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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis STI, a Sterne-Like Georgian/Soviet Vaccine Strain.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The Bacillus anthracis strain STI is a Soviet vaccine strain that lacks the pXO2 plasmid. Previous data indicate that this isolate forms a new branch within the B. anthracis sub-group originally identified as A. Br.008/009.
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Yersinia pestis and the plague of Justinian 541-543 AD: a genomic analysis.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Yersinia pestis has caused at least three human plague pandemics. The second (Black Death, 14-17th centuries) and third (19-20th centuries) have been genetically characterised, but there is only a limited understanding of the first pandemic, the Plague of Justinian (6-8th centuries). To address this gap, we sequenced and analysed draft genomes of Y pestis obtained from two individuals who died in the first pandemic.
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Characterization of Klebsiella sp. strain 10982, a colonizer of humans that contains novel antibiotic resistance alleles and exhibits genetic similarities to plant and clinical Klebsiella isolates.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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A unique Klebsiella species strain, 10982, was cultured from a perianal swab specimen obtained from a patient in the University of Maryland Medical Center intensive care unit. Klebsiella sp. 10982 possesses a large IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid encoding a novel FOX AmpC ?-lactamase designated FOX-10. A novel variant of the LEN ?-lactamase was also identified. Genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that this isolate contains genes associated with nitrogen fixation, allantoin metabolism, and citrate fermentation. These three gene regions are typically present in either Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates or Klebsiella nitrogen-fixing endophytes but usually not in the same organism. Phylogenomic analysis of Klebsiella sp. 10982 and sequenced Klebsiella genomes demonstrated that Klebsiella sp. 10982 is present on a branch that is located intermediate between the genomes of nitrogen-fixing endophytes and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates. Metabolic features identified in the genome of Klebsiella sp. 10982 distinguish this isolate from other Klebsiella clinical isolates. These features include the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene cluster, which is typically present in endophytic Klebsiella isolates and is absent from Klebsiella clinical isolates. Additionally, the Klebsiella sp. 10982 genome contains genes associated with allantoin metabolism, which have been detected primarily in K. pneumoniae isolates from liver abscesses. Comparative genomic analysis of Klebsiella sp. 10982 demonstrated that this organism has acquired genes conferring new metabolic strategies and novel antibiotic resistance alleles, both of which may enhance its ability to colonize the human body.
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The large-scale blast score ratio (LS-BSR) pipeline: a method to rapidly compare genetic content between bacterial genomes.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Background. As whole genome sequence data from bacterial isolates becomes cheaper to generate, computational methods are needed to correlate sequence data with biological observations. Here we present the large-scale BLAST score ratio (LS-BSR) pipeline, which rapidly compares the genetic content of hundreds to thousands of bacterial genomes, and returns a matrix that describes the relatedness of all coding sequences (CDSs) in all genomes surveyed. This matrix can be easily parsed in order to identify genetic relationships between bacterial genomes. Although pipelines have been published that group peptides by sequence similarity, no other software performs the rapid, large-scale, full-genome comparative analyses carried out by LS-BSR. Results. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the LS-BSR pipeline was tested on 96 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes; the pipeline ran in 163 min using 16 processors, which is a greater than 7-fold speedup compared to using a single processor. The BSR values for each CDS, which indicate a relative level of relatedness, were then mapped to each genome on an independent core genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based phylogeny. Comparisons were then used to identify clade specific CDS markers and validate the LS-BSR pipeline based on molecular markers that delineate between classical E. coli pathogenic variant (pathovar) designations. Scalability tests demonstrated that the LS-BSR pipeline can process 1,000 E. coli genomes in 27-57 h, depending upon the alignment method, using 16 processors. Conclusions. LS-BSR is an open-source, parallel implementation of the BSR algorithm, enabling rapid comparison of the genetic content of large numbers of genomes. The results of the pipeline can be used to identify specific markers between user-defined phylogenetic groups, and to identify the loss and/or acquisition of genetic information between bacterial isolates. Taxa-specific genetic markers can then be translated into clinical diagnostics, or can be used to identify broadly conserved putative therapeutic candidates.
