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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Neurotherapeutic effects of novel HO-1 inhibitors in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) encoded by the HMOX1 gene is a 32-kDa stress protein that catabolizes heme to biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). Glial HO-1 is over-expressed in the CNS of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The HMOX1 gene is exquisitely sensitive to oxidative stress and is induced in brain and other tissues in various models of disease and trauma. Induction of the glial HMOX1 gene may lead to pathological brain iron deposition, intracellular oxidative damage, and bioenergetic failure in AD and other human CNS disorders such as PD and MS. Therefore, targeted suppression of glial HO-1 hyperactivity may prove to be a rational and effective therapeutic intervention in AD and related neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report the effects of QC-47, QC-56, and OB-28, novel azole-based competitive and reversible inhibitors of HO-1, on oxidative damage to whole-cell and mitochondrial compartments in rat astrocytes transfected with the HMOX1 gene. We also report the effect of OB-28 on the behavior and neuropathology of APPswe /PS1?E9 mice. OB-28 was found to reduce oxidative damage to whole-cell and mitochondrial compartments in rat astrocytes transfected with the HMOX1 gene. Moreover, OB-28 was found to significantly counter behavioral deficits and neuropathological alterations in APPswe /PS1?E9 mice. Attenuation of AD-associated behavioral deficits and neuropathological changes suggests that HO-1 may be a promising target for neuroprotective intervention in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. We propose that the targeted suppression of glial heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) hyperactivity may prove to be a rational and effective therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. We report attenuation by a selective HO-1 inhibitor of oxidative damage to whole-cell and mitochondrial compartments in astrocytes in vitro and amelioration of behavioral anomalies in a transgenic mouse model of AD.
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Characterization of two UDP-Gal:GalNAc-diphosphate-lipid ?1,3-galactosyltransferases WbwC from Escherichia coli serotypes O104 and O5.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Escherichia coli displays O antigens on the outer membrane that play an important role in bacterial interactions with the environment. The O antigens of enterohemorrhagic E. coli O104 and O5 contain a Gal?1-3GalNAc disaccharide at the reducing end of the repeating unit. Several other O antigens contain this disaccharide, which is identical to the mammalian O-glycan core 1 or the cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen. We identified the wbwC genes responsible for the synthesis of the disaccharide in E. coli serotypes O104 and O5. To functionally characterize WbwC, an acceptor substrate analog, GalNAc?-diphosphate-phenylundecyl, was synthesized. WbwC reaction products were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, galactosidase and O-glycanase digestion, and anti-TF antibody. The results clearly showed that the Gal?1-3GalNAc? linkage was synthesized, confirming WbwCECO104 and WbwCECO5 as UDP-Gal:GalNAc?-diphosphate-lipid ?1,3-Gal-transferases. Sequence analysis revealed a conserved DxDD motif, and mutagenesis showed the importance of these Asp residues in catalysis. The purified enzymes require divalent cations (Mn(2+)) for activity and are specific for UDP-Gal and GalNAc-diphosphate lipid substrates. WbwC was inhibited by bis-imidazolium salts having aliphatic chains of 18 to 22 carbons. This work will help to elucidate mechanisms of polysaccharide synthesis in pathogenic bacteria and provide technology for vaccine synthesis.
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Selective inhibition of heme oxygenase-2 activity by analogs of 1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (clemizole): Exploration of the effects of substituents at the N-1 position.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Several analogs based on the lead structure of 1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (clemizole) were synthesized and evaluated as novel inhibitors of heme oxygenase (HO). Many of the compounds were found to be potent and highly selective for the HO-2 isozyme (constitutive), and had substantially less inhibitory activity on the HO-1 isozyme (inducible). The compounds represent the first report of highly potent and selective inhibitors of HO-2 activity, and complement our suite of selective HO-1 inhibitors. The study has revealed many candidates based on the inhibition of heme oxygenases for potentially useful pharmacological and therapeutic applications.
