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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Formation of hydroxyl-functionalized stilbenoid molecular sieves at the liquid/solid interface on top of a 1-decanol monolayer.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Specific molecular tectons can be designed to form molecular sieves through self-assembly at the solid-liquid interface. After demonstrating a model tecton bearing apolar alkyl chains, we then focus on a modified structure involving asymmetric functionalization of some alkyl chains with polar hydroxyl groups in order to get chemical selectivity in the sieving. As the formation of supramolecular self-assembled networks strongly depends on molecule-molecule, molecule-substrate and molecule-solvent interactions, we compared the tectons' self-assembly on graphite for two types of solvent. We demonstrate the possibility to create hydroxylated stilbenoid molecular sieves by using 1-decanol as a solvent. Interestingly, with this solvent, the porous network is developed on top of a 1-decanol monolayer.
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A link between hepatic glucose production and peripheral energy metabolism via hepatokines.
Mol Metab
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a deterioration of glucose tolerance, which associates insulin resistance of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and increased endogenous glucose production. Here we report that the specific suppression of hepatic glucose production positively modulates whole-body glucose and energy metabolism. We used mice deficient in liver glucose-6 phosphatase that is mandatory for endogenous glucose production. When they were fed a high fat/high sucrose diet, they resisted the development of diabetes and obesity due to the activation of peripheral glucose metabolism and thermogenesis. This was linked to the secretion of hepatic hormones like fibroblast growth factor 21 and angiopoietin-like factor 6. Interestingly, the deletion of hepatic glucose-6 phosphatase in previously obese and insulin-resistant mice resulted in the rapid restoration of glucose and body weight controls. Therefore, hepatic glucose production is an essential lever for the control of whole-body energy metabolism during the development of obesity and diabetes.
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Renal dysfunction associated with telaprevir-containing triple therapy for chronic hepatitis C: is early prediction possible?
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Renal dysfunction has recently been described as a potential complication of tritherapy with telaprevir (TVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to identify predictive factors for and consequences of TVR-associated renal dysfunction.
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Clinical epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Buruli ulcer in Benin: a cohort study.
Lancet Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, was identified as a neglected emerging infectious disease by WHO in 1998. Although Buruli ulcer is the third most common mycobacterial disease worldwide, understanding of the disease is incomplete. We analysed a large cohort of laboratory-confirmed cases of Buruli ulcer from Pobè, Benin, to provide a comprehensive description of the clinical presentation of the disease, its variation with age and sex, and its effect on the occurrence of permanent functional sequelae.
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Mycobacterial toxin induces analgesia in buruli ulcer by targeting the angiotensin pathways.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer, causes extensive skin lesions, which despite their severity are not accompanied by pain. It was previously thought that this remarkable analgesia is ensured by direct nerve cell destruction. We demonstrate here that M. ulcerans-induced hypoesthesia is instead achieved through a specific neurological pathway triggered by the secreted mycobacterial polyketide mycolactone. We decipher this pathway at the molecular level, showing that mycolactone elicits signaling through type 2 angiotensin II receptors (AT2Rs), leading to potassium-dependent hyperpolarization of neurons. We further validate the physiological relevance of this mechanism with in vivo studies of pain sensitivity in mice infected with M. ulcerans, following the disruption of the identified pathway. Our findings shed new light on molecular mechanisms evolved by natural systems for the induction of very effective analgesia, opening up the prospect of new families of analgesics derived from such systems.
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Surface-confined self-assembled Janus tectons: a versatile platform towards the noncovalent functionalization of graphene.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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A general strategy for simultaneously generating surface-based supramolecular architectures on flat sp(2) -hybridized carbon supports and independently exposing on demand off-plane functionality with controlled lateral order is highly desirable for the noncovalent functionalization of graphene. Here, we address this issue by providing a versatile molecular platform based on a library of new 3D Janus tectons that form surface-confined supramolecular adlayers in which it is possible to simultaneously steer the 2D self-assembly on flat C(sp(2))-based substrates and tailor the external interface above the substrate by exposure to a wide variety of small terminal chemical groups and functional moieties. This approach is validated throughout by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the liquid-solid interface and molecular mechanics modeling studies. The successful self-assembly on graphene, together with the possibility to transfer the graphene monolayer onto various substrates, should considerably extend the application of our functionalization strategy.
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Telaprevir- and boceprevir-based tritherapies in real practice for F3-F4 pretreated hepatitis C virus patients.
World J Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To assess, in a routine practice setting, the sustained virologic response (SVR) to telaprevir (TPV) or boceprevir (BOC) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) null-responders or relapsers with severe liver fibrosis.
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From charge transport parameters to charge mobility in organic semiconductors through multiscale simulation.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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This review introduces the development and application of a multiscale approach to assess the charge mobility for organic semiconductors, which combines quantum chemistry, Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This approach is especially applicable in describing a large class of organic semiconductors with intermolecular electronic coupling (V) much less than intramolecular charge reorganization energy (?), a situation where the band description fails obviously. The charge transport is modeled as successive charge hopping from one molecule to another. We highlight the quantum nuclear tunneling effect in the charge transfer, beyond the semiclassical Marcus theory. Such an effect is essential for interpreting the "paradoxical" experimental finding that optical measurement indicated "local charge" while electrical measurement indicated "bandlike". Coupled MD and KMC simulations demonstrated that the dynamic disorder caused by intermolecular vibration has negligible effect on the carrier mobility. We further apply the approach for molecular design of n-type materials and for rationalization of experimental results. The charge reorganization energy is analyzed through decomposition into internal coordinates relaxation, so that chemical structure contributions to the intramolecular electron-phonon interaction are revealed and give helpful indication to reduce the charge reorganization energy.
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Unraveling the stratification of an iron-oxidizing microbial mat by metatranscriptomics.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A metatranscriptomic approach was used to study community gene expression in a naturally occurring iron-rich microbial mat. Total microbial community RNA was reversely transcribed and sequenced by pyrosequencing. Characterization of expressed gene sequences provided accurate and detailed information of the composition of the transcriptionally active community and revealed phylogenetic and functional stratifications within the mat. Comparison of 16S rRNA reads and delineation of OTUs showed significantly lower values of metatranscriptomic-based richness and diversity in the upper parts of the mat than in the deeper regions. Taxonomic affiliation of rRNA sequences and mRNA genome recruitments indicated that iron-oxidizing bacteria affiliated to the genus Leptothrix, dominated the community in the upper layers of the mat. Surprisingly, type I methanotrophs contributed to the majority of the sequences in the deep layers of the mat. Analysis of mRNA expression patterns showed that genes encoding the three subunits of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoCAB) were the most highly expressed in our dataset. These results provide strong hints that iron-oxidation and methane-oxidation occur simultaneously in microbial mats and that both groups of microorganisms are major players in the functioning of this ecosystem.
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Modification of energy balance induced by the food contaminant T-2 toxin: A multimodal gut-to-brain connection.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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T-2 toxin is one of the most toxic Fusarium-derived trichothecenes found on cereals and constitutes a widespread contaminant of agricultural commodities as well as commercial foods. Low doses toxicity is characterized by reduced weight gain. To date, the mechanisms by which this mycotoxin profoundly modifies feeding behavior remain poorly understood and more broadly the effects of T-2 toxin on the central nervous system (CNS) have received limited attention. Through an extensive characterization of sickness-like behavior induced by T-2 toxin, we showed that its per os (p.o.) administration affects not only feeding behavior but also energy expenditure, glycaemia, body temperature and locomotor activity. Using c-Fos expression mapping, we identified the neuronal structures activated in response to T-2 toxin and observed that the pattern of neuronal populations activated by this toxin resembled that induced by inflammatory signals. Interestingly, part of neuronal pathways activated by the toxin NUCB-2/nesfatin-1 expressing neurons. Unexpectedly, while T-2 toxin induced a strong peripheral inflammation, the brain exhibited limited inflammatory response at a time point when anorexia was ongoing. Unilateral vagotomy partly reduced T-2 toxin-induced brainstem neuronal activation. On the other hand, intracerebroventricular (icv) T-2 toxin injection resulted in a rapid (<1h) reduction in food intake. Thus, we hypothesized that T-2 toxin could signal to the brain through neuronal and/or humoral pathways. The present work provides the first demonstration that T-2 toxin modifies feeding behavior by interfering with central neuronal networks devoted to central energy balance. Our results, with a particular attention to peripheral inflammation, strongly suggest that inflammatory mediators partake in the T-2 toxin-induced anorexia and other symptoms. In view of the broad human and breeding animal exposure to T-2 toxin, this new mechanism may lead to reconsider the impact of the consumption of this toxin on human health.
