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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
First full genome sequence of a human enterovirus a120, isolated in madagascar.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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We report the first complete genome sequence of an enterovirus isolate belonging to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family and to type A120 (EV-A120). The EV-A120 isolate MAD-2741-11 was obtained from the stool of a healthy child living on Madagascar Island. The isolate genome was amplified by a reverse transcription-PCR method, and the consensus sequence was determined.
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Highly diverse morbillivirus-related paramyxoviruses in wild fauna of the southwestern Indian Ocean Islands: evidence of exchange between introduced and endemic small mammals.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The Paramyxoviridae form an increasingly diverse viral family, infecting a wide variety of different hosts. In recent years, they have been linked to disease emergence in many different animal populations and in humans. Bats and rodents have been identified as major animal populations capable of harboring paramyxoviruses, and host shifting between these animals is likely to be an important driving factor in the underlying evolutionary processes that eventually lead to disease emergence. Here, we have studied paramyxovirus circulation within populations of endemic and introduced wild small mammals of the southwestern Indian Ocean region and belonging to four taxonomic orders: Rodentia, Afrosoricida, Soricomorpha, and Chiroptera. We report elevated infection levels as well as widespread paramyxovirus dispersal and frequent host exchange of a newly emerging genus of the Paramyxoviridae, currently referred to as the unclassified morbillivirus-related viruses (UMRVs). In contrast to other genera of the Paramyxoviridae, where bats have been shown to be a key host species, we show that rodents (and, in particular, Rattus rattus) are significant spreaders of UMRVs. We predict that the ecological particularities of the southwestern Indian Ocean, where small mammal species often live in densely packed, multispecies communities, in combination with the increasing invasion of R. rattus and perturbations of endemic animal communities by active anthropological development, will have a major influence on the dynamics of UMRV infection.
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Anjozorobe hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Thailand virus detected in rodents from Madagascar.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Until now, there was only serological evidence that hantaviruses were circulating in rodents and infecting humans from Madagascar. To assess the presence of a hantavirus on the island, between October, 2008, and March, 2010, we sampled 585 rodents belonging to seven species in the Anjozorobe-Angavo forest corridor, 70 km north from the capital city Antananarivo. A hantavirus was detected from organs of the ubiquist roof rat (Rattus rattus) and of the endemic Major's tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus majori). Amazingly, sequence analysis of the S (small), M (medium), and L (large) coding DNA sequence of this virus showed that the Anjozorobe strain (proposed name) was a new genetic variant of Thailand virus (THAIV) that comprises other variants found in Southeast Asia. Because THAIV is suspected of causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, ongoing studies are addressing the risk of infection by this new variant in the Malagasy population.
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Molecular comparison and evolutionary analyses of VP1 nucleotide sequences of new African human enterovirus 71 isolates reveal a wide genetic diversity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Most circulating strains of Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) have been classified primarily into three genogroups (A to C) on the basis of genetic divergence between the 1D gene, which encodes the VP1 capsid protein. The aim of the present study was to provide further insights into the diversity of the EV-A71 genogroups following the recent description of highly divergent isolates, in particular those from African countries, including Madagascar. We classified recent EV-A71 isolates by a large comparison of 3,346 VP1 nucleotidic sequences collected from GenBank. Analysis of genetic distances and phylogenetic investigations indicated that some recently-reported isolates did not fall into the genogroups A-C and clustered into three additional genogroups, including one Indian genogroup (genogroup D) and 2 African ones (E and F). Our Bayesian phylogenetic analysis provided consistent data showing that the genogroup D isolates share a recent common ancestor with the members of genogroup E, while the isolates of genogroup F evolved from a recent common ancestor shared with the members of the genogroup B. Our results reveal the wide diversity that exists among EV-A71 isolates and suggest that the number of circulating genogroups is probably underestimated, particularly in developing countries where EV-A71 epidemiology has been poorly studied.
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Surveillance and control of rabies in La Reunion, Mayotte, and Madagascar.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Mayotte and La Reunion islands are currently free of animal rabies and surveillance is performed by the French Human and Veterinary Public Health Services. However, dog rabies is still enzootic in Madagascar with 4 to 10 confirmed human cases each year. The number of antirabies medical centres in Madagascar is still scarce to provide easy access to the local population for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Furthermore, stray dog populations are considerable and attempts to control rabies by mass campaigns of dog vaccination have not received sufficient attention from the national health authorities. To address these challenges, an expanded program to control rabies needs to be initiated by the Malagasy authorities.