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Acceptor specificities and selective inhibition of recombinant human Gal- and GlcNAc-transferases that synthesize core structures 1, 2, 3 and 4 of O-glycans.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Modifications of proteins by O-glycosylation determine many of the properties and functions of proteins. We wish to understand the mechanisms of O-glycosylation and develop inhibitors that could affect glycoprotein functions and alter cellular behavior.
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Selective inhibition of glycosyltransferases by bivalent imidazolium salts.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Galactosyltransferases (GalTs) extend the glycan chains of mammalian glycoproteins by adding Gal to terminal GlcNAc residues, and thus build the scaffolds for biologically important glycan structures. We have shown that positively charged bivalent imidazolium salts in which the two imidazolium groups are linked by an aliphatic chain of 20 or 22 carbons form potent inhibitors of purified human ?3-GalT5, using GlcNAc?-benzyl as acceptor substrate. The inhibitors are not substrate analogs and also inhibited a selected number of other glycosyltransferases. These bis-imidazolium compounds represent a new class of glycosyltransferase inhibitors with potential as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drugs.
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The anti-malarial activity of bivalent imidazolium salts.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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A series of compounds containing bivalent imidazolium rings and one triazolium analog were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the replication of Plasmodium falciparum cultures. The activity and selectivity of the compounds for P. falciparum cultures were found to depend on the presence of electron-deficient rings that were spaced an appropriate distance apart. The activity of the compounds was not critically dependent on the nature of the linker between the electron-deficient rings, an observation that suggests that the rings were responsible for the primary interaction with the molecular target of the compounds in the parasite. The bivalent imidazolium and triazolium compounds disrupted the process whereby merozoites gain entry into erythrocytes, however, they did not appear to prevent merozoites from forming. The compounds were also found to be active in a murine Plasmodium berghei infection, a result consistent with the compounds specifically interacting with a parasite component that is required for replication and is conserved between two Plasmodium species.
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Heme oxygenase inhibition by 1-aryl-2-(1h-imidazol-1-yl/1h-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethanones and their derivatives.
ChemMedChem
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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Previous studies by our research group have been concerned with the design of selective inhibitors of heme oxygenases (HO-1 and HO-2). The majority of these were based on a four-carbon linkage of an azole, usually an imidazole, and an aromatic moiety. In the present study, we designed and synthesized a series of inhibition candidates containing a shorter linkage between these groups, specifically, a series of 1-aryl-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl/1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)ethanones and their derivatives. As regards HO-1 inhibition, the aromatic moieties yielding best results were found to be halogen-substituted residues such as 3-bromophenyl, 4-bromophenyl, and 3,4-dichlorophenyl, or hydrocarbon residues such as 2-naphthyl, 4-biphenyl, 4-benzylphenyl, and 4-(2-phenethyl)phenyl. Among the imidazole-ketones, five (36-39, and 44) were found to be very potent (IC(50)<5 muM) toward both isozymes. Relative to the imidazole-ketones, the series of corresponding triazole-ketones showed four compounds (54, 55, 61, and 62) having a selectivity index >50 in favor of HO-1. In the case of the azole-dioxolanes, two of them (80 and 85), each possessing a 2-naphthyl moiety, were found to be particularly potent and selective HO-1 inhibitors. Three non-carbonyl analogues (87, 89, and 91) of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanone were found to be good inhibitors of HO-1. For the first time in our studies, two azole-based inhibitors (37 and 39) were found to exhibit a modest selectivity index in favor of HO-2. The present study has revealed additional candidates based on inhibition of heme oxygenases for potentially useful pharmacological and therapeutic applications.
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Recombinant truncated and microsomal heme oxygenase-1 and -2: differential sensitivity to inhibitors.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Recombinant truncated forms of heme oxygenase-1 and -2 (HO-1 and HO-2) were compared with their crude microsomal counterparts from brain and spleen tissue of adult male rats with respect to their inhibition by azole-based, nonporphyrin HO inhibitors. The drugs tested were an imidazole-alcohol, an imidazole-dioxolane, and a triazole-ketone. Both the recombinant and crude forms of HO-2 were similarly inhibited by the 3 drugs. The crude microsomal spleen form of HO-1 was more susceptible to inhibition than was the truncated recombinant form. This difference is attributed to the extra amino acids in the full-length enzyme. These observations may be relevant in the design of drugs as inhibitors of HO and other membrane proteins.