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Gastric distension activates NUCB2/nesfatin-1-expressing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Brainstem structures such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNX) are essential for the digestive function of the stomach. A large number of neurotransmitters including glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are involved in the central control of gastric functions. However, the neuropeptidergic systems implicated in this process remain undetermined. Nesfatin-1 was recently identified as a neuropeptide cleaved from the N-terminal part of NEFA/nucleobindin 2 precursor (NUCB2). Central administration of this neuropeptide inhibits food consumption and gastroduodenal motility in rodents. Interestingly, the NTS and the DMNX contain a dense population of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 cell bodies. These observations led us to investigate the possible involvement of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the brainstem neuronal pathways that modulate gastric functions. We observed an activation of NTS NUCB2/nesfatinergic neurons after gastric distention in rats. In addition, we found that several NTS NUCB2/nesfatinergic neurons were GABAergic. Finally, when fluorogold was injected at the stomach level, many retrogradely labeled neurons were observed in the DMNX which were also positive for NUCB2/nesfatin-1. Taken together, these observations suggest for the first time that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons of the NTS are sensitive to gastric distension and then may contribute to the satiety signal.
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Enhancement of the reflectivity of Al/Zr multilayers by a novel structure.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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The reflectivity of Al/Zr multilayers is enhanced by the use of a novel structure. The Al layers are divided by insertion of Si layers. In addition, Si barrier layers are inserted at the Al/Zr interfaces (Zr-on-Al and Al-on-Zr). As a result, crystallization of the Al layer is inhibited and that of Zr is enhanced. In grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, x-ray diffraction, and extreme ultraviolet measurements, the novel multilayers exhibit lower interfacial roughness compared with traditional multilayer structures, and their reflectivity is increased from 48.2% to 50.0% at a 5° angle of incidence. These novel multilayers also have potential applications in other multilayer systems and the semiconductor industry.
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In routine clinical practice, few physicians use early viral kinetics to guide HCV dual therapy treatment decisions.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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PROPHESYS is a large, multinational, non-interventional prospective cohort study of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon alfa/ribavirin. This subanalysis assesses rates of premature treatment discontinuation stratified by on-treatment virological response (VR).
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Partner choice, fairness, and the extension of morality.
Behav Brain Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Our discussion of the commentaries begins, at the evolutionary level, with issues raised by our account of the evolution of morality in terms of partner-choice mutualism. We then turn to the cognitive level and the characterization and workings of fairness. In a final section, we discuss the degree to which our fairness-based approach to morality extends to norms that are commonly considered moral even though they are distinct from fairness.
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A mutualistic approach to morality: the evolution of fairness by partner choice.
Behav Brain Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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What makes humans moral beings? This question can be understood either as a proximate “how” question or as an ultimate “why” question. The “how” question is about the mental and social mechanisms that produce moral judgments and interactions, and has been investigated by psychologists and social scientists. The “why” question is about the fitness consequences that explain why humans have morality, and has been discussed by evolutionary biologists in the context of the evolution of cooperation. Our goal here is to contribute to a fruitful articulation of such proximate and ultimate explanations of human morality. We develop an approach to morality as an adaptation to an environment in which individuals were in competition to be chosen and recruited in mutually advantageous cooperative interactions. In this environment, the best strategy is to treat others with impartiality and to share the costs and benefits of cooperation equally. Those who offer less than others will be left out of cooperation; conversely, those who offer more will be exploited by their partners. In line with this mutualistic approach, the study of a range of economic games involving property rights, collective actions, mutual help and punishment shows that participants’ distributions aim at sharing the costs and benefits of interactions in an impartial way. In particular, the distribution of resources is influenced by effort and talent, and the perception of each participant’s rights on the resources to be distributed.
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Experimental models of disseminated scedosporiosis with cerebral involvement.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Scedosporium apiospermum is a soil fungus which can cause severe and often fatal cerebral infections in both immunocompetent patients in the event of near drowning and immunosuppressed patients such as lung transplant recipients. Because of the low susceptibility of this fungus to antifungal drugs, and the low permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary to reach an effective tissue concentration with limited side effects. Indeed, diffusion of the drug in the brain is dependent on several parameters, such as the integrity of the BBB and the activity of efflux pumps. To evaluate drug diffusion, two experimental models were developed in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed rats. Inocula were administered via the penile vein and a clinical scale (0-9) was established, based on weight and clinical and neurologic signs evaluated by the tail suspension test. Cerebral involvement was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and histologic examination of brain sections after hematoxylin-eosin-safran or silver staining. Voriconazole or posaconazole was given to the rats at doses ranging from 10 to 75 mg/kg/day via i.v. or oral routes, respectively. Whatever the immune status, the effective doses (defined by a doubling of the survival time and the absence of neurologic sequelae) were 30 mg/kg/day for voriconazole and 50 mg/kg/day for posaconazole. Overall, the results demonstrated that these models may constitute valuable tools for the performance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling.
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Mercury bioaccumulation along food webs in temperate aquatic ecosystems colonized by aquatic macrophytes in south western France.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Mercury (Hg) is considered as an important pollutant for aquatic systems as its organic form, methylmercury (MeHg), is easily bioaccumulated and bioamplified along food webs. In various ecosystems, aquatic periphyton associated with macrophyte was identified as an important place for Hg storage and methylation by microorganisms. Our study concerns temperate aquatic ecosystems (South Western France) colonized by invasive macrophytes and characterized by high mercury methylation potentials. This work establishes original data concerning Hg bioaccumulation in organisms (plants, crustaceans, molluscs and fish) from five contrasting ecosystems. For low trophic level species, total Hg (THg) concentrations were low (from 27±2ngTHgg(-1)dw in asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea to 418±114ngTHgg(-1)dw in crayfish Procambarus clarkii). THg concentrations in some carnivorous fish (high trophic level) were close to or exceeded the International Marketing Level (IML) with values ranging from 1049±220ngTHgg(-1)dw in pike perch muscle (Sander lucioperca) to 3910±1307ngTHgg(-1)dw in eel muscle (Anguilla Anguilla). Trophic levels for the individuals were also evaluated through stable isotope analysis, and linked to Hg concentrations of organisms. A significant Hg biomagnification (r(2)= 0.9) was observed in the Aureilhan lake, despite the absence of top predator fish. For this site, Ludwigia sp. periphyton, as an entry point of Hg into food webs, is a serious hypothesis which remains to be confirmed. This study provides a first investigation of Hg transfer in the ecosystems of south western France and allows the assessment of the risk associated with the presence of Hg in aquatic food webs.
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Jacobsen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes in a child with mosaicism for partial 11pter trisomy and partial 11qter monosomy.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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We report on a child with Jacobsen syndrome (JBS, OMIM 147791) and abnormalities consistent with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS, OMIM 130650). The constitutional karyotype was apparently normal, but FISH analysis with probes specific for the short and long arms of chromosome 11 found 11qter deletion with 11pter trisomy in 80% of the cells studied. Array-CGH identified breakpoints in the 11p15.3 and 11q24.1 regions consistent with Jacobsen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes. We suggest that this chromosome imbalance results from a pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 inherited from the father, with mosaicism resulting from meiotic recombination of a paternal inversion followed by mitotic recombination during the first embryonic divisions. This hypothesis is supported by the results of microsatellite marker analysis. Three previous cases of pericentric inversion and recombination of chromosome 11 have been reported. Our case is unusual in that it combines the Jacobsen and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes with mosaicism.
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An optimized alkyl chain-based binding motif for 2D self-assembly: a comprehensive crystallographic approach.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Taking into account substrate crystallographic constraints, an overarching molecular binding motif has been designed to allow transferable self-assembling patterns on different substrates. This optimized clip demonstrates robust and equivalent self-assembled architectures on both highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and reconstructed Au(111) surfaces.
