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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Bladder neck contracture-incidence and management following contemporary robot assisted radical prostatectomy technique.
Prostate Int
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Bladder neck contracture (BNC) is a well-recognized complication following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for treatment of localized prostate cancer with a reported incidence of up to 1.4%. In this series, we report our institutional experience and management results.
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Coronary computed tomography angiography-based tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion: correlation with 2D echocardiography.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Right heart evaluation on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is underutilized due to nonopacification of the right heart chambers and poor endocardial resolution. We analyzed feasibility and reproducibility of right heart functional analysis by measuring CCTA-based tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (CT-TAPSE) on ECG-gated CCTA and correlated the results with 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE)-derived TAPSE (Echo-TAPSE).
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Direct microneedle array fabrication off a photomask to deliver collagen through skin.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To fabricate microneedle arrays directly off a photomask using a simple photolithographical approach and evaluate their potential for delivering collagen.
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Loss of AMP-activated protein kinase in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patient-derived fibroblasts and lymphocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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X-Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder characterized by accumulation of very-long-chain (VLC) fatty acids, which induces inflammatory disease and alterations in cellular redox, both of which are reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of the severe form of the disease (childhood cerebral ALD). While the mutation defect in ABCD1 gene is common to all forms of X-ALD it fails to account for the spectrum of phenotypic variability seen in X-ALD patients, strongly suggesting a role for as yet unidentified modifier gene(s). Here we report, for the first time, loss of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha1 (AMPK?1) in patient-derived fibroblasts and lymphocytes of the severe cerebral form of X-ALD (ALD), and not in the milder adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) form. Decrease in AMPK was observed at both protein and mRNA levels. AMPK loss in ALD patient-derived fibroblasts was associated with increased ubiquitination. Using the Seahorse Bioscience XF(e)96 Flux Analyzer for measuring the mitochondrial oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rate we show that ALD patient-derived fibroblasts have a significantly lower "metabolic state" than AMN fibroblasts. Unstimulated ALD patient-derived lymphocytes had significantly higher proinflammatory gene expression. Selective AMPK loss represents a novel physiopathogenic factor in X-ALD disease mechanism. Strategies aimed at upregulating/recovering AMPK levels might have beneficial therapeutic effects in X-ALD.
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Image guided radiofrequency thermo-ablation therapy of chondroblastomas: should it replace surgery?
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To assess the safety and effectiveness of image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) in the treatment of chondroblastomas as an alternative to surgery.
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Sleep problems among women with noncancerous gynecologic conditions.
J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with poor sleep quality and short sleep duration among women with noncancerous gynecologic conditions.
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Microneedle Integrated Transdermal Patch for Fast Onset and Sustained Delivery of Lidocaine.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Lidocaine as an analgesic is of particular interest in both acute and chronic pain conditions and is used via injections or transdermal patches. While injections are associated with problems such as patient incompliance, topical administration of lidocaine using patches is less efficient due to variability of drug absorption among individuals, slower drug permeation through the skin, and hence a resultant undesirable delay in analgesic effects. To address this clinical problem, we developed a microneedle integrated transdermal patch (MITP), using a photolithography based process, in which microneedles create micrometer-sized channels in the skin to deliver lidocaine rapidly, while the reservoir patch holding the bulk of the drug enables higher drug loading and carries on to release the drug for prolonged periods. We demonstrated a new approach of drug delivery using microneedles, where drugs diffuse out of microneedles through the porous channels left by dissolving drug particles. MITP was shown to be able to encapsulate up to 70 mg of lidocaine. In vitro permeation through rat skin demonstrated that MITP delivered a significantly higher amount of lidocaine than a commercial patch and with a faster onset of drug permeation.
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Effect of microneedle geometry and supporting substrate on microneedle array penetration into skin.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Microneedles are being fast recognized as a useful alternative to injections in delivering drugs, vaccines, and cosmetics transdermally. Owing to skins inherent elastic properties, microneedles require an optimal geometry for skin penetration. In vitro studies, using rat skin to characterize microneedle penetration in vivo, require substrates with suitable mechanical properties to mimic human skins subcutaneous tissues. We tested the effect of these two parameters on microneedle penetration. Geometry in terms of center-to-center spacing of needles was investigated for its effect on skin penetration, when placed on substrates of different hardness. Both hard (clay) and soft (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) substrates underneath rat skin and full-thickness pig skin were used as animal models and human skins were used as references. It was observed that there was an increase in percentage penetration with an increase in needle spacing. Microneedle penetration with PDMS as a support under stretched rat skin correlated better with that on full-thickness human skin, while penetration observed was higher when clay was used as a substrate. We showed optimal geometries for efficient penetration together with recommendation for a substrate that could better mimic the mechanical properties of human subcutaneous tissues, when using microneedles fabricated from poly(ethylene glycol)-based materials.
