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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A late onset sickle cell disease reveals a mosaic segmental uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 11p15.
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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We report, in a 78-year old man constitutionally heterozygous for the sickle cell trait, a late onset sickle cell disease (SCD) caused by a mosaic segmental uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 11p15. The mosaic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the HBB gene was suggested in front of an unusually weak ?(A) peak at Sanger direct sequencing and a semi-quantitative FRET Light Cycler method which showed a low expression of the ?(A) allele compared to the ?(S) allele. A SNP array analysis then revealed a 45.9Mb LOH on almost the whole short arm of chromosome 11 without any copy loss number and with an estimated level of mosaicism of 80%. Culture and genotyping of erythroblastic burst forming units confirmed the presence of AS and SS hematopoietic cells in the proportions of 2/3 and 1/3, respectively. Such a late-onset SCD had already been described but for a much younger patient (a 14-year-old boy). This discrepancy could be explained either by a much lower degree of mosaicism at birth in our proband (and thus a much more delayed clinical expression) or by inter-individual variations (modifier genes for example) that could have slowed down the positive selection of S/S clones.
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A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions.
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Jatrophane diterpenes as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication: structure-activity relationship and discovery of a potent lead.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the whole plant of Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. semiperfoliata using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of six new (1-4, 9, and 10) and six known (5-7, 8, 11, and 12) jatrophane esters. Their planar structures and relative configurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations by X-ray analysis. These compounds were investigated for selective antiviral activity against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses. Compound 3 was found to be the most potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of CHIKV and of HIV-1 and HIV-2 (EC50 = 0.76, IC50 = 0.34 and 0.043 ?M, respectively). A preliminary structure-activity relationship study demonstrated that potency and selectivity are very sensitive to the substitution pattern on the jatrophane skeleton. Although replication strategies of CHIK and HIV viruses are quite different, the mechanism of action by which these compounds act may involve a similar target for both viruses. The present results provide additional support for a previous hypothesis that the anti-CHIKV activity could involve a PKC-dependent mechanism.
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Dose-dependent sickness behavior, abortion and inflammation induced by systemic LPS injection in pregnant mice.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Abstract Objective: Clinical and experimental evidences indicate that intrauterine inflammation during pregnancy is associated to brain damage. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of lipopolysaccharide in temperature, cytokine production and sickness behavior of pregnant dams. Methods: A single i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (50, 150 or 300?µg/kg) was administered on E18. Controls received isotonic saline. Body temperature was controlled before and 3?h after injections. Animals' behavior was assessed by the OF test 3?h following treatment. Animals were sacrificed for leukocyte, IL-1? and TNF-? determination. Placental tissue and abortion were also examined. Results: LPS administration elicited hypothermia. Abortion was observed in LPS 150 and 300?µg/kg. Leukocyte levels were significantly lower with LPS 300?µg/kg than in controls. LPS induced dose-dependent impairment in animals' locomotion. IL-1? serum and amniotic fluid were higher than the saline, and TNF-? serum and amniotic fluid increased when compared to controls. Placental histopathologic abnormality was not found. Conclusion: LPS induces dose-dependent sickness behavior and hypothermia in pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the presence of inflammation may be a causative factor for premature labor and that Escherichia coli antigens modify the concentration of pro-inflammatory agents in circulatory system and intra-uterine environment.
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Maximum-likelihood based synthesis of volumetric textures from a 2D sample.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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We propose a genuine 3D texture synthesis algorithm based on a probabilistic 2D Markov random field conceptualization, capable of capturing the visual characteristics of a texture into a unique statistical texture model. We intend to reproduce, in the volumetric texture, the interactions between pixels learned in an input 2D image. The learning is done by nonparametric Parzen-windowing. Optimization is handled voxel by a relaxation algorithm, aiming at maximizing the likelihood of each voxel in terms of its local conditional probability function. Variants are proposed regarding the relaxation algorithm and the heuristic strategies used for the simultaneous handling of the orthogonal slices containing the voxel. The procedures are materialized on various textures through a comparative study and a sensitivity analysis, highlighting the variants strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the probabilistic model is compared objectively with a nonparametric neighborhood-search-based algorithm.
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Antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against oral multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis in both planktonic and biofilm state.
Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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To evaluate some essential oils in treatment of intractable oral infections, principally caused by biofilm of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), such as persistent endodontic infections in which their treatment exhibits a real challenge for dentists.
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New management strategy of pregnancies at risk of congenital adrenal hyperplasia using fetal sex determination in maternal serum: French cohort of 258 cases (2002-2011).
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) treatment has been proposed since 1984 to prevent genital virilization in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). DEX is effective in CAH females if initiated before the sixth week of gestation, but its safety in children treated in utero remains controversial regarding cognitive functions.
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The development of the dementia concept in 19th century.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a) correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b) understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c) its relation with human ageing; and d) the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept.
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Analyses of the temporal dynamics of fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues of esca leaf-symptomatic and asymptomatic vines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD), is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period.
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Stereological estimation of orientation distribution of generalized cylinders from a unique 2D slice.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Though three-dimensional (3D) imaging gives deep insight into the inner structure of complex materials, the stereological analysis of 2D snapshots of material sections is still necessary for large-scale industrial applications for reasons related to time and cost constraints. In this paper, we propose an original framework to estimate the orientation distribution of generalized cylindrical structures from a single 2D section. Contrary to existing approaches, knowledge of the cylinder cross-section shape is not necessary. The only requirement is to know the area distribution of the cross-sections. The approach relies on minimization of a least squares criterion under linear equality and inequality constraints that can be solved with standard optimization solvers. It is evaluated on synthetic data, including simulated images, and is applied to experimental microscopy images of fibrous composite structures. The results show the relevance and capabilities of the approach though some limitations have been identified regarding sensitivity to deviations from the assumed model.
