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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Urinary Metabolite Profiling Combined with Computational Analysis Predicts Interstitial Cystitis-Associated Candidate Biomarkers.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC) is a chronic syndrome of unknown etiology that presents with bladder pain, urinary frequency, and urgency. The lack of specific biomarkers and a poor understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms present challenges for disease diagnosis and therapy. The goals of this study were to identify noninvasive biomarker candidates for IC from urine specimens and to potentially gain new insight into disease mechanisms using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based global metabolomics analysis of urine from female IC patients and controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the urinary metabolome of IC and controls was clearly different, with 140 NMR peaks significantly altered in IC patients (FDR < 0.05) compared to that in controls. On the basis of strong correlation scores, fifteen metabolite peaks were nominated as the strongest signature of IC. Among those signals that were higher in the IC group, three peaks were annotated as tyramine, the pain-related neuromodulator. Two peaks were annotated as 2-oxoglutarate. Levels of tyramine and 2-oxoglutarate were significantly elevated in urine specimens of IC subjects. An independent analysis using mass spectrometry also showed significantly increased levels of tyramine and 2-oxoglutarate in IC patients compared to controls. Functional studies showed that 2-oxoglutarate, but not tyramine, retarded growth of normal bladder epithelial cells. These preliminary findings suggest that analysis of urine metabolites has promise in biomarker development in the context of IC.
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Metabolomics insights into pathophysiological mechanisms of interstitial cystitis.
Int Neurourol J
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as painful bladder syndrome or bladder pain syndrome, is a chronic lower urinary tract syndrome characterized by pelvic pain, urinary urgency, and increased urinary frequency in the absence of bacterial infection or identifiable clinicopathology. IC can lead to long-term adverse effects on the patient's quality of life. Therefore, early diagnosis and better understanding of the mechanisms underlying IC are needed. Metabolomic studies of biofluids have become a powerful method for assessing disease mechanisms and biomarker discovery, which potentially address these important clinical needs. However, limited intensive metabolic profiles have been elucidated in IC. The article is a short review on metabolomic analyses that provide a unique fingerprint of IC with a focus on its use in determining a potential diagnostic biomarker associated with symptoms, a response predictor of therapy, and a prognostic marker.
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Phospholipids of tumor extracellular vesicles stratify gefitinib-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells from gefitinib-sensitive cells.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib are one of gold standard treatment options for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, which eventually fail due to the acquired resistance and relapse because of the development of secondary activating mutations such as T790M in EGFR. Predicting chemo-responsiveness of cancer patients provides a major challenge in chemotherapy. The goal of the present study is to determine whether phospholipid signatures of tumor extracellular vesicles (EV) are associated with gefitinib-resistance of NSCLC. A sophisticated mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic assays were performed for in-depth analysis of the lipidomes of gefitinib-resistant (PC9R) and responsive (PC9) NSCLC cells and their shed EV from these cell lines (PC9EV or PC9REV). Lipid matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry analysis showed that EV phospholipid composition was significantly distinct in PC9R, compared to PC9 cells. Following statistical analyses has identified 35 (20 positive and 15 negative ion mode) differentially regulated lipids, which are significantly over- or under-expressed in PC9R EV, compared to PC9 EV (p value < 0.01, fold change > 1.5). Our phospholipid signatures suggest that EV associates with drug sensitivity, which is worthy of additional investigation to assess chemoresistance in patients with NSCLC treated with anti-EGFR TKIs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Integration of proteomic and transcriptomic profiles identifies a novel PDGF-MYC network in human smooth muscle cells.
Cell Commun. Signal
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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BackgroundPlatelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) has been implicated in the proliferation, migration and synthetic activities of smooth muscle cells that characterize physiologic and pathologic tissue remodeling in hollow organs. However, neither the molecular basis of PDGFR-regulated signaling webs, nor the extent to which specific components within these networks could be exploited for therapeutic benefit has been fully elucidated.ResultsExpression profiling and quantitative proteomics analysis of PDGF-treated primary human bladder smooth muscle cells identified 1,695 genes and 241 proteins as differentially expressed versus non-treated cells. Analysis of gene expression data revealed MYC, JUN, EGR1, MYB, RUNX1, as the transcription factors most significantly networked with up-regulated genes. Forty targets were significantly altered at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation, migration and angiogenesis were the biological processes most significantly associated with this signature, and MYC was the most highly networked master regulator. Alterations in master regulators and gene targets were validated in PDGF-stimulated smooth muscle cells in vitro and in a model of bladder injury in vivo. Pharmacologic inhibition of MYC and JUN confirmed their role in SMC proliferation and migration. Network analysis identified the diaphanous-related formin 3 as a novel PDGF target regulated by MYC and JUN, which was necessary for PDGF-stimulated lamellipodium formation.ConclusionsThese findings provide the first systems-level analysis of the PDGF-regulated transcriptome and proteome in normal smooth muscle cells. The analyses revealed an extensive cohort of PDGF-dependent biological processes and connected key transcriptional effectors to their regulation, significantly expanding current knowledge of PDGF-stimulated signaling cascades. These observations also implicate MYC as a novel target for pharmacological intervention in fibroproliferative expansion of smooth muscle, and potentially in cancers in which PDGFR-dependent signaling or MYC activation promote tumor progression.
