JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Body composition and mortality after adult lung transplantation in the United States.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity and underweight are contraindications to lung transplantation based on their associations with mortality in studies performed before implementation of the lung allocation score (LAS)-based organ allocation system in the United States Objectives: To determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) and plasma leptin levels with survival after lung transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Conditional Loss of Arx From the Developing Dorsal Telencephalon Results in Behavioral Phenotypes Resembling Mild Human ARX Mutations.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox (ARX) gene cause structural anomalies of the brain, epilepsy, and neurocognitive deficits in children. During forebrain development, Arx is expressed in both pallial and subpallial progenitor cells. We previously demonstrated that elimination of Arx from subpallial-derived cortical interneurons generates an epilepsy phenotype with features overlapping those seen in patients with ARX mutations. In this report, we have selectively removed Arx from pallial progenitor cells that give rise to the cerebral cortical projection neurons. While no discernable seizure activity was recorded, these mice exhibited a peculiar constellation of behaviors. They are less anxious, less social, and more active when compared with their wild-type littermates. The overall cortical thickness was reduced, and the corpus callosum and anterior commissure were hypoplastic, consistent with a perturbation in cortical connectivity. Taken together, these data suggest that some of the structural and behavioral anomalies, common in patients with ARX mutations, are specifically due to alterations in pallial progenitor function. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that some of the neurobehavioral features found in patients with ARX mutations may not be due to on-going seizures, as is often postulated, given that epilepsy was eliminated as a confounding variable in these behavior analyses.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical, pathologic, and mutational spectrum of dystroglycanopathy caused by LARGE mutations.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dystroglycanopathies are a subtype of congenital muscular dystrophy of varying severity that can affect the brain and eyes, ranging from Walker-Warburg syndrome with severe brain malformation to milder congenital muscular dystrophy presentations with affected or normal cognition and later onset. Mutations in dystroglycanopathy genes affect a specific glycoepitope on ?-dystroglycan; of the 14 genes implicated to date, LARGE encodes the glycosyltransferase that adds the final xylose and glucuronic acid, allowing ?-dystroglycan to bind ligands, including laminin 211 and neurexin. Only 11 patients with LARGE mutations have been reported. We report the clinical, neuroimaging, and genetic features of 4 additional patients. We confirm that gross deletions and rearrangements are important mutational mechanisms for LARGE. The brain abnormalities overshadowed the initially mild muscle phenotype in all 4 patients. We present the first comprehensive postnatal neuropathology of the brain, spinal cord, and eyes of a patient with a homozygous LARGE mutation at Cys443. In this patient, polymicrogyria was the predominant cortical malformation; densely festooned polymicrogyria were overlaid by a continuous agyric surface. In view of the severity of these abnormalities, Cys443 may be a functionally important residue in the LARGE protein, whereas the mutation p.Glu509Lys of Patient 1 in this study may confer a milder phenotype. Overall, these results expand the clinical and genetic spectrum of dystroglycanopathy.
Related JoVE Video
SDF1 reduces interneuron leading process branching through dual regulation of actin and microtubules.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process.
Related JoVE Video
Arx is required for specification of the zona incerta and reticular nucleus of the thalamus.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene result in a spectrum of structural and functional nervous system disorders including lissencephaly, movement disorders, intellectual disabilities, and epilepsy. Some patients also have symptoms indicating hypothalamic dysfunction, but little is known about the role of ARX in diencephalic development. To begin evaluating diencephalic defects, we examined the expression of a panel of known genes and gene products that label specific diencephalic nuclei in 2 different Arx mutant mouse lines at E18.5. Male mice engineered to have a polyalanine expansion mutation (Arx) revealed no expression differences in any diencephalic nucleus when compared with wild-type littermates. In contrast, mice null for Arx (Arx) lost expression of specific markers of the thalamic reticular nucleus and zona incerta (ZI) while retaining expression in other thalamic nuclei and in the hypothalamus. Tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of the dopaminergic A13 subnucleus of ZI, was among those lost, suggesting a requirement for Arx in normal thalamic reticular nucleus and ZI development and, specifically, for A13 dopaminergic fate. Because the ZI and A13 regions make connections to several hypothalamic nuclei, such misspecification may contribute to the "hypothalamic dysfunction" observed in some patients.
Related JoVE Video
Arx together with FoxA2, regulates Shh floor plate expression.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in the Aristaless related homeodomain transcription factor (ARX) are associated with a diverse set of X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy syndromes in humans. Although most studies have been focused on its function in the forebrain, ARX is also expressed in other regions of the developing nervous system including the floor plate (FP) of the spinal cord where its function is incompletely understood. To investigate the role of Arx in the FP, we performed gain-of-function studies in the chick using in ovo electroporation, and loss-of-function studies in Arx-deficient mice. We have found that Arx, in conjunction with FoxA2, directly induces Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression through binding to a Shh floor plate enhancer (SFPE2). We also observed that FoxA2 induces Arx through its transcriptional activation domain whereas Nkx2.2, induced by Shh, abolishes this induction. Our data support a feedback loop model for Arx function; through interactions with FoxA2, Arx positively regulates Shh expression in the FP, and Shh signaling in turn activates Nkx2.2, which suppresses Arx expression. Furthermore, our data are evidence that Arx plays a role as a context dependent transcriptional activator, rather than a primary inducer of Shh expression, potentially explaining how mutations in ARX are associated with diverse, and often subtle, defects.
