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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Antitumor activity of acriflavine in lung adenocarcinoma cell line a549.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Aim/Materials and Methods: In order to develop better drugs against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we screened a variety of compounds and treated the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 with different drug concentrations. We then examined the cell viability using the MTT assay.
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Acetazolamide-related Life-threatening Hypophosphatemia in a Glaucoma Patient.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Acetazolamide-related hypophosphatemia leading to cardiac arrest is extremely rare. Herein we report a 78-year-old female glaucoma patient who developed general weakness and acute respiratory failure, followed by cardiac arrest 1 day after taking acetazolamide. The patient was successfully weaned from the ventilator after correction of hypophosphatemia and fully recovered. As acetazolamide was shown to have the potential to cause a lethal side effect in stable glaucoma, the risk of hypophosphatemia should be kept in mind by ophthalmologists. An examination of serum metabolic panels may be indicated in patients at risk of hypophosphatemia.
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Serum Osteoprotegerin is Associated with Arterial Stiffness Assessed According to the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in Hypertensive Patients.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Aim: Arterial stiffness is recognized to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have found that osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with increased pulse wave velocity and may reflect endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum OPG level and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). Methods: Fasting blood samples were obtained from 115 hypertensive patients and 52 healthy participants. The CAVI value was derived using the waveform device (CAVI-VaSera VS-1000). The serum OPG levels were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A CAVI value of ?9 defined the high arterial stiffness group. Results: Sixty-five hypertensive patients (56.5%) were included in the high arterial stiffness group. Diabetes (p=0.032), smoking (p=0.044), age (p?0.001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.024), pulse pressure (p=0.046) and the creatinine (p=0.013) and serum OPG (p?0.001) levels were higher in the high arterial stiffness group than in the low arterial stiffness group, while the glomerular filtration rate (p=0.003) was lower in the high arterial stiffness group than in the low arterial stiffness group among the hypertensive patients. The results of the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test also indicated a strong positive correlation between the OPG and CAVI values (r=0.484, p?0.001) in the hypertensive patients. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio: 1.136, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.053-1.225, p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio: 1.108, 95% CI: 1.035-1.187, p=0.003) and the logarithmically transformed OPG level (log-OPG; odds ratio: 3.740, 95% CI: 1.136-12.318, p=0.030) were independent predictors of arterial stiffness in the hypertensive patients. Conclusions: The serum OPG level is positively associated with arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.
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The Potential of Indole and a Synthetic Derivative for PolyQ Aggregation Reduction by Enhancement of the Chaperone and Autophagy Systems.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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In polyglutamine (polyQ)-mediated disorders, the expansion of translated CAG repeats in the disease genes result in long polyQ tracts in their respective proteins, leading to intracellular accumulation of aggregated polyQ proteins, production of reactive oxygen species, and cell death. The molecular chaperones act in preventing protein misfolding and aggregation, thus inhibiting a wide range of harmful downstream events. In the circumstance of accumulation of aggregated polyQ proteins, the autophagic pathway is induced to degrade the misfolded or aggregated proteins. In this study, we used Flp-In 293/SH-SY5Y cells with inducible SCA3 ATXN3/Q75-GFP expression to test the effect of indole and synthetic derivatives for neuroprotection. We found that ATXN3/Q75 aggregation can be significantly prohibited in Flp-In 293 cells by indole and derivative NC001-8. Meanwhile, indole and NC001-8 up-regulated chaperones and autophagy in the same cell models. Both of them further promote neurite outgrowth in neuronal differentiated SH-SY5Y ATXN3/Q75-GFP cells. Our results demonstrate how indole and derivative NC001-8 are likely to work in reduction of polyQ-aggregation and provide insight into the possible effectual mechanism of indole compounds in polyQ spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) patients. These findings may have therapeutic applications in a broad range of clinical situations.
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Leiomyosarcoma With Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Is Associated With Aggressive Histologic Features, Loss of ATRX Expression, and Poor Clinical Outcome.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with poor patient survival. Recently, it was shown that 53% to 62% of leiomyosarcomas use the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) as their telomere maintenance mechanism. The molecular basis of this mechanism has not been elucidated. Studies of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor have suggested that the inactivation of either ?-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated (DAXX) protein is associated with the ALT phenotype. In this study, we sought to determine the clinicopathologic features of leiomyosarcoma with the ALT phenotype and the possible relationship between this phenotype and ATRX/DAXX expression. Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) promoter mutation analysis was also performed. Ninety-two leiomyosarcomas derived from the uterus, retroperitoneum/intra-abdomen, and various other sites were analyzed. Telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that 59% (51/86) of leiomyosarcomas had the ALT phenotype. Loss of ATRX expression was observed in 33% of the tumors (30/92), and all but 2 ATRX-deficient tumors were ALT positive. Both the ALT phenotype and loss of ATRX expression were associated with epithelioid/pleomorphic cell morphology, tumor necrosis, and poor differentiation. None of the 92 cases lost DAXX expression. No TERT promoter mutation was detected (n=39). For survival analysis, poor differentiation, high FNCLCC grade, tumor size, and ALT phenotype were correlated with poor overall survival in univariate analysis. Tumor size and ALT phenotype remained independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. We concluded that the ALT phenotype in the leiomyosarcoma is associated with aggressive histologic features, loss of ATRX expression, and poor clinical outcome.
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Deactivation of TBP contributes to SCA17 pathogenesis.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia caused by the expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) within the TATA box-binding protein (TBP). Previous studies have shown that polyQ-expanded TBP forms neurotoxic aggregates and alters downstream genes. However, how expanded polyQ tracts affect the function of TBP and the link between dysfunctional TBP and SCA17 is not clearly understood. In this study, we generated novel Drosophila models for SCA17 that recapitulate pathological features such as aggregate formation, mobility defects and premature death. In addition to forming neurotoxic aggregates, we determined that polyQ-expanded TBP reduces its own intrinsic DNA-binding and transcription abilities. Dysfunctional TBP also disrupts normal TBP function. Furthermore, heterozygous dTbp amorph mutant flies exhibited SCA17-like phenotypes and flies expressing polyQ-expanded TBP exhibited enhanced retinal degeneration, suggesting that loss of TBP function may contribute to SCA17 pathogenesis. We further determined that the downregulation of TBP activity enhances retinal degeneration in SCA3 and Huntington's disease fly models, indicating that the deactivation of TBP is likely to play a common role in polyQ-induced neurodegeneration.
