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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intravital imaging reveals distinct responses of depleting dynamic tumor-associated macrophage and dendritic cell subpopulations.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells comprise a major part of the stromal microenvironment and support cancer progression by multiple mechanisms. High numbers of tumor myeloid cells correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer and are coupled with the angiogenic switch and malignant progression. However, the specific roles and regulation of heterogeneous tumor myeloid populations are incompletely understood. CSF-1 is a major myeloid cell mitogen, and signaling through its receptor CSF-1R is also linked to poor outcomes. To characterize myeloid cell function in tumors, we combined confocal intravital microscopy with depletion of CSF-1R-dependent cells using a neutralizing CSF-1R antibody in the mouse mammary tumor virus long-terminal region-driven polyoma middle T antigen breast cancer model. The depleted cells shared markers of tumor-associated macrophages and dendritic cells (M-DCs), matching the phenotype of tumor dendritic cells that take up antigens and interact with T cells. We defined functional subgroups within the M-DC population by imaging endocytic and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Anti-CSF-1R treatment altered stromal dynamics and impaired both survival of M-DCs and accumulation of new M-DCs, but did not deplete Gr-1(+) neutrophils or block doxorubicin-induced myeloid cell recruitment, and had a minimal effect on lung myeloid cells. Nevertheless, prolonged treatment led to delayed tumor growth, reduced vascularity, and decreased lung metastasis. Because the myeloid infiltrate in metastatic lungs differed significantly from that in mammary tumors, the reduction in metastasis may result from the impact on primary tumors. The combination of functional analysis by intravital imaging with cellular characterization has refined our understanding of the effects of experimental targeted therapies on the tumor microenvironment.
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Defining inhibitory neurone function in respiratory circuits: Opportunities with optogenetics?
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Pharmacological and mathematical modelling studies support the view that synaptic inhibition in mammalian brainstem respiratory circuits is essential for generating normal and stable breathing movements. GABAergic and glycinergic neurones are known components of these circuits but their precise functional roles have not been established, especially within key microcircuits of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes involved in phasic control of respiratory pump and airway muscles. Here, we review briefly current concepts of relevant complexities of inhibitory synapses and the importance of synaptic inhibition in the operation of these microcircuits. We highlight results and limitations of classical pharmacological studies that have suggested critical functions of synaptic inhibition. We then explore the potential opportunities for optogenetic strategies that represent a promising new approach for interrogating function of inhibitory circuits, including a hypothetical wish list for optogenetic approaches to allow expedient application of this technology. We conclude that recent technical advances in optogenetics should provide a means to understand the role of functionally select and regionally confined subsets of inhibitory neurones in key respiratory circuits such as those in the pre-BötC and BötC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Combining Enriched Environment, Progesterone, and Embryonic Neural Stem Cell Therapy Improves Recovery Following Brain Injury.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Millions of people every year are affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and currently no therapies have shown efficacy in improving outcomes clinically. Recent research has suggested that enriched environments (EE), embryonic neural stem cells (eNSC), and progesterone (PROG) improve functional outcomes following TBI and furthermore, several investigators have suggested that a polytherapuetic approach may have greater efficacy than a single therapy. The purpose of the current study was to determine if varying combinations of post-injury EE, progesterone therapy, or eNSC transplantation would improve functional outcomes over just a single therapy. A controlled cortical impact was performed to create a lesion in the medial frontal cortex. The subjects were then placed in either EE or standard environments and administered 10mg/kg progesterone or vehicle injections four hours post-injury and every 12 hours for 72 hours following the initial injection. Seven days following the surgery rats were transplanted with either eNSCs or media. Rats were then tested on the open field test, Barnes maze, Morris water maze (MWM), and rotor-rod tasks (RR). Improved functional outcomes were shown on a majority of the behavioral tasks in animals that received a combination of therapies. This effect was especially prominent with therapies that were combined with EE. Immunohistochemistry showed that the transplanted eNSCs survived, migrated, and displayed neural phenotypes. These data suggest that a poly-therapeutic approach following TBI improves functional recovery to a greater magnitude. Moreover, when poly-therapies are combined with EE the effects on recovery are enhanced leading to greater recovery of function.
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Trimethylation Enhancement Using Diazomethane (TrEnDi) II: Rapid In-Solution Concomitant Quaternization of Glycerophospholipid Amino Groups and Methylation of Phosphate Groups via Reaction with Diazomethane Significantly Enhances Sensitivity in Mass Spectrometry Analyse
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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A novel mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics strategy that exposes glycerophospholipids to an ethereal solution of diazomethane and acid, derivatizing them to contain a net fixed, permanent positive charge, is described. The sensitivity of modified lipids to MS detection is enhanced via improved ionization characteristics as well as consolidation of ion dissociation to form one or two strong, characteristic polar headgroup fragments. Our strategy has been optimized to enable a priori prediction of ion fragmentation patterns for four subclasses of modified glycerophospholipid species. Our method enables analyte ionization regardless of proton affinity, thereby decreasing ion suppression and permitting predictable precursor ion-based quantitation with improved sensitivity in comparison to MS-based methods that are currently used on unmodified lipid precursors.
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Basis for substrate recognition and distinction by matrix metalloproteinases.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Genomic sequencing and structural genomics produced a vast amount of sequence and structural data, creating an opportunity for structure-function analysis in silico [Radivojac P, et al. (2013) Nat Methods 10(3):221-227]. Unfortunately, only a few large experimental datasets exist to serve as benchmarks for function-related predictions. Furthermore, currently there are no reliable means to predict the extent of functional similarity among proteins. Here, we quantify structure-function relationships among three phylogenetic branches of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family by comparing their cleavage efficiencies toward an extended set of phage peptide substrates that were selected from ?64 million peptide sequences (i.e., a large unbiased representation of substrate space). The observed second-order rate constants [k(obs)] across the substrate space provide a distance measure of functional similarity among the MMPs. These functional distances directly correlate with MMP phylogenetic distance. There is also a remarkable and near-perfect correlation between the MMP substrate preference and sequence identity of 50-57 discontinuous residues surrounding the catalytic groove. We conclude that these residues represent the specificity-determining positions (SDPs) that allowed for the expansion of MMP proteolytic function during evolution. A transmutation of only a few selected SDPs proximal to the bound substrate peptide, and contributing the most to selectivity among the MMPs, is sufficient to enact a global change in the substrate preference of one MMP to that of another, indicating the potential for the rational and focused redesign of cleavage specificity in MMPs.
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A user's guide to the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Messenger RNA synthesis (mRNA) accounts for a small fraction of total RNA synthesis in growing eukaryotic cells. The bulk of cellular transcription is devoted to ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis (Warner, Trends Biochem Sci 24:437-440, 1999). Several unique characteristics of the rDNA and RNA polymerase I must be considered in order to accurately quantify the synthesis rate of rRNA or to characterize its processing. Indeed, an entirely different set of techniques must be applied to the study of rRNA synthesis than is routinely to study mRNA synthesis. Five of the most useful strategies for genetic and molecular analysis of rRNA synthesis and regulation are outlined in this chapter. The techniques described were developed for characterization of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, many of these strategies can be adapted for studies in other eukaryotic cells.
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4EBP1/eIF4E and p70S6K/RPS6 axes play critical and distinct roles in hepatocarcinogenesis driven by AKT and N-Ras protooncogenes.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Concomitant expression of activated forms of AKT and Ras in the mouse liver (AKT/Ras) leads to rapid tumor development via strong activation of the mTORC1 pathway. mTORC1 functions via regulating p70S6K/RPS6 and 4EBP1/eIF4E cascades. How these cascades contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis remains unknown. Here, we show that inhibition of RPS6 pathway via Rapamycin effectively suppressed, whereas blockade of the 4EBP1/eIF4E cascade by 4EBP1A4, an unphosphorylatable form of 4EBP1, significantly delayed, AKT/Ras induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Combined treatment with Rapamycin and 4EBP1A4 completely inhibited AKT/Ras hepatocarcinogenesis. This strong anti-neoplastic effect was successfully recapitulated by ablating Raptor, the major subunit of mTORC1, in AKT/Ras-overexpressing livers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of eIF4E, the protooncogene whose activity is specifically inhibited by 4EBP1, resulted in HCC development in cooperation with activated Ras. Mechanistically, we identified the ENTPD5/AK1/CMPK1 axis and the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway as targets of the 4EBP1/eIF4E cascade in AKT/Ras and Ras/eIF4E livers as well as in human HCC cell lines and tissues. Conclusions: Complete inhibition of mTORC1 is required to suppress liver cancer development induced by AKT and Ras protooncogenes in mice. The mTORC1 effectors, RPS6 and eIF4E, play distinct roles and are both necessary for AKT/Ras hepatocarcinogenesis. These new findings might open the way for innovative therapies against human hepatocellular carcinoma. (Hepatology 2014).