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Multicenter evaluation of Seegene Anyplex TB PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory specimens.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of tuberculosis, but it takes 6 to 8 weeks to confirm the result. This issue is complemented by the detection method using polymerase chain reaction, which is now widely used in a routine microbiology laboratory. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Seegene Anyplex TB PCR to assess its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, and compared its results with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR, one of the most widely used assays in the world. Five university hospitals located in the Chungcheong area in South Korea participated in the study. A total of 1,167 respiratory specimens ordered for acid-fast bacilli staining and culture were collected for four months, analyzed via the Seegene Anyplex TB PCR, and its results were compared with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR. For detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Anyplex TB PCR were 87.5% and 98.2% respectively, whereas those of the Cobas TaqMan were 92.0% and 98.0% respectively (p value > 0.05). For smear-positive specimens, the sensitivity of the Anyplex TB PCR was 95.2%, which was exactly the same as that of the Cobas TaqMan. For smear-negative specimens, the sensitivity of the Anyplex TB PCR was 69.2%, whereas that of the Cobas TaqMan TB PCR was 84.6%. For detection of MTB, the Seegene Anyplex TB PCR showed excellent diagnostic performance, and high sensitivity and specificity, which were comparable to the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR. In conclusion, the Anyplex TB PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool for the early detection of tuberculosis in clinical laboratories.
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Non-invasive mouthguard biosensor for continuous salivary monitoring of metabolites.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The present work describes the first example of a wearable salivary metabolite biosensor based on the integration of a printable enzymatic electrode on a mouthguard. The new mouthguard enzymatic biosensor, based on an immobilized lactate oxidase and a low potential detection of the peroxide product, exhibits high sensitivity, selectivity and stability using whole human saliva samples. Such non-invasive mouthguard metabolite biosensors could tender useful real-time information regarding a wearer's health, performance and stress level, and thus hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical and fitness applications.
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Evaluation of an immunochromatographic assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of rotavirus and adenovirus in stool samples.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the SD BIOLINE Rota/Adeno Rapid kit (SD Rota/Adeno Rapid; Standard Diagnostics, Inc., Korea), an immunochromatographic assay (ICA), for the simultaneous detection of rotaviruses and adenoviruses in human stool samples.
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Rates of fecal transmission of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among patients in intensive care units in Korea.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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We investigated the rates of fecal transmission of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs).
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Enhanced shedding of extracellular vesicles from amoeboid prostate cancer cells: potential effects on the tumor microenvironment.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The gene encoding the cytoskeletal regulator DIAPH3 is lost at high frequency in metastatic prostate cancer, and DIAPH3 silencing evokes a transition to an amoeboid tumor phenotype in multiple cell backgrounds. This amoeboid transformation is accompanied by increased tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. DIAPH3 silencing also promotes the formation of atypically large (> 1 ?m) membrane blebs that can be shed as extracellular vesicles (EV) containing bioactive cargo. Whether loss of DIAPH3 also stimulates the release of nano-sized EV (e.g., exosomes) is not established. Here we examined the mechanism of release and potential biological functions of EV shed from DIAPH3-silenced and other prostate cancer cells. We observed that stimulation of LNCaP cells with the prostate stroma-derived growth factor heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), combined with p38MAPK inhibition caused EV shedding, a process mediated by ERK1/2 hyperactivation. DIAPH3 silencing in DU145 cells also increased rates of EV production. EV isolated from DIAPH3-silenced cells activated AKT1 and androgen signaling, increased proliferation of recipient tumor cells, and suppressed proliferation of human macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. DU145 EV contained miR-125a, which suppressed AKT1 expression and proliferation in recipient human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages. Our findings suggest that EV produced as a result of DIAPH3 loss or growth factor stimulation may condition the tumor microenvironment through multiple mechanisms, including the proliferation of cancer cells and suppression of tumor-infiltrating immune cells.
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Extracellular vesicles shed from gefitinib-resistant nonsmall cell lung cancer regulate the tumor microenvironment.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including gefitinib, are the first-line treatment of choice for nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who harbor activating EGFR mutations, however, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable. The main objective of this study was to identify informative protein signatures of extracellular vesicles (EV) derived from gefitinib-resistant nonsmall cell lung cancer cells using proteomics analysis. Nano-LC-MS/MS analysis identified with high confidence (false discovery rate < 0.05, fold change ?2) 664 EV proteins enriched in PC9R cells, which are resistant to gefitinib due to EGFR T790M mutation. Computational analyses suggested components of several signal transduction mechanisms including the AKT (also PKB, protein kinase B)/mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway are overrepresented in EV from PC9R cells. Treatment of recipient cells with EV harvested from PC9R cells increased phosphorylation of signaling molecules, and enhanced proliferation, invasion, and drug resistance to gefitinib-induced apoptosis. Dose- and time-dependent pharmaceutical inhibition of AKT/mTOR pathway overcame drug resistance of PC9R cells and those of H1975 exhibiting EGFR T790M mutation. Our findings provide new insight into an oncogenic EV protein signature regulating tumor microenvironment, and will aid in the development of novel diagnostic strategies for prediction and assessment of gefitinib resistance.
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RANK- and c-Met-mediated signal network promotes prostate cancer metastatic colonization.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis to bone is lethal and there is no adequate animal model for studying the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process. Here, we report that receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) expressed by PCa cells consistently induced colonization or metastasis to bone in animal models. RANK-mediated signaling established a premetastatic niche through a feed-forward loop, involving the induction of RANKL and c-Met, but repression of androgen receptor (AR) expression and AR signaling pathways. Site-directed mutagenesis and transcription factor (TF) deletion/interference assays identified common TF complexes, c-Myc/Max, and AP4 as critical regulatory nodes. RANKL-RANK signaling activated a number of master regulator TFs that control the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Twist1, Slug, Zeb1, and Zeb2), stem cell properties (Sox2, Myc, Oct3/4, and Nanog), neuroendocrine differentiation (Sox9, HIF1?, and FoxA2), and osteomimicry (c-Myc/Max, Sox2, Sox9, HIF1?, and Runx2). Abrogating RANK or its downstream c-Myc/Max or c-Met signaling network minimized or abolished skeletal metastasis in mice. RANKL-expressing LNCaP cells recruited and induced neighboring non metastatic LNCaP cells to express RANKL, c-Met/activated c-Met, while downregulating AR expression. These initially non-metastatic cells, once retrieved from the tumors, acquired the potential to colonize and grow in bone. These findings identify a novel mechanism of tumor growth in bone that involves tumor cell reprogramming via RANK-RANKL signaling, as well as a form of signal amplification that mediates recruitment and stable transformation of non-metastatic bystander dormant cells.