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Vancomycin-resistant Clostridium innocuum bacteremia following oral vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection.
Anaerobe
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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An 85 year-old male initially admitted for septic shock due to urinary tract infection experienced Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea during hospitalization and was treated by oral vancomycin. His clinical course was complicated by cytomegalovirus colitis and then vancomycin-resistant Clostridium innocuum bacteremia, which was cured by uneventfully parenteral piperacillin-tazobactam therapy.
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Identification of a Novel FN1-FGFR1 Genetic Fusion as a Frequent Event in Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumour.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours (PMT) are uncommon soft tissue and bone tumours that typically cause hypophosphataemia and tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) through secretion of phosphatonins including fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). PMT has recently been accepted by the World Health Organization as a formal tumour entity. The genetic basis and oncogenic pathways underlying its tumourigenesis remain obscure. In this study, we identified a novel FN1-FGFR1 fusion gene in 3 out of 4 PMTs by next-generation RNA sequencing. The fusion transcripts and proteins were subsequently confirmed with RT-PCR and western blotting. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis showed 6 cases with FN1-FGFR1 fusion, out of an additional 11 PMTs. Overall, 9 out of 15 PMTs (60%) harboured this fusion. The FN1 gene possibly provides its constitutively active promoter and the encoded protein's oligomerisation domains to over-express and facilitate the activation of the FGFR1 kinase domain. Interestingly, unlike the prototypical leukaemia-inducing FGFR1 fusion genes which are ligand-independent, the FN1-FGFR1 chimeric protein was predicted to preserve its ligand-binding domains, suggesting an advantage of the presence of its ligands (such as FGF23 secreted at high levels by the tumour) in the activation of the chimeric receptor tyrosine kinase, thus effecting an autocrine or paracrine mechanism of tumourigenesis.
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Extract of Antrodia camphorata exerts neuroprotection against embolic stroke in rats without causing the risk of hemorrhagic incidence.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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In this study, the neuroprotective effect of an extract of Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata), a fungus commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer, alone or in combination with aspirin was investigated in a rat embolic stroke model. An ischemic stroke was induced in rats by a selective occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with whole blood clots and then orally treated with A. camphorata (0.25 and 0.75 g/kg/day) alone and combined with aspirin (5 mg/kg/day). Sixty days later, the brains were removed, sectioned, and stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and analysed by a commercial image processing software program. Brain infarct volume, neurobehavioral score, cerebral blood perfusion, and subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage incidence were perceived. In addition, potential bleeding side effect of the combinative therapy was assessed by measuring hemoglobin (Hb) content during intracerebral hemorrhage and gastric bleeding, prothrombin time (PT), and occlusion time (OT) after oral administration. Posttreatment with high dose A. camphorata significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurobehavioral score (P < 0.05). Since A. camphorata alone or with aspirin did not alter the Hb level, this treatment is safe and does not cause hemorrhagic incident. Remarkably, the combination of A. camphorata and aspirin did not show a significant effect on the bleeding time, PT and OT increase suggesting that A. camphorata may have the neuroprotective effect without the prolongation of bleeding time or coagulation time. From these observations, we suggest that combinative therapy of A. camphorata and aspirin might offer enhanced neuroprotective efficacies without increasing side effects.
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Determinants of the public intent to receive the seasonal influenza vaccine and protective behaviors: A population-based study in Taiwan.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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this study aims to identify the determinants of perceived changes in protective behaviors against seasonal influenza and the intent to receive the seasonal influenza vaccine among Taiwanese in 2011.
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P2X7 is involved in the anti-inflammation effects of levobupivacaine.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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We sough to elucidate whether purinergic P2X7 receptor is actively involved in the effects of levobupivacaine on inhibiting microglia activation.
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Serum osteopontin level correlates with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in geriatric persons.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in the regulation of vascular calcification processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fasting serum OPN concentration and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in geriatric persons. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 93 geriatric persons. cfPWV were performed by SphygmoCor system. Serum OPN levels were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Geriatric adults who had diabetes (P = 0.007) or dyslipidemia (P = 0.029) had higher cfPWV levels than those without diabetes or dyslipidemia. The univariable linear regression analysis showed that age (P = 0.002), waist circumference (P = 0.048), body mass index (P = 0.004), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.036), pulse pressure (P = 0.017), creatinine (P = 0.002), and log-OPN level (P = 0.001) were positively correlated with cfPWV levels, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) level (P = 0.007) and glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.001) were negatively correlated with cfPWV levels among the geriatric adults. Multivariable forward stepwise linear regression analysis of the significant variables also showed that log-OPN (? = 0.233, R (2) = 0.123, regression coefficient: 1.868, P = 0.011) was still an independent predictor of cfPWV levels in geriatric persons.
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Aluminum overload hampers symptom improvement following parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Aluminum overload and accumulation in tissues may lead to skeletal, hematological, and neurological toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of serum aluminum levels on presentations, postoperative recovery, and symptom improvement in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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Hypoadiponectinemia correlates with arterial stiffness in kidney transplantation patients.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Adiponectin is a fat-derived hormone produced and secreted exclusively by adipocytes that have anti-atherosclerotic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fasting serum adiponectin levels and arterial stiffness among kidney transplant (KT) patients.
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Antitumor activity of acriflavine in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Patients suffering from advanced hepatocellular carcinoma can generally be treated only by targeted therapy to achieve a survival rate that lasts a few months more than that achieved with conventional therapy. To develop better drugs against hepatocellular carcinoma, we screened a variety of compounds and treated four human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with different drug concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results show that a new candidate drug, acriflavine (ACF), suppresses the viability of HCC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis reveals that ACF significantly induces the accumulation of a Sub-G1 population of Mahlavu cells. Moreover, ACF decreases Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activation. The content of cleaved poly-(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is significantly increased. These findings suggest that ACF suppresses HCC cell growth through the caspase-3 activation pathway. Compared to clinically-approved drugs, the IC50 of ACF (1 ?M) is nearly ten-fold lower than that of sorafenib (13 ?M). In the in vivo test, nude mice received Mahlavu cell xenografts subcutaneously and were randomly assigned into two groups: control and experimental groups. Treatment was initiated 3 days after implantation and intraperitoneal injection of 0.9 % normal saline or 2 mg/Kg of ACF was continued daily for five weeks. Tumors were palpable in vehicle-treated mice by day 3 and grew to approximately 2000 mm3 by the end of the experiment, whereas mice treated with ACF experience tumor growth to approximately 500 mm3. We, thus, suggest that ACF can inhibit cell growth in HCC cells. Our results may assist the delineation of the mechanism(s) leading to HCC cell growth inhibition and provide a new target therapy capable to prolong the survival rate of patients in advanced stage.