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Efficient utilization of complex N-linked glycans is a selective advantage for Bacteroides fragilis in extraintestinal infections.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Bacteroides fragilis is the most common anaerobe isolated from clinical infections, and in this report we demonstrate a characteristic of the species that is critical to their success as an opportunistic pathogen. Among the Bacteroides spp. in the gut, B. fragilis has the unique ability of efficiently harvesting complex N-linked glycans from the glycoproteins common to serum and serous fluid. This activity is mediated by an outer membrane protein complex designated as Don. Using the abundant serum glycoprotein transferrin as a model, it has been shown that B. fragilis alone can rapidly and efficiently deglycosylate this protein in vitro and that transferrin glycans can provide the sole source of carbon and energy for growth in defined media. We then showed that transferrin deglycosylation occurs in vivo when B. fragilis is propagated in the rat tissue cage model of extraintestinal growth, and that this ability provides a competitive advantage in vivo over strains lacking the don locus.
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Are national policies and programs for prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage and preeclampsia adequate? A key informant survey in 37 countries.
Glob Health Sci Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Although maternal mortality has declined substantially in recent years, efforts to address postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E) must be systematically scaled up in order for further reduction to take place. In 2012, a key informant survey was conducted to identify both national and global gaps in PPH and PE/E program priorities and to highlight focus areas for future national and global programming.
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Post-operative environmental enrichment improves spatial and motor deficits but may not ameliorate anxiety- or depression-like symptoms in rats following traumatic brain injury.
Restor. Neurol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Anxiety-like (ANX) and depression-like (DEP) symptoms are common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Environmental enrichment (EE) attenuates many deficits, though its impact on ANX and DEP symptoms has yet to be described.
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Combining enriched environment and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy results in improved cognitive and motor function following traumatic brain injury.
Restor. Neurol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Despite advances towards potential clinically viable therapies there has been only limited success in improving functional recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In rats, exposure to an enriched environment (EE) improves learning and fosters motor skill development. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) have been shown to survive transplantation and influence the recovery process. The current study evaluated EE and iPSC as a polytherapy for remediating cognitive deficits following medial frontal cortex (mFC) controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury.
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Neutral sphingomyelinase-3 mediates TNF-stimulated oxidant activity in skeletal muscle.
Redox Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Sphingolipid and oxidant signaling affect glucose uptake, atrophy, and force production of skeletal muscle similarly and both are stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF), suggesting a connection between systems. Sphingolipid signaling is initiated by neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase), a family of agonist-activated effector enzymes. Northern blot analyses suggest that nSMase3 may be a striated muscle-specific nSMase. The present study tested the hypothesis that nSMase3 protein is expressed in skeletal muscle and functions to regulate TNF-stimulated oxidant production.
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Pre and post-injury environmental enrichment effects functional recovery following medial frontal cortical contusion injury in rats.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The rodent has been the preferred research model for evaluating the mechanisms related to, and potential treatments for, traumatic brain injury (TBI). Many therapies previously determined to be effective in pre-clinical investigations have failed to show the same effectiveness in clinical trials. The environment a rodent is housed in plays an important role in brain and behavioral development. Housing rodents in non-enriched environments significantly alters the development of the rodent brain and its behavioral profile, negatively impacting the ecological validity of the rodent model. This investigation employed 113 male Long-Evans rats assigned to either an enriched environment (EE) or standard environment (SE) from post-natal day 25. At four months of age, rats received either a controlled cortical impact (CCI) to the medial frontal cortex (mFC) or sham injury. Rats assigned to EE or SE pre-injury were re-assigned to remain in, or switch to, EE or SE post-injury. The open-field test (OFT), vermicelli handling test (VHT) Morris water maze (MWM), and rotor-rod (RR), were used to evaluate the animals response to TBI. The data from the current investigation indicates that the performance of TBI rats assigned to pre-injury EE was improved on the MWM compared to the TBI rats assigned to pre-injury SE. However, those that were reared in the EE performed better on the MWM if placed into a SE post-injury as compared to those placed into the EE after insult. The TBI and sham groups that were raised, and remained, in the SE performed worse than any of the EE groups on the RR. TBI rats that were placed in the EE had larger cortices and more cells in the hippocampus than the TBI rats housed in the SE. These data strongly suggest that the pre-injury housing environment should be considered as investigators refine pre-clinical models of TBI.
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Bombesin Peptide Conjugated Gold Nanocages Internalize via Clathrin Mediated Endocytosis.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The nature of interaction and mechanism of internalization of receptor-avid peptide nanoparticles with cells is not yet completely understood. This article describes the cellular internalization mechanism and intracellular trafficking of peptide conjugated receptor targeted porous Gold nanocages (AuNCs) in cancer cells. We synthesized and characterized a library of AuNCs conjugated with bombesin (BBN) peptide. Evidence of selective affinity of AuNC-BBN toward gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) was obtained using radiolabeled competitive cell binding assay. Endocytic mechanism was investigated using cell inhibitor studies and monitored using optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results show AuNC-BBN uptake in PC3 cells is mediated by clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME). Indeed, in the presence of CME inhibitors, AuNC-BBN uptake in cells is reduced up to 84%. TEM images further confirm CME characteristic clathrin coated pits and lysosomal release of AuNCs. These results demonstrate that peptide ligands conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles maintain their target specificity. This bolsters the case for peptide robustness and its persisting functionality in intracellular vehicular delivery systems.
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Deficiency of the ferrous iron transporter FeoAB is linked with metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides fragilis.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Metronidazole is the most commonly used antimicrobial for Bacteroides fragilis infections and is recommended for prophylaxis of colorectal surgery. Metronidazole resistance is increasing and the mechanisms of resistance are not clear.
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Discovery of a novel compound with anti-venezuelan equine encephalitis virus activity that targets the nonstructural protein 2.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Alphaviruses present serious health threats as emerging and re-emerging viruses. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a New World alphavirus, can cause encephalitis in humans and horses, but there are no therapeutics for treatment. To date, compounds reported as anti-VEEV or anti-alphavirus inhibitors have shown moderate activity. To discover new classes of anti-VEEV inhibitors with novel viral targets, we used a high-throughput screen based on the measurement of cell protection from live VEEV TC-83-induced cytopathic effect to screen a 340,000 compound library. Of those, we identified five novel anti-VEEV compounds and chose a quinazolinone compound, CID15997213 (IC50?=?0.84 µM), for further characterization. The antiviral effect of CID15997213 was alphavirus-specific, inhibiting VEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In vitro assays confirmed inhibition of viral RNA, protein, and progeny synthesis. No antiviral activity was detected against a select group of RNA viruses. We found mutations conferring the resistance to the compound in the N-terminal domain of nsP2 and confirmed the target residues using a reverse genetic approach. Time of addition studies showed that the compound inhibits the middle stage of replication when viral genome replication is most active. In mice, the compound showed complete protection from lethal VEEV disease at 50 mg/kg/day. Collectively, these results reveal a potent anti-VEEV compound that uniquely targets the viral nsP2 N-terminal domain. While the function of nsP2 has yet to be characterized, our studies suggest that the protein might play a critical role in viral replication, and further, may represent an innovative opportunity to develop therapeutic interventions for alphavirus infection.
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Advance distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in South Sudan.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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To determine if high uterotonic coverage can be achieved in South Sudan through a facility- and community-focused postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) prevention program.
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Effects of glycinergic inhibition failure on respiratory rhythm and pattern generation.
Prog. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Inhibitory interactions between neurons of the respiratory network are involved in rhythm generation and pattern formation. Using a computational model of brainstem respiratory networks, we investigated the possible effects of suppressing glycinergic inhibition on the activity of different respiratory neuron types. Our study revealed that progressive suppression of glycinergic inhibition affected all neurons of the network and disturbed neural circuits involved in termination of inspiration. Causal was a dysfunction of postinspiratory inhibition targeting inspiratory neurons, which often led to irregular preterm reactivation of these neurons, producing double or multiple short-duration inspiratory bursts. An increasing blockade of glycinergic inhibition led to apneustic inspiratory activity. Similar disturbances of glycinergic inhibition also occur during hypoxia. A clear difference in prolonged hypoxia, however, is that the rhythm terminates in expiratory apnea. The critical function of glycinergic inhibition for normal respiratory rhythm generation and the consequences of its reduction, including in pathological conditions, are discussed.