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Differential Polymer Structure Tunes Mechanism of Cellular Uptake and Transfection Routes of Poly(?-amino ester) Polyplexes in Human Breast Cancer Cells.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Successful gene delivery with nonviral particles has several barriers, including cellular uptake, endosomal escape, and nuclear transport. Understanding the mechanisms behind these steps is critical to enhancing the effectiveness of gene delivery. Polyplexes formed with poly(?-amino ester)s (PBAEs) have been shown to effectively transfer DNA to various cell types, but the mechanism of their cellular uptake has not been identified. This is the first study to evaluate the uptake mechanism of PBAE polyplexes and the dependence of cellular uptake on the end group and molecular weight of the polymer. We synthesized three different analogues of PBAEs with the same base polymer poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol) (B4S4) but with small changes in the end group or molecular weight. We quantified the uptake and transfection efficiencies of the pDNA polyplexes formulated from these polymers in hard-to-transfect triple negative human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB 231). All polymers formed positively charged (10-17 mV) nanoparticles of ?200 nm in size. Cellular internalization of all three formulations was inhibited the most (60-90% decrease in cellular uptake) by blocking caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Greater inhibition was shown with polymers that had a 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine end group (E7) than the others with a 2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethanol end group (E6) or higher molecular weight. However, caveolae-mediated endocytosis was generally not as efficient as clathrin-mediated endocytosis in leading to transfection. These findings indicate that PBAE polyplexes can be used to transfect triple negative human breast cancer cells and that small changes to the same base polymer can modulate their cellular uptake and transfection routes.
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Decreased expression of sirtuin 6 is associated with release of high mobility group box-1 after cerebral ischemia.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) belongs to the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and has been implicated in the regulation of metabolism, inflammation, and aging. Here, we found that SIRT6 was predominantly expressed in neuronal cells throughout the entire brain. Ischemia models using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats and oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells showed that ischemia reduced SIRT6 expression and induced the release of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) from cell nuclei. The reduced expression of SIRT6 via treatment with SIRT6 siRNA dramatically enhanced the OGD-induced release of HMGB1 in SH-SY5Y cells. Together, our data suggest that SIRT6 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for HMGB1-mediated inflammation after cerebral ischemia.
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Biomolecule Delivery to Engineer the Cellular Microenvironment for Regenerative Medicine.
Ann Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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To realize the potential of regenerative medicine, controlling the delivery of biomolecules in the cellular microenvironment is important as these factors control cell fate. Controlled delivery for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often requires bioengineered materials and cells capable of spatiotemporal modulation of biomolecule release and presentation. This review discusses biomolecule delivery from the outside of the cell inwards through the delivery of soluble and insoluble biomolecules as well as from the inside of the cell outwards through gene transfer. Ex vivo and in vivo therapeutic strategies are discussed, as well as combination delivery of biomolecules, scaffolds, and cells. Various applications in regenerative medicine are highlighted including bone tissue engineering and wound healing.
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Decreased DBC1 Expression Is Associated With Poor Prognosis in Patients With Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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The deleted in bladder cancer 1 (DBC1) gene is located within chromosome 9 (9q32-33), a chromosomal region that frequently shows loss of heterozygosity in bladder cancer (BC). It is suspected that it acts as a tumor suppressor gene, but its prognostic value remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of DBC1 as a prognostic marker in BC.
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Long-term suppression of ocular neovascularization by intraocular injection of biodegradable polymeric particles containing a serpin-derived peptide.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Aberrant angiogenesis can cause or contribute to a number of diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD). While current NVAMD treatments target angiogenesis, these treatments are not effective for all patients and also require frequent intravitreal injections. New agents and delivery systems to treat NVAMD could be beneficial to many patients. We have recently developed a serpin-derived peptide as an anti-angiogenic agent. Here, this peptide is investigated for activity in human retinal endothelial cells in vitro and for reducing angiogenesis in a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization mouse model of NVAMD in vivo. While frequent intravitreal injections can be tolerated clinically, reducing the number of injections can improve patient compliance, safety, and outcomes. To achieve this goal, and to maximize the in vivo activity of injected peptide, we have developed biodegradable polymers and controlled release particle formulations to extend anti-angiogenic therapy. To create these devices, the anionic peptides are first self-assembled into nanoparticles using a biodegradable cationic polymer and then as a second step, these nanoparticles are encapsulated into biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. In situ, these particles show approximately zero-order, linear release of the anionic peptide over 200 days. These particles are made of safe, hydrolytically degradable polymers and have low endotoxin. Long-term in vivo experiments in the laser-induced neovascularization model for NVAMD show that these peptide-releasing particles decrease angiogenesis for at least fourteen weeks in vivo following a single particle dose and therefore are a promising treatment strategy for NVAMD.
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Current challenges in bacterial transcriptomics.
Genomics Inform
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Over the past decade or so, dramatic developments in our ability to experimentally determine the content and function of genomes have taken place. In particular, next-generation sequencing technologies are now inspiring a new understanding of bacterial transcriptomes on a global scale. In bacterial cells, whole-transcriptome studies have not received attention, owing to the general view that bacterial genomes are simple. However, several recent RNA sequencing results are revealing unexpected levels of complexity in bacterial transcriptomes, indicating that the transcribed regions of genomes are much larger and complex than previously anticipated. In particular, these data show a wide array of small RNAs, antisense RNAs, and alternative transcripts. Here, we review how current transcriptomics are now revolutionizing our understanding of the complexity and regulation of bacterial transcriptomes.