Related JoVE Video
Cytomegalovirus-induced brain malformations in fetuses.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neurologic morbidity associated with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major public health concern. The pathogenesis of cerebral lesions remains unclear. We report the neuropathologic substrates, the immune response, and the cellular targets of CMV in 16 infected human fetal brains aged 23 to 28.5 gestational weeks. Nine cases were microcephalic, 10 had extensive cortical lesions, 8 had hippocampal abnormalities, and 5 cases showed infection of the olfactory bulb. The density of CMV-immunolabeled cells correlated with the presence of microcephaly and the extent of brain abnormalities. Innate and adaptive immune responses were present but did not react against all CMV-infected cells. Cytomegalovirus infected all cell types but showed higher tropism for stem cells/radial glial cells. The results indicate that 2 main factors influence the neuropathologic outcome at this stage: the density of CMV-positive cells and the tropism of CMV for stem/progenitor cells. This suggests that the large spectrum of CMV-induced brain abnormalities is caused not only by tissue destruction but also by the particular vulnerability of stem cells during early brain development. Florid infection of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb may expose these patients to the risk of neurocognitive and sensorineural handicap even in cases of infection at late stages of gestation.
Related JoVE Video
Development and validation of a lung transplant-specific disability questionnaire.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung transplant (LT) aims to extend survival and improve patient-centred outcomes (PCOs) by reducing disability and improving health-related quality of life (HRQL). Few PCO instruments have been validated in LT populations. We aimed to develop and validate a shortened version of the valued life activities (VLA) disability scale specific to LT.
Related JoVE Video
ARX Regulates Cortical Intermediate Progenitor Cell Expansion and Upper Layer Neuron Formation Through Repression of Cdkn1c.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in the Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene are found in a spectrum of epilepsy and X-linked intellectual disability disorders. During development Arx is expressed in pallial ventricular zone (VZ) progenitor cells where the excitatory projection neurons of the cortex are born. Arx(-/Y) mice were shown to have decreased proliferation in the cortical VZ resulting in smaller brains; however, the basis for this reduced proliferation was not established. To determine the role of ARX on cell cycle dynamics in cortical progenitor cells, we generated cerebral cortex-specific Arx mouse mutants (cKO). The loss of pallial Arx resulted in the reduction of cortical progenitor cells, particularly the proliferation of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) was affected. Later in development and postnatally cKO brains showed a reduction of upper layer but not deeper layer neurons consistent with the IPC defect. Transcriptional profile analysis of E14.5 Arx-ablated cortices compared with control revealed that CDKN1C, an inhibitor of cell cycle progression, is overexpressed in the cortical VZ and SVZ of Arx KOs throughout corticogenesis. We also identified ARX as a direct regulator of Cdkn1c transcription. Together these data support a model where ARX regulates the expansion of cortical progenitor cells through repression of Cdkn1c.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes in systemic sclerosis-related lung disease after lung transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung disease is the leading cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The diagnosis of SSc-related lung disease (SSc-LD) is often a contraindication to lung transplantation (LT) due to concerns that extrapulmonary involvement will yield worse outcomes. We sought to evaluate posttransplantation outcomes in persons with SSc-LD with esophageal involvement compared with persons with nonconnective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease (nCTD-ILD).
Related JoVE Video
An analysis of potential risk factors for early complications from fiberoptic bronchoscopy in lung transplant recipients.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several reviews exist describing the safety of bronchoscopy in lung transplant recipients. However, the incidence of bronchoscopic complications in lung transplant recipients in relation to trainee involvement, and clinical characteristics such as pre-transplant diagnosis and transplant type, has not been described. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all lung transplant recipients undergoing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (n?=?259) at the University of California, San Francisco, between January, 2003, and June, 2009. Complications included bleeding, pneumothorax, aspiration, oversedation, and hypoxemia. From 2003 to 2009, 3734 flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopies were performed, including 2111 (57%) with transbronchial biopsies. Trainees were involved in 2102 bronchoscopies (56%), including 1046 transbronchial biopsies (49.5%). Complications occurred in 27 bronchoscopies [0.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.4-1.0)], with 10 involving a trainee (37%). Twenty (74%) occurred during bronchoscopies with transbronchial biopsies. Six of these involved a trainee, while 14 involved an attending alone (P?=?0.03). We did not find differences in pre-transplant diagnosis, transplant type, lung, or renal function between subjects who suffered a complication and those who did not (P???0.30). The involvement of trainees, pre-transplant diagnosis, and transplant type do not significantly impact the rate of bronchoscopic complications in lung transplant recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Differential effects of a polyalanine tract expansion in Arx on neural development and gene expression.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polyalanine (poly-A) tracts exist in 494 annotated proteins; to date, expansions in these tracts have been associated with nine human diseases. The pathogenetic mechanism by which a poly-A tract results in these various human disorders remains uncertain. To understand the role of this mutation type, we investigated the change in functional properties of the transcription factor Arx when it has an expanded poly-A tract (Arx(E)), a mutation associated with infantile spasms and intellectual disabilities in humans. We found that although Arx(E) functions normally in the dorsal brain, its function in subpallial-derived populations of neurons is compromised. These contrasting functions are associated with the misregulation of Arx targets through the loss of the ability of Arx(E) to interact with the Arx cofactor Tle1. Our data demonstrate a novel mechanism for poly-A expansion diseases: the misregulation of a subset of target genes normally regulated by a transcription factor.