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Prevalence of headache in patients with Parkinsons disease and its association with the side of motor symptom onset.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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We compared the lifetime prevalence and the prevalence of headache during the previous year in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) and control subjects. We also investigated the association between the side of PD symptom onset and the side of the headache. We interviewed 98 consecutive patients with an established diagnosis of PD between December 2010 and January 2012. The control group consisted of the 98 oldest sex-matched individuals from the nationwide Brazilian headache database. PD patients showed a significantly lower prevalence (40.8 %) of headache in the previous year than controls (69.4 %) (adjusted OR 0.5, CI 95 % 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03). PD patients also showed a lower prevalence of headache throughout life (74.5 %) than controls (93.9 %) (adjusted OR 0.2, CI 95 % 0.1-0.6, p = 0.01). Considering only patients who presented headache during the previous year, PD patients showed a higher association with occurrence of migraine than tension-type headache compared with controls (adjusted OR 3.3, CI 95 % 1.2-8.9, p = 0.02). The headache side was ipsilateral to the side of PD onset in 21 patients (84 %), with a concordance of 85.7 % on the left side and 81.8 % on the right side (p < 0.01). The prevalence of primary headache was significantly lower in patients with PD than controls. The predominant side of headache was ipsilateral to the side of initial motor signs of PD.
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Direct genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from amniotic fluids based on B1 gene polymorphism using minisequencing analysis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Because some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes may be more virulent in pregnant women, discriminating between them appears valuable. Currently, the main genotyping method is based on single copy microsatellite markers, which limit direct genotyping from amniotic fluids (AFs) to samples with a high parasitic load. We investigated whether the multicopy gene B1 could type the parasite with a higher sensitivity. To estimate the amplifiable DNA present in AFs, we first compared three different PCR assays used for Toxoplasma infection diagnosis: the P30-PCR, targeting the single copy gene P30; the B1-PCR, targeting the repeated B1 gene; and RE-PCR, targeting the repeated element.
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Antimicrobial activity and evolution of the composition of essential oil from Algerian Anacyclus pyrethrum L. through the vegetative cycle.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Essential oils from the aerial parts of Anacyclus pyrethrum L. were analysed at three developmental stages (vegetative, floral budding and flowering). Oil yield was found to vary depending on the stage of development, and the highest content of oil (0.019% w/w) was obtained at flowering stage. The chemical composition of essential oils studied by GC and GC-MS showed a total of 91 compounds. Whatever the analysed stage is, oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the most abundant group. Their level significantly increased during ripening and varied from 37.1% to 58.6%. The oil showed activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria strains. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that may potentially be used in pathogenic systems.
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Relationships between the leaf and fruit mineral compositions of Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward according to nitrogen and potassium fertilization.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The variations of the elements that are examined most frequently during foliar analysis were determined for kiwi as a function of different nitrogen and potassium fertilizer loads. The values recorded demonstrated the existence of a relation between the leaves and the fruit. Two groups of elements were identified that exhibited different responses. The first group comprised elements that, in leaves and fruits, presented a different evolution as a function of at least one of the fertilizers. This group included B, Cu, Fe, Na, and Zn. The second group comprised elements that, in both leaves and fruits, exhibited a comparable evolution as a function of both fertilizer types. This group included N, Ca, Mg, Mn, P, and K.
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Chemical variability and antioxidant activity of Limbarda crithmoides L. essential oil from Corsica.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The chemical compositions of 25 Corsican Limbarda crithmoides ssp. longifolia essential oils were investigated for the first time using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 65 compounds were identified, accounting for 90.0-99.3% of the total oil compositions. The main components were p-cymene (1; 15.1-34.6%), 3-methoxy-p-cymenene (4; 11.8-28.5%), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-cymenene (5; 5.9-16.4%), thymol methyl ether (6; 1.3-14.9%), ?-phellandrene (2; 0.9-11.9%), and ?-pinene (3; 0.2-13.4%). The chemical variability of the Corsican oil samples was studied using multivariate statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of two main clusters. A direct correlation between the water salinities of the plant locations and the chemical compositions of the L. crithmoides essential oils was evidenced. Indeed, essential oils rich in 1 (30.4-34.6%) were found in samples growing in the wetlands of the southern oriental coast, which exhibit high salinity levels (24.4±0.2-33.9±0.2 ppt), and essential oils with lower contents of 1 (15.1-27.3%) were isolated form samples growing in the wetlands of northern Corsica, which exhibit lower salinity levels (10.90±0.20-15.47±0.15 ppt). The antioxidant potential of L. crithmoides essential oil was also investigated, by assessing the DPPH(.) - and ABTS(.+) -scavenging activities and the reducing power of ferric ions, and was found to be interesting. Moreover, using bioassay-guided fractionation of the essential oil, a higher antioxidant activity was obtained for the oxygenated fraction and both ester and alcohol subfractions.
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Time-dependent modulation of AMPA receptor phosphorylation and mRNA expression of NMDA receptors and glial glutamate transporters in the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex in a pilocarpine model of epilepsy.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The pilocarpine model in rodents reproduces the main features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampus sclerosis (MTLE-HS) in humans. It has been demonstrated in this model that the phosphorylation of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR1 subunit is increased 1 h after pilocarpine treatment. Moreover, alterations in the levels of glutamate transporters have been associated with chronic epilepsy in humans. Despite these studies, the profile of these changes has not yet been addressed. We analyzed the protein content and phosphorylation profile of the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit by western blotting. We also used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of glial glutamate transporters and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 subunit in the hippocampus (Hip) and cerebral cortex (Ctx) at different time points after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (Pilo-SE) in male adult Wistar rats. Biochemical analysis was performed in the Hip and Ctx at 1, 3, 12 h (acute period), 5 days (latent period), and 50 days (chronic period) after Pilo-SE. Key findings include an increase in the phosphorylation of GluR1-Ser(845) in the Ctx and GluR1-Ser(831) in the Hip at different times during the acute period, and a decrease in the total content of the GluR1 subunit in the Ctx in the latent period. There was a down-regulation of the mRNA expression and protein levels of EAAT1 and EAAT2, and a decrease of the NR1 mRNA expression, in the Ctx during the latent period. Notably, during the chronic period, the EAAT2 mRNA expression and protein levels decreased while the NR1 mRNA levels increased in the Hip. Taken together, our findings suggest a time- and structure-dependent imbalance of glutamatergic transmission in response to Pilo-SE, which might be associated with either epileptogenesis or the seizure threshold in MTLE-HS.
