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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantification of HDL Particle Concentration by Calibrated Ion Mobility Analysis.
Clin. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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It is critical to develop new metrics to determine whether HDL is cardioprotective in humans. One promising approach is HDL particle concentration (HDL-P), the size and concentration of HDL in plasma. However, the 2 methods currently used to determine HDL-P yield concentrations that differ >5-fold. We therefore developed and validated an improved approach to quantify HDL-P, termed calibrated ion mobility analysis (calibrated IMA).
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Macrophage metalloelastase (MMP12) regulates adipose tissue expansion, insulin sensitivity, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Macrophage metalloelastase, a matrix metallopeptidase (MMP12) predominantly expressed by mature tissue macrophages, is implicated in pathological processes. However, physiological functions for MMP12 have not been described. Because mRNA levels for the enzyme increase markedly in adipose tissue of obese mice, we investigated the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue expansion and insulin resistance. In humans, MMP12 expression correlated positively and significantly with insulin resistance, TNF-? expression, and the number of CD14(+)CD206(+) macrophages in adipose tissue. MMP12 was the most abundant matrix metallopeptidase detected by proteomic analysis of conditioned medium of M2 macrophages and dendritic cells. In contrast, it was detected only at low levels in bone marrow derived macrophages and M1 macrophages. When mice received a high-fat diet, adipose tissue mass increased and CD11b(+)F4/80(+)CD11c(-) macrophages accumulated to a greater extent in MMP12-deficient (Mmp12(-/-)) mice than in wild-type mice (Mmp12(+/+)). Despite being markedly more obese, fat-fed Mmp12(-/-) mice were more insulin sensitive than fat-fed Mmp12(+/+) mice. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2) by Mmp12(-/-) macrophages was significantly impaired both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that MMP12 might mediate nitric oxide production during inflammation. We propose that MMP12 acts as a double-edged sword by promoting insulin resistance while combatting adipose tissue expansion.
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Neutrophil extracellular trap-derived enzymes oxidize high-density lipoprotein: an additional proatherogenic mechanism in systemic lupus erythematosus.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Oxidative stress and oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) are implicated as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Yet, how HDL is oxidized and rendered dysfunctional in SLE remains unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), the levels of which are elevated in lupus, possess oxidant-generating enzymes, including myeloperoxidase (MPO), NADPH oxidase (NOX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that NETs mediate HDL oxidation, impairing cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC).
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Humans with atherosclerosis have impaired ABCA1 cholesterol efflux and enhanced high-density lipoprotein oxidation by myeloperoxidase.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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The efflux capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with cultured macrophages associates strongly and negatively with coronary artery disease status, indicating that impaired sterol efflux capacity might be a marker-and perhaps mediator-of atherosclerotic burden. However, the mechanisms that contribute to impaired sterol efflux capacity remain poorly understood.
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Conservation of apolipoprotein A-Is central domain structural elements upon lipid association on different high-density lipoprotein subclasses.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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The antiatherogenic properties of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are derived, in part, from lipidation-state-dependent structural elements that manifest at different stages of apoA-Is progression from lipid-free protein to spherical high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Previously, we reported the structure of apoA-Is N-terminus on reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) of different sizes. We have now investigated at the single-residue level the conformational adaptations of three regions in the central domain of apoA-I (residues 119-124, 139-144, and 164-170) upon apoA-I lipid binding and HDL formation. An important function associated with these residues of apoA-I is the activation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the enzyme responsible for catalyzing HDL maturation. Structural examination was performed by site-directed tryptophan fluorescence and spin-label electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies for both the lipid-free protein and rHDL particles 7.8, 8.4, and 9.6 nm in diameter. The two methods provide complementary information about residue side chain mobility and molecular accessibility, as well as the polarity of the local environment at the targeted positions. The modulation of these biophysical parameters yielded new insight into the importance of structural elements in the central domain of apoA-I. In particular, we determined that the loosely lipid-associated structure of residues 134-145 is conserved in all rHDL particles. Truncation of this region completely abolished LCAT activation but did not significantly affect rHDL size, reaffirming the important role of this structural element in HDL function.
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Resident renal mononuclear phagocytes comprise five discrete populations with distinct phenotypes and functions.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Recent reports have highlighted greater complexity, plasticity, and functional diversity of mononuclear phagocytes (MPCs), including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs), in our organs than previously understood. The functions and origins of MPCs resident within healthy organs, especially in the kidney, are less well understood, whereas studies suggest they play roles in disease states distinct from recruited monocytes. We developed an unbiased approach using flow cytometry to analyze MPCs residing in the normal mouse kidney, and identified five discrete subpopulations according to CD11b/CD11c expression as well as F4/80, CD103, CD14, CD16, and CD64 expression. In addition to distinct marker profiles, these subpopulations have different lineages and expression of genes involved in tissue homeostasis, including angiogenesis. Among them, the CD11b(int)CD11c(int) F4/80(high) subpopulation notably exhibited high capacity to produce a representative anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Each subpopulation had different degrees of both macrophage (phagocytosis) and DC (Ag presentation) capacities, with a tendency to promote differentiation of regulatory T cells, whereas two of these showed expression of transcription factors reported to be highly expressed by classical DCs, and proclivity to exit the kidney following stimulation with LPS. In summary, resident kidney MPCs comprise discrete subpopulations, which cannot be simply classified into the conventional entities, and they produce anti-inflammatory and tissue-homeostatic factors to differing degrees.