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The effects of azole-based heme oxygenase inhibitors on rat cytochromes P450 2E1 and 3A1/2 and human cytochromes P450 3A4 and 2D6.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Heme oxygenases (HOs) catalyze the degradation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron. The two major isoforms, HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive), are involved in a variety of physiological functions, including inflammation, apoptosis, neuromodulation, and vascular regulation. Major tools used in exploring these actions have been metalloporphyrin analogs of heme that inhibit the HOs. However, these tools are limited by their lack of selectivity; they affect other heme-dependent enzymes, such as cytochromes P450 (P450s), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and nitric-oxide synthase (NOS). Our laboratory has successfully synthesized a number of nonporphyrin azole-based HO inhibitors (QC-xx) that had little or no effect on sGC and NOS activity. However, their effects on various P450 isoforms have yet to be fully elucidated. To determine the effects of the QC-xx inhibitors on P450 enzyme activity, microsomal preparations of two rat P450 isoforms (2E1 and 3A1/3A2) and two human P450 supersome isoforms (3A4 and 2D6) were incubated with varying concentrations of HO inhibitor, and the activity was determined by spectrophotometric or fluorometric analysis. Results indicated that some QC compounds demonstrated little to no inhibition of the P450s, whereas others did inhibit these P450 isoforms. Four structural regions of QC-xx were analyzed, leading to the identification of structures that confer a decreased effect on both rat and human P450 isoforms studied while maintaining an inhibitory effect on the HOs.
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Rapid, convenient method for screening imidazole-containing compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Sensitive assays for measuring heme oxygenase activity have been based on the gas-chromatographic detection of carbon monoxide using elaborate, expensive equipment. The present study describes a rapid and convenient method for screening imidazole-containing candidates for inhibitory activity against heme oxygenase using a plate reader, based on the spectroscopic evaluation of heme degradation.
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Anti-Plasmodium activity of imidazolium and triazolium salts.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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We have previously reported that tetrazolium salts were both potent and specific inhibitors of Plasmodium replication, and that they appear to interact with a parasite component that is both essential and conserved. The use of tetrazolium salts in vivo is limited by the potential reduction of the tetrazolium ring to form an inactive, neutral acyclic formazan. To address this issue imidazolium and triazolium salts were synthesized and evaluated as Plasmodium inhibitors. Many of the imidazolium and triazolium salts were highly potent with active concentrations in the nanomolar range in Plasmodium falciparum cultures, and specific to Plasmodium with highly favorable therapeutic ratios. The results corroborate our hypothesis that an electron-deficient core is required so that the compound may thereby interact with a negatively charged moiety on the parasite merozoite; the side groups in the compound then form favorable interactions with adjacent parasite components and thereby determine both the potency and selectivity of the compound.
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A novel experimental heme oxygenase-1-targeted therapy for hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2009
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a member of the heat shock protein family, plays a key role as a sensor and regulator of oxidative stress. Herein, we identify HO-1 as a biomarker and potential therapeutic target for advanced prostate cancer (PCA). Immunohistochemical analysis of prostate tissue using a progression tissue microarray from patients with localized PCA and across several stages of disease progression revealed a significant elevation of HO-1 expression in cancer epithelial cells, but not in surrounding stromal cells, from hormone-refractory PCA (HRPCA) compared with hormone-responsive PCA and benign tissue. Silencing the ho-1 gene in HRPCA cells decreased the HO-1 activity, oxidative stress, and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase/p38 kinase. This coincided with reduced cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell invasion in vitro, as well as inhibition of prostate tumor growth and lymph node and lung metastases in vivo. The effect of ho-1 silencing on these oncogenic features was mimicked by exposure of cells to a novel selective small-molecule HO-1 inhibitor referred to as OB-24. OB-24 selectively inhibited HO-1 activity in PCA cells, which correlated with a reduction of protein carbonylation and reactive oxygen species formation. Moreover, OB-24 significantly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth and lymph node/lung metastases in vivo. A potent synergistic activity was observed when OB-24 was combined with Taxol. Together, these results establish HO-1 as a potential therapeutic target for advanced PCA.