Related JoVE Video
Use of sublingual tacrolimus in lung transplant recipients.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In lung transplant recipients (LTRs), tacrolimus is often utilized as a core component of immunosuppressive regimens. Although tacrolimus can be delivered orally or intravenously, oral tacrolimus is associated with fewer adverse effects. Various reports have suggested that sublingual tacrolimus may be used as an alternative to oral tacrolimus; however, information regarding converting between routes is limited. We aimed to identify a dose conversion ratio between oral and sublingual tacrolimus in LTRs.
Related JoVE Video
Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nkx2.2 and Arx are essential pancreatic transcription factors. Nkx2.2 is necessary for the appropriate specification of the islet alpha, beta, PP and epsilon cell lineages, whereas Arx is required to form the correct ratio of alpha, beta, delta and PP cells. To begin to understand the cooperative functions of Nkx2.2 and Arx in the development of endocrine cell lineages, we generated progenitor cell-specific deletions of Arx on the Nkx2.2 null background. The analysis of these mutants demonstrates that expansion of the ghrelin cell population in the Nkx2.2 null pancreas is not dependent on Arx; however, Arx is necessary for the upregulation of ghrelin mRNA levels in Nkx2.2 mutant epsilon cells. Alternatively, in the absence of Arx, delta cell numbers are increased and Nkx2.2 becomes essential for the repression of somatostatin gene expression. Interestingly, the dysregulation of ghrelin and somatostatin expression in the Nkx2.2/Arx compound mutant (Nkx2.2(null);Arx(?panc)) results in the appearance of ghrelin+/somatostatin+ co-expressing cells. These compound mutants also revealed a genetic interaction between Nkx2.2 and Arx in the regulation of the PP cell lineage; the PP cell population is reduced when Nkx2.2 is deleted but is restored back to wildtype numbers in the Nkx2.2(null);Arx(?panc) mutant. Moreover, conditional deletion of Arx in specific pancreatic cell populations established that the functions of Arx are necessary in the Neurog3+ endocrine progenitors. Together, these experiments identify novel genetic interactions between Nkx2.2 and Arx within the endocrine progenitor cells that ensure the correct specification and regulation of endocrine hormone-producing cells.
Related JoVE Video
Polymicrogyria includes fusion of the molecular layer and decreased neuronal populations but normal cortical laminar organization.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malformations of cortical development are frequently identified in surgical resections for intractable epilepsy. Among the more frequently identified are cortical dysplasia, pachygyria, and polymicrogyria. The pathogenesis of these common developmental anomalies remains uncertain. Polymicrogyria is particularly vexing because there are multiple described forms (2, 4, and 6 layers) that have been attributed to multiple etiologies (e.g. ischemic, genetic, infectious, and toxic). We reviewed the pathology in 19 cases and performed cortical laminar analysis in 10 of these cases. Our data indicate that a defining feature of polymicrogyriais fusion of the molecular layer and that most often there is a well-defined gray matter-white matter junction. Unexpectedly, the cortical laminae were normally positioned, but there were reduced neuronal populations within these laminae, particularly in the subgranular layers. On the basis of these data, we propose that the categorization of polymicrogyria according to the number of lamina is artificial and should be abandoned, and polymicrogyria should be defined according to the presence or absence of coexisting neuropathological features. Furthermore, our data indicate that polymicrogyria is not a cell migration disorder, rather it should be considered a postmigration malformation of cortical development.
Related JoVE Video
Hypoxic-preconditioning induces neuroprotection against hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglet brain.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Preconditioning-induced ischemic tolerance has been documented in the newborn brain, however, the signaling mechanisms of this preconditioning require further elucidation. The aims of this study were to develop a hypoxic-preconditioning (PC) model of ischemic tolerance in the newborn piglet, which emulates important clinical similarities to human situation of birth asphyxia, and to characterize some of the molecular mechanisms shown to be implicated in PC-induced neuroprotection in rodent models. One day old piglets were subjected to PC (8% O2/92% N2) for 3 h and 24 h later were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) produced by a combination of hypoxia (5% FiO2) for a period of 30 min and ischemia induced by a period of hypotension (10 min of reduced mean arterial blood pressure; ?70% of baseline). Neuropathologic analysis and unbiased stereology, conducted at 24 h, 3 and 7 days of recovery following HI, indicated a substantial reduction in the severity of brain damage in PC piglets compared to non-PC piglets (P<0.05). PC significantly increased the mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and its target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 0 h, 6h, 24 h, 3 and 7 days of recovery. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that PC resulted in HIF-1? protein stabilization and accumulation in nuclear extracts of cerebral cortex of newborn piglet brain compared to normoxic controls. Protein levels of VEGF increased in a time-dependent manner in both cortex and hippocampus following PC. Double-immunolabeling indicated that VEGF is mainly expressed in neurons, endothelial cells and astroglia. Our study demonstrates for the first time the protective efficacy of PC against hypoxic-ischemic injury in newborn piglet model, which recapitulates many pathophysiological features of asphyxiated human neonates. Furthermore, as has been shown in rodent models of preconditioning, our results suggest that PC-induced protection in neonatal piglets may involve upregulation of VEGF.