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High-density lipoproteins: a consensus statement from the National Lipid Association.
J Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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For >4 decades it has been recognized that elevated serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its sequelae. Many prospective observational studies performed around the world have confirmed an inverse relationship between HDL-C and cardiovascular risk in people irrespective of sex, race, or ethnicity. Consequently, it was assumed that, by extension, raising HDL-C through lifestyle modification and pharmacologic intervention would reduce risk of CVD. Animal studies are consistent with this assumption. Lipid treatment guidelines around the world promoted the recognition of HDL-C as a therapeutic target, especially in high-risk patients. Some post hoc analyses from randomized controlled trials also suggest that raising HDL-C beneficially affects the risk of CVD. However, a number of recent randomized studies putatively designed to test the "HDL hypothesis" have failed to show benefit. The results of these trials have caused many clinicians to question whether HDL-C is a legitimate therapeutic target. In response to the many questions and uncertainties raised by the results of these trials, the National Lipid Association convened an expert panel to evaluate the current status of HDL-C as a therapeutic target; to review the current state of knowledge of HDL particle structure, composition, and function; and to identify the salient questions yet to be answered about the role of HDL in either preventing or contributing to atherosclerotic disease. The expert panels conclusions and clinical recommendations are summarized herein. The panel concludes that, although low HDL-C identifies patients at elevated risk, and much investigation suggests that HDL may play a variety of antiatherogenic roles, HDL-C is not a therapeutic target at the present time. Risk stratified atherogenic lipoprotein burden (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-HDL-C) should remain the primary and secondary targets of therapy in patients at risk, as described by established guidelines. The National Lipid Association emphasizes that rigorous research into the biology and clinical significance of low HDL-C should continue. The development of novel drugs designed to modulate the serum levels and functionality of HDL particles should also continue. On the basis of an enormous amount of basic scientific and clinical investigation, a considerable number of reasons support the need to continue to investigate the therapeutic effect of modulating HDL structure and function.
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High density lipoprotein is targeted for oxidation by myeloperoxidase in rheumatoid arthritis.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Phagocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) and pro-inflammatory high density lipoprotein (HDL) associate with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the link between MPO and HDL has not been systematically examined. In this study, we investigated whether MPO can oxidise HDL and determined MPO-specific oxidative signature by apoA-1 by peptide mapping in RA subjects with and without known cardiovascular disease (CVD).
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TLR-2/TLR-4 TREM-1 signaling pathway is dispensable in inflammatory myeloid cells during sterile kidney injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Inflammatory macrophages are abundant in kidney disease, stimulating repair, or driving chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Damage associated molecules (DAMPs), released from injured cells engage pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on macrophages, contributing to activation. Understanding mechanisms of macrophage activation during kidney injury may lead to strategies to alleviate chronic disease. We identified Triggering-Receptor-in-Myeloid-cells (TREM)-1, a regulator of TLR signaling, as highly upregulated in kidney inflammatory macrophages and tested the roles of these receptors in macrophage activation and kidney disease. Kidney DAMPs activated macrophages in vitro, independently of TREM-1, but partially dependent on TLR-2/-4, MyD88. In two models of progressive interstitial kidney disease, TREM-1 blockade had no impact on disease or macrophage activation in vivo, but TLR-2/-4, or MyD88 deficiency was anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic. When MyD88 was mutated only in the myeloid lineage, however, there was no bearing on macrophage activation or disease progression. Instead, TLR-2/-4 or MyD88 deficiency reduced activation of mesenchyme lineage cells resulting in reduced inflammation and fibrosis, indicating that these pathways play dominant roles in activation of myofibroblasts but not macrophages. To conclude, TREM-1, TLR2/4 and MyD88 signaling pathways are redundant in myeloid cell activation in kidney injury, but the latter appear to regulate activation of mesenchymal cells.
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Metalloproteinase-mediated Shedding of Integrin ?2 promotes macrophage efflux from inflammatory sites.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Macrophage exiting from inflammatory sites is critical to limit the local innate immune response. With tissue insult, resident tissue macrophages rapidly efflux to lymph nodes where they modulate the adaptive immune response, and inflammatory macrophages attracted to the site of injury then exit during the resolution phase. However, the mechanisms that regulate macrophage efflux are poorly understood. This study has investigated soluble forms of integrin ?2 whose levels are elevated in experimental peritonitis at times when macrophages are exiting the peritoneum, suggesting that its proteolytic shedding may be involved in macrophage efflux. Both constitutive and inducible metalloproteinase-dependent shedding of integrin ?2 from mouse macrophages are demonstrated. Soluble integrin ?2 is primarily released as a heterodimeric complex with ?M that retains its ability to bind its ligands intracellular adhesion molecule-1, fibrin, and collagen and thus may serve as a soluble antagonist. In a model of accelerated exiting, administration of a metalloproteinase inhibitor prevents macrophage efflux by 50% and impedes loss of macrophage integrin ?2 from the cell surface. Exiting of peritoneal macrophages in mice lacking integrin ?2 is accelerated, and antibody disruption of integrin ?2-substrate interactions can reverse 50% of the metalloprotease inhibitor blockade of macrophage exiting. Thus, our study demonstrates the ability of metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of integrin ?2 to promote macrophage efflux from inflammatory sites, and the release of soluble integrin heterodimers may also limit local inflammation.