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The calcium binding protein EhCaBP6 is a microtubular-end binding protein in Entamoeba histolytica.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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The genome of Entamoeba histolytica encodes several calcium binding proteins and those characterized thus far have been shown to participate predominantly in phagocytosis and endocytosis. Our study showed that EhCaBP6 has two EF-hand domains EFI and EFIII; it can bind Ca(2+) in vitro and undergoes conformational transition on binding Ca(2+) suggesting that it can serve as a calcium signal sensor. EhCaBP6 is localized in the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane and is sensitive to heat stress. Unlike other Ca(2+) binding proteins that have been studied in E. histolytica, EhCaBP6 is found at microtubule ends and at the intercellular bridge with the microtubules during cytokinesis. Furthermore, increased expression of EhCaBP6 was correlated with a significant increase in the number of microtubular structures suggesting that this protein may regulate chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in E. histolytica.
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Prevalence of extraforaminal nerve root compression below lumbosacral transitional vertebrae.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Although pathology at the first mobile segment above a lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) is a known source of spinal symptoms, nerve root compression below an LSTV, has only sporadically been reported. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of nerve root entrapment below an LSTV, review the causes of entrapment, and correlate with presenting symptoms.
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Food microstructure and starch digestion.
Adv. Food Nutr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition.
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids induce polarized submembranous F-actin aggregates and kill Entamoeba histolytica.
Cytoskeleton (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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We have recently identified a novel galacto-glycerolipid (GGL) from the plant Oxalis corniculata that killed the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica. In this study, we show that the anti-amoebic activity of GGL was due to the polyunsaturated fatty acid ?-linolenic acid (C18:3 ) side chain. Treatment of ?-linolenic acid to E. histolytica trophozoites disrupted the cytoskeletal network and led to polarization of F-actin at one end of the cells with prominent filopodial extensions. In addition, clustering of surface receptors and signaling molecules was also observed adjacent to the polarized actin similar to concanavalin-A-(Con-A) induced capping. But, in contrast to Con-A-induced capping, ?-linolenic acid induced caps were not shed and showed accumulation of long and numerous filopodia at the cap site. We found that ?-linolenic acid disrupts the actin cytoskeletal network, which led to the detachment of plasma membrane from the underlying cytoskeleton. A similar effect was observed with other dietary fatty acids such as linoleic acid (C18:2 ), arachidonic acid (C20:4 ), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 ), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ). Our findings showed that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids are powerful anti-amoebic agents that lead to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton.
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Obesity, metabolic factors, and colorectal adenomas: a retrospective study in a racially diverse New York State Hospital.
J Gastrointest Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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We studied a racially diverse population and the relationship with colorectal adenomas (CA) further looking for risks related to BMI and metabolic factors.
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Esophageal sarcoidosis: a review of cases and an update.
ISRN Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Sarcoidosis is a chronic disorder that can virtually affect any organ system in the body. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of T lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, and noncaseating granulomas. Most commonly affected are the intrathoracic structures, with 90% of the reported cases involving the lungs. Esophageal involvement in sarcoidosis is extremely rare. Dysphagia is the most common presentation in these patients and can be attributed to various mechanisms such as direct esophageal wall infiltration, extrinsic compression, cranial neuropathy, and brainstem involvement. A thorough online literature review revealed only 23 reported cases of esophageal involvement in sarcoidosis. This paper reviews these reported cases in detail along with newer diagnostic and treatment options, including direction of future therapy.
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester induces adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd2) gene in human X-ALD fibroblasts and inhibits the proinflammatory response in Abcd1/2 silenced mouse primary astrocytes.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. Accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) that have been attributed to reduced peroxisomal VLCFA ?-oxidation activity are the hallmark of the disease. Overexpression of ABCD2 gene, the closest homolog of ABCD1, has been shown to compensate for ABCD1, thus correcting the VLCFA derangement. The accumulation of VLCFA leads to a neuroinflammatory disease process associated with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The present study underlines the importance of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in inducing the expression of ABCD2 (ALDRP), and normalizing the peroxisomal ?-oxidation as well as the levels of saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs in cultured human skin fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The expression of ELOVL1, the single elongase catalyzing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and mono-unsaturated VLCFA (C26:1), was also reduced by CAPE treatment. Importantly, CAPE upregulated Abcd2 expression and peroxisomal ?-oxidation and lowered the VLCFA levels in Abcd1-deficient U87 astrocytes and B12 oligodendrocytes. In addition, using Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes we examined the effects of CAPE in VLCFA-induced inflammatory response. CAPE treatment decreased the inflammatory response as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokine, and activation of NF-?B in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes was reduced. The observations indicate that CAPE corrects both the metabolic disease of VLCFA as well as secondary inflammatory disease; therefore, it may be a potential drug candidate to be tested for X-ALD therapy in humans.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitor upregulates peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibits apoptotic cell death in abcd1-deficient glial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1) and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal ?-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs) (1 and 3) in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVLs in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2) proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid) leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD.