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High frequency, spontaneous motA mutations in Campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. The pathogenesis of C. jejuni is poorly understood and complicated by phase variation of multiple surface structures including lipooligosaccharide, capsule, and flagellum. When C. jejuni strain 81-176 was plated on blood agar for single colonies, the presence of translucent, non-motile colonial variants was noted among the majority of opaque, motile colonies. High-throughput genomic sequencing of two flagellated translucent and two opaque variants as well as the parent strain revealed multiple genetic changes compared to the published genome. However, the only mutated open reading frame common between the two translucent variants and absent from the opaque variants and the parent was motA, encoding a flagellar motor protein. A total of 18 spontaneous motA mutations were found that mapped to four distinct sites in the gene, with only one class of mutation present in a phase variable region. This study exemplifies the mutative/adaptive properties of C. jejuni and demonstrates additional variability in C. jejuni beyond phase variation.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Three O157 Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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We report the draft genome sequences of three enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolates that display the O157 serogroup but do not have the Shiga toxin genes (stx), which are characteristic of O157 enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). E. coli strain RN587/1 has the O157:H8 serotype and possesses the EAF plasmid characteristic of typical EPEC (J. B. Kaper, J. P. Nataro, and H. L. Mobley, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:123-140, 2004). The other two isolates, strains C844-97 and C639-08, are both O157:H45 and possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island; however, they do not contain the EAF plasmid or the stx-carrying phage.
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Refining the pathovar paradigm via phylogenomics of the attaching and effacing Escherichia coli.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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The attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) are characterized by the presence of a type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are often identified as isolates that are LEE+ and carry the Shiga toxin (stx)-encoding phage, which are labeled Shiga toxin-producing E. coli; whereas enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are LEE+ and often carry the EPEC adherence factor plasmid-encoded bundle-forming pilus (bfp) genes. All other LEE+/bfp-/stx- isolates have been historically designated atypical EPEC. These groups have been defined based on the presence or absence of a limited number of virulence factors, many of which are encoded on mobile elements. This study describes the comparative analysis of the genomes of 114 LEE+ E. coli isolates. Based on a whole-genome phylogeny and analysis of type III secretion system effectors, the AEEC are divided into five distinct genomic lineages. The LEE+/stx+/bfp- genomes were primarily divided into two genomic lineages, the O157/O55 EHEC1 and non-O157 EHEC2. The LEE+/bfp+/stx- AEEC isolates sequenced in this study separated into the EPEC1, EPEC2, and EPEC4 genomic lineages. A multiplex PCR assay for identification of each of these AEEC genomic lineages was developed. Of the 114 AEEC genomes analyzed, 31 LEE+ isolates were not in any of the known AEEC lineages and thus represent unclassified AEEC that in most cases are more similar to other E. coli pathovars than to text modification AEEC. Our findings demonstrate evolutionary relationships among diverse AEEC pathogens and the utility of phylogenomics for lineage-specific identification of AEEC clinical isolates.
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Characterization of intracellular growth regulator icgR by utilizing transcriptomics to identify mediators of pathogenesis in Shigella flexneri.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Shigella species Gram-negative bacteria which cause a diarrheal disease, known as shigellosis, by invading and destroying the colonic mucosa and inducing a robust inflammatory response. With no vaccine available, shigellosis annually kills over 600,000 children in developing countries. This study demonstrates the utility of combining high-throughput bioinformatic methods with in vitro and in vivo assays to provide new insights into pathogenesis. Comparisons of in vivo and in vitro gene expression identified genes associated with intracellular growth. Additional bioinformatics analyses identified genes that are present in S. flexneri isolates but not in the three other Shigella species. Comparison of these two analyses revealed nine genes that are differentially expressed during invasion and that are specific to S. flexneri. One gene, a DeoR family transcriptional regulator with decreased expression during invasion, was further characterized and is now designated icgR, for intracellular growth regulator. Deletion of icgR caused no difference in growth in vitro but resulted in increased intracellular replication in HCT-8 cells. Further in vitro and in vivo studies using high-throughput sequencing of RNA transcripts (RNA-seq) of an isogenic ?icgR mutant identified 34 genes that were upregulated under both growth conditions. This combined informatics and functional approach has allowed the characterization of a gene and pathway previously unknown in Shigella pathogenesis and provides a framework for further identification of novel virulence factors and regulatory pathways.
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When outgroups fail; phylogenomics of rooting the emerging pathogen, Coxiella burnetii.
Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Rooting phylogenies is critical for understanding evolution, yet the importance, intricacies and difficulties of rooting are often overlooked. For rooting, polymorphic characters among the group of interest (ingroup) must be compared to those of a relative (outgroup) that diverged before the last common ancestor (LCA) of the ingroup. Problems arise if an outgroup does not exist, is unknown, or is so distant that few characters are shared, in which case duplicated genes originating before the LCA can be used as proxy outgroups to root diverse phylogenies. Here, we describe a genome-wide expansion of this technique that can be used to solve problems at the other end of the evolutionary scale: where ingroup individuals are all very closely related to each other, but the next closest relative is very distant. We used shared orthologous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 10 whole genome sequences of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in humans, to create a robust, but unrooted phylogeny. To maximize the number of characters informative about the rooting, we searched entire genomes for polymorphic duplicated regions where orthologs of each paralog could be identified so that the paralogs could be used to root the tree. Recent radiations, such as those of emerging pathogens, often pose rooting challenges due to a lack of ingroup variation and large genomic differences with known outgroups. Using a phylogenomic approach, we created a robust, rooted phylogeny for C. burnetii. [Coxiella burnetii; paralog SNPs; pathogen evolution; phylogeny; recent radiation; root; rooting using duplicated genes.].
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Genome Sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei NCTC 13392.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei NCTC 13392. This isolate has been distributed as K96243, but distinct genomic differences have been identified. The genomic sequence of this isolate will provide the genomic context for previously conducted functional studies.
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Draft Genome Sequences of Two Bulgarian Bacillus anthracis Strains.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Bacillus anthracis strains previously isolated from Bulgaria form a unique subcluster within the A1.a cluster that is typical for isolates from southeastern Europe. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two Bulgarian B. anthracis strains belonging to the A branch (A.Br.)008/009 canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) group of the major A branch.
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Evolution of a pathogen: a comparative genomics analysis identifies a genetic pathway to pathogenesis in Acinetobacter.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Acinetobacter baumannii is an emergent and global nosocomial pathogen. In addition to A. baumannii, other Acinetobacter species, especially those in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, have also been associated with serious human infection. Although mechanisms of attachment, persistence on abiotic surfaces, and pathogenesis in A. baumannii have been identified, the genetic mechanisms that explain the emergence of A. baumannii as the most widespread and virulent Acinetobacter species are not fully understood. Recent whole genome sequencing has provided insight into the phylogenetic structure of the genus Acinetobacter. However, a global comparison of genomic features between Acinetobacter spp. has not been described in the literature. In this study, 136 Acinetobacter genomes, including 67 sequenced in this study, were compared to identify the acquisition and loss of genes in the expansion of the Acinetobacter genus. A whole genome phylogeny confirmed that A. baumannii is a monophyletic clade and that the larger Acb complex is also a well-supported monophyletic group. The whole genome phylogeny provided the framework for a global genomic comparison based on a blast score ratio (BSR) analysis. The BSR analysis demonstrated that specific genes have been both lost and acquired in the evolution of A. baumannii. In addition, several genes associated with A. baumannii pathogenesis were found to be more conserved in the Acb complex, and especially in A. baumannii, than in other Acinetobacter genomes; until recently, a global analysis of the distribution and conservation of virulence factors across the genus was not possible. The results demonstrate that the acquisition of specific virulence factors has likely contributed to the widespread persistence and virulence of A. baumannii. The identification of novel features associated with transcriptional regulation and acquired by clades in the Acb complex presents targets for better understanding the evolution of pathogenesis and virulence in the expansion of the genus.
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Origins of the E. coli strain causing an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Germany.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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A large outbreak of diarrhea and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by an unusual serotype of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (O104:H4) began in Germany in May 2011. As of July 22, a large number of cases of diarrhea caused by Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli have been reported--3167 without the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (16 deaths) and 908 with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (34 deaths)--indicating that this strain is notably more virulent than most of the Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli strains. Preliminary genetic characterization of the outbreak strain suggested that, unlike most of these strains, it should be classified within the enteroaggregative pathotype of E. coli.
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Genomic comparison of multi-drug resistant invasive and colonizing Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from diverse human body sites reveals genomic plasticity.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as a significant global pathogen, with a surprisingly rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance and spread within hospitals and health care institutions. This study examines the genomic content of three A. baumannii strains isolated from distinct body sites. Isolates from blood, peri-anal, and wound sources were examined in an attempt to identify genetic features that could be correlated to each isolation source.