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Serum amyloid A facilitates the binding of high-density lipoprotein from mice injected with lipopolysaccharide to vascular proteoglycans.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute-phase protein carried on high-density lipoprotein (HDL), increase in inflammatory states and are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. HDL colocalizes with vascular proteoglycans in atherosclerotic lesions. However, its major apolipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I, has no proteoglycan-binding domains. Therefore, we investigated whether SAA, which has proteoglycan-binding domains, plays a role in HDL retention by proteoglycans.
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Apolipoprotein M binds oxidized phospholipids and increases the antioxidant effect of HDL.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Oxidation of LDL plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. HDL may, in part, protect against atherosclerosis by inhibiting LDL oxidation. Overexpression of HDL-associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects mice against atherosclerosis through a not yet clarified mechanism. Being a lipocalin, apoM contains a binding pocket for small lipophilic molecules. Here, we report that apoM likely serves as an antioxidant in HDL by binding oxidized phospholipids, thus enhancing the antioxidant potential of HDL.
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S100A9 differentially modifies phenotypic states of neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells: implications for atherosclerosis and adipose tissue inflammation.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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S100A9 is constitutively expressed in neutrophils, dendritic cells, and monocytes; is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions; and is implicated in obesity and cardiovascular disease in humans. Most of the constitutively secreted S100A9 is derived from myeloid cells. A recent report demonstrated that mice deficient in S100A9 exhibit reduced atherosclerosis compared with controls and suggested that this effect was due in large part to loss of S100A9 in bone marrow-derived cells.
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The biological activity of FasL in human and mouse lungs is determined by the structure of its stalk region.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening condition in critically ill patients. Injury to the alveolar epithelium is a critical event in ALI, and accumulating evidence suggests that it is linked to proapoptotic Fas/FasL signals. Active soluble FasL (sFasL) is detectable in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with ALI, but the mechanisms controlling its bioactivity are unclear. We therefore investigated how the structure of sFasL influences cellular activation in human and mouse lungs and the role of oxidants and proteases in modifying sFasL activity. The sFasL in BAL fluid from patients with ALI was bioactive and present in high molecular weight multimers and aggregates. Oxidants generated from neutrophil myeloperoxidase in BAL fluid promoted aggregation of sFasL in vitro and in vivo. Oxidation increased the biological activity of sFasL at low concentrations but degraded sFasL at high concentrations. The amino-terminal extracellular stalk region of human sFasL was required to induce lung injury in mice, and proteolytic cleavage of the stalk region by MMP-7 reduced the bioactivity of sFasL in human cells in vitro. The sFasL recovered from the lungs of patients with ALI contained both oxidized methionine residues and the stalk region. These data provide what we believe to be new insights into the structural determinants of sFasL bioactivity in the lungs of patients with ALI.
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Impact of HDL oxidation by the myeloperoxidase system on sterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Protein oxidation by phagocytic white blood cells is implicated in tissue injury during inflammation. One important target might be high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which protects against atherosclerosis by removing excess cholesterol from artery wall macrophages. In the human artery wall, cholesterol-laden macrophages are a rich source of myeloperoxidase (MPO), which uses hydrogen peroxide for oxidative reactions in the extracellular milieu. Levels of two characteristic products of MPO-chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine-are markedly elevated in HDL from human atherosclerotic lesions. Here, we describe how MPO-dependent chlorination impairs the ability of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), HDLs major protein, to transport cholesterol by the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway. Faulty interactions between apoA-I and ABCA1 are involved. Tandem mass spectrometry and investigations of mutated forms of apoA-I demonstrate that tyrosine residues in apoA-I are chlorinated in a site-specific manner by chloramine intermediates on suitably juxtaposed lysine residues. Plasma HDL isolated from subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) also contains higher levels of chlorinated and nitrated tyrosine residues than HDL from healthy subjects. Thus, the presence of chlorinated HDL might serve as a marker of CAD risk. Because HDL damaged by MPO in vitro becomes dysfunctional, inhibiting MPO in vivo might be cardioprotective.
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The protein cargo of HDL: implications for vascular wall biology and therapeutics.
J Clin Lipidol
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is proposed to inhibit atherosclerosis via a number of different pathways, including promotion of reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of inflammation. However, studies in both mice and humans suggest that quantifying HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels provide limited information regarding the cardioprotective effects of HDL. This article briefly reviews current thinking regarding the functional and cardioprotective effects of HDL and the role of the HDL proteome in these processes.
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High-density lipoprotein suppresses the type I interferon response, a family of potent antiviral immunoregulators, in macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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High-density lipoprotein (HDL) protects the artery wall by removing cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages. However, recent evidence suggests that HDL might also inhibit atherogenesis by combating inflammation.
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Low clusterin levels in high-density lipoprotein associate with insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipoproteinemia.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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To determine whether obesity and insulin resistance associate with changes in the protein content of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in 2 different groups of men by using targeted proteomics.
