CD66b is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen family, which mediates the adhesion between neutrophils and to endothelial cells. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is widely used to treat allergic diseases, and the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapy are poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to analyze A) the in vitro effect of allergens and immunotherapy on cell-surface CD66b expression of neutrophils from patients with allergic asthma and rhinitis and B) the in vivo effect of immunotherapy on cell-surface CD66b expression of neutrophils from nasal lavage fluid during the spring season. Myeloperoxidase expression and activity was also analyzed in nasal lavage fluid as a general marker of neutrophil activation. Results: CD66b cell-surface expression is upregulated in vitro in response to allergens, and significantly reduced by immunotherapy (p<0.001). Myeloperoxidase activity in nasal lavage fluid was also significantly reduced by immunotherapy, as were the neutrophil cell-surface expression of CD66b and myeloperoxidase (p<0.001). Interestingly, CD66b expression was higher in neutrophils from nasal lavage fluid than those from peripheral blood, and immunotherapy reduced the number of CD66+MPO+ cells in nasal lavage fluid. Thus, immunotherapy positive effects might, at least in part, be mediated by the negative regulation of the CD66b and myeloperoxidase activity in human neutrophils.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) is widely used to treat allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms have not been clarified yet completely. The present work was undertaken to analyze the effect of IT in the activation of NF-?B.
Histamine is an important mediator in the development of allergic reactions. Only a small subset of human cell types is able to produce histamine. No previous studies have shown that human neutrophils are among them. The present work was undertaken to analyze whether human neutrophils produce histamine, and to determine what agonists are involved in histamine production by human neutrophils. The expression of histidine decarboxylase in human neutrophils was established by quantitative PCR, Western blotting, and flow cytometry analysis. The activity of the enzyme was determined by ELISA, which measured histamine in the culture supernatant of neutrophils stimulated with a set of classical agonists. Human neutrophils are bona fide histamine-producing cells. Neutrophils store ?0.29 pg/cell and release ?50% of the histamine content in an antigen-dependent manner and on stimulation with other neutrophil agonists. Basal expression of histidine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in histamine production, is higher in neutrophils from patients with allergies than from healthy donors. Our results cannot be ascribed to cell contamination for several reasons. LPS failed to induce histamine release by basophils, whereas it induced histamine release by neutrophils; and we did not detect basophils, monocytes, or lymphocytes in our neutrophil preparations. Eosinophils, albeit detected, were only 0.001-0.004% of the final cell population, and they did not store or release histamine on antigen or LPS stimulation. Antigens to which patients with allergies were sensitized stimulated release of histamine from neutrophils. These observations represent a novel view of neutrophils as possible source of histamine in the allergic diseases.
Studies indicate that both alterations in leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and the renin angiotensin system are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis processes in human hypertension. The present work was undertaken to investigate whether angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates the expression of CD62L on human neutrophils. Human neutrophils were stimulated with Ang II in the presence of various AT1-receptor antagonists and protein kinase inhibitors, and CD62L cell surface expression was detected by flow cytometry. We report for the first time that Ang II down-regulated CD62L from the surface of human neutrophils, a process which was independent of neutrophil adhesion to endothelium since neutrophils were still able to adhere to human umbilical vein endothelial cells even under doses that almost completely release CD62L from the cell surface. This process occurred through pathways involving AT1 receptors, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and calcineurin, ruling out a role for p38 MAPK and small GTPases in the process.
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