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Development of real-time RT-PCR for the detection of low concentrations of Rift Valley fever virus.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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In recent years, Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been affected by epidemics of Rift Valley fever (RVF), however detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in zebu, sheep and goats during the post epidemic periods was frequently unsuccessful. Thus, a highly sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay was developed for the detection of RVFV at low viral loads. A new RVF SYBR Green RT-PCR targeting the M segment was tested on serum from different RVF seronegative ruminant species collected from May 2010 to August 2011 in Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago and compared with a RVF specific quantitative real time RT-PCR technique, which is considered as the reference technique. The specificity was tested on a wide range of arboviruses or other viruses giving RVF similar clinical signs. A total of 38 out of 2756 serum samples tested positive with the new RT-PCR, whereas the reference technique only detected 5 out of the 2756. The described RT-PCR is an efficient diagnostic tool for the investigation of enzootic circulation of the RVF virus. It allows the detection of low viral RNA loads adapted for the investigations of reservoirs or specific epidemiological situations such as inter-epizootic periods.
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Dried-blood spots: a cost-effective field method for the detection of Chikungunya virus circulation in remote areas.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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In 2005, there were outbreaks of febrile polyarthritis due to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Comoros Islands. CHIKV then spread to other islands in the Indian Ocean: La Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar. These outbreaks revealed the lack of surveillance and preparedness of Madagascar and other countries. Thus, it was decided in 2007 to establish a syndrome-based surveillance network to monitor dengue-like illness.
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Rotavirus genotypes in children in the community with diarrhea in Madagascar.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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In the context of the possible introduction of a preventive vaccine against rotaviruses in Madagascar, the G and P genotypes distribution of the rotaviruses circulating in the children in Madagascar was studied, and the presence of emerging genotypes and unusual strains were assessed. From February 2008 to May 2009, 1,679 stools specimens were collected from children ?5 years old with diarrhea. ELISA was used for antigen detection, and molecular amplification of VP7 and VP4 gene fragments was used for genotyping. Rotavirus antigen was detected in 104 samples (6.2%). Partial sequences of VP7 and VP4 genes were obtained from 81 and 80 antigen-positive stools, respectively. The most frequent G and P types combinations detected were G9P[8] (n?=?51; 64.6%), followed by G1P[8] (n?=?15; 18.9%), and G1P[6] (n?=?8; 10.1%). A few unusual G-P combinations, such as G4P[6] (n?=?3; 3.8%), G9P[6] (n?=?1; 1.3%), and G3P[9] reassortant feline human virus (n?=?1; 1.3%) were identified. Both VP4 and VP7 sequences in one of the three G4P[6] isolates were closely related to those in porcine strains, and one was a reassortant human porcine virus. These findings give an overview of the strains circulating in Madagascar and should help public health authorities to define a vaccine strategy.
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Outcome risk factors during respiratory infections in a paediatric ward in Antananarivo, Madagascar 2010-2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of infectious disease-related morbidity, hospitalisation and mortality among children worldwide, and particularly in developing countries. In these low-income countries, most patients with acute respiratory infection (ARI), whether it is mild or severe, are still treated empirically. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with the evolution and outcome of respiratory illnesses in patients aged under 5 years old.
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Fatal pancreatitis in simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251)-infected macaques treated with 2,3-dideoxyinosine and stavudine following cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase blockade.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with immune activation, CD4?-T-cell loss, and a progressive decline of immune functions. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) only partially reverses HIV-associated immune dysfunction, suggesting that approaches that target immune activation and improve virus-specific immune responses may be needed. We performed a preclinical study in rhesus macaques infected with the pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251) and treated with ART. We tested whether vaccination administered together with cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blockade and treatment with the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor 1-methyl-D-tryptophan (D-1mT), decreased immune activation and improved vaccine efficacy. The treatment did not augment vaccine immunogenicity; rather, it dramatically increased ART-related toxicity, causing all treated animals to succumb to acute pancreatitis and hyperglycemic coma. The onset of fulminant diabetes was associated with severe lymphocyte infiltration of the pancreas and complete loss of the islets of Langerhans. Thus, caution should be used when considering approaches aimed at targeting immune activation during ART.
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Vaccine induced antibodies to the first variable loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120, mediate antibody-dependent virus inhibition in macaques.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV(89.6P) replication in rhesus macaques. The vaccinated animal that had the highest titers of antibodies to the amino terminus portion of V1, prior to challenge, had secondary antibody responses that mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as early as 2 weeks after infection and inhibited viral replication by antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), by 4 weeks after infection. There was a significant inverse correlation between virus level and binding antibody titers to the envelope protein, (R=-0.83, p=0.015), and ADCVI (R=-0.84 p=0.044). Genotyping of plasma virus demonstrated in vivo selection of three SHIV(89.6P) variants with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites in V1. We found a significant inverse correlation between virus levels and titers of antibodies that mediated ADCVI against all the identified V1 virus variants. A significant inverse correlation was also found between neutralizing antibody titers to SHIV(89.6) and virus levels (R=-0.72 p=0.0050). However, passive inoculation of purified immunoglobulin from animal M316, the macaque that best controlled virus, to a naïve macaque, resulted in a low serum neutralizing antibodies and low ADCVI activity that failed to protect from SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Collectively, while our data suggest that anti-envelope antibodies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc(R-dependent activities may be important in the control of SHIV replication, they also demonstrate that low levels of these antibodies alone are not sufficient to protect from infection.