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Phospholipid transfer protein in human plasma associates with proteins linked to immunity and inflammation.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which associates with apolipoprotein A-I (the major HDL protein), plays a key role in lipoprotein remodeling. Because its level in plasma increases during acute inflammation, it may also play previously unsuspected roles in the innate immune system. To gain further insight into its potential physiological functions, we isolated complexes containing PLTP from plasma by immunoaffinity chromatography and determined their composition. Shotgun proteomics revealed that only 6 of the 24 proteins detected in the complexes were apolipoproteins. The most abundant proteins were clusterin (apoJ), PLTP itself, coagulation factors, complement factors, and apoA-I. Remarkably, 20 of the 24 proteins had known protein-protein interactions. Biochemical studies confirmed two previously established interactions and identified five new ones between PLTP and proteins. Moreover, clusterin, apoA-I, and apoE preserved the lipid-transfer activity of recombinant PLTP in the absence of lipid, indicating that these interactions may have functional significance. Unexpectedly, lipids accounted for only 3% of the mass of the PLTP complexes. Collectively, our observations indicate that PLTP in human plasma resides on lipid-poor complexes dominated by clusterin and proteins implicated in host defense and inflammation. They further suggest that protein-protein interactions drive the formation of PLTP complexes in plasma.
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Exchange of apolipoprotein A-I between lipid-associated and lipid-free states: a potential target for oxidative generation of dysfunctional high density lipoproteins.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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An important event in cholesterol metabolism is the efflux of cellular cholesterol by apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein of high density lipoproteins (HDL). Lipid-free apoA-I is the preferred substrate for ATP-binding cassette A1, which promotes cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells in the arterial wall. However, the vast majority of apoA-I in plasma is associated with HDL, and the mechanisms for the generation of lipid-free apoA-I remain poorly understood. In the current study, we used fluorescently labeled apoA-I that exhibits a distinct fluorescence emission spectrum when in different states of lipid association to establish the kinetics of apoA-I transition between the lipid-associated and lipid-free states. This approach characterized the spontaneous and rapid exchange of apoA-I between the lipid-associated and lipid-free states. In contrast, the kinetics of apoA-I exchange were significantly reduced when apoA-I on HDL was cross-linked with a bi-functional reagent or oxidized by myeloperoxidase. Our observations support the hypothesis that oxidative damage to apoA-I by myeloperoxidase limits the ability of apoA-I to be liberated in a lipid-free form from HDL. This impairment of apoA-I exchange reaction may be a trait of dysfunctional HDL contributing to reduced ATP-binding cassette A1-mediated cholesterol efflux and atherosclerosis.
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Modifying apolipoprotein A-I by malondialdehyde, but not by an array of other reactive carbonyls, blocks cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Dysfunctional high density lipoprotein (HDL) is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying pathways remain poorly understood. One potential mechanism involves covalent modification by reactive carbonyls of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major HDL protein. We therefore determined whether carbonyls resulting from lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxynonenal) or carbohydrate oxidation (glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal) covalently modify lipid-free apoA-I and inhibit its ability to promote cellular cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway. MDA markedly impaired the ABCA1 activity of apoA-I. In striking contrast, none of the other four carbonyls were effective. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of MDA-modified apoA-I revealed that Lys residues at specific sites had been modified. The chief adducts were MDA-Lys and a Lys-MDA-Lys cross-link. Lys residues in the C terminus of apoA-I were targeted for cross-linking in high yield, and this process may hinder the interaction of apoA-I with lipids and ABCA1, two key steps in reverse cholesterol transport. Moreover, levels of MDA-protein adducts were elevated in HDL isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that lipid peroxidation might render HDL dysfunctional in vivo. Taken together, our observations indicate that MDA damages apoA-I by a pathway that generates lysine adducts at specific sites on the protein. Such damage may facilitate the formation of macrophage foam cells by impairing cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway.
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Myeloperoxidase-dependent inactivation of surfactant protein D in vitro and in vivo.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays diverse and important roles in innate immunity and pulmonary homeostasis. Neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO) colocalized with SP-D in a murine bacterial pneumonia model of acute inflammation, suggesting that MPO-derived reactive species might alter the function of SP-D. Exposure of SP-D to the complete MPO-H(2)O(2)-halide system caused loss of SP-D-dependent aggregating activity. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the major oxidant generated by MPO, caused a similar loss of aggregating activity, which was accompanied by the generation of abnormal disulfide-cross-linked oligomers. A full-length SP-D mutant lacking N-terminal cysteine residues and truncation mutants lacking the N-terminal domains were resistant to the oxidant-induced alterations in disulfide bonding. Mass spectroscopy of HOCl-treated human SP-D demonstrated several modifications, but none involved key ligand binding residues. There was detectable oxidation of cysteine 15, but no HOCl-induced cysteine modifications were observed in the C-terminal lectin domain. Together, the findings localize abnormal disulfide cross-links to the N-terminal domain. MPO-deficient mice showed decreased cross-linking of SP-D and increased SP-D-dependent aggregating activity in the pneumonia model. Thus, MPO-derived oxidants can lead to modifications of SP-D structure with associated alterations in its characteristic aggregating activity.
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A macrophage sterol-responsive network linked to atherogenesis.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Cholesteryl ester accumulation by macrophages is a critical early event in atherogenesis. To test the hypothesis that sterol loading promotes foam cell formation and vascular disease by perturbing a network of interacting proteins, we used a global approach to identify proteins that are differentially expressed when macrophages are loaded with cholesterol in vivo. Our analysis revealed a sterol-responsive network that is highly enriched in proteins with known physical interactions, established roles in vesicular transport, and demonstrated atherosclerotic phenotypes in mice. Pharmacologic intervention with a statin or rosiglitazone and use of mice deficient in LDL receptor or apolipoprotein E implicated the network in atherosclerosis. Biochemical fractionation revealed that most of the sterol-responsive proteins resided in microvesicles, providing a physical basis for the networks functional and biochemical properties. These observations identify a highly integrated network of proteins whose expression is influenced by environmental, genetic, and pharmacological factors implicated in atherogenesis.