Related JoVE Video
The integrin coactivator kindlin-2 plays a critical role in angiogenesis in mice and zebrafish.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kindlin-2, a widely distributed cytoskeletal protein, has been implicated in integrin activation, and its absence is embryonically lethal in mice and causes severe developmental defects in zebrafish. Knockdown of kindlin-2 levels in endothelial cells resulted in defective adhesive and migratory responses, suggesting that angiogenesis might be aberrant even with partial reduction of kindlin-2. This hypothesis has now been tested in the kindlin-2(+/-) mice. RM1 prostate tumors grown in kindlin-2(+/-) mice had fewer blood vessels, which were thinner and shorter and supported less tumor growth compared with wild-type littermates. The vessels that did form in the kindlin-2(+/-) mice lacked smooth muscle cells and pericytes and had thinner basement membranes, indicative of immature vessels. VEGF-induced angiogenesis in matrigel implants was also abnormal in the kindlin-2(+/-) mice. Vessels in the kindlin-2(+/-) mice were leaky, and BM transplantation from kindlin-2(+/-) to WT mice did not correct this defect. Endothelial cells derived from kindlin-2(+/-) mice had integrin expression levels similar to WT mice but reduced ?V?3-dependent signaling, migration, adhesion, spreading, and tube formation. Developmental angiogenesis was markedly impaired by kindlin-2 morpholinos in zebrafish. Taken together, kindlin-2 plays an important role in pathologic and developmental angiogenesis, which arises from defective activation of integrin ?V?3.
Related JoVE Video
SDF1 regulates leading process branching and speed of migrating interneurons.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cell migration is required for normal embryonic development, yet how cells navigate complex paths while integrating multiple guidance cues remains poorly understood. During brain development, interneurons migrate from the ventral ganglionic eminence to the cerebral cortex within several migratory streams. They must exit these streams to invade the cortical plate. While SDF1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1) signaling is necessary for normal interneuron stream migration, how they switch from tangential stream migration to invade the cortical plate is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that SDF1 signaling reduces interneuron branching frequency by reducing cAMP levels via a G(i) signaling pathway using an in vitro mouse explant system, resulting in the maintenance of stream migration. Blocking SDF1 signaling or increasing branching frequency results in stream exit and cortical plate invasion in mouse brain slices. These data support a novel model to understand how migrating interneurons switch from tangential migration to invade the cortical plate in which reducing SDF signaling increases leading process branching and slows the migration rate, permitting migrating interneurons to sense cortically directed guidance cues.
Related JoVE Video
Steady-state intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of posaconazole in lung transplant recipients.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This prospective study evaluated the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD) of posaconazole (POS) in lung transplant recipients. Twenty adult lung transplant patients were instructed to take a 400-mg POS oral suspension twice daily (BID) with a high-fat meal for a total of 14 doses. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar cell (AC) samples were obtained via bronchoalveolar lavage, and blood samples were collected at the approximate time of bronchoscopy. POS concentrations were assayed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The maximum concentrations (C(max)) (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]) in plasma, ELF, and AC were 1.3 +/- 0.4, 1.3 +/- 1.7, and 55.4 +/- 44.0 microg/ml. POS concentrations in plasma, ELF, and AC did not decrease significantly, indicating slow elimination after multiple dosing. Mean concentrations of POS in plasma, ELF, and AC were above the MIC(90) (0.5 microg/ml) for Aspergillus species over the 12-h dosing interval and for 24 h following the last dose. Area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC(0-12))/MIC(90) ratios in plasma, ELF, and AC were 21.98, 22.42, and 1,060. We concluded that a dose of 400 mg BID resulted in sustained plasma, ELF, and AC concentrations above the MIC(90) for Aspergillus spp. during the dosing interval. Confirmation of the therapeutic value of these observations requires further investigation. The intrapulmonary PKPD of POS may be favorable for treatment or prevention of aspergillosis, although further research on the relevant PKPD parameters and the effect of POS protein binding is required.
Related JoVE Video
XLMR candidate mouse gene, Zcchc12 (Sizn1) is a novel marker of Cajal-Retzius cells.
Gene Expr. Patterns
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sizn1 (Zcchc12) is a transcriptional co-activator that positively modulates bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling through its interaction with Smad family members and CBP. We have demonstrated a role for Sizn1 in basal forebrain cholinergic neuron specific gene expression. Furthermore, mutations in SIZN1 have been associated with X-linked mental retardation. Given the defined role of SIZN1 in mental retardation, knowing its complete forebrain expression pattern is essential to further elucidating its role in cognition. To better define the dynamic expression pattern of Sizn1 during forebrain development, we investigated its expression in mouse brain development from embryonic day 8.0 (E8.0) to adult. We found that Sizn1 is primarily restricted to the ventral forebrain including the medial ganglionic eminence, the septum, amygdala, and striatum. In addition, Sizn1 expression is detected in the cortical hem and pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB; anti-hem); both sources of Cajal-Retzius cells. Sizn1 expression in the dorsal forebrain is restricted to a subset of cells in the marginal zone that also express Reln, indicative of Cajal-Retzius cells. These data provide novel information on brain regions and cell types that express Sizn1, facilitating further investigations into the function of Sizn1 in both development and the pathogenesis of mental retardation.