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The AgI/II family adhesin AspA is required for respiratory infection by Streptococcus pyogenes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is a human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive diseases such as toxic shock syndrome and sepsis. The upper respiratory tract is the primary reservoir from which GAS can infect new hosts and cause disease. The factors involved in colonisation are incompletely known however. Previous evidence in oral streptococci has shown that the AgI/II family proteins are involved. We hypothesized that the AspA member of this family might be involved in GAS colonization. We describe a novel mouse model of GAS colonization of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract to elucidate these interactions. We used two clinical M serotypes expressing AspA, and their aspA gene deletant isogenic mutants in experiments using adherence assays to respiratory epithelium, macrophage phagocytosis and neutrophil killing assays and in vivo models of respiratory tract colonisation and infection. We demonstrated the requirement for AspA in colonization of the respiratory tract. AspA mutants were cleared from the respiratory tract and were deficient in adherence to epithelial cells, and susceptible to phagocytosis. Expression of AspA in the surrogate host Lactococcus lactis protected bacteria from phagocytosis. Our results suggest that AspA has an essential role in respiratory infection, and may function as a novel anti-phagocytic factor.
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The Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards: observations and limitations.
Med Sci Law
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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The recently introduced Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS), which came into force in April 2009, was created to protect the liberty of people lacking capacity admitted to care homes and hospitals in England and Wales. This paper discusses observations and some limitations of the DoLS for protecting the liberty of residents within institutional settings. The regulation, safeguards and recent relevant case law are examined critically. The author suggests that their effectiveness may be limited by the under-recognition of cases, ambiguity and limited safeguards within the statute. The paper concludes that the DoLS legislation has been a positive step towards protecting the liberty of those lacking capacity but that limitations present could undermine the purpose of the legislation.
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HDAC inhibitor SAHA normalizes the levels of VLCFAs in human skin fibroblasts from X-ALD patients and downregulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in Abcd1/2-silenced mouse astrocytes.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2011
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X-adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding the peroxisomal ABC transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP). The consistent metabolic abnormality in all forms of X-ALD is an inherited defect in the peroxisomal ?-oxidation of very long chain FAs (VLCFAs >C22:0) and the resultant pathognomic accumulation of VLCFA. The accumulation of VLCFA leads to a neuroinflammatory disease process associated with demyelination of the cerebral white matter. The present study underlines the importance of a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in inducing the expression of ABCD2 [adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP)], and normalizing the peroxisomal ?-oxidation, as well as the saturated and monounsaturated VLCFAs in cultured human skin fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The expression of ELOVL1, the single elongase catalyzing the synthesis of both saturated VLCFA (C26:0) and monounsaturated VLCFA (C26:1), was also reduced by SAHA treatment. In addition, using Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes, we also examined the effects of SAHA in VLCFA-induced inflammatory response. SAHA treatment decreased the inflammatory response as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, inflammatory cytokine, and activation of NF-?B in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes was reduced. These observations indicate that SAHA corrects both the metabolic disease of VLCFA as well as secondary inflammatory disease; therefore, it may be an ideal drug candidate to be tested for X-ALD therapy in humans.
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Colonic metastases from pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung presenting as an ileocecal intussusception.
ISRN Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Pleomorphic carcinoma is a rare aggressive type of lung cancer that uncommonly metastasizes to the bowel, leading to bleeding, perforation, obstruction, and rarely intussusception. Serving as a lead point, metastatic lesions in the bowel may precipitate intussusception and require immediate surgical intervention. We present a rare case of colonic metastases from a primary lung malignancy, causing ileocecal intussusception in a 57-year old male.
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Common variants at ABCA7, MS4A6A/MS4A4E, EPHA1, CD33 and CD2AP are associated with Alzheimers disease.
Paul Hollingworth, Denise Harold, Rebecca Sims, Amy Gerrish, Jean-Charles Lambert, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Richard Abraham, Marian L Hamshere, Jaspreet Singh Pahwa, Valentina Moskvina, Kimberley Dowzell, Nicola Jones, Alexandra Stretton, Charlene Thomas, Alex Richards, Dobril Ivanov, Caroline Widdowson, Jade Chapman, Simon Lovestone, John Powell, Petroula Proitsi, Michelle K Lupton, Carol Brayne, David C Rubinsztein, Michael Gill, Brian Lawlor, Aoibhinn Lynch, Kristelle S Brown, Peter A Passmore, David Craig, Bernadette McGuinness, Stephen Todd, Clive Holmes, David Mann, A David Smith, Helen Beaumont, Donald Warden, Gordon Wilcock, Seth Love, Patrick G Kehoe, Nigel M Hooper, Emma R L C Vardy, John Hardy, Simon Mead, Nick C Fox, Martin Rossor, John Collinge, Wolfgang Maier, Frank Jessen, Eckart Rüther, Britta Schürmann, Reiner Heun, Heike Kölsch, Hendrik van den Bussche, Isabella Heuser, Johannes Kornhuber, Jens Wiltfang, Martin Dichgans, Lutz Frölich, Harald Hampel, John Gallacher, Michael Hüll, Dan Rujescu, Ina Giegling, Alison M Goate, John S K Kauwe, Carlos Cruchaga, Petra Nowotny, John C Morris, Kevin Mayo, Kristel Sleegers, Karolien Bettens, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Peter P De Deyn, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Gill