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Oxidation of apolipoprotein A-I by myeloperoxidase impairs the initial interactions with ABCA1 required for signaling and cholesterol export.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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A key cardioprotective effect of high-density lipoprotein involves the interaction of its major protein, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a macrophage cholesterol exporter. ApoA-I is thought to remove cholesterol from macrophages by a cascade of events. First it binds directly to ABCA1, activating signaling pathways, and then it binds to and solubilizes lipid domains generated by ABCA1. HDL isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions and blood of subjects with established coronary artery disease contains elevated levels of 3-chlorotyrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine, two characteristic products of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein secreted by macrophages. Here we show that chlorination (but not nitration) of apoA-I by the MPO pathway impairs its ability to interact directly with ABCA1, to activate the Janus kinase 2 signaling pathway, and to promote efflux of cellular cholesterol. In contrast, oxidation of apoA-I has little effect on its ability to stabilize ABCA1 protein or to solubilize phospholipids. Our results indicate that chlorination of apoA-I by the MPO pathway selectively inhibits two critical early events in cholesterol efflux: (1) the binding of apoA-I to ABCA1 and (2) the activation of a key signaling pathway. Therefore, oxidation of apoA-I in the artery wall by MPO-generated chlorinating intermediates may contribute to atherogenesis by impairing cholesterol efflux from macrophages.
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Methionine oxidation contributes to bacterial killing by the myeloperoxidase system of neutrophils.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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Reactive oxygen intermediates generated by neutrophils kill bacteria and are implicated in inflammatory tissue injury, but precise molecular targets are undefined. We demonstrate that neutrophils use myeloperoxidase (MPO) to convert methionine residues of ingested Escherichia coli to methionine sulfoxide in high yield. Neutrophils deficient in individual components of the MPO system (MPO, H(2)O(2), chloride) exhibited impaired bactericidal activity and impaired capacity to oxidize methionine. HOCl, the principal physiologic product of the MPO system, is a highly efficient oxidant for methionine, and its microbicidal effects were found to correspond linearly with oxidation of methionine residues in bacterial cytosolic and inner membrane proteins. In contrast, outer envelope proteins were initially oxidized without associated microbicidal effect. Disruption of bacterial methionine sulfoxide repair systems rendered E. coli more susceptible to killing by HOCl, whereas over-expression of a repair enzyme, methionine sulfoxide reductase A, rendered them resistant, suggesting a direct role for methionine oxidation in bactericidal activity. Prominent among oxidized bacterial proteins were those engaged in synthesis and translocation of peptides to the cell envelope, an essential physiological function. Moreover, HOCl impaired protein translocation early in the course of bacterial killing. Together, our findings indicate that MPO-mediated methionine oxidation contributes to bacterial killing by neutrophils. The findings further suggest that protein translocation to the cell envelope is one important pathway targeted for damage.
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Lipoproteomics: using mass spectrometry-based proteomics to explore the assembly, structure, and function of lipoproteins.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Lipoproteins are centrally important in lipid transport, fuel metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. The prototypic lipoprotein has an outer shell of amphipathic lipids and proteins that solubilizes a hydrophobic lipid core. Lipoprotein-associated proteins have classically been viewed as structural elements and factors important in lipid metabolism. Recent mass spectrometric analyses reveal that the protein cargo of lipoproteins is much more diverse than previously appreciated, raising the possibility that lipoproteins play previously unsuspected roles in host defense mechanisms and inflammation. They further suggest that lipoprotein-associated proteins can identify humans at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we summarize recent developments in lipoproteomics, the proteomic analysis of lipoproteins. We also discuss the promises and challenges this powerful analytical strategy offers for expanding our understanding of the biology and structures of lipoproteins.
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Hypochlorous acid converts the gamma-glutamyl group of glutathione disulfide to 5-hydroxybutyrolactam, a potential marker for neutrophil activation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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In healthy cells, glutathione disulfide (GSSG) is rapidly reduced back to glutathione (GSH) by glutathione reductase to maintain redox status. The ratio of GSH/GSSG has been used as an indicator of oxidative stress. However, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generated by the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-Cl(-) system of neutrophils converts GSH to irreversible oxidation products. Although several such products have been identified, yields of these compounds are very low in biological systems, and they cannot account quantitatively for thiol loss. In the current studies, we use liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to demonstrate that HOCl and chloramines oxidize GSSG to two irreversible products in high yield. The products, termed M-45 and M-90, are, respectively, 45 or 90 atomic mass units lighter than GSSG. The reaction pathway involves chloramine and aldehyde intermediates, and converts the gamma-glutamyl residues of GSSG to 5-hydroxybutyrolactam. Importantly, M-45 and M-90 were resistant to reduction by glutathione reductase. Moreover, the monohydroxylbutyrolactam M-45 accounted for >90% of the endogenous GSH oxidation products generated by activated neutrophils. Because the reaction pathway involves chlorinating intermediates, hydroxylbutyrolactams are likely to be specific products of HOCl, which is generated only by myeloperoxidase. Therefore, our observations implicate M-45 as a potential biomarker for myeloperoxidase activity in vivo.
