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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Perceptions and Experiences with the VOICE Adherence Strengthening Program (VASP) in the MTN-003 Trial.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The VOICE Adherence Strengthening Program (VASP) was implemented in May 2011 to improve adherence counseling in VOICE (MTN-003), a multisite placebo-controlled trial of daily oral or vaginal tenofovir-based Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Anonymous baseline (N = 82) and final follow-up (N = 75) surveys were administered to counselors and pharmacists at 15 VOICE sites, and baseline (N = 18) and final (N = 26) qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected counseling staff at 13 VOICE sites. Qualitative interviews with VOICE participants (N = 38) were also analyzed for segments related to counseling. Behavioral and biological measures of product use collected in the 6 months prior to VASP implementation were compared to those collected during the 6 months following implementation. Results show that the majority of staff preferred VASP and thought that participants preferred VASP over the previous education and counseling strategy, although there was no evidence to suggest that participants noticed modifications in the counseling approach. No meaningful changes were observed in pre/post levels of reported use or drug detection. Interpretation of results is complicated by mid-trial implementation of VASP and its proximity to early closure of oral and vaginal tenofovir study arms because of futility.
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Bacterial vaginosis and the cervicovaginal immune response.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of vaginal discharge in reproductive age women around the world and is associated with several poor reproductive health outcomes, including HIV-1 acquisition. One possible mechanism for this association is the inflammatory immune response induced by BV in the cervical and vaginal mucosae. There is significant heterogeneity in reports of markers of cervicovaginal inflammation in women with BV, likely due to microbial and host diversity, as well as differences in study design. In this article, we review the characteristics of the mucosal immune response in BV, the potential role of lactobacilli in modulating that response, and the impact of individual BV-associated bacterial species on mucosal immunity. We focus on inflammatory markers that are proposed to increase the risk of HIV-1 acquisition.
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Antiviral activity of genital tract secretions after oral or topical tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Surrogate markers of HIV-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis and microbicide efficacy are needed. One potential surrogate is the antiviral activity in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) after exposure to candidate products. We measured CVL antiviral activity in women using oral or vaginal tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis and correlated activity with drug and immune mediator levels.
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Improving HIV/STD prevention in the care of persons living with HIV through a national training program.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are living longer, remaining sexually active, and may continue risky sexual behaviors. As such, it is crucial for providers to ask all HIV-positive patients about behaviors related to HIV transmission and STD acquisition. The "Ask, Screen, Intervene" (ASI) curriculum was developed to increase provider knowledge, skills, and motivation to incorporate risk assessment and prevention services into the care of PLWH. The ASI curriculum was delivered to 2558 HIV-care providers at 137 sites between September 30, 2007 and December 31, 2010. Immediately post-training, participants self-reported significant gains in perceived confidence to demonstrate ASI knowledge and skills (p < 0.001) and 89% agreed they would update practices as a result of the training. Three to six months post-training, 320 participants who served PLWH or supervised HIV-care providers self-reported more frequently performing ASI skills (p < 0.001), and 71% self-reported greater perceived confidence than before training to perform those skills (p < 0.001). Limitations include self-reported measures and a 30% response rate to the 3-6 month follow-up survey. Our findings suggest that a well-coordinated training program can reach a national audience of HIV-care providers, significantly increase self-reported capacity to incorporate HIV/STD prevention into the care of PLWH, and increase implementation of national recommendations.
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Addressing standards of care in resource-limited settings.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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: The choice between "best-known" standards of care (SOC) or "best available" standards as the control arm in a clinical trial is a fundamental dilemma in clinical research in resource-limited settings (RLS). When the health system is delivering less than an optimal level of care, using highest standard of care in a clinical trial may produce results that cannot be implemented or sustained locally. On the other hand, using interventions that are more feasible in the local setting may involve suboptimal care, and clinical outcomes may be affected. The need for improved standards in health systems in RLS, and the difficulty in securing them, has led many researchers advocate for policy changes at the national or international level to improve clinical care more systemically. SOC decisions in a clinical trial affect the level of benefit provided to study participants and the policy implications of the trial findings. SOC choices should provide high-quality care to help advance the health care system in host countries participating in the trial, but balancing the scientific and ethical objectives of SOC choices is difficult, and there is no single formula for selecting the appropriate SOC. Despite the challenges, well-designed and conducted clinical trials can and should make significant contributions to health systems in RLS.
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Bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria in men: association of Leptotrichia/Sneathia spp. with nongonococcal urethritis.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Approximately 45% of nongonococcal urethritis cases have no identified etiology. Novel bacteria recently associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) in women may be involved. We evaluated the association of idiopathic nongonococcal urethritis and 5 newly described BV-associated bacteria (BVAB).
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Screening and management of genital chlamydial infections.
Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Chlamydial genital infection is common and asymptomatic in most cases. National screening efforts developed to educate practitioners, expand screening, and link testing to local health laboratories are not meeting the needs of populations at great risk of disease, including young racial/ethnic minority women and sexual minorities. The development and availability of newer diagnostics will likely make chlamydia testing more efficient and widely available for patients and providers. Practitioners are reminded to have a low threshold to offer testing and presumptive treatment to patients that are deemed at high risk of disease, particularly those who are challenging to engage in care.
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More than meets the eye: associations of vaginal bacteria with gram stain morphotypes using molecular phylogenetic analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a highly prevalent condition associated with adverse health outcomes. Gram stain analysis of vaginal fluid is the standard for confirming the diagnosis of BV, wherein abundances of key bacterial morphotypes are assessed. These Lactobacillus, Gardnerella, Bacteroides, and Mobiluncus morphotypes were originally linked to particular bacterial species through cultivation studies, but no studies have systematically investigated associations between uncultivated bacteria detected by molecular methods and Gram stain findings. In this study, 16S-rRNA PCR/pyrosequencing was used to examine associations between vaginal bacteria and bacterial morphotypes in 220 women with and without BV. Species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) and fluorescence in Situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used to document concentrations of two bacteria with curved rod morphologies: Mobiluncus and the fastidious BV-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1). Rank abundance of vaginal bacteria in samples with evidence of curved gram-negative rods showed that BVAB1 was dominant (26.1%), while Mobiluncus was rare (0.2% of sequence reads). BVAB1 sequence reads were associated with Mobiluncus morphotypes (p<0.001). Among women with curved rods, mean concentration of BVAB1 DNA was 2 log units greater than Mobiluncus (p<0.001) using species-specific quantitative PCR. FISH analyses revealed that mean number of BVAB1 cells was 2 log units greater than Mobiluncus cells in women with highest Nugent score (p<0.001). Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp. were significantly associated with the "Bacteroides morphotype," whereas Bacteroides species were rare. Gram-negative rods designated Mobiluncus morphotypes on Gram stain are more likely BVAB1. These findings provide a clearer picture of the bacteria associated with morphotypes on vaginal Gram stain.
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Effect of sexual activity on vaginal colonization with hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli and Gardnerella vaginalis.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Bacterial vaginosis is associated with sexual activity, but mechanisms for this association are unclear.
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Sexually transmitted infections among women who have sex with women.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Women who have sex with women (WSW) are a diverse group with variations in sexual identity, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and risk behaviors. WSW are at risk of acquiring bacterial, viral, and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from current and prior partners, both male and female. Bacterial vaginosis is common among women in general and even more so among women with female partners. WSW should not be presumed to be at low or no risk for STIs based on sexual orientation, and reporting of same-sex behavior by women should not deter providers from considering and performing screening for STIs, including chlamydia, in their clients according to current guidelines. Effective delivery of sexual health services to WSW requires a comprehensive and open discussion of sexual and behavioral risks, beyond sexual identity, between care providers and their female clients.
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Interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the "Clinical Guide to Prevention Services" section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy.
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Establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment: analysis of data from a randomized trial of periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Data from a randomized trial of oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections were analyzed to assess the effect of the intervention on a healthy vaginal environment (normal flora confirmed by Gram stain with no candidiasis or trichomoniasis). The incidence of a healthy vaginal environment was 608 cases per 100 person-years in the intervention arm and 454 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.58). Sustained vaginal health (healthy vaginal environment for ?3 consecutive visits) was also more frequent in the intervention arm (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23-2.33). PPT is effective at establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment.
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A behavioural intervention to reduce persistence of bacterial vaginosis among women who report sex with women: results of a randomised trial.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in lesbians, and treatment fails in up to 28%. Risks include sexual behaviours that transmit vaginal fluid. The authors measured efficacy of a behavioural intervention to reduce sexual transfer of vaginal fluid between female sex partners in reducing BV persistence.
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Performance of swabs, lavage, and diluents to quantify biomarkers of female genital tract soluble mucosal mediators.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Measurement of immune mediators and antimicrobial activity in female genital tract secretions may provide biomarkers predictive of risk for HIV-1 acquisition and surrogate markers of microbicide safety. However, optimal methods for sample collection do not exist. This study compared collection methods.
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Interpreting the epidemiology and natural history of bacterial vaginosis: are we still confused?