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Rhythmic bursting in the pre-Bötzinger complex: mechanisms and models.
Prog. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), a neural structure involved in respiratory rhythm generation, can generate rhythmic bursting activity in vitro that persists after blockade of synaptic inhibition. Experimental studies have identified two mechanisms potentially involved in this activity: one based on the persistent sodium current (INaP) and the other involving calcium (ICa) and/or calcium-activated nonspecific cation (ICAN) currents. In this modeling study, we investigated bursting generated in single neurons and excitatory neural populations with randomly distributed conductances of INaP and ICa. We analyzed the possible roles of these currents, the Na(+)/K(+) pump, synaptic mechanisms, and network interactions in rhythmic bursting generated under different conditions. We show that a population of synaptically coupled excitatory neurons with randomly distributed INaP- and/or ICAN-mediated burst generating mechanisms can operate in different oscillatory regimes with bursting dependent on either current or independent of both. The existence of multiple oscillatory regimes and their state dependence may explain rhythmic activities observed in the pre-BötC under different conditions.
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Type I IFN suppresses Cxcr2 driven neutrophil recruitment into the sensory ganglia during viral infection.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Infection induces the expression of inflammatory chemokines that recruit immune cells to the site of inflammation. Whereas tissues such as the intestine and skin express unique chemokines during homeostasis, whether different tissues express distinct chemokine profiles during inflammation remains unclear. With this in mind, we performed a comprehensive screen of the chemokines expressed by two tissues (skin and sensory ganglia) infected with a common viral pathogen (herpes simplex virus type 1). After infection, the skin and ganglia showed marked differences in their expression of the family of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands. Specifically, Cxcl1/2/3, which in turn controlled neutrophil recruitment, was up-regulated in the skin but absent from the ganglia. Within the ganglia, Cxcl2 expression and subsequent neutrophil recruitment was inhibited by type I interferon (IFN). Using a combination of bone marrow chimeras and intracellular chemokine staining, we show that type I IFN acted by directly suppressing Cxcl2 expression by monocytes, abrogating their ability to recruit neutrophils to the ganglia. Overall, our findings describe a novel role for IFN in the direct, and selective, inhibition of Cxcr2 chemokine ligands, which results in the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment to neuronal tissue.
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Mechanism of macromolecular structure evolution in self-assembled lipid nanoparticles for siRNA delivery.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are a leading platform for therapeutic delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Optimization of LNPs as therapeutic products is enabled by the development of structure-activity relationships (SAR) linking LNP physiochemical and macromolecular properties to bioperformance. Methods by which LNP properties can be rationally manipulated are thus critical enablers of this fundamental knowledge build. In this work, we present a mechanistic study of LNP self-assembly via a rapid antisolvent precipitation process and identify critical physiochemical and kinetic parameters governing the evolution of LNP three-dimensional macromolecular structure as a biorelevant SAR feature. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, LNPs are shown to undergo a temporal evolution in macromolecular structure during self-assembly, rearranging from initially disordered phases after precipitation into well-ordered structures following a necessary annealing stage of the assembly sequence. The ability of LNPs to undergo structural reorganization is shown to be effected by the chemical nature of the aqueous antisolvent used for precipitation. Antisolvents of varying buffering species differentially influence LNP macromolecular features, revealing a new participatory role of buffer ions in LNP self-assembly. Furthermore, the formation of macromolecular structure in LNPs is shown to improve the efficiency of siRNA encapsulation, thereby offering a simple, nonchemical route for preparation of high-payload LNPs that minimize the dose of lipid excipients. The developed LNP precipitation process and mechanistic understanding of self-assembly are shown to be generalizable, enabling the production of LNPs with a tunable range of macromolecular features, as evidenced by the cubic, hexagonal, and oligo-lamellar phase LNPs exemplarily generated.
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Identification of a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane.
Mol Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation is associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and some of the most prevalent human diseases including obesity, cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and heart disease. Chemical 'mitochondrial uncouplers' are lipophilic weak acids that transport protons into the mitochondrial matrix via a pathway that is independent of ATP synthase, thereby uncoupling nutrient oxidation from ATP production. Mitochondrial uncouplers also lessen the proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane and thereby increase the rate of mitochondrial respiration while decreasing production of reactive oxygen species. Thus, mitochondrial uncouplers are valuable chemical tools that enable the measurement of maximal mitochondrial respiration and they have been used therapeutically to decrease mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. However, the most widely used protonophore uncouplers such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have off-target activity at other membranes that lead to a range of undesired effects including plasma membrane depolarization, mitochondrial inhibition, and cytotoxicity. These unwanted properties interfere with the measurement of mitochondrial function and result in a narrow therapeutic index that limits their usefulness in the clinic. To identify new mitochondrial uncouplers that lack off-target activity at the plasma membrane we screened a small molecule chemical library. Herein we report the identification and validation of a novel mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler (2-fluorophenyl){6-[(2-fluorophenyl)amino](1,2,5-oxadiazolo[3,4-e]pyrazin-5-yl)}amine, named BAM15, that does not depolarize the plasma membrane. Compared to FCCP, an uncoupler of equal potency, BAM15 treatment of cultured cells stimulates a higher maximum rate of mitochondrial respiration and is less cytotoxic. Furthermore, BAM15 is bioactive in vivo and dose-dependently protects mice from acute renal ischemic-reperfusion injury. From a technical standpoint, BAM15 represents an effective new tool that allows the study of mitochondrial function in the absence of off-target effects that can confound data interpretation. From a therapeutic perspective, BAM15-mediated protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury and its reduced toxicity will hopefully reignite interest in pharmacological uncoupling for the treatment of the myriad of diseases that are associated with altered mitochondrial function.
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The recA operon: A novel stress response gene cluster in Bacteroides fragilis.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Bacteroides fragilis, an opportunistic pathogen of humans, is a leading cause of bacteraemias and anaerobic abscesses which are often treated with metronidazole, a drug which damages DNA. This study investigated the responses of the B. fragilis recA three gene operon to the stress experienced during metronidazole treatment and exposure to reactive oxygen species simulating those generated by the host immune system during infection. A transcriptionally regulated response was observed using quantitative RT-PCR after metronidazole and hydrogen peroxide treatment, with all three genes being upregulated under stress conditions. In vivo and in vitro analysis of the functional role of the second gene of the operon was done using heterologous complementation and protein expression (in Escherichia coli), with subsequent biochemical assay. This gene encoded a functional bacterioferritin co-migratory protein (BCP) which was thiol-specific and had antioxidant properties, including protection of the glutamine synthetase III enzyme. This in vitro data supports the hypothesis that the genes of the operon may be involved in protection of the bacteria from the oxidative burst during tissue invasion and may play a significant role in bacterial survival and metronidazole resistance during treatment of B. fragilis infections.
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Trimethylation enhancement using diazomethane (TrEnDi): rapid on-column quaternization of peptide amino groups via reaction with diazomethane significantly enhances sensitivity in mass spectrometry analyses via a fixed, permanent positive charge.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Defining cellular processes relies heavily on elucidating the temporal dynamics of proteins. To this end, mass spectrometry (MS) is an extremely valuable tool; different MS-based quantitative proteomics strategies have emerged to map protein dynamics over the course of stimuli. Herein, we disclose our novel MS-based quantitative proteomics strategy with unique analytical characteristics. By passing ethereal diazomethane over peptides on strong cation exchange resin within a microfluidic device, peptides react to contain fixed, permanent positive charges. Modified peptides display improved ionization characteristics and dissociate via tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)) to form strong a2 fragment ion peaks. Process optimization and determination of reactive functional groups enabled a priori prediction of MS(2) fragmentation patterns for modified peptides. The strategy was tested on digested bovine serum albumin (BSA) and successfully quantified a peptide that was not observable prior to modification. Our method ionizes peptides regardless of proton affinity, thus decreasing ion suppression and permitting predictable multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based quantitation with improved sensitivity.