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The HDL proteome: a marker--and perhaps mediator--of coronary artery disease.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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One important cardioprotective function of HDL is to remove cholesterol from lipid-laden macrophages in the artery wall. HDL also exerts anti-inflammatory effects that might inhibit atherogenesis. However, HDL has been proposed to be dysfunctional in humans with established coronary artery disease (CAD), though the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to investigate the roles of HDL proteins in inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Shotgun proteomic analysis identified multiple complement regulatory proteins, protease inhibitors, and acute-phase response proteins in HDL, strongly implicating the lipoprotein in inflammation and the innate immune system. Moreover, mass spectrometry and biochemical analyses demonstrated that HDL3 from subjects with clinically significant CAD was selectively enriched in apolipoprotein E, suggesting that it carries a distinctive protein cargo in humans with atherosclerosis. HDL from CAD subjects also contained markedly elevated levels of chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine, two characteristic products of myeloperoxidase, indicating that oxidative damage might generate dysfunctional HDL. Aggressive lipid therapy with a statin and niacin remodeled the HDL proteome to resemble that of apparently healthy subjects. Collectively, our observations indicate that quantifying the HDL proteome by mass spectrometry should help identify novel anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective actions of HDL and provide insights into lipid therapy.
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A sensitive and specific ELISA detects methionine sulfoxide-containing apolipoprotein A-I in HDL.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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Oxidized HDL has been proposed to play a key role in atherogenesis. A wide range of reactive intermediates oxidizes methionine residues to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major HDL protein. These reactive species include those produced by myeloperoxidase, an enzyme implicated in atherogenesis. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive and specific ELISA for detecting MetO residues in HDL. We therefore immunized mice with HPLC-purified human apoA-I containing MetO(86) and MetO(112) (termed apoA-I(+32)) to generate a monoclonal antibody termed MOA-I. An ELISA using MOA-I detected lipid-free apoA-I(+32), apoA-I modified by 2e-oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, peroxynitrite), and HDL oxidized by 1e- or 2e-oxidants and present in buffer or human plasma. Detection was concentration dependent, reproducible, and exhibited a linear response over a physiologically plausible range of concentrations of oxidized HDL. In contrast, MOA-I failed to recognize native apoA-I, native apoA-II, apoA-I modified by hydroxyl radical or metal ions, or LDL and methionine-containing proteins other than apoA-I modified by 2e-oxidants. Because the ELISA we have developed specifically detects apoA-I containing MetO in HDL and plasma, it should provide a useful tool for investigating the relationship between oxidized HDL and coronary artery disease.
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Mapping the lung proteome in cystic fibrosis.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease remains incompletely understood. Novel mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease may be discovered by studying the patterns of protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). We used shotgun proteomics to analyze BALF samples from 8 CF and 4 control subjects. Differential protein expression between CF and control subjects was determined using spectral counting and statistical analysis. Using Gene Ontology analysis, we identified enriched biological modules and then applied network analysis to construct a protein interaction map in CF lung disease. Shotgun proteomics analysis of BALF identified hundreds of proteins whose differential enrichment or depletion robustly distinguished the CF phenotype from normal controls. Functional categorization and network analysis identified key processes, including the immune response and proteolytic activity that are known contributors to CF lung disease. Importantly, this approach also implicated abnormalities in previously unsuspected pathways, such as dysregulation of the complement system that may have critical roles in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease. By integrating shotgun proteomics with statistical and computational analyses, we have developed a promising approach to understand the pathophysiology of CF lung disease. Our approach should be applicable to a wide range of proteomics-based clinical research.
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Bioluminescence imaging of myeloperoxidase activity in vivo.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2009
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The myeloperoxidase (MPO) system of activated phagocytes is central to normal host defense mechanisms, and dysregulated MPO contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease states ranging from atherosclerosis to cancer. Here we show that upon systemic administration, the small molecule luminol enables noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of MPO activity in vivo. Luminol-BLI allowed quantitative longitudinal monitoring of MPO activity in animal models of acute dermatitis, mixed allergic contact hypersensitivity, focal arthritis and spontaneous large granular lymphocytic tumors. Bioluminescence colocalized with histological sites of inflammation and was totally abolished in gene-deleted Mpo(-/-) mice, despite massive tissue infiltration of neutrophils and activated eosinophils, indicating that eosinophil peroxidase did not contribute to luminol-BLI in vivo. Thus, luminol-BLI provides a noninvasive, specific and highly sensitive optical readout of phagocyte-mediated MPO activity in vivo and may enable new diagnostic applications in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.
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Serum amyloid A3 does not contribute to circulating SAA levels.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2009
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Adipose tissue secretes proteins like serum amyloid A (SAA), which plays important roles in local and systemic inflammation. Circulating SAA levels increase in obese humans, but the roles of adipose-derived SAA and hyperlipidemia in this process are unclear. We took advantage of the difference in the inducible isoforms of SAA secreted by adipose tissue (SAA3) and liver (SAA1 and 2) of mice to evaluate whether adipose tissue contributes to the circulating pool of SAA in obesity and hyperlipidemia. Genetically obese (ob/ob) mice, but not hyperlipidemic mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (Apoe(-/-)), had significantly higher circulating levels of SAA than their littermate controls. SAA1/2 mRNA expression in the liver and SAA3 mRNA expression in intra-abdominal fat were significantly higher in obese than thin mice, but they were not affected by hyperlipidemia in Apoe(-/-) mice. However, only SAA1/2 and the constitutive form of SAA (SAA4) could be detected in the circulation by mass spectrometric analysis of HDL, the major carrier of circulating SAA. In contrast, SAA3 could be detected in medium from cultured adipocytes. Our findings indicate that the expression of SAA3 in adipose tissue is upregulated by obesity, but it does not contribute to the circulating pool of SAA in mice.