Livingston, Nicholas J Bass, Hugh Gurling, Andrew McQuillin, Rhian Gwilliam, Panagiotis Deloukas, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Christopher E Shaw, Magda Tsolaki, Andrew B Singleton, Rita Guerreiro, Thomas W Mühleisen, Markus M Nöthen, Susanne Moebus, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Norman Klopp, H-Erich Wichmann, V Shane Pankratz, Sigrid B Sando, Jan O Aasly, Maria Barcikowska, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson, Neill R Graff-Radford, Ronald C Petersen, , Cornelia M van Duijn, Monique M B Breteler, M Arfan Ikram, Anita L Destefano, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Oscar Lopez, Lenore J Launer, Sudha Seshadri, Claudine Berr, Dominique Campion, Jacques Epelbaum, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Christophe Tzourio, Annick Alpérovitch, Mark Lathrop, Thomas M Feulner, Patricia Friedrich, Caterina Riehle, Michael Krawczak, Stefan Schreiber, Manuel Mayhaus, S Nicolhaus, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Stacy Steinberg, Hreinn Stefansson, Kari Stefansson, Jón Snaedal, Sigurbjorn Bjornsson, Palmi V Jonsson, Vincent Chouraki, Benjamin Genier-Boley, Mikko Hiltunen, Hilkka Soininen, Onofre Combarros, Diana Zelenika, Marc Delepine, María J Bullido, Florence Pasquier, Ignacio Mateo, Ana Frank-García, Elisa Porcellini, Olivier Hanon, Eliecer Coto, Victoria Alvarez, Paolo Bosco, Gabriele Siciliano, Michelangelo Mancuso, Francesco Panza, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Benedetta Nacmias, Sandro Sorbi, Paola Bossù, Paola Piccardi, Beatrice Arosio, Giorgio Annoni, Davide Seripa, Alberto Pilotto, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti, Alexis Brice, Didier Hannequin, Federico Licastro, Lesley Jones, Peter A Holmans, Thorlakur Jonsson, Matthias Riemenschneider, Kevin Morgan, Steven G Younkin, Michael J Owen, Michael O'Donovan, Philippe Amouyel, Julie Williams.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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We sought to identify new susceptibility loci for Alzheimers disease through a staged association study (GERAD+) and by testing suggestive loci reported by the Alzheimers Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC) in a companion paper. We undertook a combined analysis of four genome-wide association datasets (stage 1) and identified ten newly associated variants with P ? 1 × 10(-5). We tested these variants for association in an independent sample (stage 2). Three SNPs at two loci replicated and showed evidence for association in a further sample (stage 3). Meta-analyses of all data provided compelling evidence that ABCA7 (rs3764650, meta P = 4.5 × 10(-17); including ADGC data, meta P = 5.0 × 10(-21)) and the MS4A gene cluster (rs610932, meta P = 1.8 × 10(-14); including ADGC data, meta P = 1.2 × 10(-16)) are new Alzheimers disease susceptibility loci. We also found independent evidence for association for three loci reported by the ADGC, which, when combined, showed genome-wide significance: CD2AP (GERAD+, P = 8.0 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 8.6 × 10(-9)), CD33 (GERAD+, P = 2.2 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 1.6 × 10(-9)) and EPHA1 (GERAD+, P = 3.4 × 10(-4); including ADGC data, meta P = 6.0 × 10(-10)).
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No evidence that extended tracts of homozygosity are associated with Alzheimers disease.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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We sought to investigate the contribution of extended runs of homozygosity in a genome-wide association dataset of 1,955 Alzheimers disease cases and 955 elderly screened controls genotyped for 529,205 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms. Tracts of homozygosity may mark regions inherited from a common ancestor and could reflect disease loci if observed more frequently in cases than controls. We found no excess of homozygous tracts in Alzheimers disease cases compared to controls and no individual run of homozygosity showed association to Alzheimers disease.
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Outcome of cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation in children.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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To report the results of paediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.
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Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Stomach: A Lethal Entity.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
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Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the stomach is a rare and aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis that was first described in 1976 by Matsusaka et al. In 1989 it was recognized by the World Health Organization as an independent entity affecting the stomach. Pure and composite are the two types of gastric small cell carcinoma reported in the literature. We report a case of a 68-year-old African American male with metastatic pure-type extrapulmonary small cell cancer of the stomach. The primary lesion measured approximately 7 cm in diameter on endoscopy. The diagnosis was made on the basis of characteristic histological features of small, round, oval lymphocyte-like cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, and scant cytoplasm consistent with small cell carcinoma. Gastric small cell carcinoma is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage as demonstrated in our case. We conducted a literature review discussing the two types of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the stomach and their prevalence.
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Enhancing prostate cancer care through the multidisciplinary clinic approach: a 15-year experience.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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To report on the 15-year prostate cancer experience of our multidisciplinary genitourinary cancer clinic established in 1996 at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) -designated Jefferson Kimmel Cancer Center. Patients with genitourinary cancers were evaluated weekly by multiple specialists at a single site, and we focus on the 83% of patients with prostate cancer. To our knowledge, our multidisciplinary genitourinary cancer clinic is the longest continuously operating center of its kind at an NCI Cancer Center in the United States.
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Is there an optimal management for localized prostate cancer?