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X-ray crystal structure of human heme oxygenase-1 with (2R,4S)-2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4[((5-trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)thio)methyl]-1,3-dioxolane: a novel, inducible binding mode.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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The crystal structure of human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in complex with (2R,4S)-2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4[((5-trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)thio)methyl]-1,3-dioxolane (4) reveals a novel, inducible binding mode. Inhibitor 4 coordinates the heme iron, with its chlorophenyl group bound in a distal hydrophobic pocket, as seen in previous structures. However, accommodation of the 5-trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl group requires a significant shift in the proximal helix, inducing the formation of a hydrophobic pocket. This is the first example of an induced binding pocket observed in HO-1.
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Structural characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 in complex with azole-based inhibitors.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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The development of inhibitors specific for heme oxygenases (HO) aims to provide powerful tools in understanding the HO system. Based on the lead structure (2S, 4S)-2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4-[((4-aminophenyl)thio)methyl]-1,3-dioxolane (azalanstat, QC-1) we have synthesized structural modifications to develop novel and selective HO inhibitors. The structural study of human HO-1 (hHO-1) in complex with a select group of the inhibitors was initiated using X-ray crystallographic techniques. Comparison of the structures of four such compounds each in complex with hHO-1 revealed a common binding mode, despite having different structural fragments. The compounds bind to the distal side of heme through an azole "anchor" which coordinates with the heme iron. An expansion of the distal pocket, mainly due to distal helix flexibility, allows accommodation of the compounds without displacing heme or the critical Asp140 residue. Rather, binding displaces a catalytically critical water molecule and disrupts an ordered hydrogen-bond network involving Asp140. The presence of a triazole "anchor" may provide further stability via a hydrogen bond with the protein. A hydrophobic pocket acts to stabilize the region occupied by the phenyl or adamantanyl moieties of these compounds. Further, a secondary hydrophobic pocket is formed via "induced fit" to accommodate bulky substituents at the 4-position of the dioxolane ring.
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Synthesis and evaluation of imidazole-dioxolane compounds as selective heme oxygenase inhibitors: effect of substituents at the 4-position of the dioxolane ring.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Several imidazole-dioxolane compounds were synthesized and evaluated as novel inhibitors of heme oxygenase (HO). These compounds, which include a series of substituted thiophenol and substituted phenol derivatives of (2R,4S)-2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4-[(phenylsulfanyl)methyl]-1,3-dioxolane hydrochloride (3), in addition to smaller functionalized derivatives, continue our structure-activity studies by exploration of the aminothiophenol region (northeastern region) in our original target structure azalanstat (1). In vitro, most of the compounds in this series were found to be highly potent inhibitors of the stress-induced isozyme HO-1 and the constitutive isozyme HO-2, showing only moderate selectivity for HO-1. Nevertheless, a few of the compounds displayed higher selectivity toward HO-1. None of the compounds having a larger appendage in the northeastern region were inhibitors of CYP2E1, whereas a compound having a relatively small fluorine substituent in this region did inhibit CYP2E1; all of the compounds tested exhibited high inhibitory potency against CYP3A1/3A2.
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The interaction of imidazole-, imidazolium-, and tetrazolium-containing compounds with DNA.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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The interaction between DNA and members of series of bivalent imidazole compounds, monovalent and bivalent imidazolium compounds, and monovalent and bivalent tetrazolium compounds, which had been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-Plasmodium activity, has been examined using the displacement of SYBR Green I as a measure of competitive binding. The degree of interaction with DNA appears to be dependent on both hydrophobic and charge-pairing interactions.
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Structural insights into human heme oxygenase-1 inhibition by potent and selective azole-based compounds.