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CD36 regulates oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic CKD.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Scavenger receptors play a central role in atherosclerosis by processing oxidized lipoproteins and mediating their cellular effects. Recent studies suggested that the atherogenic state correlates with progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD); therefore, scavenger receptors are candidate mediators of renal fibrogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of CD36, a class B scavenger receptor, in a hypercholesterolemic model of CKD. We placed CD36-deficient mice and wild-type male mice on a high-fat Western diet for 7 to 8 wk and then performed either sham or unilateral ureteral obstruction surgery. CD36-deficient mice developed significantly less fibrosis compared with wild-type mice at days 3, 7, and 14 after obstruction. Compared with wild-type mice, CD36-deficient mice had significantly more interstitial macrophages at 7 d but not at 14 d. CD36-deficient mice exhibited reduced levels of activated NF-kappaB and oxidative stress (assessed by measuring fatty acid-derived hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and protein carbonyl content) and decreased accumulation of interstitial myofibroblasts compared with wild-type mice. These data suggest that CD36 is a key modulator of proinflammatory and oxidative pathways that promote fibrogenesis in CKD.
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MMP-9 sheds the beta2 integrin subunit (CD18) from macrophages.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Activated macrophages are essential effectors of immunity and a rich source of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9; gelatinase B). To search for cellular substrates of the enzyme, we subjected wild-type macrophages and macrophages expressing an autoactivating form of pro-MMP-9 (M9A macrophages) to proteomics analysis. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography together with tandem mass spectrometry identified 467 proteins in medium conditioned by M9A and/or wild-type macrophages. Subtractive proteomics identified 18 candidate MMP-9 substrates. Biochemical studies confirmed that two transmembrane proteins, beta(2) integrin subunit (CD18) and amyloid protein precursor (APP), were enriched in the medium of M9A macrophages. To identify potential cleavage sites, we synthesized an overlapping library of peptides that spanned 60 residues of the ectodomain and transmembrane domain of beta(2) integrin. Active MMP-9 cleaved a single peptide, ECVKGPNVAAIVGGT, at residues corresponding to Ala(705) and Ile(706) of the beta(2) integrin. Peptides corresponding to this cleavage site were detected by tandem mass spectrometric analysis only in medium from M9A macrophages, strongly supporting the proposal that beta(2) integrin is shed by autoactivating MMP-9. Our observations indicate that subtractive proteomics in concert with peptide substrate mapping is a powerful approach for identifying proteolytic substrates and suggest that MMP-9 plays previously unsuspected roles in the regulation and shedding of beta(2) integrin.
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Hypothalamic proinflammatory lipid accumulation, inflammation, and insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Weight gain induced by an energy-dense diet is hypothesized to arise in part from defects in the neuronal response to circulating adiposity negative feedback signals, such as insulin. Peripheral tissue insulin resistance involves cellular inflammatory responses thought to be invoked by excess lipid. Therefore, we sought to determine whether similar signaling pathways are activated in the brain of rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The ability of intracerebroventricular (icv) insulin to reduce food intake and activate hypothalamic signal transduction is attenuated in HF-fed compared with low-fat (LF)-fed rats. This effect was accompanied by both hypothalamic accumulation of palmitoyl- and stearoyl-CoA and activation of a marker of inflammatory signaling, inhibitor of kappaB kinase-beta (IKKbeta). Hypothalamic insulin resistance and inflammation were observed with icv palmitate infusion or HF feeding independent of excess caloric intake. Last, we observed that central IKKbeta inhibition reduced food intake and was associated with increased hypothalamic insulin sensitivity in rats fed a HF but not a LF diet. These data collectively support a model of diet-induced obesity whereby dietary fat, not excess calories, induces hypothalamic insulin resistance by increasing the content of saturated acyl-CoA species and activating local inflammatory signals, which result in a failure to appropriately regulate food intake.
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Macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) deficiency mitigates retinal inflammation and pathological angiogenesis in ischemic retinopathy.
PLoS ONE
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Pathological angiogenesis is a major cause of vision loss in ischemic and inflammatory retinal diseases. Recent evidence implicates macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12), a macrophage-derived elastinolytic protease in inflammation, tissue remodeling and angiogenesis. However, little is known about the role of MMP-12 in retinal pathophysiology. The present study aims to explore the enzymes contributions to retinal angiogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) using MMP-12 knockout (KO) mice. We find that MMP-12 expression was upregulated in OIR, accompanied by elevated macrophage infiltration and increased inflammatory markers. Compared to wildtype mice, MMP-12 KO mice had decreased levels of adhesion molecule and inflammatory cytokines and reduced vascular leakage in OIR. Concomitantly, these mice had markedly reduced macrophage content in the retina with impaired macrophage migratory capacity. Significantly, loss of MMP-12 attenuated retinal capillary dropout in early OIR and mitigated pathological retinal neovascularization (NV). Similar results were observed in the study using MMP408, a pharmacological inhibitor of MMP-12. Intriguingly, in contrast to reducing pathological angiogenesis, lack of MMP-12 accelerated revascularization of avascular retina in OIR. Taken together, we conclude that MMP-12 is a key regulator of macrophage infiltration and inflammation, contributing to retinal vascular dysfunction and pathological angiogenesis.
