop, Igor Rudan, Paolo Gasparini, Peter P Pramstaller, Ian J Deary, Daniela Toniolo, Johan G Eriksson, Antti Jula, Olli T Raitakari, Andres Metspalu, Markus Perola, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, André Uitterlinden, Peter M Visscher, James F Wilson, .
PLoS Genet.
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Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (?(2) = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20)). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.
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A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance.
Alisa K Manning, Marie-France Hivert, Robert A Scott, Jonna L Grimsby, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Han Chen, Denis Rybin, Ching-Ti Liu, Lawrence F Bielak, Inga Prokopenko, Najaf Amin, Daniel Barnes, Gemma Cadby, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Erik Ingelsson, Anne U Jackson, Toby Johnson, Stavroula Kanoni, Claes Ladenvall, Vasiliki Lagou, Jari Lahti, Cécile Lecoeur, Yongmei Liu, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, May E Montasser, Pau Navarro, John R B Perry, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Perttu Salo, Naveed Sattar, Dmitry Shungin, Rona J Strawbridge, Toshiko Tanaka, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ping An, Mariza de Andrade, Jeanette S Andrews, Thor Aspelund, Mustafa Atalay, Yurii Aulchenko, Beverley Balkau, Stefania Bandinelli, Jacques S Beckmann, John P Beilby, Claire Bellis, Richard N Bergman, John Blangero, Mladen Boban, Michael Boehnke, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Yvonne Böttcher, Claude Bouchard, Eric Brunner, Danijela Budimir, Harry Campbell, Olga Carlson, Peter S Chines, Robert Clarke, Francis S Collins, Arturo Corbatón-Anchuelo, David Couper, Ulf de Faire, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Maria Dimitriou, Josephine M Egan, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Michael R Erdos, Johan G Eriksson, Elodie Eury, Luigi Ferrucci, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Caroline S Fox, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Paul W Franks, Timothy M Frayling, Philippe Froguel, Pilar Galán, Eco de Geus, Bruna Gigante, Nicole L Glazer, Anuj Goel, Leif Groop, Vilmundur Gudnason, Göran Hallmans, Anders Hamsten, Ola Hansson, Tamara B Harris, Caroline Hayward, Simon Heath, Serge Hercberg, Andrew A Hicks, Aroon Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Jennie Hui, Joseph Hung, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Min A Jhun, Paul C D Johnson, J Wouter Jukema, Antti Jula, W H Kao, Jaakko Kaprio, Sharon L R Kardia, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Ivana Kolčić, Peter Kovacs, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Markku Laakso, Timo Lakka, Lars Lannfelt, G Mark Lathrop, Lenore J Launer, Karin Leander, Guo Li, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Stéphane Lobbens, Ruth J F Loos, Jian'an Luan, Valeriya Lyssenko, Reedik Mägi, Patrik K E Magnusson, Michael Marmot, Pierre Meneton, Karen L Mohlke, Vincent Mooser, Mario A Morken, Iva Miljkovic, Narisu Narisu, Jeff O'Connell, Ken K Ong, Ben A Oostra, Lyle J Palmer, Aarno Palotie, James S Pankow, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Marina Pehlić, Leena Peltonen, Brenda Penninx, Marijana Pericic, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Patricia A Peyser, Ozren Polašek, Peter P Pramstaller, Michael A Province, Katri Räikkönen, Rainer Rauramaa, Emil Rehnberg, Ken Rice, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Aimo Ruokonen, Timo Saaristo, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Veikko Salomaa, David B Savage, Richa Saxena, Peter Schwarz, Udo Seedorf, Bengt Sennblad, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Alan R Shuldiner, Eric J G Sijbrands, David S Siscovick, Johannes H Smit, Kerrin S Small, Nicholas L Smith, Albert Vernon Smith, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen Stirrups, Michael Stumvoll, Yan V Sun, Amy J Swift, Anke Tönjes, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Stella Trompet, André G Uitterlinden, Matti Uusitupa, Max Vikström, Veronique Vitart, Marie-Claude Vohl, Benjamin F Voight, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Dawn M Waterworth, Hugh Watkins, Eleanor Wheeler, Elisabeth Widén, Sarah H Wild, Sara M Willems, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Alan F Wright, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Diana Zelenika, Tatijana Zemunik, Lina Zgaga, , Nicholas J Wareham, Mark I McCarthy, Inês Barroso, Richard M Watanabe, Jose C Florez, Josée Dupuis, James B Meigs, Claudia Langenberg.