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Widespread screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has led to a significant increase in the detection of early stage, clinically localized prostate cancer (CaP). Various treatment options for localized CaP are discussed in this review article including active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and cryotherapy. The paucity of high-level evidence adds a considerable amount of controversy when choosing the "optimal" intervention, for both the treating physician and the patient. The long time course of CaP intervention outcomes, combined with continuing modifications in treatments, further complicate the matter. Lacking randomized trials that compare treatment options, this review article attempts to summarize the different treatment options and associated side-effects, including effects on health-related quality of life, from current published literature.
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Genetic evidence implicates the immune system and cholesterol metabolism in the aetiology of Alzheimers disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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Late Onset Alzheimers disease (LOAD) is the leading cause of dementia. Recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the first strongly supported LOAD susceptibility genes since the discovery of the involvement of APOE in the early 1990s. We have now exploited these GWAS datasets to uncover key LOAD pathophysiological processes.
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Hormone therapy in the management of prostate cancer: evidence-based approaches.
Ther Adv Urol
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Hormonal therapy has been the standard for advanced prostate cancer for over 60 years. Recently, the utility of androgen ablation through various means has been demonstrated for earlier stages of disease. In particular, the strongest evidence to date involves the use of hormonal therapy in combination with radiation therapy. In this article we review the basic concepts in hormonal ablation for prostate cancer and review the evidence-based studies that support the use of hormonal therapy in early stage prostate cancer.
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The quality-of-life impact of prostate cancer treatments.
Curr Urol Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Many options exist for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. In the decision to choose a therapeutic option for localized disease, many variables need to be considered such as tumor characteristics, clinical stage, the patients overall health and life expectancy, and preferences of both the physician and patient. Another important consideration is the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) implications of a given treatment option. The importance of HRQOL relative to the potential side effects of prostate cancer treatments has grown over the past few years. Although our collective awareness has increased, objective data on HRQOL for prostate cancer treatment are lacking due to a paucity of prospective clinical trial data. This review defines the concept of HRQOL, discusses what is currently known about the impact of various treatments on HRQOL, and summarizes the recent literature in this area relating to the management of localized prostate cancer.
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Very long-chain fatty acid accumulation causes lipotoxic response via 5-lipoxygenase in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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Childhood adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) is a metabolic disorder in which very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) accumulate due to ALD protein gene defects, ultimately leading to lipotoxicity-induced neuroinflammatory demyelinating disease. Therefore, we examined VLCFA-mediated alterations in the metabolism of lipoxidative enzymes and inflammatory mediators in the cALD brain. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-derived leukotrienes were significantly elevated in all the areas of white matter in the cALD brain. Unlike cyclooxygenase-2 expression, which was moderately high only in the plaque area, expression of 5-LOX and cytosolic phospholipase A2 was prominent in all the areas. This lipoxidative burden in the cALD brain was further shown by reduced levels of glutathione and enhanced expression of heat shock protein-70/manganese superoxide dismutase. These pathological observations were confirmed through in vitro mechanistic investigation. After increasing VLCFA through silencing Abcd1+Abcd2 in mouse primary astrocytes, enhanced expression of 5-LOX was observed, and this increased expression was blocked by treatment with monoenoic fatty acids. These results link the previously observed accumulation of VLCFA in cALD to the 5-LOX enzyme pathway. A similar increase in 5-LOX expression in astrocytes was also detected following treatment with exogenous VLCFA (C26:0). In sum, through 5-LOX activation, VLCFA accumulation causes a lipotoxic response consistent with cALD brain pathology.
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Suitability of village pond waters for irrigation-a case study from district Ludhiana, India.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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The village ponds were used for storing rainwater for animals and recharging of underground water. Recent developments like public water supply for household purpose, provision of household wastewater concrete channels, and toilet septic tanks have polluted the village ponds. The infiltration of water has decreased due to non-cleaning of silt from the pond beds. Increased discharge of wastewater from households, coupled with a low infiltration rate, has inundated these ponds. People have abandoned the use of this water for animals. An effort has been made to assess the suitability of this water for irrigation in the vicinity so as to clean these ponds. Seventy-eight water samples were collected from the village ponds in the Ludhiana district of Punjab. The samples were analyzed for total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), nitrogen, water soluble P and K, as well as micronutrients and pollutant elements. The total solids content of these waters were on the higher side. Considering TSS, BOD, and COD, some of these waters are unsafe for their disposal in river or water bodies. Electrical conductivity ranged from 693 to 5050 ?mhos/cm, and RSC varied between -1.9 and 22.8 meq/l. The inorganic N (NH+?+ NO-?-N) and total Kjeldahl N ranged from 3 to 30 and 8 to 41 mg/l, respectively. The amount of micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn) present in pond water indicated its high nutrient value. The content of the pollutant elements such as nickel, cadmium, and lead was below the maximum permissible limits, thereby indicating its suitability for irrigation. According to the EC and RSC criteria, 18% of the samples were fit, 31% were marginal, and 51% were unfit for irrigation. The data indicate that these waters are a good source of nutrients for agriculture.
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High defibrillation threshold: the science, signs and solutions.
Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing has traditionally been an integral part of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. With the increasing number of patients receiving ICDs, physicians are encountering high DFT more often than before. Tackling the problem of high DFT, warrants an in-depth understanding of the science of defibrillation including the key electrophysiological concepts and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Numerous factors have been implicated in the causation of high DFT. Due consideration to the past medical history, pharmacotherapy, laboratory data and cardiac imaging, help in assessing the pre-procedural risk for occurrence of high DFT. Drugs, procedural changes, type and location of ICD lead system are some of the key players in predicting DFT during implantation. In the event of encountering an unacceptably high DFT, we recommend to follow a step-wise algorithm. Ruling out procedural complications like pneumothorax and tamponade is imperative before embarking on a search for potentially reversible clinical or metabolic derangements. Finally, if these attempts fail, the electrophysiologist must choose from a wide range of options for device adjustment and system modification. Although this review article is meant to be a treatise on the science, signs and solutions for high DFT, it is bound by limitations of space and scope of the article.
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Polymorphism of BMPR1B, BMP15 and GDF9 fecundity genes in prolific Garole sheep.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2009
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Mutation studies in different prolific sheep breeds have shown that the transforming growth factor beta super family ligands viz. the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9/FecG), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15/FecX) and associated type I receptors, bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR1B/FecB), are major determinant of ovulation rate and consequent increase in litter size. The Garole sheep is a highly prolific sheep breed of India. Characterization of fecundity genes in these animals could substantially improvise the breeding programme in these animals as well as other sheep breeds of the region. The present study was therefore designed with the objective of polymorphism study of fecundity genes in these prolific microsheep. A total of 11 point mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. A competitive technique called tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR was adapted to type a total of ten points of two ovine fecundity genes (GDF9 and BMP15). The FecB locus of the BMPR1B gene and G1 locus of GDF9 gene were found to be polymorphic. In FecB locus, two genotypes, wild type (FecB(+)) and mutant (FecBB), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.39 and 0.61, respectively. At G1 locus, two genotypes, mutant (A) and wild types (G) were detected with allele frequencies of 0.18 and 0.82, respectively. This study reports Garole sheep as the fourth sheep breed after Belclare/Cambridge, Lacaune and Small-tailed Han sheep, where coexisting polymorphism has been found in two different fecundity genes (BMPRIB and GDF9 genes).
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Characterization of gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia): a structural and rheological approach.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Gatifolia, a commercial gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia) product was studied for its structural, thermal, and rheological characteristics. This study may prove helpful for the use of gum ghatti in a diverse range of food applications. The molecular weight (M(W)) and R(g) (radius of gyration) for gum ghatti were calculated to be approximately 8.94 x 10(7) g/mol and 140 nm, respectively, using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Gum ghatti solutions exhibited pseudoplastic behavior (as determined by flow experiments), which became more prevalent with increasing concentrations. Gum ghatti also displayed time-dependent shear-thickening behavior and showed negative hysteresis during up-down flow measurements. Under the measurement conditions at the range of frequencies and temperatures studied, the gum did not behave as a typical viscoelastic gel.
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Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimers disease.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Alzheimers disease (AD) involving over 16,000 individuals, the most powerful AD GWAS to date. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus (most significant SNP, rs2075650, P = 1.8 x 10(-157)) and observed genome-wide significant association with SNPs at two loci not previously associated with the disease: at the CLU (also known as APOJ) gene (rs11136000, P = 1.4 x 10(-9)) and 5 to the PICALM gene (rs3851179, P = 1.9 x 10(-8)). These associations were replicated in stage 2 (2,023 cases and 2,340 controls), producing compelling evidence for association with Alzheimers disease in the combined dataset (rs11136000, P = 8.5 x 10(-10), odds ratio = 0.86; rs3851179, P = 1.3 x 10(-9), odds ratio = 0.86).
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Silencing of Abcd1 and Abcd2 genes sensitizes astrocytes for inflammation: implication for X-adrenoleukodystrophy.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a metabolic disorder arising from a mutation/deletion in the ABCD1 gene, leading to a defect in the peroxisomal adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), which inhibits the oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Thus, these VLCFAs accumulate. In a cerebral form of ALD (cALD), VLCFA accumulation induces neuroinflammation that leads to loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin, which ultimately shortens the lifespan. To establish a relationship between the metabolic disease and inflammatory disease induction, we document that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of Abcd1 (ALDP) and Abcd2 [adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP)] genes in mice primary astrocyte cultures resulted in accumulation of VLCFA and induction of an inflammatory response characteristic of human cALD. Correction of the metabolic defect using monoenoic FAs in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced cultured astrocytes decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting a link between VLCFA accumulation and inflammation. The inflammatory response was found to be mediated by transcription factors NF-kappaB, AP-1, and C/EBP in Abcd1/Abcd2-silenced mouse primary astrocytes. Although mechanisms of VLCFA-mediated induction of the inflammatory response have been investigated here in vitro, the in vivo mediators remain elusive. Our data represent the first study to suggest a direct link between the accumulation of VLCFA and the induction of inflammatory mediators.