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Genomic characterization of asymptomatic Escherichia coli isolated from the neobladder.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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The replacement of the bladder with a neobladder made from ileal tissue is the prescribed treatment in some cases of bladder cancer or trauma. Studies have demonstrated that individuals with an ileal neobladder have recurrent colonization by Escherichia coli and other species that are commonly associated with urinary tract infections; however, pyelonephritis and complicated symptomatic infections with ileal neobladders are relatively rare. This study examines the genomic content of two E. coli isolates from individuals with neobladders using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) with a pan-E. coli/Shigella microarray. Comparisons of the neobladder genome hybridization patterns with reference genomes demonstrate that the neobladder isolates are more similar to the commensal, laboratory-adapted E. coli and a subset of enteroaggregative E. coli than they are to uropathogenic E. coli isolates. Genes identified by CGH as exclusively present in the neobladder isolates among the 30 examined isolates were primarily from large enteric isolate plasmids. Isolations identified a large plasmid in each isolate, and sequencing confirmed similarity to previously identified plasmids of enteric species. Screening, via PCR, of more than 100 isolates of E. coli from environmental, diarrhoeagenic and urinary tract sources did not identify neobladder-specific genes that were widely distributed in these populations. These results taken together demonstrate that the neobladder isolates, while distinct, are genomically more similar to gastrointestinal or commensal E. coli, suggesting why they can colonize the transplanted intestinal tissue but rarely progress to acute pyelonephritis or more severe disease.
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A comparative genomic analysis of diverse clonal types of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli reveals pathovar-specific conservation.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal illness in children less than 5 years of age in low- and middle-income nations, whereas it is an emerging enteric pathogen in industrialized nations. Despite being an important cause of diarrhea, little is known about the genomic composition of ETEC. To address this, we sequenced the genomes of five ETEC isolates obtained from children in Guinea-Bissau with diarrhea. These five isolates represent distinct and globally dominant ETEC clonal groups. Comparative genomic analyses utilizing a gene-independent whole-genome alignment method demonstrated that sequenced ETEC strains share approximately 2.7 million bases of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of this "core genome" confirmed the diverse history of the ETEC pathovar and provides a finer resolution of the E. coli relationships than multilocus sequence typing. No identified genomic regions were conserved exclusively in all ETEC genomes; however, we identified more genomic content conserved among ETEC genomes than among non-ETEC E. coli genomes, suggesting that ETEC isolates share a genomic core. Comparisons of known virulence and of surface-exposed and colonization factor genes across all sequenced ETEC genomes not only identified variability but also indicated that some antigens are restricted to the ETEC pathovar. Overall, the generation of these five genome sequences, in addition to the two previously generated ETEC genomes, highlights the genomic diversity of ETEC. These studies increase our understanding of ETEC evolution, as well as provide insight into virulence factors and conserved proteins, which may be targets for vaccine development.
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A comparative molecular analysis of water-filled limestone sinkholes in north-eastern Mexico.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Sistema Zacatón in north-eastern Mexico is host to several deep, water-filled, anoxic, karstic sinkholes (cenotes). These cenotes were explored, mapped, and geochemically and microbiologically sampled by the autonomous underwater vehicle deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX). The community structure of the filterable fraction of the water column and extensive microbial mats that coat the cenote walls was investigated by comparative analysis of small-subunit (SSU) 16S rRNA gene sequences. Full-length Sanger gene sequence analysis revealed novel microbial diversity that included three putative bacterial candidate phyla and three additional groups that showed high intra-clade distance with poorly characterized bacterial candidate phyla. Limited functional gene sequence analysis in these anoxic environments identified genes associated with methanogenesis, sulfate reduction and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. A directed, barcoded amplicon, multiplex pyrosequencing approach was employed to compare ?100,000 bacterial SSU gene sequences from water column and wall microbial mat samples from five cenotes in Sistema Zacatón. A new, high-resolution sequence distribution profile (SDP) method identified changes in specific phylogenetic types (phylotypes) in microbial mats at varied depths; Mantel tests showed a correlation of the genetic distances between mat communities in two cenotes and the geographic location of each cenote. Community structure profiles from the water column of three neighbouring cenotes showed distinct variation; statistically significant differences in the concentration of geochemical constituents suggest that the variation observed in microbial communities between neighbouring cenotes are due to geochemical variation.