Nat. Genet.
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Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and ?-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associations with fasting insulin and glucose on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown loci associated with fasting insulin at P < 5 × 10(-8) in combined discovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496 non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, suggesting a role for these loci in insulin resistance pathways. The discovery of these loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology.
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Physical activity and psychiatric problems in children.
J. Pediatr.
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We studied whether physical activity, measured by wrist-worn accelerometers, is associated with mother- and teacher-rated psychiatric problems in 8-year-old children (n = 199). Higher overall physical activity and more time spent in more intense physical activity were associated with lower odds for psychiatric problems in emotional, social, and behavioral domains.
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Common variants at 12q15 and 12q24 are associated with infant head circumference.
H Rob Taal, Beate St Pourcain, Elisabeth Thiering, Shikta Das, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Nicole M Warrington, Marika Kaakinen, Eskil Kreiner-Møller, Jonathan P Bradfield, Rachel M Freathy, Frank Geller, Mònica Guxens, Diana L Cousminer, Marjan Kerkhof, Nicholas J Timpson, M Arfan Ikram, Lawrence J Beilin, Klaus Bønnelykke, Jessica L Buxton, Pimphen Charoen, Bo Lund Krogsgaard Chawes, Johan Eriksson, David M Evans, Albert Hofman, John P Kemp, Cecilia E Kim, Norman Klopp, Jari Lahti, Stephen J Lye, George McMahon, Frank D Mentch, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Paul F O'Reilly, Inga Prokopenko, Fernando Rivadeneira, Eric A P Steegers, Jordi Sunyer, Carla Tiesler, Hanieh Yaghootkar, , Monique M B Breteler, Charles DeCarli, Stéphanie Debette, Myriam Fornage, Vilmundur Gudnason, Lenore J Launer, Aad van der Lugt, Thomas H Mosley, Sudha Seshadri, Albert V Smith, Meike W Vernooij, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Rosetta M Chiavacci, Bjarke Feenstra, Julio Fernandez-Banet, Struan F A Grant, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Albert J van der Heijden, Carmen Iñíguez, Mark Lathrop, Wendy L McArdle, Anne Mølgaard, John P Newnham, Lyle J Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Annneli Pouta, Susan M Ring, Ulla Sovio, Marie Standl, André G Uitterlinden, H-Erich Wichmann, Nadja Hawwa Vissing, Cornelia M van Duijn, Mark I McCarthy, Gerard H Koppelman, Xavier Estivill, Andrew T Hattersley, Mads Melbye, Hans Bisgaard, Craig E Pennell, Elisabeth Widén, Hakon Hakonarson, George Davey Smith, Joachim Heinrich, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Vincent W V Jaddoe.
Nat. Genet.
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To identify genetic variants associated with head circumference in infancy, we performed a meta-analysis of seven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (N = 10,768 individuals of European ancestry enrolled in pregnancy and/or birth cohorts) and followed up three lead signals in six replication studies (combined N = 19,089). rs7980687 on chromosome 12q24 (P = 8.1 × 10(-9)) and rs1042725 on chromosome 12q15 (P = 2.8 × 10(-10)) were robustly associated with head circumference in infancy. Although these loci have previously been associated with adult height, their effects on infant head circumference were largely independent of height (P = 3.8 × 10(-7) for rs7980687 and P = 1.3 × 10(-7) for rs1042725 after adjustment for infant height). A third signal, rs11655470 on chromosome 17q21, showed suggestive evidence of association with head circumference (P = 3.9 × 10(-6)). SNPs correlated to the 17q21 signal have shown genome-wide association with adult intracranial volume, Parkinsons disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that a common genetic variant in this region might link early brain growth with neurological disease in later life.
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Lower conditioning leisure-time physical activity in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight.
PLoS ONE
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Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) have elevated levels of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Preliminary observations suggest that this could partly be explained by lower rates of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess physical activity in healthy young adults born preterm at very low birth weight compared with term-born controls.