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Challenges to recruiting population representative samples of female sex workers in China using Respondent Driven Sampling.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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We explore the network coverage of a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) in China recruited through Respondent Drive Sampling (RDS) as part of an effort to evaluate the claim of RDS of population representation with empirical data. We take advantage of unique information on the social networks of FSWs obtained from two overlapping studies - RDS and a venue-based sampling approach (PLACE) - and use an exponential random graph modeling (ERGM) framework from local networks to construct a likely network from which our observed RDS sample is drawn. We then run recruitment chains over this simulated network to assess the assumption that the RDS chain referral process samples participants in proportion to their degree and the extent to which RDS satisfactorily covers certain parts of the network. We find evidence that, contrary to assumptions, RDS oversamples low degree nodes and geographically central areas of the network. Unlike previous evaluations of RDS which have explored the performance of RDS sampling chains on a non-hidden population, or the performance of simulated chains over previously mapped realistic social networks, our study provides a robust, empirically grounded evaluation of the performance of RDS chains on a real-world hidden population.
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Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC): protocol for a mixed methods study.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Identifying feasible and effective implementation strategies that are contextually appropriate is a challenge for researchers and implementers, exacerbated by the lack of conceptual clarity surrounding terms and definitions for implementation strategies, as well as a literature that provides imperfect guidance regarding how one might select strategies for a given healthcare quality improvement effort. In this study, we will engage an Expert Panel comprising implementation scientists and mental health clinical managers to: establish consensus on a common nomenclature for implementation strategy terms, definitions and categories; and develop recommendations to enhance the match between implementation strategies selected to facilitate the use of evidence-based programs and the context of certain service settings, in this case the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health services.
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An expressed retrogene of the master embryonic stem cell gene POU5F1 is associated with prostate cancer susceptibility.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Genetic association studies of prostate and other cancers have identified a major risk locus at chromosome 8q24. Several independent risk variants at this locus alter transcriptional regulatory elements, but an affected gene and mechanism for cancer predisposition have remained elusive. The retrogene POU5F1B within the locus has a preserved open reading frame encoding a homolog of the master embryonic stem cell transcription factor Oct4. We find that 8q24 risk alleles are expression quantitative trait loci correlated with reduced expression of POU5F1B in prostate tissue and that predicted deleterious POU5F1B missense variants are also associated with risk of transformation. POU5F1 is known to be self-regulated by the encoded Oct4 transcription factor. We further observe that POU5F1 expression is directly correlated with POU5F1B expression. Our results suggest that a pathway critical to self-renewal of embryonic stem cells may also have a role in the origin of cancer.
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Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the CNS. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying CNS injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through nonterminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution 2D-LC MS/MS analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. We identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis. The data are available in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000248 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000248).
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Advance distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at home births in two districts of Liberia.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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A postpartum hemorrhage prevention program to increase uterotonic coverage for home and facility births was introduced in two districts of Liberia. Advance distribution of misoprostol was offered during antenatal care (ANC) and home visits. Feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness of distribution mechanisms and uterotonic coverage were evaluated.
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Respiratory rhythm generation in vivo.
Physiology (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The cellular and circuit mechanisms generating the rhythm of breathing in mammals have been under intense investigation for decades. Here, we try to integrate the key discoveries into an updated description of the basic neural processes generating respiratory rhythm under in vivo conditions.
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Dual effects of 5-HT(1a) receptor activation on breathing in neonatal mice.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Inhibitory 5-HT(1a) receptors are located on serotonin (5-HT) neurons (autoreceptors) as well as neurons of the respiratory network (heteroreceptors). Thus, effects on breathing of 5-HT(1a) agonists, such as (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), could either be due to decreased firing of 5-HT neurons or direct effects on the respiratory network. Mice in which the transcription factor LMX1B is genetically deleted selectively in Pet1-1-expressing cells (Lmx1b(f/f/p)) essentially have complete absence of central 5-HT neurons, providing a unique opportunity to separate the effect of activation of downstream 5-HT(1a) heteroreceptors from that of autoreceptors. We used rhythmically active medullary slices from wild-type (WT) and Lmx1b(f/f/p) neonatal mice to differentiate autoreceptor versus heteroreceptor effects of 8-OH-DPAT on hypoglossal nerve respiratory output. 8-OH-DPAT transiently increased respiratory burst frequency in Lmx1b(f/f/p) preparations, but not in WT slices. This excitation was abolished when synaptic inhibition was blocked by GABAergic/glycinergic receptor antagonists. Conversely, after 10 min of application, frequency in Lmx1b(f/f/p) slices was not different from baseline, whereas it was significantly depressed in WT slices. In WT mice in vivo, subcutaneous injection of 8-OH-DPAT produced similar biphasic respiratory effects as in Lmx1b(f/f/p) mice. We conclude that 5-HT1a receptor agonists have two competing effects: rapid stimulation of breathing due to excitation of the respiratory network, and delayed inhibition of breathing due to autoreceptor inhibition of 5-HT neurons. The former effect is presumably due to inhibition of inhibitory interneurons embedded in the respiratory network.
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Untangling the fungal niche: the trait-based approach.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy toward functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology.
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Purification and properties of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the skeletal muscle of the hibernating ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from the skeletal muscle of euthermic and torpid Ictidomys tridecemlineatus was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a novel method involving Blue-agarose and Phenyl-agarose chromatography. Kinetic analysis of the enzymes isolated from the two conditions suggested the existence of two structurally distinct proteins, with GAPDH V max being 40-60% less for the enzyme from the torpid condition (in both glycolytic and gluconeogenic directions) as compared to the euthermic enzyme form. Thermal denaturation, in part determined by differential scanning fluorimetry, revealed that purified GAPDH from the torpid animals was significantly more stable that the enzyme from the euthermic condition. Mass spectrometry combined with Western blot analyses of purified GAPDH indicate that the cellular GAPDH population is extensively modified, with posttranslational phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation being detected. Global reduction in GAPDH tyrosine phosphorylation during torpor as well as site specific alterations in methylation sites suggests that that the stable changes observed in kinetic and structural GAPDH properties may be due to posttranslational modification of this enzyme during torpor. Taken together, these results suggest a stable suppression of GAPDH (possibly by some reversible posttranslational modification) during ground squirrel torpor, which likely contributes to the overall reduction in carbohydrate metabolism when these animals switch to lipid fuels during dormancy.
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Polymorphisms of an innate immune gene, toll-like receptor 4, and aggressive prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the best known TLR members expressed on the surface of several leukocytes and tissue cells and has a key function in detecting pathogen and danger-associated molecular patterns. The role of TLR4 in the pathophysiology of several age-related diseases is also well recognized, such as prostate cancer (PCa). TLR4 polymorphisms have been related to PCa risk, but the relationship between TLR4 genotypes and aggressive PCa risk has not been evaluated by any systematic reviews.
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A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2) exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG) representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient ventilation. The model can be used for simulation of closed-loop control of breathing under different conditions including respiratory disorders.
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Regulation of monocarboxylic acid transporter-1 by cAMP dependent vesicular trafficking in brain microvascular endothelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, a detailed characterization of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter-1 (Mct1) in cytoplasmic vesicles of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells shows them to be a diverse population of endosomes intrinsic to the regulation of the transporter by a brief 25 to 30 minute exposure to the membrane permeant cAMP analog, 8Br-cAMP. The vesicles are heterogeneous in size, mobility, internal pH, and co-localize with discreet markers of particular types of endosomes including early endosomes, clathrin coated vesicles, caveolar vesicles, trans-golgi, and lysosomes. The vesicular localization of Mct1 was not dependent on its N or C termini, however, the size and pH of Mct1 vesicles was increased by deletion of either terminus demonstrating a role for the termini in vesicular trafficking of Mct1. Using a novel BCECF-AM based assay developed in this study, 8Br-cAMP was shown to decrease the pH of Mct1 vesicles after 25 minutes. This result and method were confirmed in experiments with a ratiometric pH-sensitive EGFP-mCherry dual tagged Mct1 construct. Overall, the results indicate that cAMP signaling reduces the functionality of Mct1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by facilitating its entry into a highly dynamic vesicular trafficking pathway that appears to lead to the transporter's trafficking to autophagosomes and lysosomes.
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Structural Effects of Network Sampling Coverage I: Nodes Missing at Random(1.)