Related JoVE Video
Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of micafungin in adult lung transplant patients.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a life-threatening infection in lung transplant recipients; however, no studies of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD) of echinocandins in transplanted lungs have been reported. We conducted a single-dose prospective study of the intrapulmonary and plasma PKPD of 150 mg of micafungin administered intravenously in 20 adult lung transplant recipients. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar cell (AC) samples were obtained via bronchoalveolar lavage performed 3, 5, 8, 18, or 24 h after initiation of infusion. Micafungin concentrations in plasma, ELF, and ACs were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Noncompartmental methods, population analysis, and multiple-dose simulations were used to calculate PKPD parameters. Cmax in plasma, ELF, and ACs was 4.93, 1.38, and 17.41 microg/ml, respectively. The elimination half-life in plasma was 12.1 h. Elevated concentrations in ELF and ACs were sustained during the 24-h sampling period, indicating prolonged compartmental half-lives. The mean micafungin concentration exceeded the MIC90 of Aspergillus fumigatus (0.0156 microg/ml) in plasma (total and free), ELF, and ACs throughout the dosing interval. The area under the time-concentration curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24)/MIC90 ratios in plasma, ELF, and ACs were 5,077, 923.1, and 13,340, respectively. Multiple-dose simulations demonstrated that ELF and AC concentrations of micafungin would continue to increase during 14 days of administration. We conclude that a single 150-mg intravenous dose of micafungin resulted in plasma, ELF, and AC concentrations that exceeded the MIC90 of A. fumigatus for 24 h and that these concentrations would continue to increase during 14 days of administration, supporting its potential activity for prevention and early treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis.
Related JoVE Video
Management of recurrent airway strictures in lung transplant recipients using AERO covered stents.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The potential role of AERO tracheobronchial covered stents in the management of recurrent postinfectious strictures of the bronchus intermedius was studied in three lung transplant recipients. Six devices were inserted. Five of the stents migrated immediately on placement. Buildup of thick mucus was observed in all stents remaining in the airway for longer than 1 week. Strictures recurred in all patients 1, 3, and 5 months after stent deployment. Attempts at stent retrieval were successful for three of five devices. The use of AERO stents may not offer a therapeutic advantage versus balloon dilation of bronchus intermedius strictures in lung transplant recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Safety and efficacy of subretinal readministration of a viral vector in large animals to treat congenital blindness.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lebers congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a group of severe inherited retinal degenerations that are symptomatic in infancy and lead to total blindness in adulthood. Recent clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) successfully reversed blindness in patients with LCA caused by RPE65 mutations after one subretinal injection. However, it was unclear whether treatment of the second eye in the same manner would be safe and efficacious, given the potential for a complicating immune response after the first injection. Here, we evaluated the immunological and functional consequences of readministration of rAAV2-hRPE65v2 to the contralateral eye using large animal models. Neither RPE65-mutant (affected; RPE65(-/-)) nor unaffected animals developed antibodies against the transgene product, but all developed neutralizing antibodies against the AAV2 capsid in sera and intraocular fluid after subretinal injection. Cell-mediated immune responses were benign, with only 1 of 10 animals in the study developing a persistent T cell immune response to AAV2, a response that was mediated by CD4(+) T cells. Sequential bilateral injection caused minimal inflammation and improved visual function in affected animals. Thus, subretinal readministration of rAAV2 in animals is safe and effective, even in the setting of preexisting immunity to the vector, a parameter that has been used to exclude patients from gene therapy trials.
Related JoVE Video
Does chronic microaspiration cause idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a diffuse fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology with no effective treatment. Emerging data support a role for chronic microaspiration (ie, subclinical aspiration of small droplets) in the pathogenesis and natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the precise relationship between chronic microaspiration and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown. Gastroesophageal reflux, a presumed risk factor for microaspiration, has been strongly associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with an estimated prevalence of up to 90%. This review aims to describe the relationship between chronic microaspiration and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by laying out the clinical and biologic rationale for this relationship and exploring the scientific evidence available. The gaps in our current understanding of the diagnosis of chronic microaspiration and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and the ongoing uncertainties in management and treatment will be highlighted. Defining the role of chronic microaspiration in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is essential as it has potential clinical, pathobiological, and treatment implications for this deadly disease.
Related JoVE Video
Undifferentiated connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease: changes in lung function.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a distinct clinical entity that may be accompanied by interstitial lung disease (ILD). The natural history of UCTD-ILD is unknown. We hypothesized that patients with UCTD-ILD would be more likely to have improvement in lung function than those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) during longitudinal follow-up. We identified subjects enrolled in the UCSF ILD cohort study with a diagnosis of IPF or UCTD. The primary outcome compared the presence or absence of a > or = 5% increase in percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) in IPF and UCTD. Regression models were used to account for potential confounding variables. Ninety subjects were identified; 59 subjects (30 IPF, 29 UCTD) had longitudinal pulmonary function data for inclusion in the analysis. After accounting for baseline pulmonary function tests, treatment, and duration between studies, UCTD was associated with substantial improvement in FVC (odds ratio = 8.23, 95% confidence interval, 1.27-53.2; p = 0.03) during follow-up (median, 8 months) compared with IPF. Patients with UCTD-ILD are more likely to have improved pulmonary function during follow-up than those with IPF. These findings demonstrate the clinical importance of identifying UCTD in patients presenting with an "idiopathic" interstitial pneumonia.