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Antifungal activity of essential oil from Asteriscus graveolens against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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The essential oils of the aerial parts of Asteriscus graveolens have been studied using GC and GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified in the essential oil amounting to 94.9% of the total oil. The aerial part oils showed similar chromatographic profiles and were characterized by having a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with 6-oxocyclonerolidol (66.7% +/- 5.5) and 6-hydroxycyclonerolidol (8.8% +/-1.2) as the major components. The antifungal effect of the essential oil from A. graveolens leaves was evaluated in vitro against three phytopathogenic fungi of apples (Alternaria sp., Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer). The results suggest that this essential oil has fungicidal properties towards Alternaria sp. from direct contact assay at 0.2% (v/v) and to P. expansum from vapor assay tests at 80 microL.
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Characterization and comparison of volatile constituents of juice and peel from clementine, mandarin and their hybrids.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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The volatile compositions of juice and peel of clementine (Citrus reticulata x Citrus sinensis var. Commune), mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Willow Leaf) and their hybrids were analyzed by headspace solid-phase extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography and either a flame ionization detector (FID) or a mass spectrometer (MS). The major compounds of the volatile fractions of clementine and mandarin were limonene and limonene/gamma-terpinene, respectively. The volatile compositions of juice and peel of the same fruit showed qualitative and quantitative differences. The data analysis established the existence of three main groups based on volatile compounds that correlated with sample genotypes (clementine and mandarin) and fruit samples (peel and juice).
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Clinical significance of quantifying Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA by using real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from immunocompromised patients.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is more sensitive than microscopy for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We therefore developed a qPCR assay and compared the results with those of a routine immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and clinical data. The assay included automated DNA extraction, amplification of the mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA gene and an internal control, and quantification of copy numbers with the help of a plasmid clone. We studied 353 consecutive BAL fluids obtained for investigation of unexplained fever and/or pneumonia in 287 immunocompromised patients. No qPCR inhibition was observed. Seventeen (5%) samples were both IFA and qPCR positive, 63 (18%) were IFA negative and qPCR positive, and 273 (77%) were both IFA and qPCR negative. The copy number was significantly higher for IFA-positive/qPCR-positive samples than for IFA-negative/qPCR-positive samples (4.2 ± 1.2 versus 1.1 ± 1.1 log(10) copies/?l; P < 10(-4)). With IFA as the standard, the qPCR assay sensitivity was 100% for ?2.6 log(10) copies/?l and the specificity was 100% for ?4 log(10) copies/?l. Since qPCR results were not available at the time of decision-making, these findings did not trigger cotrimoxazole therapy. Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and IFA-negative/qPCR-positive BAL fluid had a worse 1-year survival rate than those with IFA-negative/qPCR-negative results (P < 10(-3)), in contrast with solid-organ transplant recipients (P = 0.88) and patients with hematological malignancy (P = 0.26). Quantifying P. jirovecii DNA in BAL fluids independently of IFA positivity should be incorporated into the investigation of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. The relevant threshold remains to be determined and may vary according to the underlying disease.
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Mesenchymal activin-A overcomes defective human trisomy 21 trophoblast fusion.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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Placental development is markedly abnormal in trisomy 21 (T21) pregnancies. We hypothesized that abnormal paracrine cross talk between the fetal mesenchymal core and the trophoblast might be involved in the defect of syncytiotrophoblast formation and function. In a large series of primary cultured human cytotrophoblasts isolated from second-trimester control (n = 44) and T21 placentae (n = 71), abnormal trophoblast fusion and differentiation was observed in more than 90% of T21 cases. We then isolated and cultured villous mesenchymal cells from control (n = 10) and T21 placentae (n = 8) and confirmed their fetal origin. Conditioned medium of control mesenchymal cells overcame the abnormal trophoblast fusion of T21 cytotrophoblasts by activating the TGF? signaling pathway, as shown by the phosphospecific protein microarray analysis and the use of TGF? signaling pathway antagonists. Using protein arrays, we further analyzed the cytokines present in the conditioned medium from control and T21 mesenchymal cells. Activin-A was identified as strongly secreted by cells from both sources, but at a significantly (P < 0.01) lower level in the case of T21 mesenchymal cells. Recombinant activin-A stimulated T21 trophoblast fusion. Blocking activin-A antibody inhibited the fusion induced by conditioned medium and exogenous activin-A. Furthermore, follistatin, an activin-A binding protein largely secreted by T21 mesenchymal cells, inhibited the conditioned medium fusogenic activity. These results show that the defective trophoblast fusion and differentiation associated with T21 can be overcome in vitro and reveal the key role of the fetal mesenchymal core in human trophoblast differentiation.
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Genotyping of the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii using high-resolution melting analysis of the repeated B1 gene.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Genetic studies of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii have identified three main distinct types according to virulence in some hosts. Several methods have been developed to differentiate genotypes currently dominated by microsatellite markers targeting single-copy loci. We analyzed the possibility of using the 35-fold repetitive B1 gene via high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis. Sequencing of the B1 gene of 14 reference strains (four Type I, six Type II, and four Type III strains) identified 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Primers were designed to amplify eight of them for HRM analysis and for relative quantification of each nucleotide variation using SNaPshot mini-sequencing. Genotyping with five microsatellite markers was performed for comparison. Two to four HRM profiles were obtained depending on the SNP tested. The differences observed relied on the different ratios of nucleotides at the SNP locus as evidenced via SNaPshot mini-sequencing. The three main lineages could be distinguished by using several HRM profiles. Some HRM profiles proved more informative than the analysis based on five microsatellite markers, showing additional differences in Type I and Type II strains. Using HRM analysis, we obtained at least an equally good discrimination of the main lineages than that based on five microsatellite markers.
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Cytochrome b gene quantitative PCR for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum infection in travelers.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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A cytochrome b (cytb) gene quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to diagnose malaria in travelers. First, manual and automated DNA extractions were compared and automated DNA extraction of 400 ?l of blood was found to be more efficient. Sensitivity was estimated using the WHO international standard for Plasmodium falciparum DNA and compared to that of a previously published qPCR targeting the 18S rRNA coding gene (18S qPCR). The limit of detection of the cytb qPCR assay was 20 DNA copies (i.e., 1 parasite equivalent) per 400 ?l of extracted whole blood and was comparable for the two qPCR assays. Both qPCR assays were used on blood samples from 265 consecutive patients seen for suspicion of malaria. There were no microscopy-positive and qPCR-negative samples. Positive cytb qPCR results were observed for 51 samples, and all but 1 were also 18S qPCR positive. Eight (16%) of these 51 samples were negative by microscopic examination. The 8 cytb qPCR-positive and microscopy-negative samples were from African patients, 3 of whom had received antimalarial drugs. Three non-P. falciparum infections were correctly identified using an additional qPCR assay. The absence of PCR inhibitors was tested for by the use of an internal control of mouse DNA to allow reliable quantification of circulating DNA. The high analytical sensitivity of both qPCR assays combined with automated DNA extraction supports its use as a laboratory tool for diagnosis and parasitemia determination in emergencies. Whether to treat qPCR-positive and microscopy-negative patients remains to be determined.