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Is urinary 1-hydroxypyrene a valid biomarker for exposure to air pollution in outdoor workers? A meta-analysis.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and specificity of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPu) as a biomarker of the exposure from urban pollution to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among outdoor workers in a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis was performed according to standard methods, and the results show that the concentrations of 1-OHPu tend to be higher in exposed workers than in unexposed workers (if we exclude two highly heterogeneous articles), in exposed non-smokers than in unexposed non-smokers and in exposed than in unexposed workers who were carriers of the CYP1A1 genotype and in those with the glutathione-S-transferase M1 (-)genotype. These genotypes enhance the effect of exposure, particularly in non-smokers. Smoking reduces the differences between exposed and unexposed subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest that the use of the 1-OHPu biomarker appears to be reliable for studying occupational exposure to PAHs from urban pollution, as long as environmental and behavioural factors are considered.
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Thermal stability of Mg/Co multilayer with B4C, Mo or Zr diffusion barrier layers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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The efficiency of B(4)C, Mo and Zr barrier layers to improve thermal stability of Mg/Co multilayer up to 400 °C is investigated. Multilayers were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering and characterized using X-ray and extreme ultraviolet reflection. The results suggest that B(4)C barrier layer is not effective due to drastic diffusion at Mg-B(4)C interface. Although introducing Mo barriers improves the thermal stability from 200 to 300 °C, it increases the interface roughness and thus degrades the optical performances. On the contrary, Zr barriers can significantly increase the thermal stability of Mg/Co up to 400 °C without optical performance degradation. Thus, Mg/Zr/Co/Zr is suitable for EUV applications requiring both optimal optical performances and heat resistance.
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Rat-specific decreases in platelet count caused by a humanized monoclonal antibody against sclerostin.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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LY2541546 is a humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG(4)) that has been optimized for neutralizing activity against sclerostin. In 5-week and 6-month nonclinical safety studies in rats, LY2541546 caused dose-dependent reversible decreases in platelet counts accompanied by accelerated platelet production, increased megakaryocytes, and altered megakaryocyte morphology. These treatment-related effects resulted in altered primary hemostasis as manifested by prolonged bleeding after phlebotomy or incidental toenail break. In some cases, the defects in hemostasis were sufficient to result in death of the affected rats. There was no evidence in rats of general bone marrow suppression or processes (e.g., disseminated intravascular coagulopathy) that may result in thrombocytopenia. Cynomolgus monkeys given LY2541546 for 5 weeks or 9 months had no changes in platelet count or megakaryocytes. In vitro cross-reactivity studies in rats, cynomolgus monkeys, and humans revealed LY2541546-bound rat but not cynomolgus monkey or human platelets and megakaryocytes. These data taken together demonstrated that the platelet and megakaryocyte effects in rats had a species-specific pathogenesis which likely involved LY2541546 binding of a rat-specific antigen on the surface of platelets and megakaryocytes resulting in the increased clearance of platelets and megakaryocyte hyperplasia. The species-specific nature of these reversible toxicological findings combined with the ease of clinical monitoring using standard hematology enabled the safe initiation of clinical studies in human volunteers.
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Control of blood glucose in the absence of hepatic glucose production during prolonged fasting in mice: induction of renal and intestinal gluconeogenesis by glucagon.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Since the pioneering work of Claude Bernard, the scientific community has considered the liver to be the major source of endogenous glucose production in all postabsorptive situations. Nevertheless, the kidneys and intestine can also produce glucose in blood, particularly during fasting and under protein feeding. The aim of this study was to better define the importance of the three gluconeogenic organs in glucose homeostasis.
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Idiopathic midaortic syndrome: normalization of blood pressure on medication.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare, idiopathic condition in children usually presenting with severe hypertension. We report a case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with severe hypertension (200/110 mmHg) associated with renal artery stenosis and normal renal function (creatinine clearance 110 ml/min/1.73m(2)). Percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) was first performed, but early recurrence of hypertension occurred. Subsequent imaging evaluation demonstrated association of aortic narrowing, proximal stenosis of the left renal artery, and wall thickening of superior mesenteric artery and right common carotid artery. Although previous large-vessel arteritis cannot be absolutely excluded, a diagnosis of idiopathic MAS was made, given the absence of any other clinical signs of inflammation (C-reactive protein <0.5 mg/dl; erythrocyte sedimentation rate 5 mm/h). Medical treatment was undertaken without repeat PTA or surgery. Blood pressure control was good, and antihypertensive therapy was stopped 4 years later. At age 22, the patient was still normotensive and receiving no antihypertensive therapy; normalization of Doppler velocities in the proximal left renal artery was confirmed. In the absence of renal dysfunction or target-organ damage, medical management of hypertension in MAS is feasible without intervention if blood pressure is well controlled on two antihypertensive agents.
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Central inflammation and sickness-like behavior induced by the food contaminant deoxynivalenol: a PGE2-independent mechanism.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant trichothecenes found on cereals, has been implicated in mycotoxicoses in both humans and farm animals. Low-dose toxicity is characterized by reduced weight gain, diminished nutritional efficiency, and immunologic effects. The levels and patterns of human food commodity contamination justify that DON consumption constitutes a public health issue. DON stability during processing and cooking explains its large presence in human food. We characterized here DON intoxication by showing that the toxin concomitantly affects feeding behavior, body temperature, and locomotor activity after both per os and central administration. Using c-Fos expression mapping, we identified the neuronal structures activated in response to DON and observed that the pattern of neuronal populations activated by the toxin resembled those induced by inflammatory signals. By real-time PCR, we report the first evidences for a DON-induced central inflammation, attested by the strong upregulation of interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, cyclooxygenase-2, and microsomal prostaglandin synthase-1 (mPGES-1) messenger RNA. However, silencing prostaglandins E2 signaling pathways using mPGES-1 knockout mice, which are resistant to cytokine-induced sickness behavior, did not modify the responses to the toxin. These results reveal that, despite strong similarities, behavioral changes observed after DON intoxication differ from classical sickness behavior evoked by inflammatory cytokines.
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Self-templating polythiophene derivatives: electronic decoupling of conjugated strands through staggered packing.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Whereas molecular electronics needs well-controlled 3D geometries for decoupling or interconnecting individual molecules, conjugated polymers form disordered structures when deposited on a substrate. We show that this trend can be overcome in polythiophene derivatives designed so as to exploit weak sulfur-bromine interactions. A self-template effect follows, leading to staggered organizations of well-aligned electronically decoupled conjugated strands, as observed in situ by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy on graphite.
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Mycophenolate mofetil for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a phase II Bayesian trial.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has emerged as a new therapeutic option in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We conducted a phase II Bayesian trial of MMF in children with SDNS. Phase II trials, usually single-arm studies, investigate the effect of new treatments. Standard Flemings procedure relies on observed results (relapse rate during the trial), whereas Bayesian approach combines observed results with prior information (expected relapse rate according to prior studies and clinical experience). All patients were required to have received prior alkylating-agent treatment. Sixty-seven percent of them had also received levamisole. Patients received MMF (1,200 mg/m(2)/day) and prednisone according to a defined schedule [reduction of alternate-day (e.o.d) dose to 50% of pre-MMF dose at 3 months, 25% at 6 months]. Twenty-four children (median age 6.0 years, 2.8-14.4) entered the study and 23 completed it. Bayesian analysis showed that adding four patients would not change significance of results, allowing stopping inclusions. Four patients relapsed during the first 6 months (estimated probability 17.6%, 95% credibility interval: 5.4-35.0%) and two at months 8 and 11.5. In the 19 patients free of relapse during the first 6 months, median (Q1-Q3) prednisone maintenance dose decreased from 25 (10-44) to 9 (7.5-11.2) mg/m(2) e.o.d (p < 0.001) and cumulative dose from 459 (382-689) to 264 (196-306) mg/m(2)/month (p < 0.001) before and on MMF respectively. Pre-MMF patient characteristics and MMF pharmacokinetics did not differ between patients with or without relapse. MMF reduces relapse rate and steroid dose in children with SDNS and should be proposed before cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide.
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Social opportunities and the evolution of fairness.
J. Theor. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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We model the evolution of the division of a resource between two individuals, according to a bargaining mechanism akin to the ultimatum game, in which a dominant proposer makes an offer that his partner can only accept or refuse. Individuals are randomly drawn from an infinite population and paired two-by-two. In each pair, a proposer is chosen. The proposer offers a division of resources to his partner. If the offer is accepted it is implemented; otherwise both partners pay a cost and move on to the next social opportunity. When the role that individuals play in each interaction is chosen at random, our analysis shows that each individual receives a fraction corresponding to at least 1/2-c of the resource at evolutionary equilibrium, where c represents the cost of postponing the interaction. A quasi-fair division thus evolves as long as c is low. We show that fairness, in this model, is a consequence of the existence of an outside option for dominated individuals: namely the possibility of playing on terms more favorable to them in the future if they reject the current interaction. We discuss the interpretation and empirical implications of this result for the case of human behavior.