Soc Networks
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Network measures assume a census of a well-bounded population. This level of coverage is rarely achieved in practice, however, and we have only limited information on the robustness of network measures to incomplete coverage. This paper examines the effect of node-level missingness on 4 classes of network measures: centrality, centralization, topology and homophily across a diverse sample of 12 empirical networks. We use a Monte Carlo simulation process to generate data with known levels of missingness and compare the resulting network scores to their known starting values. As with past studies (Borgatti et al 2006; Kossinets 2006), we find that measurement bias generally increases with more missing data. The exact rate and nature of this increase, however, varies systematically across network measures. For example, betweenness and Bonacich centralization are quite sensitive to missing data while closeness and in-degree are robust. Similarly, while the tau statistic and distance are difficult to capture with missing data, transitivity shows little bias even with very high levels of missingness. The results are also clearly dependent on the features of the network. Larger, more centralized networks are generally more robust to missing data, but this is especially true for centrality and centralization measures. More cohesive networks are robust to missing data when measuring topological features but not when measuring centralization. Overall, the results suggest that missing data may have quite large or quite small effects on network measurement, depending on the type of network and the question being posed.
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Unexpected gain of function for the scaffolding protein plectin due to mislocalization in pancreatic cancer.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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We recently demonstrated that plectin is a robust biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most aggressive malignancies. In normal physiology, plectin is an intracellular scaffolding protein, but we have demonstrated localization on the extracellular surface of PDAC cells. In this study, we confirmed cell surface localization. Interestingly, we found that plectin cell surface localization was attributable to its presence in exosomes secreted from PDAC cells, which is dependent on the expression of integrin ?4, a protein known to interact with cytosolic plectin. Moreover, plectin expression was necessary for efficient exosome production and was required to sustain enhanced tumor growth in immunodeficient and in immunocompetent mice. It is now clear that this PDAC biomarker plays a role in PDAC, and further understanding of plectins contribution to PDAC could enable improved therapies.
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Submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration is impaired in ZDF rats and recovered by resveratrol.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Abstract? Mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the aetiology of skeletal muscle insulin resistance, although there is considerable controversy regarding these concepts. Mitochondrial function has been traditionally assessed in the presence of saturating ADP, but ATP turnover and the resultant ADP is thought to limit respiration in vivo. Therefore, we investigated the potential link between submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates, ROS generation and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the ZDF rat. Utilizing permeabilized muscle fibres we observed that submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates (250-2000 ?m ADP) were lower in ZDF rats than in lean controls, which coincided with decreased adenine nucleotide translocase 2 (ANT2) protein content. This decrease in submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration occurred in the absence of a decrease in electron transport chain function. Treating ZDF rats with resveratrol improved skeletal muscle insulin resistance and this was associated with elevated submaximal ADP-stimulated respiration rates as well as an increase in ANT2 protein content. These results coincided with a greater ability of ADP to attenuate mitochondrial ROS emission and an improvement in cellular redox balance. Together, these data suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is present in skeletal muscle insulin resistance when assessed at submaximal ADP concentrations and that ADP dynamics may influence skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity through alterations in the propensity for mitochondrial ROS emission.
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A fusion-inhibiting peptide against Rift Valley fever virus inhibits multiple, diverse viruses.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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For enveloped viruses, fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is critical for a productive infection to occur. This fusion process is mediated by at least three classes of fusion proteins (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the glycoprotein Gc (Class II fusion protein) mediates this fusion event following entry into the endocytic pathway, allowing the viral genome access to the cell cytoplasm. Here, we show that peptides analogous to the RVFV Gc stem region inhibited RVFV infectivity in cell culture by inhibiting the fusion process. Further, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (Ebola virus), Class II (Andes virus), or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus) fusion proteins using this single peptide. Our findings are consistent with an inhibition mechanism similar to that proposed for stem peptide fusion inhibitors of dengue virus in which the RVFV inhibitory peptide first binds to both the virion and cell membranes, allowing it to traffic with the virus into the endocytic pathway. Upon acidification and rearrangement of Gc, the peptide is then able to specifically bind to Gc and prevent fusion of the viral and endocytic membranes, thus inhibiting viral infection. These results could provide novel insights into conserved features among the three classes of viral fusion proteins and offer direction for the future development of broadly active fusion inhibitors.
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Yeast sirtuins and the regulation of aging.
FEMS Yeast Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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The sirtuins are a phylogenetically conserved family of NAD(+) -dependent protein deacetylases that consume one molecule of NAD(+) for every deacetylated lysine side chain. Their requirement for NAD(+) potentially makes them prone to regulation by fluctuations in NAD(+) or biosynthesis intermediates, thus linking them to cellular metabolism. The Sir2 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the founding sirtuin family member and has been well characterized as a histone deacetylase that functions in transcriptional silencing of heterochromatin domains and as a pro-longevity factor for replicative life span (RLS), defined as the number of times a mother cell divides (buds) before senescing. Deleting SIR2 shortens RLS, while increased gene dosage causes extension. Furthermore, Sir2 has been implicated in mediating the beneficial effects of caloric restriction (CR) on life span, not only in yeast, but also in higher eukaryotes. While this paradigm has had its share of disagreements and debate, it has also helped rapidly drive the aging research field forward. S. cerevisiae has four additional sirtuins, Hst1, Hst2, Hst3, and Hst4. This review discusses the function of Sir2 and the Hst homologs in replicative aging and chronological aging, and also addresses how the sirtuins are regulated in response to environmental stresses such as CR.
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IFITM-2 and IFITM-3 but not IFITM-1 restrict Rift Valley fever virus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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We show that interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM-1), IFITM-2, and IFITM-3 exhibit a broad spectrum of antiviral activity against several members of the Bunyaviridae family, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), La Crosse virus, Andes virus, and Hantaan virus, all of which can cause severe disease in humans and animals. We found that RVFV was restricted by IFITM-2 and -3 but not by IFITM-1, whereas the remaining viruses were equally restricted by all IFITMs. Indeed, at low doses of alpha interferon (IFN-?), IFITM-2 and -3 mediated more than half of the antiviral activity of IFN-? against RVFV. IFITM-2 and -3 restricted RVFV infection mostly by preventing virus membrane fusion with endosomes, while they had no effect on virion attachment to cells, endocytosis, or viral replication kinetics. We found that large fractions of IFITM-2 and IFITM-3 occupy vesicular compartments that are distinct from the vesicles coated by IFITM-1. In addition, although overexpression of all IFITMs expanded vesicular and acidified compartments within cells, there were marked phenotypic differences among the vesicular compartments occupied by IFITMs. Collectively, our data provide new insights into the possible mechanisms by which the IFITM family members restrict distinct viruses.
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Genome-wide analysis of functional sirtuin chromatin targets in yeast.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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The sirtuins are a conserved family of NAD+-dependent histone/protein deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes, including heterochromatin formation and transcription. Multiple sirtuins are encoded by each eukaryotic genome, raising the possibility of cooperativity or functional overlap. The scope and variety of chromatin binding sites of the sirtuins in any specific organism remain unclear.
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PKA catalytic subunit compartmentation regulates contractile and hypertrophic responses to ?-adrenergic signaling.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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?-Adrenergic signaling is spatiotemporally heterogeneous in the cardiac myocyte, conferring exquisite control to sympathetic stimulation. Such heterogeneity drives the formation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling microdomains, which regulate Ca(2+) handling and contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that the nucleus independently comprises a PKA signaling microdomain regulating myocyte hypertrophy. Spatially-targeted FRET reporters for PKA activity identified slower PKA activation and lower isoproterenol sensitivity in the nucleus (t50=10.6±0.7min; EC50=89.0nmol/L) than in the cytosol (t50=3.71±0.25min; EC50=1.22nmol/L). These differences were not explained by cAMP or AKAP-based compartmentation. A computational model of cytosolic and nuclear PKA activity was developed and predicted that differences in nuclear PKA dynamics and magnitude are regulated by slow PKA catalytic subunit diffusion, while differences in isoproterenol sensitivity are regulated by nuclear expression of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). These were validated by FRET and immunofluorescence. The model also predicted differential phosphorylation of PKA substrates regulating cell contractility and hypertrophy. Ca(2+) and cell hypertrophy measurements validated these predictions and identified higher isoproterenol sensitivity for contractile enhancements (EC50=1.84nmol/L) over cell hypertrophy (EC50=85.9nmol/L). Over-expression of spatially targeted PKA catalytic subunit to the cytosol or nucleus enhanced contractile and hypertrophic responses, respectively. We conclude that restricted PKA catalytic subunit diffusion is an important PKA compartmentation mechanism and the nucleus comprises a novel PKA signaling microdomain, insulating hypertrophic from contractile ?-adrenergic signaling responses.