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Increasing prevalence of blaOXA-23-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii and the emergence of blaOXA-182-carrying Acinetobacter nosocomialis in Korea.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. have been increasingly reported worldwide with the production of OXA-type carbapenemases as the main mechanism of carbapenem resistance. The prevalent bla(OXA) genes are known to vary significantly depending on time and place of isolation. We investigated the prevalence of bla(OXA) genes by PCR in Acinetobacter spp. isolated in Korea. Among a total of 336 isolates collected from Hospital A from 2002 to 2011, the overall proportion of bla(OXA)-23-like, ISAba1-associated bla(OXA-51)-like, and bla(OXA-182) genes were 44.0%, 49.7%, and 5.1%, respectively. The bla(OXA-58)-like gene was detected in only 1 isolate. A drastic increase in Acinetobacter isolates with bla(OXA-23)-like genes and a decrease in isolates harboring ISAba1-associated bla(OXA-51)-like genes have been observed since the mid-2000s. The bla(OXA-23)-like genes were detected in all carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates collected in 2011 from 9 hospitals. The OXA-182, which belongs to the fifth group of OXA-type carbapenemase, was detected in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates recovered as early as 2002. It is worrisome results that bla(OXA-182)-carrying Acinetobacter nosocomialis has emerged and caused outbreaks of infection.
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Identification and characterization of proteins isolated from microvesicles derived from human lung cancer pleural effusions.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Microvesicles (MVs, also known as exosomes, ectosomes, microparticles) are released by various cancer cells, including lung, colorectal, and prostate carcinoma cells. MVs released from tumor cells and other sources accumulate in the circulation and in pleural effusion. Although recent studies have shown that MVs play multiple roles in tumor progression, the potential pathological roles of MV in pleural effusion, and their protein composition, are still unknown. In this study, we report the first global proteomic analysis of highly purified MVs derived from human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pleural effusion. Using nano-LC-MS/MS following 1D SDS-PAGE separation, we identified a total of 912 MV proteins with high confidence. Three independent experiments on three patients showed that MV proteins from PE were distinct from MV obtained from other malignancies. Bioinformatics analyses of the MS data identified pathologically relevant proteins and potential diagnostic makers for NSCLC, including lung-enriched surface antigens and proteins related to epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These findings provide new insight into the diverse functions of MVs in cancer progression and will aid in the development of novel diagnostic tools for NSCLC.
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MicroRNA-185 and 342 inhibit tumorigenicity and induce apoptosis through blockade of the SREBP metabolic pathway in prostate cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) inhibition of oncogenic related pathways has been shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer. Aberrant lipid and cholesterol metabolism is involved in prostate cancer development and progression to end-stage disease. We recently demonstrated that a key transcription factor for lipogenesis, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), induced fatty acid and lipid accumulation and androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity, and also promoted prostate cancer cell growth and castration resistance. SREBP-1 was overexpressed in human prostate cancer and castration-resistant patient specimens. These experimental and clinical results indicate that SREBP-1 is a potential oncogenic transcription factor in prostate cancer. In this study, we identified two miRNAs, miR-185 and 342, that control lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis in prostate cancer cells by inhibiting SREBP-1 and 2 expression and down-regulating their targeted genes, including fatty acid synthase (FASN) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR). Both miR-185 and 342 inhibited tumorigenicity, cell growth, migration and invasion in prostate cancer cell culture and xenograft models coincident with their blockade of lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis. Intrinsic miR-185 and 342 expression was significantly decreased in prostate cancer cells compared to non-cancerous epithelial cells. Restoration of miR-185 and 342 led to caspase-dependent apoptotic death in prostate cancer cells. The newly identified miRNAs, miR-185 and 342, represent a novel targeting mechanism for prostate cancer therapy.
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A metabolic perturbation by U0126 identifies a role for glutamine in resveratrol-induced cell death.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Recent evidence has identified substantial overlap between metabolic and oncogenic biochemical pathways, suggesting novel approaches to cancer intervention. For example, cholesterol lowering statins and the antidiabetes medication metformin both act as chemopreventive agents in prostate and other cancers. The natural compound resveratrol has similar properties: increasing insulin sensitivity, suppressing adipogenesis, and inducing apoptotic death of cancer cells in vitro. However, in vivo tumor xenografts acquire resistance to resveratrol by an unknown mechanism, while mouse models of metabolic disorders respond more consistently to the compound. Here we demonstrate that castration-resistant human prostate cancer C4-2 cells are more sensitive to resveratrol-induced apoptosis than isogenic androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. The MEK inhibitor U0126 antagonized resveratrol-induced apoptosis in C4-2 cells, but this effect was not seen with other MEK inhibitors. U0126 was found to inhibit mitochondrial function and shift cells to aerobic glycolysis independently of MEK. Mitochondrial activity of U0126 arose through decomposition, producing both mitochondrial fluorescence and cyanide, a known inhibitor of complex IV. Applying U0126 mitochondrial inhibition to C4-2 cell apoptosis, we tested the possibility that glutamine supplementation of citric acid cycle intermediate ?-ketoglutarate may be involved. Suppression of the conversion of glutamate to ?-ketoglutarate antagonized resveratrol-induced death in C4-2 cells. A similar effect was also seen by reducing extracellular glutamine concentration in the culture medium, suggesting that resveratrol-induced death is dependent on glutamine metabolism, a process frequently dysregulated in cancer. Further work on resveratrol and metabolism in cancer is warranted to ascertain if the glutamine dependence has clinical implications.
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Antiproliferative factor signaling and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.