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Chemical and genetic differentiation of two Mediterranean subspecies of Teucrium scorodonia L.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Chemical and genetic diversity of Teucrium scorodonia L. subsp. scorodonia from Corsica and T. scorodonia L. subsp. baeticum from western Algeria were investigated. Diversity within and among the two populations of subspecies was assessed according to the chemical composition of their essential oils, and genetic diversity was evaluated using three polymorphic genetic markers. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-RI and GC/MS after fractionation using column chromatography. Genetic structures were mapped using two chloroplast markers (RPL32-TRNL and TRNL-F) and ribosomal nuclear markers (ITS region). The statistical analysis showed that the two subspecies were clearly distinguished by these chemical and genetic markers. The chemical composition of oil differed qualitatively and quantitatively between the subspecies. Corsican oil samples contained germacrene B (4.2-8.8%) and ?-elemene (2.6-5.7%), which were not detected in Algerian oil samples. The oils of the scorodonia and baeticum subspecies were dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds (75.6-82.9% and 69.6-79.4%, respectively), but they differed in oxygenated sesquiterpene content (3.1-8.9% and 8.4-20.3%, respectively). Neighbor-joining trees constructed from chloroplast DNA and ITS region sequences showed the existence of two groups associated with taxonomic and chemical characteristics. One group consisted of T. scorodonia subsp. scorodonia and the other of T. scorodonia subsp. baeticum, indicating that variation in the essential oil composition of T. scorodonia subspecies depends more on genetic background than environmental characteristics.
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Chemical and genetic differentiation of Corsican subspecies of Teucrium flavum L.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Corsica Island exhibited the particularity to display Teucrium flavum subsp. glaucum and subsp. flavum on the same territory with the same bioclimatic conditions. For the first time, volatile components extracted from aerial parts and genetic diversity of both Corsican T. flavum L. subspecies have been investigated through (i) the characterization of the chemical composition of essential oils and (ii) the study of three polymorphic genetic markers. Chemical analysis were performed using combination of capillary GC/RI, GC-MS after fractionation on column chromatography and the definition of the genetic structure were carried out using two chlororoplast markers (RPL32-TRNL and TRNL-F) and ribosomal nuclear markers (ITS region). According to statistical analysis, both subspecies were clearly distinguished by the chemical and genetic studies. Chemical compositions of oils from both subspecies were qualitatively similar but they differed by the normalized% abundances of their major components; oils from subsp. flavum were dominated by large amounts of hydrocarbon monoterpenes while oils obtained from subsp. glaucum were characterized by higher amounts of oxygenated compounds. The genetic analysis divided T. flavum L. populations in two groups, the first displayed subsp. glaucum populations and the latter group exhibited subsp. flavum populations. The presence of two groups is weakly consistent with chemical differentiation. These data suggest that the differences in the volatile composition of the two T. flavum subspecies depends more on the genetic background and less on environmental factors.
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Hippocampal sclerosis and ipsilateral headache among mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients.
Seizure
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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To investigate the frequency and patterns of headache in a well-defined and homogeneous group of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) patients.
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Headache among mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients: a case-control study.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Epilepsy and headache are two chronic disorders that are characterized by recurrent attacks, but the relationship between them is not completely understood. Using a structured questionnaire, we investigated the prevalence of headache during the previous year in a homogeneous group of 100 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). The control group consisted of 100 age-matched individuals who were randomized from a nationwide Brazilian headache database. There was a significantly higher prevalence of headache (92%) among the MTLE-HS patients when compared with the controls (73%; p=0.001). Chronic daily headache (CDH) was significantly associated with MTLE-HS (OR 6.1, CI 95% 1.7-22, p=0.005). We did not find any association between the diagnosis of migraine or tension-type headache and MTLE-HS. This study showed that MTLE-HS increases the likelihood of a headache diagnosis. In addition, CDH was more prevalent among the MTLE-HS patients, which supports a common pathophysiological mechanism for epilepsy and headache.
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HCV-GenoFibrotest: a combination of viral, liver and genomic (IL28b, ITPA, UGT1A1) biomarkers for predicting treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Three gene polymorphisms, interferon-lambda-3 (IL28B), inosinetriphosphatase (ITPA) and bilirubinuridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) are associated with treatment (interferon and ribavirin) efficacy and adherence in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The hypothesis was that fibrosis stage estimated with FibroTest instead of biopsy was still an independent predictive factor of sustained virologic response (SVR) when these new polymorphisms were assessed.
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Low prevalence of resistance to azoles in Aspergillus fumigatus in a French cohort of patients treated for haematological malignancies.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2010
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An increase in invasive aspergillosis (IA) due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates has been reported for 10 years. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of azole resistance in isolates prospectively collected in patients with haematological diseases.
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Degradation of fungal DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sinus fungal balls hampers reliable sequence-based identification of fungi.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Identification of the etiologic agent responsible for sinus fungal ball (SFB) is rarely obtained due to either the culture of patient specimens not being ordered or if cultures were inoculated they proved to be negative. Obviously, this has a significant impact on the design of appropriate therapeutic strategies. We investigated whether paraffin-embedded (PE) tissues, the only materials often available, were suitable for the correct identification of the responsible fungi. We obtained PE tissues of SFB from 16 different patients who had risk factors for invasive fungal infections. DNA was extracted using an automated extractor and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequenced following amplification with two sets of primers designed to amplify >300 bp fragments. This was attempted in parallel with a real-time quantitative PCR assay targeting Aspergillus spp. mitochondrial DNA designed to amplify <150 bp fragments. ITS sequencing succeeded in appropriately identifying the etiologic agents in 10 of the 16 samples (nine Aspergillus fumigatus, one Lewia spp.). In contrast, the <150 bp PCR assay amplified all specimens correctly except the one involving Lewia spp. If fungal identification is warranted to understand the pathophysiology of SFB and guide clinicians, we cannot rely only on ITS sequencing of the DNA obtained from PE tissues. The main reason is probably due to the fact that formalin prevents amplification of long DNA fragments and consequently, frozen or fresh tissues should be employed.