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The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on contaminated cereals and its stability during processing and cooking explains its widespread presence in human food. DON has been implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and farm animals including weight loss. Here, we provide the first demonstration that DON reduced feeding behavior and modified satiation and satiety by interfering with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that during intoxication, DON reaches the brain where it modifies anorexigenic balance. In view of the widespread human exposure to DON, the present results may lead to reconsider the potential consequences of chronic DON consumption on human eating disorders.
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Solution-growth kinetics and thermodynamics of nanoporous self-assembled molecular monolayers.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The temperature and concentration dependences of the self-assembly onto graphite from solution of a series of molecular building blocks able to form nanoporous structures are analyzed experimentally by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. It is shown that the commonly observed coexistence of dense and nanoporous domains results from kinetic blockades rather than a thermodynamic equilibrium. The ripening can be favored by high densities of domain boundaries, which can be obtained by cooling the substrate before the nucleation and growth. Then ripening at higher-temperature yields large defect-free domains of a single structure. This thermodynamically stable structure can be either the dense or the nanoporous one, depending on the tecton concentration in the supernatant solution. A sharp phase transition from dense to honeycomb structures is observed at a critical concentration. This collective phenomenon is explained by introducing interactions between adsorbed molecules in the thermodynamic description of the whole system.
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[Improving the level of understanding of English of medical students is possible. Results of a systematic assessment policy].
Presse Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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To describe the level of English of a population of medical students and the improvement after the implementation of systematic assessment that all students achieve a minimal level.
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Validation of tumor-associated macrophage ferritin light chain as a prognostic biomarker in node-negative breast cancer tumors: A multicentric 2004 national PHRC study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Novel prognostic biomarkers are imperatively needed to help direct treatment decisions by typing subgroups of node-negative breast cancer patients. Large screening of different biological compartments, such as the proteome, by means of high throughput techniques may greatly help scientists to find such markers. The present retrospective multicentric study included 268 node-negative breast cancer patients. We used a proteomic approach of SELDI-TOF-MS screening to identify differentially expressed cytosolic proteins with prognostic impact. The screening cohort was composed of 198 patients. Seventy supplementary patients were included for validation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoassay (IA) were run to confirm the prognostic role of the marker identified by SELDI-TOF-MS screening. IHC was also used to explore links between selected marker and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like, proliferation and macrophage markers. Ferritin light chain (FTL) was identified as an independent prognostic marker (HR = 1.30-95% CI: 1.10-1.50, p = 0.001). Validation step by means of IHC and IA confirmed the prognostic value of FTL level. CD68 IHC showed that FTL was stored in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), which exhibit an M2-like phenotype. We report here, first, the validation of FTL as a breast tumor prognostic biomarker in node-negative patients, and second, the fact that FTL is stored in TAM.
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Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality.
Patrick Abbot, Jun Abe, John Alcock, Samuel Alizon, Joao A C Alpedrinha, Malte Andersson, Jean-Baptiste André, Minus van Baalen, François Balloux, Sigal Balshine, Nick Barton, Leo W Beukeboom, Jay M Biernaskie, Trine Bilde, Gerald Borgia, Michael Breed, Sam Brown, Redouan Bshary, Angus Buckling, Nancy T Burley, Max N Burton-Chellew, Michael A Cant, Michel Chapuisat, Eric L Charnov, Tim Clutton-Brock, Andrew Cockburn, Blaine J Cole, Nick Colegrave, Leda Cosmides, Iain D Couzin, Jerry A Coyne, Scott Creel, Bernard Crespi, Robert L Curry, Sasha R X Dall, Troy Day, Janis L Dickinson, Lee Alan Dugatkin, Claire El Mouden, Stephen T Emlen, Jay Evans, Régis Ferrière, Jeremy Field, Susanne Foitzik, Kevin Foster, William A Foster, Charles W Fox, Juergen Gadau, Sylvain Gandon, Andy Gardner, Michael G Gardner, Thomas Getty, Michael A D Goodisman, Alan Grafen, Rick Grosberg, Christina M Grozinger, Pierre-Henri Gouyon, Darryl Gwynne, Paul H Harvey, Ben J Hatchwell, Jürgen Heinze, Heikki Helanterä, Ken R Helms, Kim Hill, Natalie Jiricny, Rufus A Johnstone, Alex Kacelnik, E Toby Kiers, Hanna Kokko, Jan Komdeur, Judith Korb, Daniel Kronauer, Rolf Kümmerli, Laurent Lehmann, Timothy A Linksvayer, Sébastien Lion, Bruce Lyon, James A R Marshall, Richard McElreath, Yannis Michalakis, Richard E Michod, Douglas Mock, Thibaud Monnin, Robert Montgomerie, Allen J Moore, Ulrich G Mueller, Ronald Noë, Samir Okasha, Pekka Pamilo, Geoff A Parker, Jes S Pedersen, Ido Pen, David Pfennig, David C Queller, Daniel J Rankin, Sarah E Reece, Hudson K Reeve, Max Reuter, Gilbert Roberts, Simon K A Robson, Denis Roze, François Rousset, Olav Rueppell, Joel L Sachs, Lorenzo Santorelli, Paul Schmid-Hempel, Michael P Schwarz, Tom Scott-Phillips, Janet Shellmann-Sherman, Paul W Sherman, David M Shuker, Jeff Smith, Joseph C Spagna, Beverly Strassmann, Andrew V Suarez, Liselotte Sundström, Michael Taborsky, Peter Taylor, Graham Thompson, John Tooby, Neil D Tsutsui, Kazuki Tsuji, Stefano Turillazzi, Francisco Úbeda, Edward L Vargo, Bernard Voelkl, Tom Wenseleers, Stuart A West, Mary Jane West-Eberhard, David F Westneat, Diane C Wiernasz, Geoff Wild, Richard Wrangham, Andrew J Young, David W Zeh, Jeanne A Zeh, Andrew Zink.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues.
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Smile esthetics: a methodology for success in a complex case.
Eur J Esthet Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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The clinical case presented is the demonstration of a multidisciplinary approach to a complex treatment. A precise methodology is important to ensure that the treatment objectives are clear to all the teams. The aim of the treatment is to restore dentofacial harmony to a young, 22-year-old, female patient showing severe attrition of the anterior teeth. The direct effect of this is an ageing of the smile. This type of multidisciplinary treatment, which seems complicated at first, is greatly simplified once time has been spent on the diagnosis and treatment plan: it thereby becomes a succession of clinical stages.
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The evolution of fairness in a biological market.
Evolution
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Human beings universally express a concern for the fairness of social interactions, and it remains an open question that which ultimate factors led to the evolution of this preference. Here, we present a model accounting for the evolution of fairness on the basis of individual selection alone. We consider a simple social interaction based on the Dictator Game. Two individuals, a "proposer" and a "responder," have an opportunity to split a resource. When they have no choice but to interact together, the most powerful (here the proposer) reaps all the profits and fairness cannot evolve. Partner choice is the key lever to overcome this difficulty. Rather than just two individuals, we consider a population composed of two classes of individuals (either proposers or responders), and we allow the responders to choose their partner. In such a "biological market," fairness evolves as an "equilibrium price," resulting from an ecological equivalent of the law of supply and demand. If a class is disadvantaged by the chosen resource partition (i.e., if it frequently receives less than half of the resource), it is outcompeted by the other one, and automatically becomes rarer. This rarity grants it an advantage on the market, which yields in turn to the evolution of a more favorable partition. Splitting the resource into two identical halves, or more generally in a way that equalizes the payoffs of the two classes, is then the only evolutionarily stable outcome. Beyond human fairness, this mechanism also opens up new ways of explaining the distribution of benefits in many mutualistic interactions.