Int Neurourol J
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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A unique glycopeptide, antiproliferative factor (APF), has been suggested as a urinary biomarker and potential mediator of long-term bladder disorder Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome. There is no known cause for this disease. Several mechanistic approaches have been employed to address the underlying mechanism whereby APF regulates cellular responses in the bladder epithelium. A summary of recent literature is provided, and is focused on signal transduction pathways and networks that are responsive to APF.
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Emergence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing escherichia coli as a cause of community-onset bacteremia in South Korea: risk factors and clinical outcomes.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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To define the risk factors and clinical outcomes of community-onset bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBLEC), we analyzed 50 consecutive cases of community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBLEC at a secondary hospital in South Korea from 2005 to 2010. Risk factors were assessed by conducting a case-double control study in which cases were compared with (1) control patients with community-onset bacteremia due to non-ESBLEC, and (2) those with community-onset bacteremia not caused by E. coli. Clinical outcome was assessed among patients with community-onset E. coli bacteremia. Community-onset bacteremia due to ESBLEC accounted for 6.7% of all community-onset E. coli bacteremia. In addition, an increasing proportion of ESBLEC among patients without any healthcare risk factors was observed. Comparison with both control groups revealed that the recent use of antibiotics (odds ratio [OR], 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-12.3) was an independent risk factor for ESBL acquisition. Factors influencing the 30-day mortality were a high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR, 26.6; 95% CI, 1.5-470.7) and malignancy (OR, 11.9; 95% CI, 1.1-134.8). Increased mortality was not statistically associated either with ESBL production or with inappropriate empirical therapy. ESBLEC has emerged as a significant cause of community-onset bacteremia in this hospital, suggesting that ESBLEC are widely disseminated in the South Korean community.
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Signal detection of methylphenidate by comparing a spontaneous reporting database with a claims database.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Data mining is critical for signal detection in pharmacovigilance systems. In this study, we compared signals between spontaneous reporting data and health insurance claims data for a socially issued drug, methylphenidate. We implemented data-mining tools for signal detection in both databases: Reporting Odds Ratios (ROR), Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRR), Chi-squared test, and Information Component (IC), in addition to a Relative Risk (RR) tool in the claims database. The claims database generated 15, 15, 36, 1, and 1 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by ROR, PRR, chi-square, IC, and RR, respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) spontaneous database generated 91, 91, 137, and 96 ADRs by ROR, PRR, chi-square, and IC, respectively. We found seven potential matching associations from the claims and WHO databases, but only one of them was present in the Korean spontaneous reporting database. In Korea, spontaneous reporting is still underreported and there is a small amount of data for Koreans. Signal comparison between the claims and WHO databases can provide additional regulatory insight.
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Quantitative proteomics identifies a beta-catenin network as an element of the signaling response to Frizzled-8 protein-related antiproliferative factor.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Antiproliferative factor (APF), a Frizzled-8 protein-related sialoglycopeptide involved in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis, potently inhibits proliferation of normal urothelial cells as well as certain cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the growth-inhibitory effect of APF, we performed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture analysis of T24 bladder cancer cells treated with and without APF. Among over 2000 proteins identified, 54 were significantly up-regulated and 48 were down-regulated by APF treatment. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a protein network involved in cell adhesion was substantially altered by APF and that ?-catenin was a prominent node in this network. Functional assays demonstrated that APF down-regulated ?-catenin, at least in part, via proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. Moreover, silencing of ?-catenin mimicked the antiproliferative effect of APF whereas ectopic expression of nondegradable ?-catenin rescued growth inhibition in response to APF, confirming that ?-catenin is a key mediator of APF signaling. Notably, the key role of ?-catenin in APF signaling is not restricted to T24 cells, but was also observed in an hTERT-immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line, TRT-HU1. In addition, the network model suggested that ?-catenin is linked to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), implying a potential connection between APF and inflammation. Functional assays verified that APF increased the production of prostaglandin E(2) and that down-modulation of ?-catenin elevated COX-2 expression, whereas forced expression of nondegradable ?-catenin inhibited APF-induced up-regulation of COX-2. Furthermore, we confirmed that ?-catenin was down-regulated whereas COX-2 was up-regulated in epithelial cells explanted from IC bladder biopsies compared with control tissues. In summary, our quantitative proteomics study describes the first provisional APF-regulated protein network, within which ?-catenin is a key node, and provides new insight that targeting the ?-catenin signaling pathway may be a rational approach toward treating interstitial cystitis.
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Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals molecular networks regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor level in head and neck cancer.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in up to 90% of head and neck cancer (HNC), where increased expression levels of EGFR correlate with poor prognosis. To date, EGFR expression levels have not predicted the clinical response to the EGFR-targeting therapies. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-EGFR-induced antitumor effects may shed some light on the mechanisms of HNC resistance to EGFR-targeting therapeutics and provide novel targets for improving the treatment of HNC. Here, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis to determine the molecular networks regulated by EGFR levels in HNC by specifically knocking-down EGFR and employing stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Following data normalization to minimize systematic errors and Western blotting validation, 12 proteins (e.g., p21, stratifin, and maspin) and 24 proteins (e.g., cdc2 and MTA2) were found to be significantly upregulated or downregulated by EGFR knockdown, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these proteins were mainly involved in long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and beta-oxidation, cholesterol biosynthesis, cell proliferation, DNA replication, and apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis confirmed that G(2)/M phase progression was significantly inhibited by EGFR knockdown, a hypothesis generated from network modeling. Further investigation of these molecular networks may not only enhance our understanding of the antitumor mechanisms of EGFR targeting but also improve patient selection and provide novel targets for better therapeutics.