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Metabolic detoxication pathways for sterigmatocystin in primary tracheal epithelial cells.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
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Human health effects of inhaled mycotoxins remain poorly documented, despite the large amounts present in bioaerosols. Among these mycotoxins, sterigmatocystin is one of the most prevalent. Our aim was to study the metabolism and cellular consequences of sterigmatocystin once it is in contact with the airway epithelium. Metabolites were analyzed first in vitro, using recombinant P450 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2A13, and 3A4 enzymes, and subsequently in porcine tracheal epithelial cell (PTEC) primary cultures at an air-liquid interface. Expressed enzymes and PTECs were exposed to sterigmatocystin, uniformly enriched with (13)C to confirm the relationship between sterigmatocystin and metabolites. Induction of the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes upon sterigmatocystin exposure was examined by real-time quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Incubation of 50 ?M sterigmatocystin with recombinant P450 1A1 led to the formation of three metabolites: monohydroxy-sterigmatocystin (M1), dihydroxy-sterigmatocystin (M2), and one glutathione adduct (M3), the latter after the formation of a transient epoxide. Recombinant P450 1A2 also led to M1 and M3. P450 3A4 led to only M3. In PTEC, 1 ?M sterigmatocystin metabolism resulted in a glucuro conjugate (M4) mainly excreted at the basal side of cells. If PTEC were treated with ?-naphthoflavone prior to sterigmatocystin incubation, two other products were detected, i.e., a sulfo conjugate (M5) and a glucoro conjugate (M6) of hydroxy-sterigmatocystin. Exposure of PTEC for 24 h to 1 ?M sterigmatocystin induced an 18-fold increase in the mRNA levels of P450 1A1, without significantly induced 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. These data suggest that sterigmatocystin is mainly detoxified and is unable to produce significant amounts of reactive epoxide metabolites in respiratory cells. However, sterigmatocystin increases the P450 1A1 mRNA levels with unknown long-term consequences. These in vitro results obtained in the porcine pulmonary tract need to be confirmed in human epithelial cells.
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Chemical composition of fatty acid and unsaponifiable fractions of leaves, stems and roots of Arbutus unedo and in vitro antimicrobial activity of unsaponifiable extracts.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2010
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The chemical composition of the fatty acid and unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, stems and roots of Arbutus unedo L. were determined using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The fatty acid fractions of the leaves, stems and roots contained 38.5%, 31.3% and 14.1% palmitic acid, respectively, along with other long-chain fatty acids (up to C22). The chemical composition of the unsaponifiable fractions differed: the leaf and stem fractions contained high levels of aliphatic (32.1% and 62.6%, respectively) and terpenic compounds (49.6% and 25.7%, respectively), and the root fraction mainly contained esters, of which the most abundant was benzyl cinnamate (36.6%). The antimicrobial activities of the unsaponifiable fractions against nine species of microorganisms were assessed. The unsaponifiable leaf and stem extracts inhibited the growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans.
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Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and solvent extracts of Ptychotis verticillata from Morocco.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of the essential oil and extracts of Ptychotis verticillata. The antioxidative activities of this species were also evaluated to suggest it as a new potential source of natural antioxidants. Analysis of the chemical composition of P. verticillata essential oil from Morocco was carried out using GC and GC-MS. The oil was dominated by phenolic compounds (48.0%) with carvacrol (44.6%) and thymol (3.4%) as the main compounds. Plant phenolics constitute one of the major groups of components that act as primary antioxidant free radical terminators. The amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids in the solvent extracts (diethyl ether and ethyl acetate) were determined spectrometrically. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the essential oil and extracts were determined using a DPPH test system. The DPPH scavenging activity of extracts increased in the order ethyl acetate>ascorbic acid>diethyl ether>essential oil. Finally, a relationship was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total phenolic and flavonoid levels of the extract.
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Characterization of volatile compounds of Daucus crinitus Desf. Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction as alternative technique to Hydrodistillation.
Chem Cent J
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Traditionally, the essential oil of aromatic herbs is obtained using hydrodistillation (HD). Because the emitted volatile fraction plays a fundamental role in a plants life, various novel techniques have been developed for its extraction from plants. Among these, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) can be used to obtain a rapid fingerprint of a plants headspace. Daucus crinitus Desf. is a wild plant that grows along the west coast of Algeria. Only a single study has dealt with the chemical composition of the aerial part oils of Algerian D. crinitus, in which isochavicol isobutyrate (39.0%), octyl acetate (12.3%), and ?-caryophyllene (5.4%) were identified. Using GC-RI and GC-MS analysis, the essential oils and the volatiles extracted from separated organs of D. crinitus Desf. were studied using HS-SPME.
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Molecular survey of rodent-borne Trypanosoma in Niger with special emphasis on T. lewisi imported by invasive black rats.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2010
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Invading rodent species can harbor parasites with potential transmission to native rodents and/or humans. To investigate trypanosomes prevalence in rodents, the spleen of 76 rodents from Niger identified by their karyotype was used as a DNA source for Trypanosoma detection using a newly developed qPCR assay. Of the invasive black rat, Rattus rattus, 71% (10/14) were PCR positive as well as 6% (4/62) of native African rodents. Sequences of ~400bp of the SSU rDNA gene identified phylogenetically close Trypanosoma lineages. Trypanosoma lewisi was present in all positive black rats and the sequences displayed 100% similarity with T. lewisi-infected humans in Senegal. T. lewisi was also detected in one Acomys johannis, suggesting a possible transmission to native species. In addition to improved knowledge of Trypanosoma diversity in rodents, our data underscore the introduction of the potentially pathogenic T. lewisi kinetoplastid through the human-mediated invasion of black rats all over West Africa.