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Expression of heme oxygenase-1 correlates with tumor aggressiveness and BRAF(V600E) expression in thyroid cancer.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme participating in heme degradation. Recent studies indicate that HO-1 activation may play a role in tumor development and progression. In this study, we evaluated the expression of HO-1 in thyroid cancer and its clinicopathological significance.
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Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Higher oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine (LC, 1000 mg/d) on the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activities in CAD patients.
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Significance of Allelic Percentage of BRAF c.1799T > A (V600E) Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Somatic BRAF mutation is frequently observed in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Recent evidence suggests that PTCs are heterogeneous tumors containing a subclonal or oligoclonal occurrence of BRAF mutation. Conflicting results have been reported concerning the prognostic significance of the mutant allele frequency. Our present aim was to investigate the association between the percentage of BRAF c.1799T > A (p.Val600Glu) alleles and clinicopathological parameters in PTC.
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Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms predict the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a 10-year prospective follow-up study.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Little evidence is available regarding the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Angiotensin II plays a pathophysiologic role in prothrombotic atrial endocardial remodeling.
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Sanguis draconis, a dragon's blood resin, attenuates high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD), a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae), on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0-50 ?g/mL) assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48 h. Remarkably, SD (10-50 ?g/mL) significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50 mM) induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), nuclear transcription factor, ?B (NF-?B), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-?B/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation.
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Dystrophin is a tumor suppressor in human cancers with myogenic programs.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Many common human mesenchymal tumors, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS), feature myogenic differentiation. Here we report that intragenic deletion of the dystrophin-encoding and muscular dystrophy-associated DMD gene is a frequent mechanism by which myogenic tumors progress to high-grade, lethal sarcomas. Dystrophin is expressed in the non-neoplastic and benign counterparts of GIST, RMS and LMS tumors, and DMD deletions inactivate larger dystrophin isoforms, including 427-kDa dystrophin, while preserving the expression of an essential 71-kDa isoform. Dystrophin inhibits myogenic sarcoma cell migration, invasion, anchorage independence and invadopodia formation, and dystrophin inactivation was found in 96%, 100% and 62% of metastatic GIST, embryonal RMS and LMS samples, respectively. These findings validate dystrophin as a tumor suppressor and likely anti-metastatic factor, suggesting that therapies in development for muscular dystrophies may also have relevance in the treatment of cancer.
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Clinical impact of Clostridium difficile colonization.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Clostridium dif?cile can cause antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Asymptomatic colonization by C. difficile is common during the neonatal period and early infancy, ranging from 21% to 48%, and in childhood. The colonization rate of C. difficile in adult hospitalized patients shows geographic variation, ranging from 4.4% to 23.2%. Asymptomatic carriage in neonates caused no further disease in many studies, whereas adult patients colonized with toxigenic C. difficile were prone to the subsequent development of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). However, the carriage of nontoxigenic C. difficile strains appears to prevent CDAD in hamsters and humans. Risk factors for C. difficile colonization include recent hospitalization, exposure to antimicrobial agents or gastric acid-suppressing drugs (such as proton-pump inhibitors and H2 blockers), a history of CDAD or cytomegalovirus infection, the presence of an underlying illness, receipt of immunosuppressants, the presence of antibodies against toxin B, and Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms. Asymptomatic C. difficile carriers are associated with significant skin and environmental contamination, similar to those with CDAD, and contact isolation and hand-washing practices should therefore be employed as infection control policies for the prevention of C. difficile spread. Treating patients with asymptomatic C. difficile colonization with metronidazole or vancomycin is not suggested by the currently available evidence. In conclusion, asymptomatic C. difficile colonization may lead to skin and environmental contamination by C. difficile, but more attention should be paid to the clinical impact of those with C. difficile colonization.
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Clostridium difficile ribotype 126 in southern Taiwan: A cluster of three symptomatic cases.
Anaerobe
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Several virulent Clostridium difficile clones, designated as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotypes 017, 027, or 078, are well recognized in western countries. However, the ribotype distribution of clinical C. difficile isolates in Taiwan remains unclear.
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Aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza inflata inhibits aggregation by upregulating PPARGC1A and NFE2L2-ARE pathways in cell models of spinocerebellar ataxia 3.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 17 and dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy, as well as Huntington disease, are a group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by a CAG triplet-repeat expansion encoding a long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the respective mutant proteins. The cytoplasmic and nuclear aggregate formation, a pathological hallmark of polyQ diseases, is probably the initial process triggering the subsequent pathological events. Compromised oxidative stress defense capacity and mitochondrial dysfunction have emerged as contributing factors to the pathogenesis of polyQ diseases. The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza species) have long been used as an herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate the aggregate-inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza inflata herb extract and its constituents licochalcone A and ammonium glycyrrhizinate (AMGZ) in both 293 and SH-SY5Y ATXN3/Q75 cells, SCA3 cell models. The reporter assay showed that G. inflata herb extract, licochalcone A, and AMGZ could enhance the promoter activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, coactivator 1? (PPARGC1A), a known regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidative response genes. G. inflata extract, licochalcone A, and AMGZ upregulated PPARGC1A expression and its downstream target genes, SOD2 and CYCS, in the 293 ATXN3/Q75 cell model. The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2), the principal transcription factor that binds to antioxidant-responsive elements (AREs) to promote ARE-dependent gene expression when the cells respond to oxidative stress, and its downstream genes, HMOX1, NQO1, GCLC, and GSTP1, was also increased by G. inflata herb extract, licochalcone A, and AMGZ. Knockdown of PPARGC1A increased aggregates in ATXN3/Q75 cells and also attenuated the aggregate-inhibiting effect of the tested compounds. G. inflata extract and its constituents significantly elevated GSH/GSSG ratio and reduced reactive oxidative species in ATXN3/Q75 cells. The study results suggest that the tested agents activate PPARGC1A activity and NFE2L2-ARE signaling to increase mitochondrial biogenesis, decrease oxidative stress, and reduce aggregate formation in SCA3 cellular models.