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Gene ontology analysis of GWA study data sets provides insights into the biology of bipolar disorder.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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We present a method for testing overrepresentation of biological pathways, indexed by gene-ontology terms, in lists of significant SNPs from genome-wide association studies. This method corrects for linkage disequilibrium between SNPs, variable gene size, and multiple testing of nonindependent pathways. The method was applied to the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium Crohn disease (CD) data set. At a general level, the biological basis of CD is relatively well known for a complex genetic trait, and it thus acted as a test of the method. The method, known as ALIGATOR (Association LIst Go AnnoTatOR), successfully detected biological pathways implicated in CD. The method was also applied to a meta-analysis of bipolar disorder, and it implicated the modulation of transcription and cellular activity, including that which occurs via hormonal action, as an important player in pathogenesis.
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Transcriptional regulation of PSA-NCAM expression by NMDA receptor activation in RA-differentiated C6 glioma cultures.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors exhibit a dichotomy of signaling with both toxic and plastic responses. Recent reports have shown that exposure to subtoxic concentration of NMDA results in a neuroprotective state that was measured when these neurons were subsequently challenged with toxic doses of glutamate or kainate. Control of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression by NMDA receptor activation has been described in several systems, suggesting a functional link between these two proteins. The perception of glial role in CNS function has changed dramatically over the past few years from simple trophic functions to that of cells with important roles in development and maintenance of CNS in cooperation with neurons. We report here the transcriptional regulation of PSA-NCAM expression by subtoxic dose of NMDA in retinoic acid differentiated C6 glioma cell cultures. C6 glioma cell cultures differentiated with retinoic acid (10microM) were exposed to NMDA (100microM) or to antagonist MK-801 (200nM) prior to treatment with NMDA and cells were harvested after 24h of treatment to study the expression of total NCAM, PSA-NCAM, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) by Western blotting and dual immunocytofluorescence and expression of PST mRNA by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Significant increase in the levels of PSA-NCAM, NF-kappaB, AP-1 and PST mRNA was observed in NMDA treated cultures. Treatment of cultures with MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prior to NMDA exposure prevented the NMDA-mediated changes indicating the involvement of NMDA receptor activation. The results elucidate the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of regulation of PSA-NCAM expression in astroglial cultures by extracellular signals.
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Diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of intestine in selective IgG 2 subclass deficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: case report and literature review.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
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Diffuse Nodular Lymphoid Hyperplasia (DNLH) of the intestine is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain etiology, which is characterized by the presence of multiple nodular lesions. It can present as an asymptomatic disease or manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms like abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, occult bleeding or rarely intestinal obstruction. DNLH has been seen in association with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) where it poses a risk of malignant transformation. We present a case of diffuse lymphoid nodular lymphoid hyperplasia in a patient who was presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea, and was later found to have IgG2 subclass immunodeficieny, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Hashimotos (autoimmune) thyroiditis. Through this report, we wish to review current literature as well as share our clinical experience in managing this rare entity.
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A miniaturized flow-through cell to evaluate skin permeation of endoxifen.
Int J Pharm
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Endoxifen, an anti-estrogenic agent, has been recently implicated in the use of breast cancer. Its physicochemical properties make it a good candidate for transdermal delivery. However, as an investigative drug, its limited supply makes it difficult to conduct extensive pre-formulation studies. To address this issue, a miniaturized flow-through diffusion cell has been fabricated that utilized minimal amounts of the drug for in vitro skin permeation studies. The novel flow-through cells have been validated against horizontal diffusion cells and shown to cause no noticeable damage to the applied skin, as observed by histological sectioning. The cells were also demonstrated to be useful in search of suitable enhancers for endoxifen. Endoxifen permeation using permeation enhancers was tested by using this new device and limonene was found to achieve highest flux, attaining the requirement for clinical applications. The fabricated cells can thus be useful in carrying out pre-formulation studies for expensive, new drug entities, both in industrial as well as academic research.
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Gastrobronchial fistula following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.
BMJ Case Rep
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Acquired fistulas between the tracheobronchial tree and the gastrointestinal tract are rare but serious complications of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies with significant morbidity and mortality. With the rising popularity and widespread acceptance of bariatric surgery techniques, the occurrence of gastrobronchial fistulas is being increasingly recognised. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity and presented later with a history of chronic productive cough. Upper gastrointestinal series showed the presence of a communicating fistula between the stomach and the lung, with extravasation of contrast into the lung. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering the diagnosis of a gastrobronchial fistula in cases of persistent respiratory infections in the postoperative period following bariatric surgery and to review its incidence, clinical manifestations and treatment.
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A case report of eosinophilic esophagitis accompanying hypereosinophilic syndrome.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med
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Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of eosinophils in the bone marrow with persistent peripheral eosinophilia, associated with organ damage by the release of eosinophilic mediators. Although HES can involve multiple organ systems, GI tract involvement is very rare. Few cases of HES presenting with gastritis or enteritis have been reported worldwide. To date, HES presenting with esophagus involvement has only been reported once. Here, we present a 39-year-old Hispanic female patient with history of HES presenting with complaints of dysphagia and generalized pruritus.