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The relationship between antibody to R7V and progression of HIV type 1 infection.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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The presence of antibody to R7V (anti-R7VAb), a seven-amino acid sequence derived from beta(2)-microglobulin incorporated into HIV-1 virions from the surface of infected cells, has been proposed as an early marker of nonprogressive HIV-1 infection. The present study was undertaken because no prospective studies have tested this hypothesis. Stored samples collected prospectively from 361 HIV-1 seroconverting men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (0.44-1.53 years after seroconversion) were assayed for the presence or absence of anti-R7VAb, using a standardized ELISA. Using Cox proportional hazards models, crude and adjusted relative hazards (RH) were determined for the following outcomes: (a) clinically defined AIDS, (b) clinically defined AIDS or CD4 T cell count of <200 cells/microl, and (c) death. A total of 143 (39.6%) men had early anti-R7VAb and 218 (60.4%) did not; 192 (53.2%) developed AIDS. At the visit tested, men with anti-R7VAb had significantly lower CD4 T cell counts and higher plasma HIV-1 viral loads than those without antibody. After adjustment for CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load, CCR5 polymorphism, and use of combined antiretroviral therapy, the presence of anti-R7VAb was associated with a higher risk of progression for all outcomes, but not significantly so. Absence of anti-R7VAb was significantly associated with expression of HLA-B*5701 and -B*2705, two alleles associated with slower progression of HIV-1 disease. The early presence of anti-R7VAb in HIV-1 seroconverters was not associated with slower progression of HIV-1 disease.
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Confidence bounds for the estimation of the volume phase fraction from a single image in a nickel base superalloy.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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We propose an image-based framework to evaluate the uncertainty in the estimation of the volume fraction of specific microstructures based on the observation of a single section. These microstructures consist of cubes organized on a cubic mesh, such as monocrystalline nickel base superalloys. The framework is twofold: a model-based stereological analysis allows relating two-dimensional image observations to three-dimensional microstructure features, and a spatial statistical analysis allows computing approximate confidence bounds while assessing the representativeness of the image. The reliability of the method is assessed on synthetic models. Volume fraction estimation variances and approximate confidence intervals are computed on real superalloy images in the context of material characterization.
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Chemotaxonomic investigations of peel and petitgrain essential oils from 17 citron cultivars.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Chemical compositions of essential oils from 17 citron cultivars were studied using GC and GC/MS. To the best of our knowledge, chemical compositions of peel and petitgrain oils from seven of them were reported for the first time. Combined analysis of peel and petitgrain essential oils led to the identification of 37 components (amounting to 98.2-99.9% of the total oil) and 42 components (97.0-99.9%), respectively. Statistical analysis was applied to identify possible relationships between citron cultivars. The levels of seven components, i.e., limonene, beta-pinene, gamma-terpinene, neral, geranial, nerol, and geraniol, indicated that the cultivars could be classified in four main chemotypes for peel and petitgrain oils. Chemotaxonomic investigations were carried out to establish relations between the morphological characteristics of citron cultivars and their corresponding oil compositions.
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Genotyping of Candida albicans using length fragment and high-resolution melting analyses together with minisequencing of a polymorphic microsatellite locus.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) typing is a PCR-based method used for genotyping of the diploid yeast Candida albicans. However, MLP is subject to homoplasia which can hamper the accuracy of the results. We combined fragment length analysis, high-resolution DNA melting (HRM) analysis, and SNaPshot minisequencing after a single amplification of the CDC3 locus to study 95 epidemiologically independent C. albicans isolates. HRM analysis for a given electrophoretic group led to a maximum of three different curves due to the presence of a SNP upstream of the tandem repeat which could be characterized using the SNaPshot assay. The combination of the three methods had a discriminatory index of 0.88 in complete congruence with previous MLP typing (Mantel test R=0.99, P<10(-)(4)). HRM is a useful tool of adding resolving power to MLP genotyping in identifying SNPs.
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High performance gold nanorods and silver nanocubes in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of pesticides.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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The behavior of Au nanorods and Ag nanocubes as analytical sensors was evaluated for three different classes of herbicides. The use of such anisotropic nanoparticles in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiments allows the one to obtain the spectrum of crystal violet dye in the single molecule regime, as well as the pesticides dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), trichlorfon and ametryn. Such metallic substrates show high SERS performance at low analyte concentrations making them adequate for use as analytical sensors. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the geometries and vibrational wavenumbers of the adsorbates in the presence of silver or gold atoms were used to elucidate the nature of adsorbate-nanostructure bonding in each case and support the enhancement patterns observed in each SERS spectrum.
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Partitioning the relative contributions of inorganic plant composition and soil characteristics to the quality of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum (Roth) G. Don fil. essential oil.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Composition of Helichrysum italicum subsp. italicum essential oil showed chemical variability according to vegetation cycle, environment, and geographic origins. In the present work, 48 individuals of this plant at different development stages and the corresponding root soils were sampled: i) 28 volatile components were identified and measured in essential oil by using GC and GC/MS; ii) ten elements from plants and soils have been estimated using colorimetry in continuous flux, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, or emission spectrometry (FAAS/FAES); iii) texture and acidity (real and potential) of soil samples were also reported. Relationships between the essential-oil composition, the inorganic plant composition, and the soil characteristics (inorganic composition, texture, and acidity) have been established using multivariate analysis such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and partial Redundancy Analysis (RDA). This study demonstrates a high level of intraspecific differences in oil composition due to environmental factors and, more particularly, soil characteristics.
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Identification of chrysanthenyl esters from the essential oil of Anthemis maritima L. investigated by GC/RI, GC-MS (EI and CI) and 13C-NMR spectroscopy: chemical composition and variability.
Phytochem Anal
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Anthemis maritima L. (Asteraceae) is a wild plant growing in Corsica and Sardinia. No previous studies of the chemical composition of A. maritima essential oil have been found. The oil contains two series of cis- and trans-chrysanthenyl esters for which the MS data are not present in available libraries and the 13C-NMR data are not reported in the literature. The determination of these compounds is a challenging problem since some of these esters are present in low concentrations and they exhibit very similar EI-MS.
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Morphological, chemical and genetic differentiation of two subspecies of Cistus creticus L. (C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus and C. creticus subsp. corsicus).