Related JoVE Video
Leading process branch instability in Lis1+/- nonradially migrating interneurons.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mammalian forebrain development requires extensive migration, yet the mechanisms through which migrating neurons sense and respond to guidance cues are not well understood. Similar to the axon growth cone, the leading process and branches of neurons may guide migration, but the cytoskeletal events that regulate branching are unknown. We have previously shown that loss of microtubule-associated protein Lis1 reduces branching during migration compared with wild-type neurons. Using time-lapse imaging of Lis1(+/-) and Lis1(+/+) cells migrating from medial ganglionic eminence explant cultures, we show that the branching defect is not due to a failure to initiate branches but a defect in the stabilization of new branches. The leading processes of Lis1(+/-) neurons have reduced expression of stabilized, acetylated microtubules compared with Lis1(+/+) neurons. To determine whether Lis1 modulates branch stability through its role as the noncatalytic beta regulatory subunit of platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase 1b, exogenous PAF was applied to wild-type cells. Excess PAF added to wild-type neurons phenocopies the branch instability observed in Lis1(+/-) neurons, and a PAF antagonist rescues leading process branching in Lis1(+/-) neurons. These data highlight a role for Lis1, acting through the PAF pathway, in leading process branching and microtubule stabilization.
Related JoVE Video
Developing an animal model for infantile spasms: pathogenesis, problems and progress.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infantile spasms (IS), the most common of the early epileptic encephalopathies, afflicts thousands of children each year and results in significant disability. Also known as West syndrome, IS is characterized by intractable stereotyped seizures, poor developmental outcome and a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern. IS often progresses into another epileptic encephalopathy known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and continues with the patient being burdened by lifelong epilepsy and varying degrees of mental retardation. Little is known about the biological basis of IS. As the etiologies of IS are diverse, the multiple causes must converge into a final common pathway that results in this specific epilepsy phenotype. Finding a model or models to test this final pathway is necessary both to understand why the greatest susceptibility to seizure development occurs during infancy and early childhood, and what underlies the decreased cognitive potential associated with IS. Furthermore, appropriate models would permit better testing of potential therapies directed specifically at IS. This review will describe the clinical features and etiologies of IS; the ideal features that IS models should contain; and the IS models that exist currently. Finally, we will discuss the limitations of these models and the potential avenues for future research on IS.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of the lung allocation score on lung transplantation for pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2005, lung allocation for transplantation in the United States changed from a system based on waiting time to a system based on the Lung Allocation Score (LAS).
Related JoVE Video
The roles of multiple importins for nuclear import of murine aristaless-related homeobox protein.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nuclear import of proteins with nuclear localization signals (NLSs) is mediated by shuttling carriers, the importins. Some cargoes display more than a single NLS, and among these are homeodomain proteins such as Arx, which is critical for development of multiple tissues. Arx has two functional NLSs. The present studies show that several pathways can import Arx via its NLS2, which is within its DNA binding homeodomain. Using an in vitro nuclear import assay, we show that import of Arx via NLS2 can be mediated by importin beta1, importin 9, or importin 13, with binding being strongest to importin beta1. All binding is sensitive to RanGTP. Experiments based on precise domain deletions indicate that NLS2 binds impbeta1, imp9, and imp13 and includes both an importin binding subdomain and a regulatory subdomain with arginine residues being important for function. Moreover, Arx can be co-precipitated with these importins when NLS2 is present. Although nuclear import of Arx can be mediated by these three importin betas, importin beta1 seems to play the major role judging from in vivo small interfering RNA ablations and the in vitro import assay. This is the first evidence to show the role of importin beta1 in nuclear import of paired-type homeodomain proteins. We propose a novel and possibly quite general mechanism for nuclear import of paired-type homeodomain proteins which is critical for development.
Related JoVE Video
Targeted loss of Arx results in a developmental epilepsy mouse model and recapitulates the human phenotype in heterozygous females.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in the X-linked aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) have been linked to structural brain anomalies as well as multiple neurocognitive deficits. The generation of Arx-deficient mice revealed several morphological anomalies, resembling those observed in patients and an interneuron migration defect but perinatal lethality precluded analyses of later phenotypes. Interestingly, many of the neurological phenotypes observed in patients with various ARX mutations can be attributed, in part, to interneuron dysfunction. To directly test this possibility, mice carrying a floxed Arx allele were generated and crossed to Dlx5/6(CRE-IRES-GFP)(Dlx5/6(CIG)) mice, conditionally deleting Arx from ganglionic eminence derived neurons including cortical interneurons. We now report that Arx(-/y);Dlx5/6(CIG) (male) mice exhibit a variety of seizure types beginning in early-life, including seizures that behaviourally and electroencephalographically resembles infantile spasms, and show evolution through development. Thus, this represents a new genetic model of a malignant form of paediatric epilepsy, with some characteristics resembling infantile spasms, caused by mutations in a known infantile spasms gene. Unexpectedly, approximately half of the female mice carrying a single mutant Arx allele (Arx(-/+);Dlx5/6(CIG)) also developed seizures. We also found that a subset of human female carriers have seizures and neurocognitive deficits. In summary, we have identified a previously unrecognized patient population with neurological deficits attributed to ARX mutations that are recapitulated in our mouse model. Furthermore, we show that perturbation of interneuron subpopulations is an important mechanism underling the pathogenesis of developmental epilepsy in both hemizygous males and carrier females. Given the frequency of ARX mutations in patients with infantile spasms and related disorders, our data unveil a new model for further understanding the pathogenesis of these disorders.