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Association between parathyroid hormone levels and inflammatory markers among US adults.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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High levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) appear to be associated with an increased mortality. Previous studies concerning the relationship of inflammatory markers with hyperparathyroidism have yielded inconsistent results. This study investigated whether serum PTH concentrations were independently associated with several inflammatory markers among the US adults.
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No evidence of association between human cytomegalovirus infection and papillary thyroid cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been detected in the thyroid gland and thyroid tumors. CMV infection may activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, of which aberrant activation is frequently associated with BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer.
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Variant R244H in Na+/Mg2+ exchanger SLC41A1 in Taiwanese Parkinson's disease is associated with loss of Mg2+ efflux function.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Sequence variants in SLC41A1 have been reported to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates whether the genetic variants in SLC41A1 contribute to Taiwanese PD.
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N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level inversely associates with metabolic syndrome in elderly persons.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was lower in the general population with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between MetS and fasting serum NT-proBNP concentration in elderly persons.
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Connective tissue growth factor and cardiac diastolic dysfunction: human data from the Taiwan diastolic heart failure registry and molecular basis by cellular and animal models.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an emerging marker for tissue fibrosis. We investigated the association between CTGF and cardiac diastolic function using cellular and animal models and clinical human data.
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Prognostic factors of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a 12-year prospective cohort follow-up study.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Although heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinically important issue, the factors that affect its prognosis are still unclear. The aim of this study was to establish prognostic factors and develop a severity scale for the disease based on a long-term follow-up cohort of HFpEF patients.
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Aqueous extract of Gardenia jasminoides targeting oxidative stress to reduce polyQ aggregation in cell models of spinocerebellar ataxia 3.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), caused by expanded CAG repeats encoding a long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the respective proteins, are characterized by the accumulation of intranuclear and cytoplasmic misfolded polyQ aggregation that leads to cell death. Suppression of aggregate formation can inhibit a wide range of downstream pathogenic events and is expected to be a therapeutic strategy for SCAs. Here we show the anti-aggregation potential of Gardenia jasminoides (G. jasminoides) and its components/metabolite geniposide, crocin, and genipin, in ATXN3/Q75-GFP 293 cells, a putative SCA3 cell model. We found the aggregation can be significantly prohibited by G. jasminoides, genipin, geniposide and crocin. Meanwhile, G. jasminoides, genipin, geniposide, and crocin up-regulated anti-oxidative markers NFE2L2, NQO1, GCLC and GSTP1, and reduced the production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) in the same cell models. All of them further inhibited the aggregation in neurally differentiated SH-SY5Y ATXN3/Q75-GFP cells. Our results demonstrate that G. jasminoides, genipin, geniposide and crocin work on polyQ-aggregation reduction by suppressing ROS. These findings indicate the therapeutic applications of G. jasminoides in treating SCAs. Furthermore, oxidative stress inhibition could be a good target for drug development of anti-polyQ aggregation.
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Anti-anxiety drugs use and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction: a national wide assessment.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Anti-anxiety medication in patients with anxiety may lessen the stress and thereby lower their risk for myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of current study is to examine an association between the use of anti-anxiety medication and long-term mortality risk in patients following MI.
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Downregulation of proteins involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and Nrf2-ARE signaling in lymphoblastoid cells of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the TATA-box binding protein gene. Studies of several polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion diseases have suggested that the expanded polyQ proteins misfold and induce oxidative stress to contribute to cell death. Substantial deficits in peripheral tissues including lymphocytes have been shown and these peripheral abnormalities could also be found in neurons possessing polyQ disease proteins. In this study, we used a lymphoblastoid cell model to investigate the functional implication of SCA17 expanded alleles and assess the potential therapeutic strategies that may ameliorate the effects of expanded polyQ. Proteomics studies of patient/control pairs including two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were conducted. A total of 8 proteins with reduced expression changes greater than 1.3-fold were identified, including previously reported HSPA5 and HSPA8. Among 6 proteins further semi-quantified by immunoblotting and real-time PCR, the reduced expression of HYOU1, PDIA3, P4HB, NQO1 and HMOX1 was confirmed. Treatment with resveratrol and genipin up-regulated NQO1 and HMOX1 expression and reduced oxidative stress in patients' lymphoblastoid cells. The results illustrate downregulation of proteins involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response (HYOU1, HSPA5, PDIA3, and P4HB) and Nrf2-ARE signaling (NQO1 and HMOX1) in SCA17 lymphoblastoid cells. Compounds increasing anti-oxidative activity such as resveratrol and genipin may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for SCA17.
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Association of serum osteoprotegerin levels with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in hypertensive patients.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has been implicated in the process of vascular stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fasting serum OPG concentration and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV) in hypertensive patients. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 184 participants with or without hypertension. c-f PWV were performed by SphygmoCor system. Serum OPG levels were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hypertensive patients who had diabetes had higher c-f PWV levels than those without diabetes (P=.031). The univariable linear regression analysis showed that age (P<.001), systolic blood pressure (P=.003), pulse pressure (r=0.287; P=.003), log-BUN (P=.011), Cre (P<.001), and log-OPG concentration (P<.001) were positively correlated with c-f PWV levels, while the glomerular filtration rate (P=.005) and HDL-C level (P=.024) was negatively correlated with c-f PWV levels among the hypertensive patients. Multivariable forward stepwise linear regression analysis of the significant variables also showed that log-OPG (?=0.312, regression coefficient: 1.736; 95% confidence interval, 0.809-2.663; P<.001) was still an independent predictor of c-f PWV levels in hypertensive patients. Serum OPG levels positively associated with c-f PWV levels in hypertensive patients.
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Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes.