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Cistus creticus L., an aromatic species from the Mediterranean area, contains various diterpenes bearing the labdane skeleton. The production of essential oil from this species has potential economic value, but so far, it has not been optimized. In order to contribute to a better knowledge of this species and to its differentiation, the morphological characters, volatile chemical composition and genetic data of two subspecies (C. creticus subsp. eriocephalus and C. creticus subsp. corsicus) were investigated. The leaf trichomes were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition of Corsican essential oil (C. creticus subsp. corsicus) has been reported using GC, GC/MS and 13C NMR; the main constituents were oxygenated labdane diterpenes (33.9%) such as 13-epi-manoyl oxide (18.5%). Using plant material (54 samples) collected from 18 geographically distinct areas of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, the basis of variation in the headspace solid-phase microextraction volatile fraction and an inter-simple sequence repeat genetic analysis were also examined. It was shown that the two subspecies of C. creticus differed in morphology, essential oil production, volatile fraction composition and genetic data.
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Interleukin-10 is an independent biomarker of severe traumatic brain injury prognosis.
Neuroimmunomodulation
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Cytokines have been shown to be involved in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We investigated the independent association between serum levels of IL-10 and TNF-? and hospital mortality of patients with severe TBI.
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Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of organophosphorous model molecules and pesticides.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
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This work reports the analytical application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the trace analysis of organophosphorous pesticides (trichlorfon and glyphosate) and model organophosphorous compounds (dimethyl methylphosphonate and o-ethyl methylphosphonothioate) bearing different functional groups. SERS measurements were carried out using Ag nanocubes with an edge square dimension of ca. 100 nm as substrates. Density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP functional was used for the optimization of ground state geometries and simulation of Raman spectra of the organophosphorous compounds and their silver complexes. Adsorption geometries and marker bands were identified for each of the investigated compound. Results indicate the usefulness of SERS methodology for the sensitive analyses of organophosphorous compounds through the use of vibrational spectroscopy.
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Predictors of quality of life in patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
Epilepsy Behav
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The identification of variables associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) would improve surgical decision-making and post-operatory follow-up in this group of patients.
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Influence of cultivation parameters on the composition of volatile compounds and physico-chemical characteristics of kiwi fruit.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
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The effect of four cultivation parameters (post-maturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °C and input of nitrogen or potassium fertilisers) on the physico-chemical characteristics and composition of volatile compounds in kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) were evaluated. Five physico-chemical parameters were selected, namely, pH, total acidity, dry matter, conductivity and refractive index. To our knowledge, no published data are available concerning the influence of nitrogen or potassium fertilisers on the volatile compounds and physico-chemical parameters in kiwi fruit.
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Chemical and genetic diversity of two Mediterranean subspecies of Teucrium polium L.
Phytochemistry
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Chemical and genetic diversity of Teucrium polium L. subsp. polium from western Algeria and T. polium L. subsp. capitatum from Corsica were investigated. Diversity within and among the two populations of subspecies was assessed according to the chemical composition of their essential oils and the genetic diversity. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-RI and GC/MS after fractionation using column chromatography. Genetic structures were mapped using three polymorphic genetic markers: two chloroplast markers (RPL32-TRNL and TRNL-F) and ribosomal nuclear markers (ITS region). The statistical analysis showed that both subspecies were clearly distinguished by these chemical and genetic markers. The oil chemical compositions differed qualitatively and quantitatively between the subspecies. Both collective oils were dominated by hydrocarbon compounds however the Algerian sample oils exhibited higher amounts of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes than those of Corsica (31.2 g/100 g vs. 4.4 g/100 g) while the latter displayed higher amounts of hydrocarbon monoterpenes than the first (59.3 g/100 g vs. 34.3 g/100 g). Neighbor-joining, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed from chloroplast markers and nuclear ITS region sequences showed the existence of two groups associated with taxonomic and chemical characteristics. The study indicated that variation in the essential oil composition within subspecies depends on genetic background. The samples of subsp. capitatum from Corsica are a homogeneous group, in contrast to samples of subsp. polium from Algeria which were clustered in two groups. Chemical and genetic diversity of Algerian populations could be explained by geographical isolation of the populations. In addition, the morphological polymorphism observed throughout the colour of flowers could be explained by environmental parameters as well as the soil pH.
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Azole preexposure affects the Aspergillus fumigatus population in patients.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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The relationship between the azole preexposure of 86 patients and the genotype, azole susceptibility, and cyp51A polymorphisms of 110 corresponding Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was explored. Isolates carrying serial polymorphisms (F46Y and M172V with or without N248T with or without D255E with or without E427K) had higher itraconazole MICs (P = 0.04), although <2 ?g/ml using the EUCAST methodology, were associated with two genetic clusters (P < 0.001) and with voriconazole preexposure of patients (P = 0.016). Voriconazole preexposure influences the distribution of A. fumigatus isolates with selection of isolates carrying cyp51A polymorphisms and higher itraconazole MICs.
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Biological activities and volatile constituents of Daucus muricatus L. from Algeria.
Chem Cent J
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In order to find new bioactive natural products, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil components extracted from the separated organs of the Algerian medicinal and aromatic plant Daucus muricatus L. were studied.
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Time-dependent modulation of mitogen activated protein kinases and AKT in rat hippocampus and cortex in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.
Neurochem. Res.
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The epileptogenesis may involve a variety of signaling events that culminate with synaptic reorganization. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and AKT may be activated by diverse stimulus including neurotransmitter, oxidative stress, growth factors and cytokines and are involved in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The pilocarpine model in rodents reproduces the main features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampus sclerosis (MTLE-HS) in humans. We analyze the phosphorylation profile of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38(MAPK), JNK1/2/3) and AKT by western blotting in the hippocampus (Hip) and cortex (Ctx) of male adult wistar rats in different periods, after pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (Pilo-SE) and compared with control animals. Biochemical analysis were done in the Hip and Ctx at 1, 3, 12 h (acute period), 5 days (latent period) and 50 days (chronic period) after Pilo-SE onset. Hence, the main findings include increased phosphorylation of ERK1 and p38(MAPK) in the Hip and Ctx 1 and 12 h after the Pilo-SE onset. The JNK2/3 isoform (54 kDa) phosphorylation was decreased at 3 h after the Pilo-SE onset and in the chronic period in the Hip and Ctx. The AKT phosphorylation increased only in the Hip during the latent period. Our study demonstrates, in a systematic manner, the profile of MAPKs and AKT modulation in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in response to pilocarpine. Based in the role of each signaling enzyme is possible that these changes may be related, at least partially, to modifications in the intrinsic neuronal physiology and epileptogenic synaptic network that appears in the MTLE-HS.