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Feasibility and desirability of web-based mental health screening and individualized education for female OEF/OIF reserve and national guard war veterans.
J Trauma Stress
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Reserve and National Guard (RNG) service members have an increased risk for postdeployment mental health (MH) and readjustment problems, yet most do not access needed care. It is unknown if RNG servicewomen experiencing postdeployment readjustment symptoms are aware these may signify treatable MH concerns or if this knowledge activates care-seeking. The aims of this proof-of-concept study were to determine the feasibility of web-based MH screening for postdeployment MH symptoms to inform individualized psychoeducation, and to assess user perceptions about the online instrument and process, MH care access, and VA and other MH care. A midwestern sample (N = 131) of recently deployed (past 24 months) OEF/OIF RNG Army and Air Force servicewomen participated. High rates of combat experiences (95%) and military sexual trauma (50%) were reported. Positive screens for key symptoms of MH problems were prevalent. One third (31%) of satisfaction survey completers indicated online information reduced discomfort with seeking MH care; 42% reported they would subsequently seek MH assessment. Participants interviewed by telephone indicated that stigma and limited knowledge about women-specific services were key reasons servicewomen do not use MH care. This study demonstrated web-based screenings with individualized psychoeducation are implementable and favorable to RNG servicewomen.
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Rpd3- and spt16-mediated nucleosome assembly and transcriptional regulation on yeast ribosomal DNA genes.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes in eukaryotes are organized into multicopy tandem arrays and transcribed by RNA polymerase I. During cell proliferation, ?50% of these genes are active and have a relatively open chromatin structure characterized by elevated accessibility to psoralen cross-linking. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transcription of rDNA genes becomes repressed and chromatin structure closes when cells enter the diauxic shift and growth dramatically slows. In this study, we found that nucleosomes are massively depleted from the active rDNA genes during log phase and reassembled during the diauxic shift, largely accounting for the differences in psoralen accessibility between active and inactive genes. The Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex was required for diauxic shift-induced H4 and H2B deposition onto rDNA genes, suggesting involvement in assembly or stabilization of the entire nucleosome. The Spt16 subunit of FACT, however, was specifically required for H2B deposition, suggesting specificity for the H2A/H2B dimer. Miller chromatin spreads were used for electron microscopic visualization of rDNA genes in an spt16 mutant, which was found to be deficient in the assembly of normal nucleosomes on inactive genes and the disruption of nucleosomes on active genes, consistent with an inability to fully reactivate polymerase I (Pol I) transcription when cells exit stationary phase.
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The Bfp60 surface adhesin is an extracellular matrix and plasminogen protein interacting in Bacteroides fragilis.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Plasminogen (Plg) is a highly abundant protein found in the plasma component of blood and is necessary for the degradation of fibrin, collagen, and other structural components of tissues. This fibrinolytic system is utilized by several pathogenic species of bacteria to manipulate the host plasminogen system and facilitate invasion of tissues during infection by modifying the activation of this process through the binding of Plg at their surface. Bacteroides fragilis is the most commonly isolated Gram-negative obligate anaerobe from human clinical infections, such as intra-abdominal abscesses and anaerobic bacteraemia. The ability of B. fragilis to convert plasminogen (Plg) into plasmin has been associated with an outer membrane protein named Bfp60. In this study, we characterized the function of Bfp60 protein in B. fragilis 638R by constructing the bfp60 defective strain and comparing its with that of the wild type regarding binding to laminin-1 (LMN-1) and activation of Plg into plasmin. Although the results showed in this study indicate that Bfp60 surface protein of B. fragilis is important for the recognition of LMN-1 and Plg activation, a significant slow activation of Plg into plasmin was observed in the mutant strain. For that reason, the possibility of another unidentified mechanism activating Plg is also present in B. fragilis cannot be discarded. The results demonstrate that Bfp60 protein is responsible for the recognition of laminin and Plg-plasmin activation. Although the importance of this protein is still unclear in the pathogenicity of the species, it is accepted that since other pathogenic bacteria use this mechanism to disseminate through the extracellular matrix during the infection, it should also contribute to the virulence of B. fragilis.
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Evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of anthrax vaccine adsorbed for postexposure prophylaxis.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Antimicrobials administered postexposure can reduce the incidence or progression of anthrax disease, but they do not protect against the disease resulting from the germination of spores that may remain in the body after cessation of the antimicrobial regimen. Such additional protection may be achieved by postexposure vaccination; however, no anthrax vaccine is licensed for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). In a rabbit PEP study, animals were subjected to lethal challenge with aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores and then were treated with levofloxacin with or without concomitant intramuscular (i.m.) vaccination with anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (BioThrax; Emergent BioDefense Operations Lansing LLC, Lansing, MI), administered twice, 1 week apart. A significant increase in survival rates was observed among vaccinated animals compared to those treated with antibiotic alone. In preexposure prophylaxis studies in rabbits and nonhuman primates (NHPs), animals received two i.m. vaccinations 1 month apart and were challenged with aerosolized anthrax spores at day 70. Prechallenge toxin-neutralizing antibody (TNA) titers correlated with animal survival postchallenge and provided the means for deriving an antibody titer associated with a specific probability of survival in animals. In a clinical immunogenicity study, 82% of the subjects met or exceeded the prechallenge TNA value that was associated with a 70% probability of survival in rabbits and 88% probability of survival in NHPs, which was estimated based on the results of animal preexposure prophylaxis studies. The animal data provide initial information on protective antibody levels for anthrax, as well as support previous findings regarding the ability of AVA to provide added protection to B. anthracis-infected animals compared to antimicrobial treatment alone.
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Monitoring and managing metabolic effects of antipsychotics: a cluster randomized trial of an intervention combining evidence-based quality improvement and external facilitation.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Treatment of psychotic disorders consists primarily of second generation antipsychotics, which are associated with metabolic side effects such as overweight/obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines recommend timely assessment and management of these conditions; however, research studies show deficits and delays in metabolic monitoring and management for these patients. This protocol article describes the project Monitoring and Management for Metabolic Side Effects of Antipsychotics, which is testing an approach to implement recommendations for these practices.
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Structural analysis of the role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa penicillin-binding protein 5 in ?-lactam resistance.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Penicillin-binding protein 5 (PBP5) is one of the most abundant PBPs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although its main function is that of a cell wall dd-carboxypeptidase, it possesses sufficient ?-lactamase activity to contribute to the ability of P. aeruginosa to resist the antibiotic activity of the ?-lactams. The study of these dual activities is important for understanding the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance by P. aeruginosa, an important human pathogen, and to the understanding of the evolution of ?-lactamase activity from the PBP enzymes. We purified a soluble version of P. aeruginosa PBP5 (designated Pa sPBP5) by deletion of its C-terminal membrane anchor. Under in vitro conditions, Pa sPBP5 demonstrates both dd-carboxypeptidase and expanded-spectrum ?-lactamase activities. Its crystal structure at a 2.05-Å resolution shows features closely resembling those of the class A ?-lactamases, including a shortened loop spanning residues 74 to 78 near the active site and with respect to the conformations adopted by two active-site residues, Ser101 and Lys203. These features are absent in the related PBP5 of Escherichia coli. A comparison of the two Pa sPBP5 monomers in the asymmetric unit, together with molecular dynamics simulations, revealed an active-site flexibility that may explain its carbapenemase activity, a function that is absent in the E. coli PBP5 enzyme. Our functional and structural characterizations underscore the versatility of this PBP5 in contributing to the ?-lactam resistance of P. aeruginosa while highlighting how broader ?-lactamase activity may be encoded in the structural folds shared by the PBP and serine ?-lactamase classes.
