Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and diarrhea have been hallmarks in the diagnosis of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). We report 2 cases of genetically confirmed SDS in patients who presented with an unusual phenotype. Patient #1 presented with pancytopenia without other system involvement, while patient #2 presented with severe neutropenia, anemia, and a bifid thumb. Neither patient had diarrhea or malabsorption. Both patients had the classic heterozygous mutations c183_184 TA>CT and c.258+2 T>C in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome gene. Incomplete phenotypes may be more common than previously recognized in bone marrow failure syndromes; gastrointestinal symptoms should not be considered a prerequisite for SDS.
Stem cell transplantation can be associated with significant periods of thrombocytopenia, necessitating platelet transfusions and contributing to the risk of bleeding. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists have been shown to enhance platelet counts in other clinical settings, and so a phase 1 clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and maximum tolerated dose of once-daily eltrombopag in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation with conditioning regimens containing total body irradiation ?400 cGy. Eltrombopag was examined at dosage levels of 75, 150, 225, and 300 mg given orally once daily for 27 days, starting at 24 to 48 hours post-transplantation. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed over a 24-hour period after the first dose of eltrombopag, as well as during the second week of treatment (steady-state). Nineteen patients were enrolled, 15 of whom completed protocol treatments. Three patients completed each dose level up to 225 mg, and 6 completed treatment at the highest dose of 300 mg. Four patients were replaced because drug compliance was <75% of planned doses. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in this heterogeneous post-transplantation patient population. Common adverse events were related to standard stem cell transplantation. One episode of pulmonary embolus occurred 9 days after discontinuation of eltrombopag, and the only other thromboembolic episode was a grade 2 catheter-related clot. We conclude that up to 27 days of once-daily dosing of eltrombopag after stem cell transplantation is well tolerated.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is composed of 3% of pediatric leukemias, making evidence-based recommendations difficult. Imatinib has revolutionized the treatment for adult CML by eliminating allogeneic stem cell transplantation for almost all patients in chronic phase. Shown effective in pediatric CML, imatinib and successive tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have provided more therapeutic options. Because stem cell transplantation has been better tolerated in children and adolescents, the decision to treat by either TKI or transplantation is controversial. We present a recent case of a 12-month-old boy diagnosed with BCR-ABL(+) CML to highlight the controversies in treatment recommendations. We review the pediatric stem cell transplantation outcomes as well as the pediatric experience with imatinib and other TKIs. Finally, we compare the side effects as well as costs associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation versus TKI therapy. We recommend that frontline therapy for pediatric CML in chronic phase is TKI therapy without transplantation. Patients in accelerated or blast crisis or who fail to reach landmarks on TKIs either because of intolerance or resistance should pursue stem cell transplantation. Although we recommend adopting adult clinical experience to guide therapeutic decision making, the issues of infant CML, drug formulation, pharmacokinetics, and adolescent compliance merit clinical investigation.
We report 23 consecutive pediatric patients with MDS who received allogeneic HSCT on IRB approved protocols between 1992 and 2009 at Childrens Memorial Hospital (Chicago, IL). Nine patients had de novo MDS, whereas 14 patients had treatment-related MDS. All patients had a documented cytogenetic abnormality, and monosomy 7/7q- was seen in 12 patients (52%). Fourteen of 23 patients received a myeloablative conditioning regimen; RIC regimens were used for the remaining nine. Five patients relapsed post-transplant, including four patients who received RIC transplant and four patients with treatment-related MDS. For the entire group, estimated five-yr RFS and OS were 47% and 50%, respectively. Treatment-related MDS was associated with decreased RFS in comparison with de novo MDS (33% vs. 70%, p = 0.05). Five-year OS rates reached 80% for those with de novo MDS. RIC regimens were associated with decreased three-yr RFS in comparison with myeloablative regimens (22% vs. 68%, p = 0.02). There was no correlation of survival with blast count at diagnosis, IPSS score, cytogenetic abnormality, donor type, or HLA match. Larger series are needed to confirm prognostic factors so that higher-risk patients can be targeted with novel approaches.
We did a retrospective medical record and echocardiogram review of patients with history of anthracyclines and/or radiation seen in a long-term survivor clinic from 2000-2007.
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