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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever serosurvey in at-risk professionals, Madagascar, 2008 and 2009.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic arboviral infection with hemorrhagic manifestation and often a fatal ending. Human become infected mainly through tick bite or by crushing infected tick, by contact with blood or tissues from viraemic livestock or patient. CCHF virus (CCHFV) has been isolated once in Madagascar but data on the epidemiology of the disease in the country are very scarce.
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Laboratory surveillance of rabies in humans, domestic animals, and bats in madagascar from 2005 to 2010.
Adv Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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Background. Rabies virus (RABV) has circulated in Madagascar at least since the 19th century. Objectives. To assess the circulation of lyssavirus in the island from 2005 to 2010. Materials and Methods. Animal (including bats) and human samples were tested for RABV and other lyssavirus using antigen, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and antibodies detection and virus isolation. Results. Half of the 437 domestic or tame wild terrestrial mammal brains tested were found RABV antigen positive, including 54% of the 341 dogs tested. This percentage ranged from 26% to 75% across the period. Nine of the 10 suspected human cases tested were laboratory confirmed. RABV circulation was confirmed in 34 of the 38 districts sampled. No lyssavirus RNA was detected in 1983 bats specimens. Nevertheless, antibodies against Lagos bat virus were detected in the sera of 12 among 50 Eidolon dupreanum specimens sampled. Conclusion. More than a century after the introduction of the vaccine, rabies still remains endemic in Madagascar.
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An unexpected recurrent transmission of Rift Valley fever virus in cattle in a temperate and mountainous area of Madagascar.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Rift Valley fever is an acute, zoonotic viral disease of domestic ruminants, caused by a phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae family). A large outbreak occurred in Madagascar in 2008-2009. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the point prevalence of antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV) in cattle in the Anjozorobe district, located in the wet and temperate highland region of Madagascar and yet heavily affected by the disease, and analyse environmental and trade factors potentially linked to RVFV transmission. A serological study was performed in 2009 in 894 bovines. For each bovine, the following variables were recorded: age, location of the night pen, minimum distance from the pen to the nearest water point and the forest, nearest water point type, and herd replacement practices. The serological data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The overall anti-RVFV IgG seroprevalence rate was 28% [CI95% 25-31]. Age was statistically linked to prevalence (p = 10(-4)), being consistent with a recurrent RVFV circulation. Distance from the night pen to the nearest water point was a protective factor (p = 5.10(-3)), which would be compatible with a substantial part of the virus transmission being carried out by nocturnal mosquito vectors. However, water point type did not influence the risk of infection: several mosquito species are probably involved. Cattle belonging to owners who purchase animals to renew the herd were significantly more likely to have seroconverted than others (p = 0.04): cattle trade may contribute to the introduction of the virus in this area. The minimum distance of the night pen to the forest was not linked to the prevalence. This is the first evidence of a recurrent transmission of RVFV in such an ecosystem that associates a wet, temperate climate, high altitude, paddy fields, and vicinity to a dense rain forest. Persistence mechanisms need to be further investigated.
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Smallpox vaccine safety is dependent on T cells and not B cells.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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The licensed smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000, is a cell culture derivative of Dryvax. Both ACAM2000 and Dryvax are administered by skin scarification and can cause progressive vaccinia, with skin lesions that disseminate to distal sites. We have investigated the immunologic basis of the containment of vaccinia in the skin with the goal to identify safer vaccines for smallpox. Macaques were depleted systemically of T or B cells and vaccinated with either Dryvax or an attenuated vaccinia vaccine, LC16m8. B cell depletion did not affect the size of skin lesions induced by either vaccine. However, while depletion of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells had no adverse effects on LC16m8-vaccinated animals, it caused progressive vaccinia in macaques immunized with Dryvax. As both Dryvax and LC16m8 vaccines protect healthy macaques from a lethal monkeypox intravenous challenge, our data identify LC16m8 as a safer and effective alternative to ACAM2000 and Dryvax vaccines for immunocompromised individuals.