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Chemical sensing in mammalian host-bacterial commensal associations.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by a complex consortium of bacterial species. Bacteria engage in chemical signaling to coordinate population-wide behavior. However, it is unclear if chemical sensing plays a role in establishing mammalian host-bacterial commensal relationships. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a deadly human pathogen but is a member of the GI flora in cattle, its main reservoir. EHEC harbors SdiA, a regulator that senses acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by other bacteria. Here, we show that SdiA is necessary for EHEC colonization of cattle and that AHLs are prominent within the bovine rumen but absent in other areas of the GI tract. We also assessed the rumen metagenome of heifers, and we show that it is dominated by Clostridia and/or Bacilli but also harbors Bacteroidetes. Of note, some members of the Bacteroidetes phyla have been previously reported to produce AHLs. SdiA-AHL chemical signaling aids EHEC in gauging these GI environments, and promotes adaptation to a commensal lifestyle. We show that chemical sensing in the mammalian GI tract determines the niche specificity for colonization by a commensal bacterium of its natural animal reservoir. Chemical sensing may be a general mechanism used by commensal bacteria to sense and adapt to their mammalian hosts. Additionally, because EHEC is largely prevalent in cattle herds, interference with SdiA-mediated cattle colonization is an exciting alternative to diminish contamination of meat products and cross-contamination of produce crops because of cattle shedding of this human pathogen.
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Comparison of normalization methods for construction of large, multiplex amplicon pools for next-generation sequencing.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Constructing mixtures of tagged or bar-coded DNAs for sequencing is an important requirement for the efficient use of next-generation sequencers in applications where limited sequence data are required per sample. There are many applications in which next-generation sequencing can be used effectively to sequence large mixed samples; an example is the characterization of microbial communities where
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Novel microbial diversity retrieved by autonomous robotic exploration of the worlds deepest vertical phreatic sinkhole.
Astrobiology
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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The deep phreatic thermal explorer (DEPTHX) is an autonomous underwater vehicle designed to navigate an unexplored environment, generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) maps, collect biological samples based on an autonomous sampling decision, and return to its origin. In the spring of 2007, DEPTHX was deployed in Zacatón, a deep (approximately 318 m), limestone, phreatic sinkhole (cenote) in northeastern Mexico. As DEPTHX descended, it generated a 3-D map based on the processing of range data from 54 onboard sonars. The vehicle collected water column samples and wall biomat samples throughout the depth profile of the cenote. Post-expedition sample analysis via comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a wealth of microbial diversity. Traditional Sanger gene sequencing combined with a barcoded-amplicon pyrosequencing approach revealed novel, phylum-level lineages from the domains Bacteria and Archaea; in addition, several novel subphylum lineages were also identified. Overall, DEPTHX successfully navigated and mapped Zacatón, and collected biological samples based on an autonomous decision, which revealed novel microbial diversity in a previously unexplored environment.
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Introducing mothur: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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mothur aims to be a comprehensive software package that allows users to use a single piece of software to analyze community sequence data. It builds upon previous tools to provide a flexible and powerful software package for analyzing sequencing data. As a case study, we used mothur to trim, screen, and align sequences; calculate distances; assign sequences to operational taxonomic units; and describe the alpha and beta diversity of eight marine samples previously characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. This analysis of more than 222,000 sequences was completed in less than 2 h with a laptop computer.
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Microbial diversity of septic tank effluent and a soil biomat.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Microbial diversity of septic tank effluent (STE) and the biomat that is formed as a result of STE infiltration on soil were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Results indicate that microbial communities are different within control soil, STE, and the biomat and that microbes found in STE are not found in the biomat. The development of a stable soil biomat appears to provide the best on-site water treatment or protection for subsequent groundwater interactions of STE.
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Comparative genomics and stx phage characterization of LEE-negative Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol
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Infection by Escherichia coli and Shigella species are among the leading causes of death due to diarrheal disease in the world. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) that do not encode the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE-negative STEC) often possess Shiga toxin gene variants and have been isolated from humans and a variety of animal sources. In this study, we compare the genomes of nine LEE-negative STEC harboring various stx alleles with four complete reference LEE-positive STEC isolates. Compared to a representative collection of prototype E. coli and Shigella isolates representing each of the pathotypes, the whole genome phylogeny demonstrated that these isolates are diverse. Whole genome comparative analysis of the 13 genomes revealed that in addition to the absence of the LEE pathogenicity island, phage-encoded genes including non-LEE encoded effectors, were absent from all nine LEE-negative STEC genomes. Several plasmid-encoded virulence factors reportedly identified in LEE-negative STEC isolates were identified in only a subset of the nine LEE-negative isolates further confirming the diversity of this group. In combination with whole genome analysis, we characterized the lambdoid phages harboring the various stx alleles and determined their genomic insertion sites. Although the integrase gene sequence corresponded with genomic location, it was not correlated with stx variant, further highlighting the mosaic nature of these phages. The transcription of these phages in different genomic backgrounds was examined. Expression of the Shiga toxin genes, stx(1) and/or stx(2), as well as the Q genes, were examined with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays. A wide range of basal and induced toxin induction was observed. Overall, this is a first significant foray into the genome space of this unexplored group of emerging and divergent pathogens.