Anaerobe
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of vaginitis and increases womens risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and risk of STD/HIV acquisition. The etiology of BV is unclear, though it is believed to involve loss of vaginal hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli and acquisition of complex bacterial communities that include many fastidious BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) that have recently been detected using PCR methods. Treatment failure (persistence) is common, and may be facilitated by unprotected sex. Potential contributions to BV and BV persistence include (1) sexual partners as a reservoir for BVAB; (2) specific sexual practices, including male partners condom use; and (3) the composition of the vaginal microbiota involved in BV. Specific BVAB in the Clostridiales order may predict BV persistence when detected pre-treatment, and have been detected in men whose female partners have BV. BVAB may be associated with unprotected sexual behavior and failure of BV to resolve in women, supporting the hypothesis that BVAB colonization of male genitalia may serve as a reservoir for re-infection of female partners. Moreover, specific sexual practices may favor vaginal colonization with certain BVAB that have been associated with persistence. This review provides background on BV, and discusses the epidemiologic and microbiologic data to support a role for acquisition of BVAB and how this process might differ among subsets of women.
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Bacterial vaginosis: identifying research gaps proceedings of a workshop sponsored by DHHS/NIH/NIAID.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2010
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The microbiota of the human vagina can affect the health of women, their fetuses, and newborns. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent form of vaginal infection in women of reproductive age, affecting 8% to 23%, and is the most common etiology of vaginal symptoms prompting women to seek medical care. While traditional cultivation has identified numerous BV-associated bacteria involved in these processes, recent advances in molecular biology have facilitated the detection and identification of bacteria without cultivation, some of which have not previously been described or well characterized. A more complete understanding of vaginal microbial populations resulting from the adoption of molecular tools may lead to better strategies to maintain healthy vaginal microbial communities-thus enhancing womens health-and will create opportunities to explore the role of novel bacteria in reproductive tract diseases. On November 19-20, 2008, the NIH convened a workshop of experts in the field of research and clinical practice related to BV in order to discuss how these new advances should be interpreted and applied to research in progress and collaborations between relevant disciplines. This paper summarizes the presentations of this workshop and outlines general recommendations arising from the related discussions. Future studies of BV and its associated adverse outcomes should determine if specific combinations of organisms are more pathogenic than others, and causally associated with different adverse events. Moreover, determination of causality will depend not only on more precise categorization of the vaginal microbiota, but also on variations in the host environment that may be associated with changes in bacterial communities over time. In this report, we offer suggestions and recommendations that we hope will facilitate conduct of consistent approaches to collaborative efforts towards advancing our understanding of the vaginal microbiota and its impact on human health.
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Antiretroviral-based HIV prevention strategies for women.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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Almost three decades have elapsed since researchers identified HIV as the cause of AIDS, with current estimates from UNAIDS that 33.4 million adults were living with HIV/AIDS in 2008. Two-thirds of this burden of disease is in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 60% of those infected are women. The disease still remains incurable and current prevention strategies including abstinence, male/female condom use and male circumcision are only partially effective. New strategies to curb the epidemic are urgently needed. Scientists are diligently exploring HIV prevention methods that are safe, effective and affordable. These new biological interventions include oral pre-exposure prophylaxis using oral antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, ARV treatment in HIV-infected persons to reduce transmission and topical ARV-based microbicide formulations.
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Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women reporting sexual activity with women screened in Family Planning Clinics in the Pacific Northwest, 1997 to 2005.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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We sought to define Chlamydia trachomatis positivity among women who report sexual activity with women, a population for which sparse data on this infection are available and for whom health disparities including challenged access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services, have been reported.
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Prevalence and risks for bacterial vaginosis in women who have sex with women.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of vaginitis and, for unknown reasons, is common in lesbian and bisexual women. We defined risks for prevalent BV in lesbian and bisexual women with attention to detailed sexual risk history.
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Temporal variability of human vaginal bacteria and relationship with bacterial vaginosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Little is known about short-term bacterial fluctuations in the human vagina. This study used PCR to assess the variability in concentrations of key vaginal bacteria in healthy women and the immediate response to antibiotic treatment in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV).
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Risks for acquisition of bacterial vaginosis among women who report sex with women: a cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group.
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Distribution of genital Lactobacillus strains shared by female sex partners.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among lesbians is high. We assessed whether unique Lactobacillus strains were shared by female sex partners. Cultures of vaginal and rectal specimens for detection of Lactobacillus organisms were performed for women who reported having had sex with women. Lactobacilli were identified on the basis of DNA homology and were typed and fingerprinted by repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). Of 237 women, Lactobacillus crispatus was detected in 98% and Lactobacillus gasseri in 21%. Detection of L. gasseri was associated with recent receptive digital-vaginal sex (P = .04) and increased bacterial vaginosis risk (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-13.4). Of 31 couples monogamous for >3 months, rep-PCR fingerprints were identical in both members in 23 (77%).