Related JoVE Video
SUMO interaction motifs in Sizn1 are required for promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear body localization and for transcriptional activation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in Sizn1 (Zcchc12), a novel transcriptional co-activator in the BMP signaling pathway, are associated with X-linked mental retardation. Previously, we demonstrated that Sizn1 positively modulates the BMP signal by interacting with Smad family members and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein-binding protein. To further define the molecular basis of Sizn1 function, we have explored its subcellular localization and generated various deletion mutants to carry out domain analyses. Here, we report that Sizn1 localizes to promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs). Sizn1 deletion mutants that disrupt the MA homologous domain or the middle region fail to target to the PML-NB. We show that two SUMO interaction motifs (SIMs) in Sizn1 can bind to SUMO and govern SUMO conjugation to Sizn1 in the absence of the consensus motif for SUMO attachment. Interestingly, the SIM mutant Sizn1 localizes to nuclear bodies, but not to PML-NBs. Thus, SIMs mediate the localization of Sizn1 to PML-NB. Interestingly, mutations in SIM sequences and deletion of the MA homologous domain also affected the transcriptional co-activation function of a Sizn1. Taken together, our data indicate that the SIMs in Sizn1 are required for its PML-NB localization and for the full transcriptional co-activation function in BMP signaling.
Related JoVE Video
Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of posaconazole at steady state in healthy subjects.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of posaconazole (POS) in a prospective, open-label study. Twenty-five healthy adults received 14 doses of POS oral suspension (400 mg twice daily) with a high-fat meal over 8 days. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and alveolar cell (AC) samples were obtained via bronchoalveolar lavage, and blood samples were collected during the 24 h after the last dose. POS concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry parameters. The maximum concentrations (C(max)) (mean +/- standard deviation) in plasma, ELF, and ACs were 2.08 +/- 0.93, 1.86 +/- 1.30, and 87.7 +/- 65.0 microg/ml. The POS concentrations in plasma, ELF, and ACs did not decrease significantly, indicating slow elimination after multiple dosing. The mean concentrations of POS in plasma, ELF, and ACs were above the MIC(90) (0.5 microg/ml) for Aspergillus spp. over the 12-h dosing interval and for 24 h following the last dose. Area under the curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC(0-12)) ratios for ELF/plasma and AC/plasma were 0.84 and 33. AUC(0-24)/MIC(90) ratios in plasma, ELF, and AC were 87.6, 73.2, and 2,860. Nine (36%) of 25 subjects had treatment-related adverse events during the course of the study, which were all mild or moderate. We conclude that a dose of 400 mg twice daily resulted in sustained plasma, ELF, and AC concentrations above the MIC(90) for Aspergillus spp. during the dosing interval. The intrapulmonary PK/PD of POS are favorable for treatment or prevention of aspergillosis, and oral POS was well tolerated in healthy adults.
Related JoVE Video
Progression of native lung fibrosis in lung transplant recipients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Single lung transplant recipients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis provide an opportunity to study fibrosis in the native lung over time in the setting of pronounced immunosuppression. Lung transplant patients are treated with a regimen of steroids, an antiproliferative agent and a calcineurin inhibitor. This represents a much greater immunosuppression regime than the typical treatment for IPF. To determine whether this regimen of high dose immunosuppression would arrest the progression of fibrosis, the high-resolution chest CT scans (HRCTs) of these patients were reviewed.
Related JoVE Video
Neuronal loss in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease differs in various mutations of the proteolipid protein 1.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations affecting proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1), the major protein in central nervous system myelin, cause the X-linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). We describe the neuropathologic findings in a series of eight male PMD subjects with confirmed PLP1 mutations, including duplications, complete gene deletion, missense and exon-skipping. While PLP1 mutations have effects on oligodendrocytes that result in mutation-specific degrees of dysmyelination, our findings indicate that there are also unexpected effects in the central nervous system resulting in neuronal loss. Although length-dependent axonal degeneration has been described in PLP1 null mutations, there have been no reports on neuronal degeneration in PMD patients. We now demonstrate widespread neuronal loss in PMD. The patterns of neuronal loss appear to be dependent on the mutation type, suggesting selective vulnerability of neuronal populations that depends on the nature of the PLP1 disturbance. Nigral neurons, which were not affected in patients with either null or severe misfolding mutations, and thalamic neurons appear particularly vulnerable in PLP1 duplication and deletion patients, while hippocampal neuronal loss was prominent in a patient with complete PLP1 gene deletion. All subjects showed cerebellar neuronal loss. The patterns of neuronal involvement may explain some clinical findings, such as ataxia, being more prominent in PMD than in other leukodystrophies. While the precise pathogenetic mechanisms are not known, these observations suggest that defective glial functions contribute to neuronal pathology.
Related JoVE Video
Rhinovirus and other respiratory viruses exert different effects on lung allograft function that are not mediated through acute rejection.
Clin Transplant
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Community acquired respiratory virus (CARV) infections in lung transplant recipients (LTR) have been associated with adverse outcomes, including acute rejection (AR) and decline in allograft function, in some but not in all studies.
Related JoVE Video
Association of large-airway lymphocytic bronchitis with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung transplantation offers great promise for otherwise terminal lung diseases, but the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) continues to limit survival. Although acute rejection and lymphocytic bronchiolitis have been identified as risk factors for the development of BOS, it is unclear whether large-airway lymphocytic inflammation conveys the same risk.
Related JoVE Video
Microcephaly gene links trithorax and REST/NRSF to control neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.