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Distinct modes of transmission of tuberculosis in aboriginal and non-aboriginal populations in taiwan.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tuberculosis incidence among aborigines is significantly higher than for Han Chinese in Taiwan, but the extent to which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain characteristics contribute to this difference is not well understood. MTB isolates from aborigines and Han Chinese living in eastern and southern Taiwan, the major regions of aborigines, were analyzed by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. In eastern Taiwan, 60% of aboriginal patients were ?20 years old, significantly younger than the non-aboriginal patients there; aborigines were more likely to have clustered MTB isolates than Han Chinese (odds ratio (OR)?=?5.98, p<0.0001). MTB lineages with high clustering were EAI (54.9%) among southern people, and Beijing (62.5%) and Haarlem (52.9%) among eastern aborigines. Resistance to first-line drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR) were significantly higher among eastern aborigines (?15%) than in any other geographic and ethnic group (p<0.05); MDR was detected in 5 of 28 eastern aboriginal patients ?20 years old. Among patients from the eastern region, clustered strains (p?=?0.01) and aboriginal ethnicity (p?=?0.04) were independent risk factors for MDR. The lifestyles of aborigines in eastern Taiwan may explain why the percentage of infected aborigines is much higher than for their Han Chinese counterparts. The significantly higher percentage of the MDR-MTB strains in the aboriginal population warrants close attention to control policy and vaccination strategy.
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Indole and synthetic derivative activate chaperone expression to reduce polyQ aggregation in SCA17 neuronal cell and slice culture models.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17), the expansion of a translated CAG repeat in the TATA box binding protein (TBP) gene results in a long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the TBP protein, leading to intracellular accumulation of aggregated TBP and cell death. The molecular chaperones act in preventing protein aggregation to ameliorate downstream harmful events. In this study, we used Tet-On SH-SY5Y cells with inducible SCA17 TBP/Q79-green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression to test indole and synthetic derivative NC001-8 for neuroprotection. We found that indole and NC001-8 up-regulated chaperone expression to reduce polyQ aggregation in neuronal differentiated TBP/Q79 cells. The effects on promoting neurite outgrowth and on reduction of aggregation on Purkinje cells were also confirmed with cerebellar primary and slice cultures of SCA17 transgenic mice. Our results demonstrate how indole and derivative NC001-8 reduce polyQ aggregation to support their therapeutic potentials in SCA17 treatment.
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FBXO7 Y52C polymorphism as a potential protective factor in Parkinson's disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mutations in the F-box only protein 7 gene (FBXO7), the substrate-specifying subunit of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, cause Parkinson's disease (PD)-15 (PARK15). To identify new variants, we sequenced FBXO7 cDNA in 80 Taiwanese early onset PD patients (age at onset ? 50) and only two known variants, Y52C (c.155A>G) and M115I (c.345G>A), were found. To assess the association of Y52C and M115I with the risk of PD, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of PD and ethnically matched controls. There was a nominal difference in the Y52C G allele frequency between PD and controls (p = 0.045). After combining data from China [1], significant difference in the Y52C G allele frequency between PD and controls (p = 0.012) and significant association of G allele with decreased PD risk (p = 0.017) can be demonstrated. Upon expressing EGFP-tagged Cys52 FBXO7 in cells, a significantly reduced rate of FBXO7 protein decay was observed when compared with cells expressing Tyr52 FBXO7. In silico modeling of Cys52 exhibited a more stable feature than Tyr52. In cells expressing Cys52 FBXO7, the level of TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) was significantly reduced. Moreover, Cys52 FBXO7 showed stronger interaction with TRAF2 and promoted TRAF2 ubiquitination, which may be responsible for the reduced TRAF2 expression in Cys52 cells. After induced differentiation, SH-SY5Y cells expressing Cys52 FBXO7 displayed increased neuronal outgrowth. We therefore hypothesize that Cys52 variant of FBXO7 may contribute to reduced PD susceptibility in Chinese.
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Glycemic control and radiographic manifestations of tuberculosis in diabetic patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have previously been reported, with inconsistent results. We conducted a study to investigate whether glycemic control has an impact on radiographic manifestations of pulmonary TB.
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Effects of Age and Diabetes Mellitus on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.
Surg Infect (Larchmt)
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Abstract Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis is the most common complication and the leading cause of technique failure for patients on PD therapy. The aim of this study was to review the episodes and outcomes of PD-related peritonitis, with special reference to the effects of age and diabetes status. Methods: The study comprised 204 consecutive peritonitis episodes between January 2001 and June 2011 from our registry database. Factors associated with treatment failure and mortality were analyzed with multi-variable logistic regression modeling. Results: The overall peritonitis rate was one episode per 65 patient-months or 0.187 episodes/patient-year. Older patients had lower probability of remaining free of peritonitis (log rank, p<0.001). Elderly patients and diabetic subjects had a higher risk of peritonitis-related dropout. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.37; p=0.041), diabetes mellitus (OR, 3.64; p=0.005), and gram-negative peritonitis (OR, 3.55; p=0.011) were independent determinants of catheter removal. Age (OR, 1.93; p=0.026) and diabetes (OR, 5.98; p=0.015) were the only predictors of death from peritonitis. Conclusions: Old age and diabetes mellitus are two major risk factors for adverse outcomes of PD-related peritonitis. Although they are not contraindications to PD, our results suggest that these patients need meticulous care when peritonitis occurs.
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Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in aboriginal peoples of Taiwan, 2006-2011.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Previous research revealed a 6-fold higher incidence of tuberculosis (TB) amongst aborigines compared to Han Chinese in Taiwan. To investigate the reasons for this disparity, we genotyped Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains obtained from members of different aboriginal tribes in different geographical regions of Taiwan by using molecular methods. In total, 177 isolates of MTB collected from patients at four hospitals in Taiwan from January 2006 to December 2011 were analysed by spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. The most prevalent strains in the eastern and central regions of Taiwan were Beijing (45.7% in eastern) and Haarlem (39.1% in eastern, 37.1% in central) lineages, whereas in southern regions the most prevalent strains were EAI (47.7%) and Haarlem (20.5%) lineages. The high prevalence of EAI in southern Taiwan aborigines may be closely associated with Austronesian culture. This study provides a first overview of the M. tuberculosis strains circulating in aboriginal populations in Taiwan. The high prevalences of certain MTB lineages within aboriginal sub-populations suggest that transmission of MTB may have been restricted to close contacts.
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Risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients receiving levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, or moxifloxacin in Taiwan.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Observational studies and fatal case reports raise concern about the safety of severe dysglycemia associated with fluoroquinolone use. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients who received different fluoroquinolones.