J R Soc Interface
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The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors, especially those that are isozyme-selective, promises powerful pharmacological tools to elucidate the regulatory characteristics of the HO system. It is already known that HO has cytoprotective properties and may play a role in several disease states, making it an enticing therapeutic target. Traditionally, the metalloporphyrins have been used as competitive HO inhibitors owing to their structural similarity with the substrate, heme. However, given hemes important role in several other proteins (e.g. cytochromes P450, nitric oxide synthase), non-selectivity is an unfortunate side-effect. Reports that azalanstat and other non-porphyrin molecules inhibited HO led to a multi-faceted effort to develop novel compounds as potent, selective inhibitors of HO. This resulted in the creation of non-competitive inhibitors with selectivity for HO, including a subset with isozyme selectivity for HO-1. Using X-ray crystallography, the structures of several complexes of HO-1 with novel inhibitors have been elucidated, which provided insightful information regarding the salient features required for inhibitor binding. This included the structural basis for non-competitive inhibition, flexibility and adaptability of the inhibitor binding pocket, and multiple, potential interaction subsites, all of which can be exploited in future drug-design strategies.
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Biochemical characterization of WbdN, a ?1,3-glucosyltransferase involved in O-antigen synthesis in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157.
Glycobiology
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The enterohemorrhagic O157 strain of Escherichia coli, which is one of the most well-known bacterial pathogens, has an O-antigen repeating unit structure with the sequence [-2-d-Rha4NAc?1-3-l-Fuc?1-4-d-Glc?1-3-d-GalNAc?1-]. The O-antigen gene cluster of E. coli O157 contains the genes responsible for the assembly of this repeating unit and includes wbdN. In spite of cloning many O-antigen genes, biochemical characterization has been done on very few enzymes involved in O-antigen synthesis. In this work, we expressed the wbdN gene in E. coli BL21, and the His-tagged protein was purified. WbdN activity was characterized using the donor substrate UDP-[(14)C]Glc and the synthetic acceptor substrate GalNAc?-O-PO(3)-PO(3)-(CH(2))(11)-O-Ph. The enzyme product was isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry showed that one Glc residue was transferred to the acceptor by WbdN. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the product structure indicated that Glc was ?1-3 linked to GalNAc. WbdN contains a conserved DxD motif and requires divalent metal ions for full activity. WbdN activity has an optimal pH between 7 and 8 and is highly specific for UDP-Glc as the donor substrate. GalNAc? derivatives lacking the diphosphate group were inactive as substrates, and the enzyme did not transfer Glc to GlcNAc?-O-PO(3)-PO(3)-(CH(2))(11)-O-Ph. Our results illustrate that WbdN is a specific UDP-Glc:GalNAc?-diphosphate-lipid ?1,3-Glc-transferase. The enzyme is a target for the development of inhibitors to block O157-antigen synthesis.
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Heme oxygenase inhibition by ?-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-?-phenylalkanes: effect of introduction of heteroatoms in the alkyl linker.
ChemMedChem
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Several ?-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-?-phenylalkanes were synthesized and evaluated as novel inhibitors of heme oxygenase (HO). These compounds were found to be potent and selective for the stress-induced isozyme HO-1, showing mostly weak activity toward the constitutive isozyme HO-2. The introduction of an oxygen atom in the alkyl linker produced analogues with decreased potency toward HO-1, whereas the presence of a sulfur atom in the linker gave rise to analogues with greater potency toward HO-1 than the carbon-containing analogues. The most potent compounds studied contained a five-atom linker between the imidazolyl and phenyl moieties, whereas the most HO-1-selective compounds contained a four-atom linker between these groups. The compounds with a five-atom linker containing a heteroatom (O or S) were found to be the most potent inhibitors of HO-2; 1-(N-benzylamino)-3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propane dihydrochloride, with a nitrogen atom in the linker, was found to be inactive.
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A novel, "double-clamp" binding mode for human heme oxygenase-1 inhibition.
PLoS ONE
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The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ?15 times more potent (IC(50)?=?0.27±0.07 µM) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC(50)?=?4.0±1.8 µM). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This "double-clamp" binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors.
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