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An hTERT-immortalized human urothelial cell line that responds to anti-proliferative factor.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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Studies of the urothelium, the specialized epithelial lining of the urinary bladder, are critical for understanding diseases affecting the lower urinary tract, including interstitial cystitis, urinary tract infections and cancer. However, our understanding of urothelial pathophysiology has been hampered by a lack of appropriate model systems. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a non-transformed urothelial cell line (TRT-HU1), originally explanted from normal tissue and immortalized with hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase. We demonstrate responsiveness of the cells to anti-proliferative factor (APF), a glycopeptide implicated in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. TRT-HU1 carries a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 9, an early genetic lesion in development of bladder cancer. TRT-HU1 urothelial cells displayed growth and migration characteristics similar to the low-grade papilloma cell line RT4. In contrast, we observed marked differences in both phenotype and gene expression profiles between TRT-HU1 and the highly malignant T24 cell line. Together, these findings provide the first demonstration of a non-transformed, continuous urothelial cell line that responds to APF. This cell line will be valuable for studies of both benign and malignant urothelial cell biology.
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Another paradigm in solvent extraction-based microencapsulation technologies.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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The objectives of this study were to apply a base-driven reaction to developing a new microencapsulation technique to prepare progesterone-containing poly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres. Nonhalogenated ester solvents such as ethyl acetate and ethyl formate were used as dispersed solvents. After an oil-in-water emulsion was prepared, a sodium hydroxide solution was added to trigger base-catalyzed hydrolysis of organic solvents dissolved in the aqueous phase. Their rapid depletion provided a sink condition and drove the continual diffusion of the organic solvents residing in emulsion droplets into the aqueous phase. These events led to the solidification of emulsion droplets into microspheres over 15-30 min, without the use of a quenching liquid. The rate of the base-driven reaction observed with ethyl formate was 2.3 times faster than that attained with ethyl acetate. The drug encapsulation efficiency was >or=93.2%, and solvent residues in the microspheres ranged from 1.87 to 2.69%. GPC and FTIR results demonstrated that the structural integrity of the polymer and progesterone remained unchanged during the base-catalyzed microencapsulation process. This method might serve as a promising alternative for preparing nanoparticles and microspheres.
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Assessment of heavy metal exposure via the intake of oriental medicines in Korea.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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Oriental medical herbs are mainly natural products that are generated by simple processes, and therefore there is the possibility of contamination with various pollutants, including heavy metals. Heavy metals produce adverse effects in humans, and the toxicities of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are well established. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to Pb and Cd via the intake of the frequent prescriptions of oriental medicines, and assessed the risk to the Korean population based on domestic data. The average daily exposures to Pb and Cd were estimated. This is the first study to evaluate exposure and risk of heavy metal intoxication through intake of oriental medicines in Korea. Despite the uncertainties and limits of the data, these results simulate realistic exposure levels.
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Oncosome formation in prostate cancer: association with a region of frequent chromosomal deletion in metastatic disease.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Oncosomes have recently been described as membrane-derived microvesicles secreted by cancer cells, which transfer oncogenic signals and protein complexes across cell boundaries. Here, we show the rapid formation and secretion of oncosomes from DU145 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Oncosome formation was stimulated by epidermal growth factor receptor activation and also by overexpression of membrane-targeted Akt1. Microvesicles shed from prostate cancer cells contained numerous signal transduction proteins and were capable of activating rapid phospho-tyrosine and Akt pathway signaling, and stimulating proliferation and migration, in recipient tumor cells. They also induced a stromal reaction in recipient normal cells. Knockdown of the actin nucleating protein Diaphanous Related Formin 3 (DRF3/Dia2) by RNA interference enhanced rates of oncosome formation, indicating that these structures resemble, and may be identical to, nonapoptotic membrane blebs, a feature of the amoeboid form of cell motility. Analysis of primary and metastatic human prostate tumors using 100K single nucleotide polymorphism arrays revealed a significantly higher frequency of deletion of the locus encoding DRF3 (DIAPH3) in metastatic tumors (P = 0.001) in comparison with organ-confined tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed increased chromosomal loss of DIAPH3 in metastatic tumors in a different cohort of patients (P = 0.006). These data suggest that microvesicles shed from prostate cancer cells can alter the tumor microenvironment in a manner that may promote disease progression. They also show that DRF3 is a physiologically relevant protein that seems to regulate this process.
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A signaling network in phenylephrine-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown etiology characterized by prostatic enlargement and coinciding with distinctive alterations in tissue histomorphology. To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of BPH, we conducted a DNA microarray study using a previously described animal model in which chronic alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation by repeated administration of phenylephrine evokes histomorphological changes in the rat prostate that resemble human BPH. Bioinformatic tools were applied to microarray data obtained from prostate tissue to construct a network model of potentially relevant signal transduction pathways. Significant involvement of inflammatory pathways was demonstrable, including evidence for activation of a TGF-beta signaling cascade. The heterodimeric protein clusterin (apolipoprotein J) was also identified as a prominent node in the network. Responsiveness of TGF-beta signaling and clusterin gene and protein expression were confirmed independently of the microarray data, verifying some components of the model. This is the first attempt to develop a comprehensive molecular network for histological BPH induced by adrenergic activation. The study also implicated clusterin as a novel biochemical target for therapy.
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Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor functionally antagonizes interstitial cystitis antiproliferative factor via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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To delineate the mechanism underlying the potential functional relationship between interstitial cystitis antiproliferative factor (APF) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), as APF has previously been shown to decrease the proliferation rate of normal bladder epithelial cells and the amount of HB-EGF produced by these cells.