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Cholesterol accumulation regulates expression of macrophage proteins implicated in proteolysis and complement activation.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
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Cholesterol accumulation by macrophages plays a key role in atherogenesis. To begin to develop a global picture of this process, we used proteomics and transcriptomics to analyze foam cells generated with acetyl-low-density lipoprotein, a classic ligand for scavenger receptors.
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Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men alters the HDL proteome but not HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.
J. Lipid Res.
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The effects of androgens on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in men remain unclear. To better characterize the relationship between androgens and HDL, we investigated the effects of testosterone replacement on HDL protein composition and serum HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in hypogonadal men. Twenty-three older hypogonadal men (ages 51-83, baseline testosterone < 280 ng/dl) were administered replacement testosterone therapy (1% transdermal gel) with or without the 5?-reductase inhibitor dutasteride. At baseline and after three months of treatment, we determined fasting lipid concentrations, HDL protein composition, and the cholesterol efflux capacity of serum HDL. Testosterone replacement did not affect HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations but conferred significant increases in HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and fibrinogen ? chain (FGA) (P = 0.022 and P = 0.023, respectively) and a decrease in apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) (P = 0.016). Exogenous testosterone did not affect the cholesterol efflux capacity of serum HDL. No differences were observed between men who received testosterone alone and those who also received dutasteride. Testosterone replacement in older hypogonadal men alters the protein composition of HDL but does not significantly change serum HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. These effects appear independent of testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone. Further research is needed to determine how changes in HDL protein content affect CVD risk in men.
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Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.
PLoS ONE
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Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.
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Impact of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid/progesterone antagonist, on HDL cholesterol, HDL particle concentration, and HDL function.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Mifepristone is a glucocorticoid and progestin antagonist under investigation for the treatment of Cushings syndrome. Mifepristone decreases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in treated patients, but the clinical significance of this is unclear because recent studies suggest that functional properties of HDL predict cardiovascular disease status better than does HDL-C concentration.
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Diabetes promotes an inflammatory macrophage phenotype and atherosclerosis through acyl-CoA synthetase 1.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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The mechanisms that promote an inflammatory environment and accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes are poorly understood. We show that macrophages isolated from two different mouse models of type 1 diabetes exhibit an inflammatory phenotype. This inflammatory phenotype associates with increased expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), an enzyme that catalyzes the thioesterification of fatty acids. Monocytes from humans and mice with type 1 diabetes also exhibit increased ACSL1. Furthermore, myeloid-selective deletion of ACSL1 protects monocytes and macrophages from the inflammatory effects of diabetes. Strikingly, myeloid-selective deletion of ACSL1 also prevents accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic mice without affecting lesions in nondiabetic mice. Our observations indicate that ACSL1 plays a critical role by promoting the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages associated with type 1 diabetes; they also raise the possibilities that diabetic atherosclerosis has an etiology that is, at least in part, distinct from the etiology of nondiabetic vascular disease and that this difference is because of increased monocyte and macrophage ACSL1 expression.
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Acute sex steroid withdrawal increases cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-associated clusterin in men.
Steroids
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Exogenous androgens can lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, yet men with low serum testosterone have elevated rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). HDL function may better predict CVD risk than absolute HDL-C quantity. We evaluated the acute effects of medical castration in men on HDL-C, cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL protein composition. Twenty-one healthy men, ages 18-55, received the GnRH antagonist acyline and one of the following for 28days: Group 1: placebo, Group 2: transdermal testosterone gel and placebo, Group 3: transdermal testosterone gel and an aromatase inhibitor. Sex steroids, fasting lipids, and cholesterol efflux to apoB-depleted serum were measured in all subjects. The HDL proteome was assessed in Group 1 subjects only. In Group 1, serum testosterone concentrations were reduced by >95%, and HDL-C and cholesterol efflux capacity increased (p=0.02 and p=0.03 vs. baseline, respectively). HDL-associated clusterin increased significantly with sex steroid withdrawal (p=0.007 vs. baseline). Testosterone withdrawal in young, healthy men increases HDL-C and cholesterol efflux capacity. Moreover, sex steroid deprivation changes HDL protein composition. Further investigation of the effects of sex steroids on HDL composition and function may help resolve the apparently conflicting data regarding testosterone, HDL-C, and CVD risk.
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Myeloperoxidase targets apolipoprotein A-I, the major high density lipoprotein protein, for site-specific oxidation in human atherosclerotic lesions.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Oxidative damage by myeloperoxidase (MPO) has been proposed to deprive HDL of its cardioprotective effects. In vitro studies reveal that MPO chlorinates and nitrates specific tyrosine residues of apoA-I, the major HDL protein. After Tyr-192 is chlorinated, apoA-I is less able to promote cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway. To investigate the potential role of this pathway in vivo, we used tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring to quantify the regiospecific oxidation of apoA-I. This approach demonstrated that Tyr-192 is the major chlorination site in apoA-I in both plasma and lesion HDL of humans. We also found that Tyr-192 is the major nitration site in apoA-I of circulating HDL but that Tyr-18 is the major site in lesion HDL. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine strongly correlated with levels of 3-chlorotyrosine in lesion HDL, and Tyr-18 of apoA-I was the major nitration site in HDL exposed to MPO in vitro, suggesting that MPO is the major pathway for chlorination and nitration of HDL in human atherosclerotic tissue. These observations may have implications for treating cardiovascular disease, because recombinant apoA-I is under investigation as a therapeutic agent and mutant forms of apoA-I that resist oxidation might be more cardioprotective than the native form.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.