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TNF signals via neuronal-type nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen species to depress specific force of skeletal muscle.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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TNF promotes skeletal muscle weakness, in part, by depressing specific force of muscle fibers. This is a rapid, receptor-mediated response, in which TNF stimulates cellular oxidant production, causing myofilament dysfunction. The oxidants appear to include nitric oxide (NO); otherwise, the redox mechanisms that underlie this response remain undefined. The current study tested the hypotheses that 1) TNF signals via neuronal-type NO synthase (nNOS) to depress specific force, and 2) muscle-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential co-mediators of this response. Mouse diaphragm fiber bundles were studied using live cell assays. TNF exposure increased general oxidant activity (P < 0.05; 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay) and NO activity (P < 0.05; 4-amino-5-methylamino-2,7-difluorofluorescein diacetate assay) and depressed specific force across the full range of stimulus frequencies (1-300 Hz; P < 0.05). These responses were abolished by pretreatment with N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a nonspecific inhibitor of NOS activity), confirming NO involvement. Genetic nNOS deficiency replicated L-NAME effects on TNF-treated muscle, diminishing NO activity (-80%; P < 0.05) and preventing the decrement in specific force (P < 0.05). Comparable protection was achieved by selective depletion of muscle-derived ROS. Pretreatment with either SOD (degrades superoxide anion) or catalase (degrades hydrogen peroxide) depressed oxidant activity in TNF-treated muscle and abolished the decrement in specific force. These findings indicate that TNF signals via nNOS to depress contractile function, a response that requires ROS and NO as obligate co-mediators.
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Creation and implementation of an emergency medicine education and training program in Turkey: an effective educational intervention to address the practitioner gap.
Int J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The specialty of Emergency Medicine has enjoyed recognition for nearly 20 years in Turkey. However, the majority of underserved and rural Turkish emergency departments are staffed by general practitioners who lack formal training in the specialty and have few opportunities to increase emergency medicine-specific knowledge and skills.
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Cumulative total effective whole-body radiation dose in critically ill patients.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Uncertainty exists about a safe dose limit to minimize radiation-induced cancer. Maximum occupational exposure is 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 years with no more than 50 mSv in any single year. Radiation exposure to the general population is less, but the average dose in the United States has doubled in the past 30 years, largely from medical radiation exposure. We hypothesized that patients in a mixed-use surgical ICU (SICU) approach or exceed this limit and that trauma patients were more likely to exceed 50 mSv because of frequent diagnostic imaging.
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Current status and prospects for development of a vaccine against Trichomonas vaginalis infections.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted pathogen with an annual worldwide incidence of over 180 million infections, the highest of all curable and non-viral STI. In actuality this measure is a gross underestimation due to prevalence of asymptomatic cases, underdiagnosis and under-recognition by conventional diagnostic tools, and T. vaginalis as a non-reportable infection. Infection has significant implications on maternal and fetal health outcomes as well as higher probability of HIV transmission and susceptibility. Metronidazole resistance hinders the usefulness of implementing screening and treatment programs. Based on data from current vaccination studies in animal models, a human vaccine is achievable to intervene on the expanding incidence of infection.
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The impact of enriched environment and transplantation of murine cortical embryonic stem cells on recovery from controlled cortical contusion injury.
Restor. Neurol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The effectiveness of embryonic stem cell (eSC) therapy has been explored in many models of neurological disease and several research groups have shown that eSC treatment leads to improved outcomes in pre-clinical models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Though functional recovery occurs, few surviving eSCs appear to develop neuronal characteristics; instead the majority of the surviving eSC express glial phenotypes. Additionally, researchers have shown that enriching the post-surgical environment of the subject promotes functional recovery following TBI. The purpose of the current project was to determine if post-surgical environmental enrichment (EE) impacts the survival, migration, and integration of eSCs in a rodent model of TBI and if the presence of these cells lead to improved outcomes.
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Vitamin d insufficiency in patients with acute hip fractures of all ages and both sexes in a sunny climate.
J Orthop Trauma
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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To determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with hip fractures of all ages who live in the southwest United States.
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Ferritin-like family proteins in the anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis: when an oxygen storm is coming, take your iron to the shelter.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Bacteroides are gram-negative anaerobes and one of the most abundant members the lower GI tract microflora where they play an important role in normal intestinal physiology. Disruption of this commensal relationship has a great impact on human health and disease. Bacteroides spp. are significant opportunistic pathogens causing infections when the mucosal barrier integrity is disrupted following predisposing conditions such as GI surgery, perforated or gangrenous appendicitis, perforated ulcer, diverticulitis, trauma and inflammatory bowel diseases. B. fragilis accounts for 60-90 % of all anaerobic infections despite being a minor component of the genus (<1 % of the flora). Clinical strains of B. fragilis are among the most aerotolerant anaerobes. When shifted from anaerobic to aerobic conditions B. fragilis responds to oxidative stress by inducing the expression of an extensive set of genes involved in protection against oxygen derived radicals and iron homeostasis. In Bacteroides, little is known about the metal/oxidative stress interactions and the mobilization of intra-cellular non-heme iron during the oxidative stress response has been largely overlooked. Here we present an overview of the work carried out to demonstrate that both oxygen-detoxifying enzymes and iron-storage proteins are essential for B. fragilis to survive an adverse oxygen-rich environment. Some species of Bacteroides have acquired multiple homologues of the iron storage and detoxifying ferritin-like proteins but some species contain none. The proteins found in Bacteroides are classical mammalian H-type non-heme ferritin (FtnA), non-specific DNA binding and starvation protein (Dps) and the newly characterized bacterial Dps-Like miniferritin protein. The full contribution of ferritin-like proteins to pathophysiology of commensal and opportunistic pathogen Bacteroides spp. still remains to be elucidated.
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Structural-functional properties of identified excitatory and inhibitory interneurons within pre-Botzinger complex respiratory microcircuits.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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We comparatively analyzed cellular and circuit properties of identified rhythmic excitatory and inhibitory interneurons within respiratory microcircuits of the neonatal rodent pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), the structure generating inspiratory rhythm in the brainstem. We combined high-resolution structural-functional imaging, molecular assays for neurotransmitter phenotype identification in conjunction with electrophysiological property phenotyping, and morphological reconstruction of interneurons in neonatal rat and mouse slices in vitro. This approach revealed previously undifferentiated structural-functional features that distinguish excitatory and inhibitory interneuronal populations. We identified distinct subpopulations of pre-BötC glutamatergic, glycinergic, GABAergic, and glycine-GABA coexpressing interneurons. Most commissural pre-BötC inspiratory interneurons were glutamatergic, with a substantial subset exhibiting intrinsic oscillatory bursting properties. Commissural excitatory interneurons projected with nearly planar trajectories to the contralateral pre-BötC, many also with axon collaterals to areas containing inspiratory hypoglossal (XII) premotoneurons and motoneurons. Inhibitory neurons as characterized in the present study did not exhibit intrinsic oscillatory bursting properties, but were electrophysiologically distinguished by more pronounced spike frequency adaptation properties. Axons of many inhibitory neurons projected ipsilaterally also to regions containing inspiratory XII premotoneurons and motoneurons, whereas a minority of inhibitory neurons had commissural axonal projections. Dendrites of both excitatory and inhibitory interneurons were arborized asymmetrically, primarily in the coronal plane. The dendritic fields of inhibitory neurons were more spatially compact than those of excitatory interneurons. Our results are consistent with the concepts of a compartmental circuit organization, a bilaterally coupled excitatory rhythmogenic kernel, and a role of pre-BötC inhibitory neurons in shaping inspiratory pattern as well as coordinating inspiratory and expiratory activity.
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Misoprostol for postpartum hemorrhage prevention at home birth: an integrative review of global implementation experience to date.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Hemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. The 2012 World Health Organization guidelines for the prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) recommend oral administration of misoprostol by community health workers (CHWs). However, there are several outstanding questions about distribution of misoprostol for PPH prevention at home births.
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An integrative review of the side effects related to the use of magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia management.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is one of the most common causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low and middle income countries. Magnesium sulfate is the drug of choice for prevention of seizures as part of comprehensive management of the disease. Despite the compelling evidence for the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate, concern has been expressed about its safety and potential for toxicity, particularly among providers in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this review was to determine whether the literature published in these global settings supports the concerns about the safety of use of magnesium sulfate.
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Coagulation factor X shields adenovirus type 5 from attack by natural antibodies and complement.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) specifically binds coagulation factor X (FX), and FX is normally essential for intravenously injected Ad5 vectors to transduce the liver. We demonstrate that the ability of FX to enhance liver transduction by Ad5 vectors is due to an unexpected ability of FX to protect Ad5 from attack by the classical complement pathway. In vitro, naive mouse serum neutralized Ad5 when FX was blocked from binding Ad5. This neutralization was mediated by natural IgM and the classical complement pathway. In vivo, FX was essential for Ad5 vectors to transduce the livers of wild-type mice, but FX was not required for liver transduction in mice that lack antibodies, C1q or C4. We conclude that Ad5 recruits FX as a defense against complement and that the sensitivity of Ad5 to inactivation by complement must be taken into account when designing vectors for systemic gene therapy.