Cell
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder causing significantly reduced cerebral cortex size. Many known microcephaly gene products localize to centrosomes, regulating cell fate and proliferation. Here, we identify and characterize a nuclear zinc finger protein, ZNF335/NIF-1, as a causative gene for severe microcephaly, small somatic size, and neonatal death. Znf335 null mice are embryonically lethal, and conditional knockout leads to severely reduced cortical size. RNA-interference and postmortem human studies show that ZNF335 is essential for neural progenitor self-renewal, neurogenesis, and neuronal differentiation. ZNF335 is a component of a vertebrate-specific, trithorax H3K4-methylation complex, directly regulating REST/NRSF, a master regulator of neural gene expression and cell fate, as well as other essential neural-specific genes. Our results reveal ZNF335 as an essential link between H3K4 complexes and REST/NRSF and provide the first direct genetic evidence that this pathway regulates human neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
Delayed myelination in an intrauterine growth retardation model is mediated by oxidative stress upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 4.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with neurological deficits including cerebral palsy and cognitive and behavioral disabilities. The pathogenesis involves oxidative stress that leads to periventricular white matter injury with a paucity of mature oligodendrocytes and hypomyelination. The molecular mechanisms underlying this damage remain poorly understood. We used a rat model of IUGR created by bilateral ligation of the uterine artery at embryonic Day 19 that results in fetal growth retardation and oxidative stress in the developing brain. The IUGR rat pups showed significant delays in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that resolved by 8 weeks. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation, was elevated in IUGR brains at postnatal time points and returned to near normal by adulthood. Despite the apparent recovery, behavioral deficiencies were found in 8-week-old female animals, suggesting that the early transient myelination defects have permanent effects. In support of these in vivo data, oligodendrocyte precursor cells cultured from postnatal IUGR rats retained increased BMP4 expression and impaired differentiation that was reversed with the BMP inhibitor noggin. Oxidants in oligodendrocyte cultures increased BMP expression, which decreased differentiation; however, abrogating BMP signaling with noggin in vitro and in BMP-deficient mice prevented these effects. Together, these findings suggest that IUGR results in delayed myelination through the generation of oxidative stress that leads to BMP4 upregulation.
Related JoVE Video
High cumulative dose exposure to voriconazole is associated with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in lung transplant recipients.
J. Heart Lung Transplant.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung transplant recipients (LTR) have an increased risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) due to immunosuppressive therapy. Voriconazole, which is associated with phototoxic side effects in some patients, may be an additional risk factor for SCC in this population.
Related JoVE Video
Lung mast cell density defines a subpopulation of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Histopathology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship of mast cells to the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis remains undefined despite recognition of their presence in the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis. This study was performed to characterize the relationship of mast cells to fibrotic lung diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial tRNA-serine (AGY) m.C12264T mutation causes severe multisystem disease with cataracts.
Discov Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Progressive multisystem disease should invoke consideration of potential mitochondrial etiologies. Mitochondrial disease can affect any organ system at any time, particularly involving neurologic, cardiac, muscular, gastroenterologic, and/or ophthalmologic manifestations. We report here a 19-year-old Caucasian man who was followed since birth in multiple pediatric subspecialty clinics for myelomeningocele complications. However, he progressively developed a host of additional problems that were not readily attributable to his neural tube defect involving developmental, ophthalmologic, cardiac, muscular, endocrine, and intermediary metabolic manifestations. Clinical diagnostic testing limited to analysis for common point mutations and deletions in his blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was not revealing. Skeletal muscle biopsy revealed abnormal mitochondrial morphology and immunostaining, mitochondrial proliferation, and mildly reduced respiratory chain complex I-III activity. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing analysis in muscle identified an apparently homoplasmic, novel, m.12264C>T transition in the tRNA serine (AGY) gene. The pathogenicity of this mutation was supported by identification of it being present at low heteroplasmy load in his blood (34%) as well as in blood from his maternal grandmother (1%). The proband developed severe nuclear cataracts that proved to be homoplasmic for the pathogenic mtDNA m.12264C>T mutation. This case highlights the value of pursuing whole mitochondrial genome sequencing in symptomatic tissues in the diagnostic evaluation of suspected mitochondrial disease. Furthermore, it is the first report to directly implicate a single mtDNA mutation in the pathogenesis of ocular cataracts and clearly illustrates the important contribution of normal metabolic activity to the function of the ocular lens.
Related JoVE Video
The 7th edition AJCC staging system for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma accurately predicts risk of recurrence for heart and lung transplant recipients.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common malignancy after solid organ transplantation, with an increased risk of recurrence and metastasis over the general population. The newly updated 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for cSCC is based on consensus expert opinion and requires validation in large cohort studies and in specific patient subpopulations.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct DNA binding and transcriptional repression characteristics related to different ARX mutations.
Neurogenetics
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in the Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) are associated with a wide variety of neurologic disorders including lissencephaly, hydrocephaly, West syndrome, Partington syndrome, and X-linked intellectual disability with or without epilepsy. A genotype-phenotype correlation exists for ARX mutations; however, the molecular basis for this association has not been investigated. To begin understanding the molecular basis for ARX mutations, we tested the DNA binding sequence preference and transcriptional repression activity for Arx, deletion mutants and mutants associated with various neurologic disorders. We found DNA binding preferences of Arx are influenced by the amino acid sequences adjacent to the homeodomain. Mutations in the homeodomain show a loss of DNA binding activity, while the T333N and P353R homeodomain mutants still possess DNA binding activities, although less than the wild type. Transcription repression activity, the primary function of ARX, is reduced in all mutants except the L343Q, which has no DNA binding activity and does not functionally repress Arx targets. These data indicate that mutations in the homeodomain result in not only a loss of DNA binding activity but also loss of transcriptional repression activity. Our results provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of ARX-related disorders and possible directions to pursue potential therapeutic interventions.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.