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Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is a novel regulator of androgen receptor translation.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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The regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression in prostate cancer is still poorly understood. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in prostate cancer cells was previously shown to lower AR expression by a rapamycin-sensitive, posttranscriptional mechanism involving the AR mRNA 5-untranslated region (5-UTR). In a search for an intermediate within the EGFR/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway that regulates AR at this site, we identified the nucleic acid-binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K), by mass spectrometric analysis of Akt immune complexes from lipid raft-enriched subcellular fractions. We show here that hnRNP-K is a novel inhibitor of AR mRNA translation that regulates androgen-responsive gene expression and prostate cancer cell proliferation. A functional hnRNP-K binding site involved in down-regulating AR protein levels was identified in the AR mRNA 5-UTR. Further analysis revealed that hnRNP-K is also able to inhibit AR translation in the absence of the 5-UTR, consistent with the presence of additional predicted hnRNP-K binding sites within the AR open reading frame and in the 3-UTR. Immunohistochemical analysis of a human prostate cancer tissue microarray revealed an inverse correlation between hnRNP-K expression and AR protein levels in organ-confined prostate tumors and a substantial decline in cytoplasmic hnRNP-K in metastases, despite an overall increase in hnRNP-K levels in metastatic tumors. These data suggest that translational inhibition of AR by hnRNP-K may occur in organ-confined tumors but possibly at a reduced level in metastases. HnRNP-K is the first protein identified that directly interacts with and regulates the AR translational apparatus.
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Ezetimibe is an inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Epidemiological and preclinical observations have suggested a role for one or more products of the mevalonate/cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in the progression of prostate cancer. In this study, we used ezetimibe (Zetia), a specific, FDA-approved, cholesterol uptake-blocking drug, in combination with either a hyper- or hypocholesterolemic diet, to show that elevated circulating cholesterol levels promote, whereas a reduction in circulating cholesterol levels retard, the growth of human prostate cancer xenograft tumors in mice. Circulating cholesterol levels also modified tumor angiogenesis; higher cholesterol levels increased microvessel density and other indicators of vascularity. Consistent with these data, the reduction of cholesterol levels also increased the levels of the angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1 in the xenografts. Our results thus suggest that hypercholesterolemia directly accelerates the growth of prostate carcinomas, and that the pharmacological reduction of serum cholesterol levels may retard prostate cancer growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis.
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Toxicity value for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol using a benchmark dose methodology.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (alpha-chlorohydrin, 3-MCPD) is a well-known contaminant that has been detected in a wide range of foods, and that is principally generated in foods prepared by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, such as acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (acid-HVP). 3-MCPD is nephrotoxic to animals at high doses and induced tumors in some organs in both sexes of rodents. NITR have recently reported on the carcinogenicity of 3-MCPD in SD rats that were exposed for 2 years to drinking water. We considered that the kidney was the main target organ for 3-MCPD in SD rats and that renal tubular hyperplasia was the most sensitive endpoint. Benchmark dose analysis of the dose-response data for renal tubular hyperplasia in male and female rats exposed to 3-MCPD in drinking water for 2 years was conducted. We applied this to the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology to yield a point of departure for developing tolerable daily intakes (TDIs). The calculated BMDs and lower-bound confidence limits (BMDLs) for the critical endpoint were estimated using the seven different models. Predicted doses associated with 10% extra risk were calculated. The smallest Akaikes Information Criterion (AIC) was used in selecting the appropriate model. The model chosen by AIC for males was the logistic and for females it was the multistage. In summary, the predicted BMD(10) and BMDL(10) were 1.21 mg/kg bw/day and 0.87 mg/kg bw/day for the male rat incidence data, and values for female rats were 26.31 mg/kg bw/day and 19.47 mg/kg bw/day. In this study, the BMDL(10) of 0.87 mg/kg bw/day for male rats was suggested as the point of departure for deriving the human tolerable daily intake level of 3-MCPD.
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Emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains as a cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in Korea.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains causing bloodstream infection (BSI) has not been studied in Korea.
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Omics approaches to understanding interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome/bladder pain syndrome.
Int Neurourol J
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Recent efforts in the generation of large genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other types of omics data sets have provided an unprecedentedly detailed view of certain diseases, however to date most of this literature has been focused on malignancy and other lethal pathological conditions. Very little intensive work on global profiles has been performed to understand the molecular mechanism of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome/bladder pain syndrome (IC/PBS/BPS), a chronic lower urinary tract disorder characterized by pelvic pain, urinary urgency and frequency, which can lead to long lasting adverse effects on quality of life. A lack of understanding of molecular mechanism has been a challenge and dilemma for diagnosis and treatment, and has also led to a delay in basic and translational research focused on biomarker and drug discovery, clinical therapy, and preventive strategies against IC/PBS/BPS. This review describes the current state of omics studies and available data sets relevant to IC/PBS/BPS, and presents opportunities for new research directed at understanding the pathogenesis of this complex condition.
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A synthetic form of frizzled 8-associated antiproliferative factor enhances p53 stability through USP2a and MDM2.
PLoS ONE
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Frizzled 8-associated Antiproliferative Factor (APF) is a sialoglycopeptide urinary biomarker of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), a chronic condition of unknown etiology with variable symptoms that generally include pelvic and/or perineal pain, urinary frequency, and urgency. We previously reported that native human APF suppresses the proliferation of normal bladder epithelial cells through a mechanism that involves increased levels of p53. The goal of this study was to delineate the regulatory mechanism whereby p53 expression is regulated by APF. Two APF-responsive cell lines (T24 bladder carcinoma cells and the immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line, TRT-HU1) were treated with asialo-APF (as-APF), a chemically synthesized form of APF. Biochemical analysis revealed that as-APF increased p53 levels in two ways: by decreasing ubiquitin specific protease 2a (USP2a) expression leading to enhanced ubiquitination of murine double minute 2 E3 ubiquitin ligase (MDM2), and by suppressing association of p53 with MDM2, thus impairing p53 ubiquitination. Biological responses to as-APF were suppressed by increased expression of wild type, but not mutant USP2a, which enhanced cell growth via upregulation of a cell cycle mediator, cyclin D1, at both transcription and protein levels. Consistent with this, gene silencing of USP2a with siRNA arrested cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that APF upregulates cellular p53 levels via functional attenuation of the USP2a-MDM2 pathway, resulting in p53 accumulation and growth arrest. These data also imply that targeting USP2a, MDM2, p53 and/or complex formation by these molecules may be relevant in the development of novel therapeutic approaches to IC/PBS.