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Subchondral impaction fractures of the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle.
Skeletal Radiol.
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To document the first report of intra-articular, non-weight-bearing, impaction fractures of the lateral femoral condyle.
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Protein encapsulation in polymeric microneedles by photolithography.
Int J Nanomedicine
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Recent interest in biocompatible polymeric microneedles for the delivery of biomolecules has propelled considerable interest in fabrication of microneedles. It is important that the fabrication process is feasible for drug encapsulation and compatible with the stability of the drug in question. Moreover, drug encapsulation may offer the advantage of higher drug loading compared with other technologies, such as drug coating.
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Pain from a Bullet Lingers on: An Uncommon Case of Lead Toxicity.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
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Lead toxicity from a retained bullet as a cause for abdominal pain is rarely considered. Given its unpredictable latent period and nonspecific clinical symptoms, such cases are difficult to diagnose but may be fatal if unrecognized. We present the case of a 48-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain, weight loss and constipation. His past history was significant for a gunshot wound to the left hip about 20 years before. Radiographic studies confirmed the same with the presence of numerous intra-articular bullet fragments and a calcified hemarthrosis surrounding the left femoral head. Blood lead levels were elevated following which the patient was started on chelation therapy with succimer which resulted in symptomatic improvement. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of considering lead toxicity from a retained bullet as a cause of abdominal pain and to review the relevant literature.
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Acute pancreatitis induced by methimazole therapy.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
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Among the causative factors for acute pancreatitis, adverse drug reactions are considered to be rare. The diagnosis of drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) is challenging to establish, and is often underestimated because of the difficulties in determining the causative agent and the need for a retrospective re-evaluation of the suspected agent. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with complaints of abdominal pain. Her medications included methimazole (MMI) which she had been on for the past 3 months. Computed tomography of her abdomen showed peripancreatic fat stranding with trace amount of surrounding fluid, along with amylase and lipase levels suggestive of acute pancreatitis. In the absence of classical risk factors for acute pancreatitis, a diagnosis of DIP secondary to MMI use was made. Withdrawal of the drug from her medication regimen was accompanied by relief of symptoms and resolution of clinical evidence of pancreatitis. The aim of this paper is to report only the fourth case of MMI-induced pancreatitis in the published literature, and to illustrate the significance of an appropriate and timely diagnosis of DIP.
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Endoscopic management of a primary duodenal carcinoid tumor.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
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Carcinoids are rare, slow-growing tumors originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. They are identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts and by positive reactions to neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of anemia. Upper endoscopy showed a duodenal bulb mass around 1 cm in size. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining were consistent with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Further imaging and endoscopic studies showed no other synchronous carcinoid lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed a 1 cm lesion confined to the mucosa and no local lymphadenopathy. Successful endoscopic mucosal resection of the mass was performed. Follow-up surveillance 6 months later with EUS and Octreoscan revealed no new lesions suggestive of recurrence. No consensus guidelines exist for the endoscopic management of duodenal carcinoid tumors. However, endoscopic resection is safe and preferred for tumors measuring 1 cm or less with no evidence of invasion of the muscularis layer.
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Successful management of a gastric sleeve leak with an endoscopic stent.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med
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Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has been a recently developed technique for treating morbid obesity. Gagner and Patterson performed the first laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as part of a duodenal switch procedure at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York in 1999. Since then many surgeons and institutions have adopted this technique. One of the most dreaded complications of sleeve gastrectomy is a leak along the staple line. We present the case of a 23-year-old female with gastric sleeve leak managed successfully with a fully covered wall flex stent. Our aim is to examine the incidence, causes, classification, and presentation of gastric sleeve leaks and to evaluate the use of endoscopic stents in its management.
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A simple method of microneedle array fabrication for transdermal drug delivery.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
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The outermost layer of skin, stratum corneum, being lipophilic limits the passive transport of hydrophilic and large molecular weight drugs. Microfabrication technology has been adapted to fabricate micron scale needles, which are minimally invasive, yet able to deliver the drugs across this barrier layer. In this study, we fabricated microneedles from a biocompatible polymer, namely, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate. A simple lithographical approach was developed for microneedle array fabrication. Several factors including polymerization time, ultraviolet light intensity and distance from light source were studied for their effects on microneedle formation. The microneedle length and tip diameter can be controlled by varying these factors. The microneedles were shown to be able to penetrate cadaver pig skin. Model drug rhodamine B was encapsulated in the range of 50 µg to 450 µg per microneedle array. The fabricated microneedles containing rhodamine B increased the permeability by four times than the control. Altogether, we demonstrated that the microneedle arrays can be fabricated through a simple single-step process and needles were mechanically strong to penetrate skin, increasing the permeability of encapsulated drug through skin.
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Oral haemangioma.
Case Rep Med
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Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.
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Entrapped intralesional marrow: a hitherto undescribed imaging feature of benign notochordal cell tumour.
Skeletal Radiol.
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We report two cases of histologically proven benign notochordal cell tumour (BNCT) with imaging evidence of entrapped intralesional marrow and discuss the relevance of previously undescribed imaging feature.
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