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Patterning of pH sensitive fluorescent bipyridazine derivatives.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
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A pH sensitive pipeprazine substituted bipyridazine fluorophore, DPP-BPDZ was explored as a pH sensor in solution and thin film state. Greenish highly fluorescent solution of the DPP-BPDZ with fluorescence quantum yield of 0.63 showed fluorescence decrease as the acetic acid concentration of the media was increased. The fluorescence quenching was correlated linearly with the content of acetic acid dose and attributed to the protonation at the terminal piperazine group. An acid sensitive film was fabricated using a transparent polymeric host (PMMA) and the DPP-BPDZ dye molecules as a guest. The resultant bright green fluorescent film (1.4 microm thick) showed exponential decrease of the fluorescence intensity as the pH of the dipping solution was decreased. In the range of pH below 4.5, the film sensitivity to pH was higher than the pH range over 4.5. A patternable film sensor was fabricated by introducing a photo acid generator (PAG) layer on the dye layer. Fluorescence patterns was formed on the film sensor through a photo-mask by relatively weak power of UV light (0.4 mW/cm2). Fluorescent line patterns having 10 microm line width were obtained with high fluorescence contrast between the patterns.
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Diethynylbenzene-based liquid crystalline semiconductor for solution-processable organic thin-film transistors.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
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We report here the synthesis and characterization of novel diethynylbenzene-based liquid crystalline semiconductor (P1) for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Compound P1 was synthesized by the Sonogashira coupling reaction between 2-bromo-5-(4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene and 1,4-bis(dodecyloxy)-2,5-diethynylbenzene. Top contact OTFTs were fabricated by spin casting with 2 wt% solution of P1 in chloroform and their best performance, which exhibited a hole mobility of 4.5 x 10(-5) cm2/Vs, was showed after annealing of the films at liquid crystalline temperature. Time-of-flight (TOF) mobility measured at liquid crystalline phase was observed to be 1.5 x 10(-6) cm2/Vs for both positive and negative carriers. These results indicate that the liquid crystallinity helps to improve the molecular packing and enhance charge mobility for P1. These advantages can be applicable to design and construct solution-processable OTFT materials for electronic applications.
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Clinical features of anti-factor H autoantibody-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare form of thrombotic microangiopathy that associates, in 70% of cases, with genetic or acquired disorders leading to dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement. Autoantibody directed against Factor H causes at least 6% to 10% of aHUS cases, but only a few clinical reports are available. Here, we describe the clinical, biologic, genetic features, treatment, and outcome of 45 patients who presented with aHUS associated with anti-FH autoantibody. We found that this form of aHUS primarily affects children between 9 and 13 years old but it also affects adults. It presents with a high frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and with extrarenal complications and has a relapsing course. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement at the onset of disease portends a poor prognosis. Early specific treatment may lead to favorable outcomes. These data should improve the recognition and diagnosis of this form of aHUS and help identify patients at high risk of a poor outcome.
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Structural properties of Al/Mo/SiC multilayers with high reflectivity for extreme ultraviolet light.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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We present the results of an optical and chemical, depth and surface study of Al/Mo/SiC periodic multilayers, designed as high reflectivity coatings for the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) range. In comparison to the previously studied Al/SiC system, the introduction of Mo as a third material in the multilayer structure allows us to decrease In comparison to the previously studied Al/SiC system with a reflectance of 37% at near normal incidence around 17 nm, the introduction of Mo as a third material in the multilayer structure allows us to decrease the interfacial roughness and achieve an EUV reflectivity of 53.4%, measured with synchrotron radiation. This is the first report of a reflectivity higher than 50% around 17 nm. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements are performed on the Al/Mo/SiC system in order to analyze the individual layers within the stack. ToF-SIMS and XPS results give evidence that the first SiC layer is partially oxidized, but the O atoms do not reach the first Mo and Al layers. We use these results to properly describe the multilayer stack and discuss the possible reasons for the difference between the measured and simulated EUV reflectivity values.
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IL-22 induces an acute-phase response.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
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IL-22 is made by a unique set of innate and adaptive immune cells, including the recently identified noncytolytic NK, lymphoid tissue-inducer, Th17, and Th22 cells. The direct effects of IL-22 are restricted to nonhematopoietic cells, its receptor expressed on the surface of only epithelial cells and some fibroblasts in various organs, including parenchymal tissue of the gut, lung, skin, and liver. Despite this cellular restriction on IL-22 activity, we demonstrate that IL-22 induces effects on systemic biochemical, cellular, and physiological parameters. By utilizing adenoviral-mediated delivery of IL-22 and systemic administration of IL-22 protein, we observed that IL-22 modulates factors involved in coagulation, including fibrinogen levels and platelet numbers, and cellular constituents of blood, such as neutrophil and RBC counts. Furthermore, we observed that IL-22 induces thymic atrophy, body weight loss, and renal proximal tubule metabolic activity. These cellular and physiological parameters are indicative of a systemic inflammatory state. We observed that IL-22 induces biochemical changes in the liver including induction of fibrinogen, CXCL1, and serum amyloid A that likely contribute to the reported cellular and physiological effects of IL-22. Based on these findings, we propose that downstream of its expression and impact in local tissue inflammation, circulating IL-22 can further induce changes in systemic physiology that is indicative of an acute-phase response.
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Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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Mg-based multilayers, including SiC/Mg, Co/Mg, B(4)C/Mg, and Si/Mg, are investigated for solar imaging and a He II calibration lamp at a 30.4 nm wavelength. These multilayers were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method and characterized by x-ray reflection. The reflectivities of these multilayers were measured by synchrotron radiation. Near-normal-incidence reflectivities of Co/Mg and SiC/Mg multilayer mirrors are as high as 40.3% and 44.6%, respectively, while those of B(4)C/Mg and Si/Mg mirrors are too low for application. The measured results suggest that SiC/Mg, Co/Mg multilayers are promising for a 30.4 nm wavelength.
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Effects of dietary cadmium contamination on bird Anas platyrhynchos--comparison with species Cairina moschata.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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This study aimed to assess the effect of two dietary cadmium (Cd) levels (C1: 1 mgkg(-1); C10: 10 mgkg(-1)) on bird Anas platyrhynchos exposed for 10, 20 and 40 days (5 animals per experimental condition). Ducks were able to accumulate high amounts of Cd, especially in kidneys (after 40 days: C1 8.1 ± 1 mgkg(-1), C10 37.7 ± 4.3 mgkg(-1)). After 40 days, the lowest Cd level triggered oxidative stress and stimulated mitochondrial metabolism. At the same time, highest amounts of Cd (C10 group) only triggered repression of genes encoding for catalase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, with repression factors of 1/50 and 1/5, respectively. High dose exposures were then associated with the repression of genes encoding for antioxidant, whereas low dose exposure triggered their induction. In contrast, the onset of MT gene expression appeared quickly for the C10 group even if a time delay was observed between gene expression and protein accumulation. Through the comparison of A. platyrhynchos and Cairina moschata, the response to Cd toxicity appeared species-dependent. Discrepancies between species could be explained by differential utilization of MT. This pathway of detoxification seemed sufficient to counter Cd toxicity.
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Seasonal and regional dynamics of M. ulcerans transmission in environmental context: deciphering the role of water bugs as hosts and vectors.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Buruli ulcer, the third mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy, is caused by the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans. Various modes of transmission have been suspected for this disease, with no general consensus acceptance for any of them up to now. Since laboratory models demonstrated the ability of water bugs to transmit M. ulcerans, a particular attention is focused on the transmission of the bacilli by water bugs as hosts and vectors. However, it is only through detailed knowledge of the biodiversity and ecology of water bugs that the importance of this mode of transmission can be fully assessed. It is the objective of the work here to decipher the role of water bugs in M. ulcerans ecology and transmission, based on large-scale field studies.
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Population pharmacokinetics and Bayesian estimator of mycophenolic acid in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for mycophenolic acid (MPA) in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), identify covariates that explain variability and determine the Bayesian estimator of the area under the concentration-time curve over 12 h (AUC(0-12)).
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Integration of molecular functions at the ecosystemic level: breakthroughs and future goals of environmental genomics and post-genomics.