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A comparison of INNOVANCE® PFA P2Y and VerifyNow P2Y12 assay for the assessment of clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
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VerifyNow P2Y12 is commonly used to measure responsiveness to clopidogrel. We sought to compare the results obtained from novel INNOVANCE® PFA P2Y and VerifyNow P2Y12 assay to assess the clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
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The response of the prostate to circulating cholesterol: activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) as a prominent node in a cholesterol-sensing network.
PLoS ONE
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Elevated circulating cholesterol is a systemic risk factor for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, however the manner in which the normal prostate responds to variations in cholesterol levels is poorly understood. In this study we addressed the molecular and cellular effects of elevated and suppressed levels of circulating cholesterol on the normal prostate. Integrated bioinformatic analysis was performed using DNA microarray data from two experimental formats: (1) ventral prostate from male mice with chronically elevated circulating cholesterol and (2) human prostate cells exposed acutely to cholesterol depletion. A cholesterol-sensitive gene expression network was constructed from these data and the transcription factor ATF3 was identified as a prominent node in the network. Validation experiments confirmed that elevated cholesterol reduced ATF3 expression and enhanced proliferation of prostate cells, while cholesterol depletion increased ATF3 levels and inhibited proliferation. Cholesterol reduction in vivo alleviated dense lymphomononuclear infiltrates in the periprostatic adipose tissue, which were closely associated with nerve tracts and blood vessels. These findings open new perspectives on the role of cholesterol in prostate health, and provide a novel role for ATF3, and associated proteins within a large signaling network, as a cholesterol-sensing mechanism.
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Integration analysis of quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics data identifies potential targets of frizzled-8 protein-related antiproliferative factor in vivo.
BJU Int.
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Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a prevalent and debilitating pelvic disorder generally accompanied by chronic pain combined with chronic urinating problems. Over one million Americans are affected, especially middle-aged women. However, its aetiology or mechanism remains unclear. No efficient drug has been provided to patients. Several urinary biomarker candidates have been identified for IC; among the most promising is antiproliferative factor (APF), whose biological activity is detectable in urine specimens from >94% of patients with both ulcerative and non-ulcerative IC. The present study identified several important mediators of the effect of APF on bladder cell physiology, suggesting several candidate drug targets against IC. In an attempt to identify potential proteins and genes regulated by APF in vivo, and to possibly expand the APF-regulated network identified by stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), we performed an integration analysis of our own SILAC data and the microarray data of Gamper et al. (2009) BMC Genomics 10: 199. Notably, two of the proteins (i.e. MAPKSP1 and GSPT1) that are down-regulated by APF are involved in the activation of mTORC1, suggesting that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is potentially a critical pathway regulated by APF in vivo. Several components of the mTOR pathway are currently being studied as potential therapeutic targets in other diseases. Our analysis suggests that this pathway might also be relevant in the design of diagnostic tools and medications targeting IC.
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DIAPH3 governs the cellular transition to the amoeboid tumour phenotype.
EMBO Mol Med
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Therapies for most malignancies are generally ineffective once metastasis occurs. While tumour cells migrate through tissues using diverse strategies, the signalling networks controlling such behaviours in human tumours are poorly understood. Here we define a role for the Diaphanous-related formin-3 (DIAPH3) as a non-canonical regulator of metastasis that restrains conversion to amoeboid cell behaviour in multiple cancer types. The DIAPH3 locus is close to RB1, within a narrow consensus region of deletion on chromosome 13q in prostate, breast and hepatocellular carcinomas. DIAPH3 silencing in human carcinoma cells destabilized microtubules and induced defective endocytic trafficking, endosomal accumulation of EGFR, and hyperactivation of EGFR/MEK/ERK signalling. Silencing also evoked amoeboid properties, increased invasion and promoted metastasis in mice. In human tumours, DIAPH3 down-regulation was associated with aggressive or metastatic disease. DIAPH3-silenced cells were sensitive to MEK inhibition, but showed reduced sensitivity to EGFR inhibition. These findings have implications for understanding mechanisms of metastasis, and suggest that identifying patients with chromosomal deletions at DIAPH3 may have prognostic value.
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The ubiquitin-specific protease USP2a enhances tumor progression by targeting cyclin A1 in bladder cancer.
Cell Cycle
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The deubiquitinating enzyme USP2a has shown oncogenic properties in many cancer types by impairing ubiquitination of FASN, MDM2, MDMX or Aurora A. Aberrant expression of USP2a has been linked to progression of human tumors, particularly prostate cancer. However, little is known about the role of USP2a or its mechanism of action in bladder cancer. Here, we provide evidence that USP2a is an oncoprotein in bladder cancer cells. Enforced expression of USP2a caused enhanced proliferation, invasion, migration and resistance to several chemotherapeutic reagents, while USP2a loss resulted in slower proliferation, greater chemosensitivity and reduced migratory/invasive capability compared with control cells. USP2a, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, enhanced proliferation in immortalized TRT-HU1 normal human bladder epithelial cells. USP2a bound to cyclin A1 and prevented cyclin A1 ubiquitination, leading to accumulation of cyclin A1 by a block in degradation. Enforced expression of wild type USP2a, but not an inactive USP2a mutant, resulted in cyclin A1 accumulation and increased cell proliferation. We conclude that USP2a impairs ubiquitination and stabilizes an important cell cycle regulator, cyclin A1, raising the possibility of USP2a targeting as a therapeutic strategy against bladder tumors in combination with chemotherapy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.