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Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus outbreak among boarding school pupils in Madagascar: compliance and adverse effects of prophylactic oseltamivir treatment.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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In October 2009, the first outbreak of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus  in Madagascar occurred at a school in Antananarivo. Among the first 12 cases, five were reported in boarding pupils at the school. The school closed 10 days into the outbreak. Mass oseltamivir prophylactic treatment was used to contain the outbreak. This study aimed to determine the transmission of infection among boarding school pupils and to evaluate the adverse effects of oseltamivir chemoprophylactic treatment and their impact on compliance.
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Viral etiology of influenza-like illnesses in Antananarivo, Madagascar, July 2008 to June 2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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In Madagascar, despite an influenza surveillance established since 1978, little is known about the etiology and prevalence of viruses other than influenza causing influenza-like illnesses (ILIs).
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Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making.
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Preexisting infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 neither exacerbates nor attenuates simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 infection in macaques.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Coinfection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been reported to have either a slowed disease course or to have no effect on progression to AIDS. In this study, we generated a coinfection animal model and investigated whether HTLV-2 could persistently infect macaques, induce a T-cell response, and impact simian immunodeficiency virus SIV(mac251)-induced disease. We found that inoculation of irradiated HTLV-2-infected T cells into Indian rhesus macaques elicited humoral and T-cell responses to HTLV-2 antigens at both systemic and mucosal sites. Low levels of HTLV-2 provirus DNA were detected in the blood, lymphoid tissues, and gastrointestinal tracts of infected animals. Exposure of HTLV-2-infected or naïve macaques to SIV(mac251) demonstrated comparable levels of SIV(mac251) viral replication, similar rates of mucosal and peripheral CD4(+) T-cell loss, and increased T-cell proliferation. Additionally, neither the magnitude nor the functional capacity of the SIV-specific T-cell-mediated immune response was different in HTLV-2/SIV(mac251) coinfected animals versus SIV(mac251) singly infected controls. Thus, HTLV-2 targets mucosal sites, persists, and importantly does not exacerbate SIV(mac251) infection. These data provide the impetus for the development of an attenuated HTLV-2-based vectored vaccine for HIV-1; this approach could elicit persistent mucosal immunity that may prevent HIV-1/SIV(mac251) infection.
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High prevalence of hepatitis E in humans and pigs and evidence of genotype-3 virus in swine, Madagascar.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an orofecal disease transmitted through poor hygiene environments, contaminated food (mainly pork products), or by contacts with infected animals. Very little data are currently available regarding the disease in the Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands. We report the first sero- and viro-survey for HEV in human and swine in Madagascar. A seroprevalence rate of 14.1% (60 of 427) was measured in slaughterhouse workers. Seroprevalence to HEV in pigs was estimated to 71.2% (178 of 250), strongly suggesting the existence of a zoonotic cycle. Three out of 250 pig livers (1.2%) tested HEV RNA-positive by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analyses based on 1-kb sequences of the ORF 2-3 identified these viruses as HEV genotype 3. Sequences clustered in a distinct Malagasy sub-clade, possibly representative of a new sub-genotype, for which the date of emergence was estimated around 1989. Further studies are needed to confirm other transmission routes of HEV to humans, especially through non-zoonotic cycles.
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Epidemiological and virological characterization of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 in Madagascar.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Madagascar was one of the first African countries to be affected by the 2009 pandemic of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm2009] infection. The outbreak started in the capital city, Antananarivo, and then spread throughout the country from October 2009 through February 2010.
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Identification of novel paramyxoviruses in insectivorous bats of the Southwest Indian Ocean.
Virus Res.
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Bats are reservoirs for many emerging zoonotic viruses. In this study, we screened 197 animals from 15 different bat species of the Southwest Indian Ocean for paramyxovirus infection and identified paramyxoviruses in five insectivorous bat-species from the Union of the Comoros (3/66), Mauritius (1/55) and Madagascar (4/76). Viral isolation was possible via cell culture and phylogenetic analysis revealed these viruses clustered in a Morbillivirus-related lineage, with relatively high nucleotide sequence similarity to other recently discovered insectivorous-bat paramyxoviruses but distinct from those known to circulate in frugivorous bats.
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The spread of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in Madagascar described by a sentinel surveillance network.
PLoS ONE
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The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been a challenge for public health surveillance systems in all countries. In Antananarivo, the first imported case was reported on August 12, 2009. This work describes the spread of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Madagascar.
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Short message service sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness in Madagascar, 2008-2012.
Bull. World Health Organ.
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The revision of the International Health Regulations (IHR) and the threat of influenza pandemics and other disease outbreaks with a major impact on developing countries have prompted bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly in low-resource settings.
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