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Association between circulating DNA, serum (1->3)-?-D-glucan, and pulmonary fungal burden in Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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Circulating Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA and (1?3)-?-d-glucan determined in 70 serum samples from immunocompromised patients were compared to fungal load in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both serum biomarkers are influenced by pulmonary fungal load, which should be taken into account when diagnosing Pneumocystis infection.
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Chemical diversity of essential oils from Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) less.: identification of cis-8-Acetoxychrysanthenyl acetate as a new natural component.
Chem. Biodivers.
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Asteriscus graveolens is an endemic medicinal plant mainly distributed in south-western Algeria and south-eastern Morocco. The essential oils of leaves, stems, and flowers of A. graveolens had been studied by GC, GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR. The spectral data of two nerolidol derivatives, 6-oxo- and 6-hydroxycyclonerolidol, were reassigned by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. These compounds can be considered as chemical markers of this genus. The structure of a monoterpenic diester with a chrysanthenane skeleton, i.e., cis-8-acetoxychrysanthenyl acetate, was determined for the first time on the basis of GC/MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The stem and leaf oils were characterized by high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with 6-oxo- and 6-hydroxycyclonerolidol as major components, and the flower essential oils were dominated by the new monoterpenic compound cis-8-acetoxychrysanthenyl acetate.
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Postsurgical infection after myelomeningocele repair: a multivariate analysis of 60 consecutive cases.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
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We investigate the demographic, clinical and surgical variables associated with wound and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections in a well-defined group of patients submitted to neurosurgical myelomeningocele repair.
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Impact of non-invasive fetal RhD genotyping on management costs of rhesus-D negative patients: results of a French pilot study.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
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Fetal rhesus D (RhD) status determination using circulating cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma or serum is now recognized in Europe as a reliable and useful tool. A few countries are presently using this test in their management policy of rhesus D negative patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of this test on the costs of managing RhD-negative pregnant women, whether or not they are allo-immunized.
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Genetic and chemical diversity of citron (Citrus medica L.) based on nuclear and cytoplasmic markers and leaf essential oil composition.
Phytochemistry
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Native to southeast Asia, the citron (Citrus medica L.) was the first citrus fruit to be introduced to the Mediterranean area, in the third century BC, and remained its only citrus representative until the tenth century. The citron was used for its aroma - stemming from its essential oils in leaves and fruit peels - and as symbols in the Jewish religion. Subsequently, the cultivation of citron was extended significantly, peaking in the nineteenth century, when its fruits were used in cosmetics and confectioneries. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of the Mediterranean citron with regard to the multiplication and dissemination practices that were related to its uses. We studied the polymorphisms of 27 nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic markers of 24 citron varieties, preserved in the citrus germplasm of INRA-CIRAD, San Giuliano, France. The composition of leaf essential oils was determined to establish varieties and phylogenic relationships between accessions. Other major citrus species were included in the molecular analysis, which demonstrated the existence of 13 genetically linked citrons, differing from other citrus species, based on low heterozygosity and specific alleles; these citrons were considered true-type citrons, confirmed by their convergent chemical profiles. We also detected a polymorphism in the chloroplastic genome in these 13 citrons, which, when combined with allelic diversity of 2.4 alleles per locus, suggests that multiple citrons were introduced to the Mediterranean area in last 2 millennia. We determined the genetic origin and relationships of several varieties, such as Corsican, which could have arisen from the selfing of Poncire Commun. We noted a higher-than-expected polymorphism rate among Mediterranean citron varieties, likely due to crossfecundation. The chemical leaf oil composition of several economical varieties, such as Corsican, is distinct and can increase the quality of specific agriculture products for the cosmetics and candy industries.
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Variation of B1 gene and AF146527 repeat element copy numbers according to Toxoplasma gondii strains assessed using real-time quantitative PCR.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Using the multicopy B1 gene and AF146527 element for the amplification of Toxoplasma gondii DNA raises the issue of reliable quantification for clinical diagnosis. We applied relative quantification to reference strains using the single-copy P30 gene as a reference. According to the parasite type, the copy numbers for the B1 gene and AF146527 element were found to be 5 to 12 and 4 to 8 times lower than the previous estimations of 35 and 230 copies, respectively.
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Bicyclo[4.4.0]decane oxygenated sesquiterpenes from Eryngium maritimum essential oil.
Planta Med.
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Investigation of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Eryngium maritimum L. from Corsica led to the isolation of one known sesquiterpene (1) and three new oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a muurolane or cadinane skeleton (2-4). Structure assignments of 4 ?H -muurol-9-en-15-al (1), 4 ?H -cadin-9-en-15-al (2), 4 ?H -muurol-9-en-15-ol (3) and 4 ?H -cadin-9-en-15-ol (4) were carried out by GC/MS (EI and CI) and comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of Eryngium maritimum L. oil and column chromatography fractions have been investigated for the first time. The oxygenated fraction, which contains the four sesquiterpenes, was efficient against Listeria monocytogenes and Echerichia coli.
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Chemical compositions of the essential oils of the aerial parts of Chamaemelum mixtum (L.) Alloni.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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The chemical compositions of the aerial parts essential oils of Chamaemelum mixtum (L.) Alloni from Corsica and Sardinia were investigated employing gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure of (Z)-heptadeca-9,16-dien-7-one, a natural compound not previously described, was elucidated by GC-MS (electron impact and chemical ionization) and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The variation in C. mixtum essential oil was studied, and statistical analysis showed the clustering of oil samples into three groups according to the amount of oxygenated compounds; these groups correlated to the harvest area. The strong biological activity of the oxygenated fraction (minimum inhibitory concentration of <0.1 mg/mL) of the Corsican oil against Candida albicans , Citrobacter frendii , Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Listeria monocytogenes , and Staphyllococcus aureus can be attributed to the presence of irregular monoterpene alcohols and (Z)-heptadeca-9,16-dien-7-one.
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