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Changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations with intravaginal metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis as assessed by quantitative PCR.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Several fastidious bacteria have been associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using broad-range bacterial PCR methods such as consensus sequence 16S rRNA gene PCR, but their role in BV remains poorly defined. We describe changes in vaginal bacterial concentrations following metronidazole therapy for BV. Vaginal swabs were collected from women with BV diagnosed using Amsel clinical criteria, and vaginal fluid was assessed by Gram stain to generate Nugent scores. Follow-up swabs were collected 1 month after a 5-day course of vaginal 0.75% metronidazole gel and analyzed for 24 subjects with cured BV and 24 subjects with persistent BV. Changes in bacterial concentrations were measured using eight bacterium-specific 16S rRNA gene quantitative PCR assays. DNA from several fastidious BV-associated bacteria (BVAB) were present at high concentrations in the vagina prior to treatment. Successful antibiotic therapy resulted in 3- to 4-log reductions in median bacterial loads of BVAB1 (P=0.02), BVAB2 (P=0.0004), BVAB3 (P=0.03), a Megasphaera-like bacterium (P<0.0001), Atopobium species (P<0.0001), Leptotrichia/Sneathia species (P=0.0002), and Gardnerella vaginalis (P<0.0001). Median posttreatment bacterial levels did not change significantly in subjects with persistent BV except for a decline in levels of BVAB3. The presence or absence of BV is reflected by vaginal concentrations of BV-associated bacteria such as BVAB1, BVAB2, Leptotrichia/Sneathia species, Atopobium species, Gardnerella vaginalis, and a Megasphaera-like bacterium, suggesting that these bacteria play an important role in BV pathogenesis and may be suitable markers of disease and treatment response.
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Mucosal Escherichia coli bactericidal activity and immune mediators are associated with HIV-1 seroconversion in women participating in the HPTN 035 trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
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The mucosal environment may impact the risk for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Immune mediators were measured in vaginal fluid collected from HPTN 035 participants who acquired HIV-1 and from those who remained HIV-1 negative (controls). Mediator concentrations were similar in samples obtained before as compared to after HIV-1 acquisition in the 8 seroconverters. Compared with controls, seroconverters were more likely to have detectable levels of H?D-2 (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; P = .005) and greater Escherichia coli bactericidal activity (OR, 1.22; P = .01) prior to seroconversion. E. coli bactericidal activity remained significant in a multivariable analysis (P = .02) and may be a biomarker for HIV-1 acquisition.
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Bacterial communities in women with bacterial vaginosis: high resolution phylogenetic analyses reveal relationships of microbiota to clinical criteria.
PLoS ONE
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. We investigated the associations between the presence of individual bacterial species and clinical diagnostic characteristics of BV.
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Behavioral predictors of colonization with Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii after treatment for bacterial vaginosis: a cohort study.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol
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Evaluate predictors of vaginal colonization with lactobacilli after treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV).
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The posttrial effect of oral periodic presumptive treatment for vaginal infections on the incidence of bacterial vaginosis and Lactobacillus colonization.
Sex Transm Dis
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We previously demonstrated a decrease in bacterial vaginosis (BV) and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization among randomized controlled trial (RCT) participants who received monthly oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT; 2 g metronidazole + 150 mg fluconazole). Posttrial data were analyzed to test the hypothesis that the treatment effect would persist after completion of 1 year of PPT.
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Extravaginal reservoirs of vaginal bacteria as risk factors for incident bacterial vaginosis.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) represents shifts in microbiota from Lactobacillus spp. to diverse anaerobes. Although antibiotics relieve symptoms and temporarily eradicate BV-associated bacteria (BVAB), BV usually recurs. We investigated the role of extravaginal BVAB reservoirs in recurrence.
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Emerging Sexual Health Issues Among Women Who Have Sex with Women.
Curr Infect Dis Rep
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Women who have sex with women (WSW) comprise a diverse group of people who evidence a spectrum of sexual identity, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and risk behaviors. WSW are at risk of acquiring a diversity of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from current and prior partners, both male and female. Notably, human papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted between female partners, and Pap smear guidelines should be followed in this group. Bacterial vaginosis is common among WSW. WSW should not be presumed to be at low or no risk for STIs based on sexual orientation, and reporting of same sex behavior by women should not deter providers from considering and performing screening for STIs, including Chlamydia trachomatis, according to current guidelines. Effective delivery of sexual health services to WSW requires a comprehensive and open discussion of sexual and behavioral risks, beyond sexual identity, between care providers and their female clients.
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Chlamydia positivity in women screened in family planning clinics: racial/ethnic differences and trends in the northwest U.S., 1997-2006.
Public Health Rep
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We assessed chlamydia trends, individual-level risk factors, and population-level area-based socioeconomic measures (ABSMs) associated with chlamydia infection in women attending U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) Region X Infertility Prevention Project (IPP) family planning (FP) clinics from 1997-2006. We then explored these measures within racial/ethnic subpopulations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.