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Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation (300 mg/day) on antioxidation and anti-inflammation in coronary artery disease patients during statins therapy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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High oxidative stress and chronic inflammation can contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Coenzyme Q10 is an endogenous lipid-soluble antioxidant. Statins therapy can reduce the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a coenzyme Q10 supplement (300 mg/d; 150 mg/b.i.d) on antioxidation and anti-inflammation in patients who have CAD during statins therapy.
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Serum atrial natriuretic peptide level inversely associates with metabolic syndrome in older adults.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a potent lipolytic agent that acts in adipose tissue. Low levels of ANP might lead to reduced lipolysis and excessive weight gain, which could be one of the biological alterations that contribute to the development of obesity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and fasting serum ANP concentrations in older adults.
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HTRA2 variations in Taiwanese Parkinsons disease.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Mutations in HTRA2 have been reported to associate with Parkinsons disease (PD). This study investigates if the genetic variants in HTRA2 contribute to Taiwanese PD. HTRA2 cDNA fragments from 80 patients with early-onset PD (onset ?50 years) were sequenced. The identified variants were further examined for a cohort of PD and ethnically matched controls. A novel heterozygous R36W was identified in one early-onset and two late-onset PD patients, which was absent in 606 normal controls. The clinical features and 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT image of the early-onset patient carrying R36W were similar to that of idiopathic PD. The R36W mutation of the patient was inherited from his mother whose SPECT revealed asymmetric reduction of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 uptake in the left striatum, suggesting that the defect of the nigrostriatal pathway may be attributable to the R36W in this family. Protein subcellular fractionation further revealed that R36W affected the processing of the proprotein after transport into mitochondria. Although the functional assays are promising, a larger cohort of both cases and controls should be screened to clarify the role of R36W in Taiwanese PD pathogenicity.
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Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population.
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N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is associated with arterial stiffness measured using the cardio-ankle vascular index in renal transplant recipients.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Arterial stiffness is an established cardiovascular risk marker and an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in various groups of patients, including renal transplant recipients. Recent studies have noted that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) acts as a local paracrine molecule that modulates endothelial permeability and regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) level and arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients.
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Evaluation of the Cobas TaqMan MTB real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory specimens.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The Cobas TaqMan MTB assay is a real-time PCR (qPCR) kit for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical specimens. There are, however, limited studies validating its performance. We performed a prospective study in two hospitals in Taiwan on 586 respiratory specimens. By using culture as the reference method, the sensitivity and specificity of the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay were found to be 82.7 and 96.5?%, respectively. The sensitivity of the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay in acid-fast stain-negative respiratory specimens was only 34.9?%. Five specimens from five patients were positive for M. tuberculosis by the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay but were negative for M. tuberculosis by conventional culture methods. A diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was made based on clinical and radiological findings as well as the response to anti-TB treatment in these five patients. Addition of data from these five specimens with discrepant results (PCR vs culture) from patients with symptoms clinically compatible with TB increased the sensitivity of the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay to 83.1?%. The Cobas TaqMan MTB assay is a rapid identification tool with a high degree of specificity for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in respiratory specimens. The sensitivity for detecting acid-fast smear-negative respiratory specimens, however, is low.
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Risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea among hospitalized adults with fecal toxigenic C. difficile colonization.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Patients with toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization (tCDC) are at risk of developing C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). However, the risk factors of hospitalized patients with tCDC developing CDAD are not clear.
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Heavy ethanol intoxication increases proinflammatory cytokines and aggravates hemorrhagic shock-induced organ damage in rats.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following acute alcohol intoxication can increase proinflammatory cytokine production and induce marked immunosuppression. We investigated the effects of ethanol on physiopathology and cytokine levels following HS in acutely alcohol-intoxicated rats. Rats received an intravenous injection of 5?g/kg ethanol over 3?h followed by HS induced by withdrawal of 40% of total blood volume from a femoral arterial catheter over 30?min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously for 48?h after the start of blood withdrawal. Biochemical parameters, including hemoglobin, ethanol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), were measured at 30?min before induction of HS and 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 48?h after HS. Serum tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF- ? ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured at 1 and 12?h after HS. The liver, kidneys, and lungs were removed for pathology at 48?h later. HS significantly increased HR, blood GOT, GPT, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, TNF- ? , and IL-6 levels and decreased hemoglobin and MAP in rats. Acute ethanol intoxication further increased serum levels of GOT, GPT, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, TNF- ? and IL-6 elevation following HS. Acutely intoxicated rats exacerbated the histopathologic changes in the liver, kidneys, and lungs following HS.
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Metabolic syndrome and abdominal fat are associated with inflammation, but not with clinical outcomes, in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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BACKGROUND: In the general population, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is correlated with visceral fat and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about the significance of abdominal fat and its association with inflammation and medication use in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We investigated the relationship of visceral fat area (VFA) with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and medication use in PD patients and followed their clinical outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective study from February 2009 to February 2012, we assessed diabetes mellitus (DM) status, clinical and PD-associated characteristics, medication use, CRP levels, components of MetS, and VFA in 183 PD patients. These patients were categorized into 3 groups based on MetS and DM status: non-MetS (group 1, n = 73), MetS (group 2, n = 65), and DM (group 3, n = 45). VFA was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) and corrected for body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Patients in group 1 had smaller VFAs than patients in groups 2 and 3 (3.2 +/- 1.8, 4.6 +/- 1.9, and 4.9 +/- 2.0 cm2/[kg/m2], respectively, P < 0.05) and lower CRP levels (0.97 +/- 2.31, 1.27 +/- 2.57, and 1.11 +/- 1.35 mg/dL, respectively, P < 0.05). VFA increased with the number of criteria met for MetS. After adjusting for age, body weight, and sex, CRP and albumin levels functioned as independent positive predictors of VFA; on other hand, the use of renin-angiotensin system blockers was inversely correlated with VFA in PD patients without DM. In the survival analysis, DM patients (group 3) had the poorest survival among the 3 groups, but no significant differences were found between groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: This study showed that VFA and MetS are associated with CRP levels but cannot predict survival in PD patients without DM. The complex relationship of nutritional parameters to VFA and MetS may explain these results. The type of antihypertensive medication used was also associated with the VFA. The mechanisms behind these findings warrant further investigation.