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Transcriptional modulation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence genes in response to epithelial cell interactions.
Infect. Immun.
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Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality due to diarrheal illness in developing countries. There is currently no effective vaccine against these important pathogens. Because genes modulated by pathogen-host interactions potentially encode putative vaccine targets, we investigated changes in gene expression and surface morphology of ETEC upon interaction with intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Pan-genome microarrays, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), and transcriptional reporter fusions of selected promoters were used to study changes in ETEC transcriptomes. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate alterations in surface antigen expression and morphology following pathogen-host interactions. Following host cell contact, genes for motility, adhesion, toxin production, immunodominant peptides, and key regulatory molecules, including cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) and c-di-GMP, were substantially modulated. These changes were accompanied by visible changes in both ETEC architecture and the expression of surface antigens, including a novel highly conserved adhesin molecule, EaeH. The studies reported here suggest that pathogen-host interactions are finely orchestrated by ETEC and are characterized by coordinated responses involving the sequential deployment of multiple virulence molecules. Elucidation of the molecular details of these interactions could highlight novel strategies for development of vaccines for these important pathogens.
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Draft genome sequences of the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli collection.
J. Bacteriol.
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We report the draft genome sequences of the collection referred to as the Escherichia coli DECA collection, which was assembled to contain representative isolates of the 15 most common diarrheagenic clones in humans (http://shigatox.net/new/). These genomes represent a valuable resource to the community of researchers who examine these enteric pathogens.
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Phylomark, a tool to identify conserved phylogenetic markers from whole-genome alignments.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
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The sequencing and analysis of multiple housekeeping genes has been routinely used to phylogenetically compare closely related bacterial isolates. Recent studies using whole-genome alignment (WGA) and phylogenetics from >100 Escherichia coli genomes has demonstrated that tree topologies from WGA and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) markers differ significantly. A nonrepresentative phylogeny can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding important evolutionary relationships. In this study, the Phylomark algorithm was developed to identify a minimal number of useful phylogenetic markers that recapitulate the WGA phylogeny. To test the algorithm, we used a set of diverse draft and complete E. coli genomes. The algorithm identified more than 100,000 potential markers of different fragment lengths (500 to 900 nucleotides). Three molecular markers were ultimately chosen to determine the phylogeny based on a low Robinson-Foulds (RF) distance compared to the WGA phylogeny. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that a more representative phylogeny was inferred for a concatenation of these markers compared to all other MLST schemes for E. coli. As a functional test of the algorithm, the three markers (genomic guided E. coli markers, or GIG-EM) were amplified and sequenced from a set of environmental E. coli strains (ECOR collection) and informatically extracted from a set of 78 diarrheagenic E. coli strains (DECA collection). In the instances of the 40-genome test set and the DECA collection, the GIG-EM system outperformed other E. coli MLST systems in terms of recapitulating the WGA phylogeny. This algorithm can be employed to determine the minimal marker set for any organism that has sufficient genome sequencing.
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Draft genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri SR5, a strain isolated from the light organ of the Mediterranean squid Sepiola robusta.
J. Bacteriol.
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Here, we describe the draft genome sequence of Vibrio fischeri SR5, a squid symbiotic isolate from Sepiola robusta in the Mediterranean Sea. This 4.3-Mbp genome sequence represents the first V. fischeri genome from an S. robusta symbiont and the first from outside the Pacific Ocean.
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Genome sequences of four divergent multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients with sepsis or osteomyelitis.
J. Bacteriol.
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Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes nosocomial infections worldwide, with recent prevalence and higher frequency in wounded military personnel. Four A. baumannii strains from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) isolated between 2008 and 2009 were sequenced, representing diverse, multidrug-resistant isolates from osteomyelitis or septic patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.