Ecol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Environmental genomics and genome-wide expression approaches deal with large-scale sequence-based information obtained from environmental samples, at organismal, population or community levels. To date, environmental genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics are arguably the most powerful approaches to discover completely novel ecological functions and to link organismal capabilities, organism-environment interactions, functional diversity, ecosystem processes, evolution and Earth history. Thus, environmental genomics is not merely a toolbox of new technologies but also a source of novel ecological concepts and hypotheses. By removing previous dichotomies between ecophysiology, population ecology, community ecology and ecosystem functioning, environmental genomics enables the integration of sequence-based information into higher ecological and evolutionary levels. However, environmental genomics, along with transcriptomics and proteomics, must involve pluridisciplinary research, such as new developments in bioinformatics, in order to integrate high-throughput molecular biology techniques into ecology. In this review, the validity of environmental genomics and post-genomics for studying ecosystem functioning is discussed in terms of major advances and expectations, as well as in terms of potential hurdles and limitations. Novel avenues for improving the use of these approaches to test theory-driven ecological hypotheses are also explored.
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Rodlike fluorescent pi-conjugated 3,3-bipyridazine ligand: optical, electronic, and complexation properties.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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We report on the design and synthesis of a new quadrupolar pi-conjugated 3,3-bipyridazine D-A-D ligand. Its electronic and optical properties were investigated. Besides high fluorescence and pronounced solvatochromism, it exhibits an inherent electroactivity exploited to build an organic green light emitting device. Moreover, the ability of this ligand to complex metallic centers (Cu(I), Ni(II), Pt(II), and Ir(III)) was also investigated to access different geometries and to tune their electronic and optical properties. These preliminary results open up the synthesis of heavy-metal complexes to obtain phosphorescent emitters.
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Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of mycophenolic acid following administration of mycophenolate mofetil in de novo pediatric renal-transplant patients.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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The objective was to develop a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic model of mycophenolic acid following administration of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in de novo pediatric renal-transplant patients and identify factors that explain variability. The pharmacokinetic samples were collected from 89 de novo pediatric renal-transplant patients treated with MMF and studied during the first 60 postoperative days. All patients were genotyped for UGT1A8-A9, UGT2B7, and ABCC2. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with the NONMEM and was validated using bootstrap visual predictive check. The pharmacokinetic data were best described by a 2-compartment model with Erlang distribution to describe the absorption phase. The covariate analysis identified body weight as an individual factor influencing central volume of distribution and concomitant immunosuppressive medication and identified body weight and UGT2B7 802C>T genotype as individual factors influencing apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of MMF. CL/F in cyclosporine-MMF-treated patients was 33% higher than in tacrolimus-MMF-treated patients. The CL/F was significantly lower in patients with UGT2B7 802 C/C genotype compared with patients with UGT2B7 802 C/T and 802T/T genotypes, and this effect was independent of concomitant immunosuppressive medication or body weight. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic model of mycophenolic acid was validated. Body weight, concomitant medication, and UGT2B7 genotype contribute significantly to the interindividual variability of MMF disposition in pediatric renal-transplant patients.
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Glial cells of the nucleus tractus solitarius as partners of the dorsal hindbrain regulation of energy balance: a proposal for a working hypothesis.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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While the evidences emphasizing the role of astroglial cells in numerous aspects of information processing within the brain merges, the literature dealing with the involvement of this cell population in the signalization involved in feeding behavior and energetic homeostasis remains scarce. Nevertheless, some clues are now available indicating that glia could play a dynamic role in the regulation of energy balance, and that strengthening research effort in this field may further our understanding of the mechanisms controlling feeding behaviour. In the present review, we have summarized recent data indicating that the multifaceted glial compartment of the brainstem should be considered in future research aimed at identifying feeding-related processes operating at this level.
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Kinematics in the terminal swing phase of unilateral transfemoral amputees: microprocessor-controlled versus swing-phase control prosthetic knees.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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To analyze the spatiotemporal parameters in the terminal swing phase of the prosthetic limb in unilateral transfemoral amputees (TFAs) compared with a group of asymptomatic subjects, and to identify a latency period (LP) in the TFA between the full extension of the prosthetic knee and the initial ground contact of the ipsilateral foot. To study the correlation between the LP and the duration of the swing phase. To evaluate the influence of the type of knee, the time since amputation, and the amputation level on the latency period.
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Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia: defining skeletal features.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by prominent spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, T cell deficiency, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Biallelic mutations in swi/snf-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1 (SMARCAL1) are the only identified cause of SIOD, but approximately half of patients referred for molecular studies do not have detectable mutations in SMARCAL1. We hypothesized that skeletal features distinguish between those with or without SMARCAL1 mutations. Therefore, we analyzed the skeletal radiographs of 22 patients with and 11 without detectable SMARCAL1 mutations. We found that patients with SMARCAL1 mutations have a spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) essentially limited to the spine, pelvis, capital femoral epiphyses, and possibly the sella turcica, whereas the hands and other long bones are basically normal. Additionally, we found that several of the adolescent and young adult patients developed osteoporosis and coxarthrosis. Of the 11 patients without detectable SMARCAL1 mutations, seven had a SED indistinguishable from patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. We conclude therefore that SED is a feature of patients with SMARCAL1 mutations and that skeletal features do not distinguish who of those with SED have SMARCAL1 mutations.
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Central nesfatin-1-expressing neurons are sensitive to peripheral inflammatory stimulus.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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Recently, a novel factor with anorexigenic properties was identified and called nesfatin-1. This protein (82 aac) is not only expressed in peripheral organs but it is also found in neurons located in specific structures including the hypothalamus and the brainstem, two sites strongly involved in food intake regulation. Here, we studied whether some of the neurons that become activated following an injection of an anorectic dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) exhibit a nesfatin-1 phenotype. To this end, we used double immunohistochemistry to target the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos and of nesfatin-1 on coronal frozen sections of the rat brain. The number of c-Fos+/nesfatin-1+ neurons was evaluated in the immunosensitive structures reported to contain nesfatin-1 neurons; i.e. paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). LPS strongly increased the number of c-Fos+/nesfatin-1+ neurons in the PVN, SON and NTS, and to a lesser extent in the ARC. Triple labeling showed that a portion of the nesfatin-1 neurons activated in response to LPS within the NTS are catecholaminergic since they co-express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Our data therefore indicate that a portion of nesfatin-1 neurons of both the hypothalamus and brainstem are sensitive to peripheral inflammatory signals, and provide the first clues suggesting that centrally released nesfatin-1 may contribute to the neural mechanisms leading to endotoxaemic anorexia.
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Accuracy of exhaust emission factor measurements on chassis dynamometer.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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To improve the accuracy, reliability, and representativeness of emission factors, 10 European laboratories worked together to study the influence of 20 parameters on the measurement of light-vehicle emission factors on chassis dynamometer of 4 main categories: driving patterns, vehicle-related parameters, vehicle sampling, and laboratory-related parameters. The results are based on (1) literature synthesis, (2) approximately 2700 specific tests with 183 vehicles, and (3) the reprocessing of more than 900 tests. These tests concern the regulated atmospheric pollutants and pre-Euro to Euro 4 vehicles. Of the 20 parameters analyzed, 7 seemed to have no effect, 7 were qualitatively influential, and 6 were highly influential (gearshift strategy, vehicle mileage, ambient temperature, humidity, dilution ratio, and driving cycle). The first four of the six were able to have correction factors developed for them. The results allow for the design of recommendations or guidelines for the emission factor measurement method.
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Trace element concentrations (mercury, cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, aluminium, nickel, arsenic, and selenium) in some aquatic birds of the southwest Atlantic coast of France.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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Trace elements (mercury [Hg], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], lead [Pb], aluminium [Al], nickel [Ni], arsenic [As], and selenium [Se]) were investigated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in liver, kidney, muscle, and feather of aquatic birds wintering or inhabiting the wetlands situated on the Southwest Atlantic coast of France. A majority of greylag geese, red knots, and grey plovers were collected from among hunter-shot animals. The relation between residue concentrations, age (juvenile vs. adult), and sex was investigated. Trace elements were lower than threshold levels of toxicity, except for Pb. Greylag geese sampled could be considered Pb-poisoned. These consequential levels of contamination could be the result of the ingestion of Pb-shot from ammunition used in hunting areas they crossed during migration. Cd accumulation increased with age, whereas Pb levels in feathers were lower in adult birds in connection with moulting. As was influenced by sex. Female birds displayed higher concentrations in liver and feathers than did male birds.