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Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways.
Lisette Stolk, John R B Perry, Daniel I Chasman, Chunyan He, Massimo Mangino, Patrick Sulem, Maja Barbalic, Linda Broer, Enda M Byrne, Florian Ernst, Tonu Esko, Nora Franceschini, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Peter Kraft, Patrick F McArdle, Eleonora Porcu, So-Youn Shin, Albert V Smith, Sophie van Wingerden, Guangju Zhai, Wei V Zhuang, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Thor Aspelund, Stefania Bandinelli, Lovorka Barać Lauc, Jacques S Beckmann, Mladen Boban, Eric Boerwinkle, Frank J Broekmans, Andrea Burri, Harry Campbell, Stephen J Chanock, Constance Chen, Marilyn C Cornelis, Tanguy Corre, Andrea D Coviello, Pio D'Adamo, Gail Davies, Ulf de Faire, Eco J C de Geus, Ian J Deary, George V Z Dedoussis, Panagiotis Deloukas, Shah Ebrahim, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Valur Emilsson, Johan G Eriksson, Bart C J M Fauser, Liana Ferreli, Luigi Ferrucci, Krista Fischer, Aaron R Folsom, Melissa E Garcia, Paolo Gasparini, Christian Gieger, Nicole Glazer, Diederick E Grobbee, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Susan E Hankinson, Merli Hass, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C Heath, Albert Hofman, Erik Ingelsson, A Cecile J W Janssens, Andrew D Johnson, David Karasik, Sharon L R Kardia, Jules Keyzer, Douglas P Kiel, Ivana Kolčić, Zoltan Kutalik, Jari Lahti, Sandra Lai, Triin Laisk, Joop S E Laven, Debbie A Lawlor, Jianjun Liu, Lorna M Lopez, Yvonne V Louwers, Patrik K E Magnusson, Mara Marongiu, Nicholas G Martin, Irena Martinović Klarić, Corrado Masciullo, Barbara McKnight, Sarah E Medland, David Melzer, Vincent Mooser, Pau Navarro, Anne B Newman, Dale R Nyholt, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Aarno Palotie, Guillaume Paré, Alex N Parker, Nancy L Pedersen, Petra H M Peeters, Giorgio Pistis, Andrew S Plump, Ozren Polašek, Victor J M Pop, Bruce M Psaty, Katri Räikkönen, Emil Rehnberg, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Cinzia Sala, Andres Salumets, Angelo Scuteri, Andrew Singleton, Jennifer A Smith, Harold Snieder, Nicole Soranzo, Simon N Stacey, John M Starr, Maria G Stathopoulou, Kathleen Stirrups, Ronald P Stolk, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Yan V Sun, Albert Tenesa, Barbara Thorand, Daniela Toniolo, Laufey Tryggvadóttir, Kim Tsui, Sheila Ulivi, Rob M Van Dam, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Carla H van Gils, Peter van Nierop, Jacqueline M Vink, Peter M Visscher, Marlies Voorhuis, Gérard Waeber, Henri Wallaschofski, H Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widén, Colette J M Wijnands-van Gent, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Alan F Wright, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Tatijana Zemunik, Lina Zgaga, M Carola Zillikens, Marek Zygmunt, The Lifelines Cohort Study, Alice M Arnold, Dorret I Boomsma, Julie E Buring, Laura Crisponi, Ellen W Demerath, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Frank B Hu, David J Hunter, Lenore J Launer, Andres Metspalu, Grant W Montgomery, Ben A Oostra, Paul M Ridker, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, Elizabeth A Streeten, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Manuela Uda, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Henry Völzke, Anna Murray, Joanne M Murabito, Jenny A Visser, Kathryn L Lunetta.
Nat. Genet.
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To newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at natural menopause (at P < 5 × 10(-8)). Candidate genes located at these newly associated loci include genes implicated in DNA repair (EXO1, HELQ, UIMC1, FAM175A, FANCI, TLK1, POLG and PRIM1) and immune function (IL11, NLRP11 and PRRC2A (also known as BAT2)). Gene-set enrichment pathway analyses using the full GWAS data set identified exoDNase, NF-?B signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction as biological processes related to timing of menopause.
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