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Parathyroidectomy improves symptomatology and quality of life in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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The parathyroidectomy assessment of symptoms (PAS) score was designed initially for primary hyperparathyroidism to provide a specific symptom assessment and was validated later in secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of our study was to evaluate changes in the PAS scores and quality of life before and after parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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Calcitriol decreases TGF-?1 and angiotensin II production and protects against chlorhexide digluconate-induced liver peritoneal fibrosis in rats.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Peritoneal fibrosis is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis that can lead to ultrafiltration failure. This study investigates the protective effects of calcitriol on chlorhexidine digluconate-induced peritoneal fibrosis in rats. Peritoneal fibrosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by daily administration of 0.5mL 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate in normal saline via peritoneal dialysis for 1week. Rats received daily intravenous injections of calcitriol (low-dose, 10ng/kg; or high-dose, 100ng/kg) for 1week. After 7days, conventional 4.25% Dianeal (30mL) was administered via peritoneal dialysis over 4h. Peritoneal solute transport was calculated from the dialysate concentration relative to its concentration in the initial infused dialysis solution (D4/D0 glucose) for glucose, and the dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio (D4/P4 urea) at 4h for urea. Rats were then sacrificed and the liver peritoneum was harvested for immunohistochemical analysis via microscopy. After dialysis, the D4/P4 Urea level was reduced; increases were observed in the D4/D0 glucose level and the levels of active transforming growth factor-?1 and angiotensin II in serum and dialysate; the liver peritoneum and muscle peritoneum was markedly thickened, and the expression of ?-SMA, fibronectin, collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiotensin II, transforming growth factor-?1, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (P-Smad2/3)-positive cells in the liver peritoneum was elevated in the peritoneal fibrosis group compared with the vehicle group. Calcitriol decreased the serum and dialysate active transforming growth factor-?1 and angiotensin II level, decreased the thickness of the liver peritoneum and muscle peritoneum, and decreased the expression of ?-SMA, fibronectin, collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor, angiotensin II, transforming growth factor-?1, and P-Smad2/3-positive cells in liver peritoneum cells. High-dose calcitriol exhibited better protective effects against peritoneal fibrosis than did the lower dose. Calcitriol protected against chlorhexidine digluconate-induced peritoneal fibrosis in rats by decreasing transforming growth factor-?1 and angiotensin II production.
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Association between PARK16 and Parkinsons disease in the Han Chinese population: a meta-analysis.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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PARK16 was reported to alter the risk for Parkinsons disease (PD) in the Japanese population. However, its role in Han Chinese PD patients has not been well established. Herein, we investigated the effect of 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PARK16 locus, including rs823128, rs947211, rs823156, and rs11240572, on the risk of PD by genotyping 497 Taiwanese patients with PD and 500 age-matched control subjects. The results were then meta-analyzed with available genetic association studies in the same population. The meta-analysis showed that PD patients demonstrated a lower frequency of the rs823128 G allele (11.93%) than control subjects (14.04%; odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.96, p = 0.010). The frequency of the rs947211 A allele (40.35%) in PD patients was lower than in control subjects (43.01%; OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-0.99, p = 0.047). The rs823156 G allele was less frequently seen in PD patients (17.32%) than in control subjects (21.35%; OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.86, p < 0.001). A lower frequency of the rs11240572 A allele was found in PD patients (14.01%) than in control subjects (17.66%; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.88, p < 0.001). Our results indicate a robust protective effect of PARK16 in Han Chinese PD patients. Functional approaches are needed to elucidate the effects of these SNPs on the regulation of gene expression.
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Inverse association of long-acting natriuretic peptide with metabolic syndrome in congestive heart failure patients.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP) is one of the peptide hormones in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) pro-hormone. Low levels of natriuretic peptide may lead to reduced lipolysis and excessive weight gain in obese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fasting serum LANP level and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among congestive heart failure (CHF) patients.
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Low serum long-acting natriuretic peptide level correlates with metabolic syndrome in hypertensive patients: a cross-sectional study.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP) is one of the peptide hormones in atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) prohormone. Its biological properties are blood pressure regulation, maintenance of plasma volume and anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and fasting serum LANP concentration in hypertensive patients.
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Dedifferentiated liposarcoma with homologous lipoblastic differentiation: expanding the spectrum to include low-grade tumours.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) is traditionally defined as a non-lipogenic high-grade sarcoma arising from a well-differentiated liposarcoma that confers metastatic potential. Recently, DDLPSs with lipoblastic differentiation, i.e. morphologically lipogenic DDLPSs, were reported. Because of the lipoblastic differentiation, these tumours caused confusion, and were reported under different names. However, cytogenetic and molecular studies have revealed their DDLPS nature. So far, the cases reported have been high-grade pleomorphic liposarcoma-like tumours. In this study we have collected another series that contains low-grade tumours, and expand the histological spectrum.
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Genetic variation-optimized treatment benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a 12-year follow-up study.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between renin-angiotensin system genotypes and the pharmacogenetics of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Andrographis paniculata and Its Major Bioactive Phytoconstituent Andrographolide.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Nees, generally known as "king of bitters," is an herbaceous plant in the family Acanthaceae. In China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia, this plant has been widely used for treating sore throat, flu, and upper respiratory tract infections. Andrographolide, a major bioactive chemical constituent of the plant, has shown anticancer potential in various investigations. Andrographolide and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models asthma, stroke, and arthritis. In recent years, pharmaceutical chemists have synthesized numerous andrographolide derivatives, which exhibit essential pharmacological activities such as those that are anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antitumor, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, antifeedant, and antiviral. However, what is noteworthy about this paper is summarizing the effects of andrographolide against cardiovascular disease, platelet activation, infertility, and NF- ? B activation. Therefore, this paper is intended to provide evidence reported in relevant literature on qualitative research to assist scientists in isolating and characterizing bioactive compounds.
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Nuclear expression of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 and nuclear factor-?B is associated with a poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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We investigated the association of the hedgehog pathway with nuclear factor (NF)-?B and clinical outcomes in pancreatic cancer patients.
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Effectiveness of a government-organized and hospital-initiated treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients--a retrospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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In contrast to the conventional model of hospital-treated and government directly observed treatment (DOT) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patient care, the Taiwan MDR-TB Consortium (TMTC) was launched in May 2007 with the collaboration of five medical care groups that have provided both care and DOT. This study aimed to determine whether the TMTC provided a better care model for MDR-TB patients than the conventional model.