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Effect of dietary cadmium on lipid metabolism and storage of aquatic bird Cairina moschata.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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In environment, birds often fast in connection with breeding, migration or drastic climatic conditions and need to mobilize lipid reserves during these periods. The impairment of lipid metabolism by cadmium (Cd; 1 mg kg(-1) added in diet) was investigated on palmiped Cairina moschata. Expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, mitochondrial metabolism and detoxification were investigated in liver and muscle of ducks. Lipid content in muscle and liver were analysed and plasma triglycerides were quantified. After 20 days, ducks exposed to Cd displayed a lower body weight and lower lipid content in liver than controls. In muscle, the increase of lipid content was only significant for control ducks but not for exposed ducks. Exposed ducks appeared unable to sufficiently transport and store lipids into peripheral tissues. Cd impairs lipid metabolism by several ways. First, Cd triggered the down-regulation of fatty acids synthesis in liver even if the NADPH production and the mitochondrial metabolism are enhanced, suggesting a stronger energy needs. Secondly, the associated decrease of plasma triglycerides and lipoprotein lipase activity with Cd are consistent with impairment of lipids storage in peripheral tissues.
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High frequency of RUNX1 biallelic alteration in acute myeloid leukemia secondary to familial platelet disorder.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Familial platelet disorder (FPD), a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by quantitative and qualitative platelet abnormalities, is considered as a model of genetic predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). So far, monoallelic RUNX1 germline mutations have been found in 19 of 20 families with reported FPD, and the analysis of blast cells from only 5 patients at acute leukemia (AL) stage has shown no additional RUNX1 abnormality. Here, we performed RUNX1 analysis at constitutional and somatic levels in 8 persons with FPD who developed AL from 4 independent families. In addition to the germline RUNX1 mutation, we identified a second RUNX1 alteration in 6 AML cases (acquired point mutations in 4 cases and duplication of the altered RUNX1 allele associated with acquired trisomy 21 in 2 other cases). Although haploinsufficiency of RUNX1 causes FPD, our findings suggest that a second genetic event involving RUNX1 is often associated with progression to AML.
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Impact of cadmium on aquatic bird Cairina moschata.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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The impact on palmiped Cairina moschata of two levels of dietary cadmium (Cd) contamination (C1: 1 mg kg(-1) and C10: 10 mg kg(-1)) was investigated on liver gene expression by real-time PCR. Genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, in antioxidant defences, detoxification and in DNA damage repair were studied. Metallothionein (MT) protein levels and Cd bioaccumulation were also investigated in liver, kidneys and muscle. Male ducks were subjected to three periods of exposure: 10, 20 and 40 days. Cd was mainly bioaccumulated in kidneys first and in liver. The concentrations in liver and kidneys appeared to reach a stable level at 20 days of contamination even if the concentrations in muscle still increased. Cd triggered the enhancement of mitochondrial metabolism, the establishment of antioxidant defences (superoxide dismutase Mn and Cu/Zn; catalase) and of DNA repair from 20 days of contamination. Discrepancies were observed in liver between MT protein levels and MT gene up-regulation. MT gene expression appeared to be a late hour biomarker.
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Urinary prostate cancer 3 test: toward the age of reason?
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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The prostate cancer 3 (PCA3) gene was discovered in 1999, on the basis of differential expression between cancer and noncancerous prostate tissue. Including the first study published in 2003, 11 clinical studies have evaluated its utility for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by measuring the number of PCA3 RNA copies in urine enriched with prostate cells. Although the sensitivity of the PCA3 test was less than that of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), its specificity appeared to be much better, particularly in patients with a previous negative biopsy. Recent studies also have suggested that this test could be used to predict cancer prognosis.
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Depolarization-induced release of endocannabinoids by murine dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve neurons differentially regulates inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Numerous studies, focused on the hypothalamus, have recently implicated endocannabinoids (EC) as orexigenic factors in the central control of food intake. However, the EC system is also highly expressed in the hindbrain autonomic integrator of food intake regulation, i.e. the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). Previous studies have shown that exogenous cannabinoids, by acting on cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R), suppress GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal transmission in adult rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV), the principal efferent compartment of the DVC. However, no endogenous release of EC has been demonstrated in DVC to date. Using patch-clamp techniques on mouse coronal brainstem slices, we confirmed that both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission were depressed by WIN 55,212-2, a CB1R agonist. We demonstrated that DMNV neurons exhibited a rapid and reversible depolarization-induced suppression of electrically evoked GABAergic IPSCs (eIPSCs), classically known as DSI (depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition), while spontaneous or miniature IPSCs activity remained unaltered. Further, no depolarization-induced suppression of glutamatergic eEPSCs (DSE) occurred. Our results indicate that DSI was blocked by SR141716A (Rimonabant), a selective CB1R antagonist, and was dependent on calcium elevation in DMNV neurons, suggesting a release of EC in the DVC. Moreover, the analysis of the paired-pulse ratio, of the coefficient of variation and of the failure rate of eIPSCs support the fact that EC-mediated suppression of GABAergic inhibition takes place at the presynaptic level. These results show for the first time that DMNV neurons release EC in an activity-dependent manner, which in turn differentially regulates their inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs.
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A positive change in energy balance modulates TrkB expression in the hypothalamus and nodose ganglia of rats.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its TrkB receptor play critical roles in the synaptic activity and plasticity of mature neurons and enhance adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, treatment with BDNF has been found to attenuate weight gain or even cause weight loss and appetite suppression in rats. The aim of this study was to look at the effect of nutrient intake on BDNF concentrations and cellular proliferation in the brain. Adult male Wistar rats were given one of three diets for 6 weeks: high-carbohydrate, high-fat or high-fat pair-fed diets. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the feeding period and BDNF concentrations in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), hypothalamus and plasma were measured by ELISA on protein extracts of these samples. Cellular proliferation in the DVC was quantified by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Neither BDNF levels nor proliferation were modified by the diet. Secondly, using rats that received the same diets, real-time PCR was performed in the DVC, hypothalamus and nodose ganglia in order to compare TrkB receptor levels. The results showed significantly lower TrkB levels in the hypothalamus and nodose ganglia of fasted rats receiving the high-fat diet when compared to the other groups. These two complementary methodological approaches suggest that there is a relationship between long-term dietary intake and BDNF. More precisely, TrkB expression is more responsive to energy states than to diet composition. An increment in energy stores thus triggers decreased BDNF anorexigenic signaling at the receptor level in the hypothalamus and nodose ganglia, but not in the DVC.
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Prostaglandins and sickness behavior: old story, new insights.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Previous evidence has shown that prostaglandins play a key role in the development of sickness behavior observed during inflammatory states. In particular, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is produced in the brain by a variety of inflammatory signals such as endotoxins or cytokines. Its injection has been also shown to induce symptoms of sickness behavior. The role of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX), the rate-limiting enzymes converting arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, in sickness behavior has been extensively studied, and it has been demonstrated that strategies aiming at inhibiting these enzymes limit anorexia, body weight loss and fever in animals with inflammatory diseases. However, inhibiting COX activity may lead to negative gastric or cardiovascular effects, since COX enzymes play a role in the synthesis of others prostanoids with various and sometimes contrasting properties. Recently, prostaglandin E synthases (PGES), which specifically catalyze the final step of PGE2 biosynthesis, were characterized. Among these enzymes, the microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) was of a particular interest since it was shown to be up-regulated by inflammatory signals in a variety of cell types. Moreover, mPGES-1 was shown to be crucial for correct immune-to-brain communication and induction of fever and anorexia by pro-inflammatory agents. This review takes stock of previous knowledge and recent advances in understanding the role of prostaglandins and of their specific synthesizing enzymes in the molecular mechanisms underlying sickness behavior. The review concludes with a short summary of key questions that remain to be addressed and points out therapeutic developments in this research field.