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A sub-Mercury-sized exoplanet.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Since the discovery of the first exoplanets, it has been known that other planetary systems can look quite unlike our own. Until fairly recently, we have been able to probe only the upper range of the planet size distribution, and, since last year, to detect planets that are the size of Earth or somewhat smaller. Hitherto, no planets have been found that are smaller than those we see in the Solar System. Here we report a planet significantly smaller than Mercury. This tiny planet is the innermost of three that orbit the Sun-like host star, which we have designated Kepler-37. Owing to its extremely small size, similar to that of the Moon, and highly irradiated surface, the planet, Kepler-37b, is probably rocky with no atmosphere or water, similar to Mercury.
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Generation of fatty acids from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cardiolipin liposomes that stabilize recombinant human serum albumin.
J Liposome Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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At elevated temperatures, studies have shown that serum albumin undergoes irreversible changes to its secondary structure. Anionic fatty acids and/or anionic surfactants have been shown to stabilize human serum albumin (HSA) against thermal denaturation through bridging hydrophobic domains and cationic amino acids residues of the protein.
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Technologies for imaging the normal and diseased pancreas.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The prognosis is poor for most patients with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, or other pancreatic diseases. Advances in pancreatic imaging could help identify these diseases at earlier stages, when they are easier to treat. Radiographic imaging and endoscopic imaging of the pancreas have progressed from the abdominal roentogram and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography to multi-detector computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic ultrasonography, and pancreatoscopy. These technologies have improved the diagnosis and treatment of benign disease but have not significantly increased our ability to detect early-stage disease or affect outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis. Advances in endoscopic imaging and molecular-based radiographic tests could allow physicians to identify pancreatic lesions and their precursors at earlier stages. Furthermore, research studies that include these tools could improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and identify diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. We review endoscopic imaging modalities, focusing on new endoscopic and molecular-based radiographic imaging tests that have the potential to substantially improve diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic disease.
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A small number of candidate gene SNPs reveal continental ancestry in African Americans.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Using genetic data from an obesity candidate gene study of self-reported African Americans and European Americans, we investigated the number of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) and candidate gene SNPs necessary to infer continental ancestry. Proportions of African and European ancestry were assessed with STRUCTURE (K = 2), using 276 AIMs. These reference values were compared to estimates derived using 120, 60, 30, and 15 SNP subsets randomly chosen from the 276 AIMs and from 1144 SNPs in 44 candidate genes. All subsets generated estimates of ancestry consistent with the reference estimates, with mean correlations greater than 0.99 for all subsets of AIMs, and mean correlations of 0.99 ± 0.003; 0.98 ± 0.01; 0.93 ± 0.03; and 0.81 ± 0.11 for subsets of 120, 60, 30, and 15 candidate gene SNPs, respectively. Among African Americans, the median absolute difference from reference African ancestry values ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 for the four AIMs subsets and from 0.03 to 0.09 for the four candidate gene SNP subsets. Furthermore, YRI/CEU Fst values provided a metric to predict the performance of candidate gene SNPs. Our results demonstrate that a small number of SNPs randomly selected from candidate genes can be used to estimate admixture proportions in African Americans reliably.
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Interventions to improve patient-centered care during times of emergency department crowding.
Acad Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Patient-centered care is defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) as care that is responsive to individual patient needs and values and that guides treatment decisions. This article is the result of a breakout session of the 2011 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Interventions to Assure Quality in the Crowded Emergency Department" and focuses on three broad domains of patient-centered care: patient satisfaction, patient involvement, and care related to patient needs.The working group provided background information and an overview of interventions that have been conducted in the domains of patient satisfaction, patient involvement (patients preferences and values in decision-making), and patient needs (e.g., comfort, information, education). Participants in the breakout session discussed interventions reported in the medical literature as well as initiated at their institutions, discussed the effect of crowding on patient-centered care, and prioritized, in a two-step voting process, five areas of focus for establishing a research agenda for studying patient-centered care during times of crowding. The research priorities for enhancing patient-centered care in all three domains during periods of crowding are discussed. These include assessing the effect of other quality domains on patient satisfaction and determining the effects of changes in ED operations on patient satisfaction; enhancing patient involvement by determining the effect of digital records and health information technology (HIT); rapid assessment areas with focused patient-provider communication; and meeting patients needs through flexible staffing, use of HIT to enhance patient communication, discharge instructions, and postdischarge telephone calls.
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HTR1B, ADIPOR1, PPARGC1A, and CYP19A1 and obesity in a cohort of Caucasians and African Americans: an evaluation of gene-environment interactions and candidate genes.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2011
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The World Health Organization estimates that the number of obese and overweight adults has increased to 1.6 billion, with concomitant increases in comorbidity. While genetic factors for obesity have been extensively studied in Caucasians, fewer studies have investigated genetic determinants of body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in African Americans. A total of 38 genes and 1,086 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans (n = 1,173) and 897 SNPs in Caucasians (n = 1,165) were examined in the Southern Community Cohort Study (2002-2009) for associations with BMI and gene × environment interactions. A statistically significant association with BMI survived correction for multiple testing at rs4140535 (? = -0.04, 95% confidence interval: -0.06, -0.02; P = 5.76 × 10(-5)) in African Americans but not in Caucasians. Gene-environment interactions were observed with cigarette smoking and a SNP in ADIPOR1 in African Americans, as well as between a different SNP in ADIPOR1 and physical activity in Caucasians. A SNP in PPARGC1A interacted with alcohol consumption in African Americans, and a different SNP in PPARGC1A was nominally associated in Caucasians. A SNP in CYP19A1 interacted with dietary energy intake in African Americans, and another SNP in CYP191A had an independent association with BMI in Caucasians.
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Risk modification of colorectal adenoma by CYP7A1 polymorphisms and the role of bile acid metabolism in carcinogenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, is a postulated gene modifier of colorectal cancer risk and target for the therapeutic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We investigated associations between CYP7A1 polymorphisms and fecal bile acids, colorectal adenoma (CRA), and UDCA efficacy for CRA prevention. Seven tagging, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in CYP7A1 were measured in 703 (355 UDCA, 348 placebo) participants of a phase III chemoprevention trial, of which 495 had known baseline fecal bile acid concentrations. In the placebo arm, participants with two minor G(rs8192871) alleles (tag for a low activity promoter polymorphism at -204) had lower odds of high secondary bile acids (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.10-0.69), and CRA at 3 years follow-up (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19-0.89), than AA carriers. Haplotype construction from the six polymorphic SNPs showed participants with the third most common haplotype (C(rs10957057)C(rs8192879)G(rs8192877)T(rs11786580)A(rs8192871)G(rs13251096)) had higher odds of high primary bile acids (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.12-4.89) and CRA (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.00-3.57) than those with the most common CTACAG haplotype. Furthermore, three SNPs (rs8192877, rs8192871, and rs13251096) each modified UDCA efficacy for CRA prevention, and CCGTAG-haplotype carriers experienced 71% lower odds of CRA recurrence with UDCA treatment, an effect not present for other haplotypes (test for UDCA-haplotype interaction, P = 0.020). Our findings support CYP7A1 polymorphisms as determinants of fecal bile acids and risk factors for CRA. Furthermore, UDCA efficacy for CRA prevention may be modified by genetic variation in CYP7A1, limiting treatment benefit to a subgroup of the population.
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Identification of biaryl sulfone derivatives as antagonists of the histamine H? receptor: discovery of (R)-1-(2-(4-(3-methoxypropylsulfonyl)biphenyl-4-yl)ethyl)-2-methylpyrrolidine (APD916).
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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The design of a new clinical candidate histamine-H(3) receptor antagonist for the potential treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is described. Phenethyl-R-2-methylpyrrolidine containing biphenylsulfonamide compounds were modified by replacement of the sulfonamide linkage with a sulfone. One compound from this series, 2j (APD916) increased wakefulness in rodents as measured by polysomnography with a duration of effect consistent with its pharmacokinetic properties. The identification of a suitable salt form of 2j allowed it to be selected for further development.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.