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Aqueous Extract of Paeonia lactiflora and Paeoniflorin as Aggregation Reducers Targeting Chaperones in Cell Models of Spinocerebellar Ataxia 3.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 17 as well as Huntingtons disease are a group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by expanded CAG repeats encoding a long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the respective proteins. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of intranuclear and cytoplasmic misfolded polyQ proteins leads to apoptosis and cell death. Thus suppression of aggregate formation is expected to inhibit a wide range of downstream pathogenic events in polyQ diseases. In this study, we established a high-throughput aggregation screening system using 293 ATXN3/Q75-GFP cells and applied this system to test the aqueous extract of Paeonia lactiflora (P. lactiflora) and its constituents. We found that the aggregation can be significantly prohibited by P. lactiflora and its active compound paeoniflorin. Meanwhile, P. lactiflora and paeoniflorin upregulated HSF1 and HSP70 chaperones in the same cell models. Both of them further reduced the aggregation in neuronal differentiated SH-SY5Y ATXN3/Q75-GFP cells. Our results demonstrate how P. lactiflora and paeoniflorin are likely to work on polyQ-aggregation reduction and provide insight into the possible working mechanism of P. lactiflora in SCA3. We anticipate our paper to be a starting point for screening more potential herbs for the treatment of SCA3 and other polyQ diseases.
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TEMPORARY REMOVAL: Association between the levels of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and aldosterone in patients with primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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Association between GRN rs5848 polymorphism and Parkinsons disease in Taiwanese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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A single nucleotide polymorphism GRN rs5848 (3UTR+78 C>T) was reported to alter the risk for frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Herein, we investigated the effect of GRN rs5848 on the risk of Parkinsons disease (PD) by genotyping 573 Taiwanese patients with PD and 490 age-matched control subjects. Compared to subjects with CC genotype, those with TT genotype had a 1.58-fold increased risk of PD (95% CI: 1.77?2.34, P?=?0.021). PD patients demonstrate a higher frequency of T allele (37.2%) than controls (32.2%; odds ratio [OR]?=?1.24, 95% CI: 1.04?1.49, P?=?0.017). This susceptibility was particularly observed in female subjects, in which TT genotype had a 2.16-fold increased risk of PD as compared with controls(95% CI: 1.24?3.78, P?=?0.006). The frequency of T allele (39.3%) in female PD patients was higher than in female control subjects (31.1%; OR?=?1.43, CI: 1.11?1.87, P?=?0.007). No association was observed between GRN rs5848 and susceptibility in male subjects. These findings show that the GRN rs5848 TT genotype and T allele are risk factors for female Taiwanese patients with PD.
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Outcome correlation of smear-positivity for acid-fast bacilli at the fifth month of treatment in non-multidrug-resistant TB.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Sputum samples from patients with non-multidrug-resistant (non-MDR) pulmonary TB may remain smear-positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) at the fifth month of anti-TB treatment. However, its significance remains unknown.
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Genetic Variants ofLRRK2 in Taiwanese Parkinsons Disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Genetic variants of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) were reported to alter the risk for Parkinsons disease (PD). However, the genetic spectrum of LRRK2 variants has not been clearly disclosed yet in Taiwanese population. Herein, we sequenced LRRK2 coding region in 70 Taiwanese early onset PD patients (age at onset ? 50), and found six amino acid-changing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, N551K, R1398H, R1628P, S1647T, G2385R and M2397T), one reported (R1441H) and 2 novel missense (R767H and S885N) mutations. We examined the frequency of identified LRRK2 variants by genotyping 573 Taiwanese patients with PD and 503 age-matched control subjects. The results showed that PD patients demonstrated a higher frequency of G2385R A allele (4.6%) than control subjects (2.1%; odds ratio = 2.27, 95% confidence interval: 1.38-3.88, P = 0.0017). Fewer PD patients (27.7%) carried the 1647T-2397T haplotype as compared with the control subjects (33.0%; odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.97, P = 0.0215). However, the frequency of 1647T-2385R-2397T haplotype (4.3%) in PD patients was still higher than in control subjects (1.9%, odds ratio: 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.27-3.78, P = 0.0058). While no additional subject was found to carry R767H and R1441H, one more patient was observed to carry the S885N variant. Our results indicate a robust risk association regarding G2385R and a new possible protective haplotype (1647T-2397T). Gene-environmental interaction and a larger cohort study are warranted to validate our findings. Additionally, two new missense mutations (R767H and S885N) regarding LRRK2 in PD patients were identified. Functional studies are needed to elucidate the effects of these LRRK2 variants on protein function.
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The antioxidant status and concentrations of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E in metabolic syndrome.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E and the antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Subjects with MS (n = 72) were included according to the criteria for MS. The non-MS group (n = 105) was comprised of healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The plasma coenzyme Q10, vitamin E concentrations, lipid profiles, and antioxidant enzymes levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) were measured. The subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of plasma coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E than those in the non-MS group, but these differences were not significant after being normalized for triglyceride level. The levels of antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group. The subjects with the higher antioxidant enzymes activities had significant reductions in the risk of MS (P < 0.01) after being adjusted for coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E. In conclusion, the subjects with MS might be under higher oxidative stress resulting in low levels of antioxidant enzyme activities. A higher level of antioxidant enzymes activities was significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of MS independent of the levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E.
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Internal ribosome entry segment activity of ATXN8 opposite strand RNA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) involves the expansion of CTG/CAG repeats from the overlapping ataxin 8 opposite strand (ATXN8OS) and ataxin 8 (ATXN8) genes located on chromosome 13q21. Although being transcribed, spliced and polyadenylated in the CTG orientation, ATXN8OS does not itself appear to be protein coding, as only small open reading frames (ORFs) were noted. In the present study we investigated the translation of a novel 102 amino acids containing-ORF in the ATXN8OS RNA. Expression of chimeric construct with an in-frame ORF-EGFP gene demonstrated that ATXN8OS RNA is translatable. Using antiserum raised against ORF, ATXN8OS ORF expression was detected in various human cells including lymphoblastoid, embryonic kidney 293, neuroblastoma IMR-32, SK-N-SH, SH-SY5Y cells and human muscle tissue. The biological role of the ATXN8OS ORF and its connection to SCA8 remains to be determined.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.