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The virulence variability of different Acinetobacter baumannii strains in experimental pneumonia.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Our objective was to compare the virulence of 5 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii by using a mouse model of pneumonia.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B signaling is a downstream effector of the brainstem melanocortin system in food intake control.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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It has been shown that the neurotropin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB), contribute to the central control of food intake. BDNF has previously been implicated as a probable downstream effector of melanocortinergic signaling within the ventromedial hypothalamus, and we have shown its implication as an anorexigenic factor within the brainstem autonomic integrator of food intake control, namely the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). In the brainstem, the melanocortinergic signaling pathway is known to integrate phasic responses to satiety signals, such as cholecystokinin. In this study, we explored the interactions between melanocortin and BDNF/TrkB signaling within the DVC. First, we tested the effect of a local pharmacological activation or inhibition of melanocortin receptors type 3/4 (MC3/4R) on BDNF protein content in the DVC of adult rats. We showed that fourth intracerebroventricular delivery of MC3/4R agonist and antagonist increased and decreased the BDNF protein content within the DVC, respectively. Second, we showed that the orexigenic effect of a selective MC4R antagonist delivered fourth-icv can be blocked by a coadministration of BDNF. We also tested the causal role of BDNF/TrkB signaling in the anorexigenic effect of melanocortinergic signaling by using a recently developed analog-sensitive kinase allele murine model (TrkB(F616A) mice) and showed that the pharmacological blockade of TrkB abolished the anorexigenic effect of a selective MC4R agonist and of cholecystokinin. Our results provide strong evidence for a role of BDNF as a downstream effector of melanocortinergic signaling pathway within the DVC.
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Above- and belowground linkages in Sphagnum peatland: climate warming affects plant-microbial interactions.
Glob Chang Biol
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Peatlands contain approximately one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC). Warming can alter above- and belowground linkages that regulate soil organic carbon dynamics and C-balance in peatlands. Here we examine the multiyear impact of in situ experimental warming on the microbial food web, vegetation, and their feedbacks with soil chemistry. We provide evidence of both positive and negative impacts of warming on specific microbial functional groups, leading to destabilization of the microbial food web. We observed a strong reduction (70%) in the biomass of top-predators (testate amoebae) in warmed plots. Such a loss caused a shortening of microbial food chains, which in turn stimulated microbial activity, leading to slight increases in levels of nutrients and labile C in water. We further show that warming altered the regulatory role of Sphagnum-polyphenols on microbial community structure with a potential inhibition of top predators. In addition, warming caused a decrease in Sphagnum cover and an increase in vascular plant cover. Using structural equation modelling, we show that changes in the microbial food web affected the relationships between plants, soil water chemistry, and microbial communities. These results suggest that warming will destabilize C and nutrient recycling of peatlands via changes in above- and belowground linkages, and therefore, the microbial food web associated with mosses will feedback positively to global warming by destabilizing the carbon cycle. This study confirms that microbial food webs thus constitute a key element in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. Their study can help understand how mosses, as ecosystem engineers, tightly regulate biogeochemical cycling and climate feedback in peatlands.
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Insulin effect on lipogenesis and fat distribution in three genotypes of ducks during overfeeding.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol.
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In waterfowl, the response to overfeeding differs from one genotype to the other. Pekin ducks generally store lipids in the peripheral tissues while Muscovy and mule ducks promote hepatic lipid storage. A possible reason for these various susceptibilities to hepatic steatosis could be a difference in insulin sensitivity. We suggest a resistance to insulin in Pekin ducks. In the present work we investigate the action of insulin on glucose and lipid metabolisms for the three overfed genotypes. Regardless of the kind of genotype, all ducks appear to be sensitive to insulin: their glycemia is lower when the animals are treated with insulin. Insulin-treated Muscovy and Pekin ducks present a lower increase in total body weight (-16.5% for Muscovy; -8.3% for Pekin); and a significantly lower liver weight than the controls (-9.6% and -18.3%). The percentage of total lipids in the liver is higher in the controls than in the insulin-treated Pekin and mule ducks (respectively -40.4% and -34.7%), which means a decreased hepatic lipogenesis. Pekin ducks present a higher pectoral muscle weight when the individuals are insulin-treated (+9.7%). Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity appears to be significantly higher in insulin-treated Pekin and Muscovy ducks (1.39 and 3.38 times greater than controls). Insulin-treated mule ducks present a decrease of muscle and abdominal lipid storage compared to controls (-11.6% and -13.8%). In this experiment, exogenous insulin has induced an increase of lipid oxidation and has led to a less favorable use and storage of dietary glucose. The hypothesis of insulin-resistance of Pekin ducks is not verified.
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c-Fos immunoreactivity in the pig brain following deoxynivalenol intoxication: focus on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expressing neurons.
Neurotoxicology
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Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the cereal-contaminating Fusarium fungi, is a major trichothecene responsible for mycotoxicoses in farm animals, including swine. The main effect of DON-intoxication is food intake reduction and the consequent body weight loss. The present study aimed to identify brain structures activated during DON intoxication in pigs. To this goal, we used c-Fos staining which constitutes a useful approach to identify activated neurons. We showed that per os administration of Fusarium graminearum extracts (containing the equivalent of 1mg DON per kg of body weight) induced an increase in c-Fos immunoreactivity in several central structures, including the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), dorsal vagal complex (DVC), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (Arc), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and amygdala (CeA). Moreover, we coupled c-Fos staining with phenotypic markers detection in order to specify the neuronal populations activated during DON intoxication. This phenotypic characterization revealed the activation of catecholaminergic but not of serotoninergic neurons in response to the toxin. In this context, we also paid a particular attention to NUCB2/nesfatin-1 positive cells, since nesfatin-1 is known to exert a satiety effect. We report here, for the first time in the pig brain, the presence of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons in the VLM, DVC, PVN, Arc and SON, and their activation during DON intoxication. Taken together, these data show that DON stimulates the main structures involved in food intake in pigs and suggest that catecholaminergic and NUCB2/nesfatin-1 neurons could contribute in the anorexigenic effects of the mycotoxin.
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Colorectal neuroendocrine carcinomas and adenocarcinomas share oncogenic pathways. A clinico-pathologic study of 12 cases.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
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Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare neoplasms with an increasing incidence. Oncogenetic pathways of colorectal NEC are still poorly understood, and no treatment standards are available for these rare tumors.
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IL-26 is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis and induces proinflammatory cytokine production and Th17 cell generation.
PLoS Biol.
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Interleukin-26 (IL-26), a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells. IL-26 has been also reported overexpressed in Crohns disease, suggesting that it may be involved in the physiopathology of chronic inflammatory disorders. Here, we have analyzed the expression and role of IL-26 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint synovial inflammation. We report that the concentrations of IL-26 are higher in the serums of RA patients than of healthy subjects and dramatically elevated in RA synovial fluids compared to RA serums. Immunohistochemistry reveals that synoviolin(+) fibroblast-like synoviocytes and CD68(+) macrophage-like synoviocytes are the main IL-26-producing cells in RA joints. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes from RA patients constitutively produce IL-26 and this production is upregulated by IL-1-beta and IL-17A. We have therefore investigated the role of IL-26 in the inflammatory process. Results show that IL-26 induces the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1-beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by human monocytes and also upregulates the expression of numerous chemokines (mainly CCL20). Interestingly, IL-26-stimulated monocytes selectively promote the generation of RORgamma t(+) Th17 cells, through IL-1-beta secretion by monocytes. More precisely, IL-26-stimulated monocytes switch non-Th17 committed (IL-23R(-) or CCR6(-) CD161(-)) CD4(+) memory T cells into Th17 cells. Finally, synovial fluids from RA patients also induce Th17 cell generation and this effect is reduced after IL-26 depletion. These findings show that IL-26 is constitutively produced by RA synoviocytes, induces proinflammatory cytokine secretion by myeloid cells, and favors Th17 cell generation. IL-26 thereby appears as a novel proinflammatory cytokine, located upstream of the proinflammatory cascade, that may constitute a promising target to treat RA and chronic inflammatory disorders.
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Incidence of invasive macrophytes on methylmercury budget in temperate lakes: central role of bacterial periphytic communities.
Environ. Pollut.
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Several studies demonstrated high mercury (Hg) methylation and demethylation in the periphyton associated with floating roots in tropical ecosystems. The importance of aquatic plants on methylmercury production in three temperate ecosystems from south-western France was evaluated through Hg species concentrations, and Hg methylation/demethylation activities by using stable isotopic tracers ((199)Hg(II), Me(201)Hg). Hg accumulation and high methylation and demethylation yields were detected in plant roots and periphyton, whereas results for sediment and water were low to insignificant. The presence of sulfate reducing prokaryotes was detected in all compartments (T-RFLP based on dsrAB amplified through nested PCR) and their main role in Hg methylation could be demonstrated. In turn, sulfate reduction inhibition did not affect demethylation activities. The estimation of net MeHg budgets in these ecosystems suggested that aquatic rhizosphere is the principal location for methylmercury production and may represent an important source for the contamination of the aquatic food chain.
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