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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular markers for species identification of Hessian fly males caught on sticky pheromone traps.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Pheromone traps have been widely used to monitor insect population activity. However, sticky pheromone traps for the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), one of the most destructive pests of wheat, have been used only in recent years. Hessian fly male adults are small and fragile, and preserving specimens during sorting of sticky pheromone traps is a challenge when intact specimens are often required to visually distinguish them from related insects such as fungus gnats. In this study, we have established a quick and reliable method based on polymerase chain reaction markers to correctly distinguish Hessian fly males from other closely related insects. Two Hessian fly-specific markers were established, one based on the trypsin gene MDP-10 and the other based on a gene encoding the salivary gland protein SSGP31-5. Both markers provided > 98% identification success of 110 Hessian fly samples prepared from single insects. The method should provide a useful tool to allow for identification of Hessian fly individuals on sticky pheromone traps or in other situations when Hessian fly eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults are difficult to distinguish from other insects.
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Sorghum seed maturity affects the weight and feeding duration of immature corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the laboratory.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed.
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Mobilization of lipids and fortification of cell wall and cuticle are important in host defense against Hessian fly.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Wheat - Hessian fly interaction follows a typical gene-for-gene model. Hessian fly larvae die in wheat plants carrying an effective resistance gene, or thrive in susceptible plants that carry no effective resistance gene.
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Serine and cysteine protease-like genes in the genome of a gall midge and their interactions with host plant genotypes.
Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Proteases play important roles in a wide range of physiological processes in organisms. For plant-feeding insects, digestive proteases are targets for engineering protease inhibitors for pest control. In this study, we identified 105 putative serine- and cysteine-protease genes from the genome of the gall midge Mayetiola destructor (commonly known as Hessian fly), a destructive pest of wheat. Among the genes, 31 encode putative trypsins, 18 encode putative chymotrypsins, seven encode putative cysteine proteases, and the remaining may encode either other proteases or protease homologues. Developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression profiles of the genes encoding putative trypsins, chymotrypsins, and cysteine proteases were determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Comparative analyses of stage- and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested that several genes are likely to encode digestive proteases in the M. destructor larval gut, including genes encoding putative trypsins MDP3, MDP5, MDP9, MDP24, MDP48, MDP51, MDP57, MDP61, MDP71, and MDP90; genes encoding putative chymotrypsins MDP1, MDP7, MDP8, MDP18, MDP19, and MDP20; and genes encoding putative cysteine proteases MDP95 and MDP104. The expression of some protease genes was affected by plant genotypes. Genes encoding trypsins MDP3, MDP9, and MPD23, chymotrypsins MDP20 and MDP21, and cysteine proteases MDP99 and MDP104 were upregulated in M. destructor larvae feeding in resistant plants, whereas genes encoding trypsins MDP12, MDP24, and MDP33, and chymotrypsins mdp8, mdp15, and mdp16 were downregulated in M. destructor larvae feeding in resistant plants. This study provides a foundation for further comparative studies on proteases in different insects, and further characterization of M. destructor digestive proteases and their interactions with host plants, as well as potential targets for transgenic wheat plants.
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Deep sequencing and genome-wide analysis reveals the expansion of MicroRNA genes in the gall midge Mayetiola destructor.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in regulating post transcriptional gene expression. Gall midges encompass a large group of insects that are of economic importance and also possess fascinating biological traits. The gall midge Mayetiola destructor, commonly known as the Hessian fly, is a destructive pest of wheat and model organism for studying gall midge biology and insect - host plant interactions.
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Hessian fly-associated bacteria: transmission, essentiality, and composition.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor) is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction.
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Rapid mobilization of membrane lipids in wheat leaf sheaths during incompatible interactions with Hessian fly.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
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Hessian fly (HF) is a biotrophic insect that interacts with wheat on a gene-for-gene basis. We profiled changes in membrane lipids in two isogenic wheat lines: a susceptible line and its backcrossed offspring containing the resistance gene H13. Our results revealed a 32 to 45% reduction in total concentrations of 129 lipid species in resistant plants during incompatible interactions within 24 h after HF attack. A smaller and delayed response was observed in susceptible plants during compatible interactions. Microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of 168 lipid-metabolism-related transcripts revealed that the abundance of many of these transcripts increased rapidly in resistant plants after HF attack but did not change in susceptible plants. In association with the rapid mobilization of membrane lipids, the concentrations of some fatty acids and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) increased specifically in resistant plants. Exogenous application of OPDA increased mortality of HF larvae significantly. Collectively, our data, along with previously published results, indicate that the lipids were mobilized through lipolysis, producing free fatty acids, which were likely further converted into oxylipins and other defense molecules. Our results suggest that rapid mobilization of membrane lipids constitutes an important step for wheat to defend against HF attack.
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Genetic structure of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) populations in mills.
Environ. Entomol.
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The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), is primarily found associated with human structures such as wheat and rice mills. Such structures are predicted to be spatially isolated resource patches with frequent population bottlenecks that should influence their genetic structure. Genetic diversity and differentiation among nine populations of T. castaneum collected from wheat and rice mills (ranging from <1-5,700 km apart) were investigated using eight polymorphic loci (microsatellites and other insertion-deletion polymorphisms, each with 3-14 alleles). Seventy-two locus-by-population combinations were evaluated, of which 31 deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, all because of a deficiency of heterozygotes. AMOVA analysis indicated significant differences among populations, with 8.3% of the variation in allele frequency resulting from comparisons among populations, and commodity type and geographic region not significant factors. Although there were significant differences in genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) values = 0.018-0.149), genetic distance was not significantly correlated with geographic distance. Correct assignment to the source population was successful for only 56% of individuals collected. Further analyses confirmed the occurrence of recent genetic bottlenecks in five out of nine populations. These results provide evidence that populations of T. castaneum collected from mills show spatial genetic structure, but the poor ability to assign individuals to source populations and lack of isolation by distance suggest greater levels of gene flow than predicted originally.
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Spatial distribution of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a summary of the suction trap network.
J. Econ. Entomol.
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The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an economically important pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in the United States. Phenological information of A. glycines is limited; specifically, little is known about factors guiding migrating aphids and potential impacts of long distance flights on local population dynamics. Increasing our understanding of A. glycines population dynamics may improve predictions of A. glycines outbreaks and improve management efforts. In 2005 a suction trap network was established in seven Midwest states to monitor the occurrence of alates. By 2006, this network expanded to 10 states and consisted of 42 traps. The goal of the STN was to monitor movement of A. glycines from their overwintering host Rhamnus spp. to soybean in spring, movement among soybean fields during summer, and emigration from soybean to Rhamnus in fall. The objective of this study was to infer movement patterns of A. glycines on a regional scale based on trap captures, and determine the suitability of certain statistical methods for future analyses. Overall, alates were not commonly collected in suction traps until June. The most alates were collected during a 3-wk period in the summer (late July to mid-August), followed by the fall, with a peak capture period during the last 2 wk of September. Alate captures were positively correlated with latitude, a pattern consistent with the distribution of Rhamnus in the United States, suggesting that more southern regions are infested by immigrants from the north.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.