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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy in asthma control: Acute, dose-related effects and real-life effectiveness.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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The efficacy of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (BFMRT) in asthma control is well documented in large randomized controlled trials. However, the acute reliever effects and real-life effectiveness are seldom reported.
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Should sleep laboratories have their own predictive formulas for continuous positive airway pressure for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome?
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Several formulas predicting optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea treatment have been developed and diverse parameters selected as predictive factors in different sleep laboratories using different ethnic groups. This study aimed to validate a constructed predictive formula for the study laboratory and to test the hypothesis that sleep laboratories should have their own predictive formulas.
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Topical N-acetylcysteine accelerates wound healing in vitro and in vivo via the PKC/Stat3 pathway.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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N-Acetylcysteine (Nac) is an antioxidant administered in both oral and injectable forms. In this study, we used Nac topically to treat burn wounds in vitro and in vivo to investigate mechanisms of action. In vitro, we monitored glutathione levels, cell proliferation, migration, scratch-wound healing activities and the epithelialization-related proteins, matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and proteins involved in regulating the expression of MMP-1 in CCD-966SK cells treated with Nac. Various Nac concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) increased glutathione levels, cell viability, scratch-wound healing activities and migration abilities of CCD-966SK cells in a dose-dependent manner. The MMP-1 expression of CCD-966SK cells treated with 1.0 mM Nac for 24 h was significantly increased. Levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), janus kinase 1 (Jak1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), c-Fos and Jun, but not extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2), were also significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner compared to the controls. In addition, Nac induced collagenous expression of MMP-1 via the PKC/Stat3 signaling pathway. In vivo, a burn wound healing rat model was applied to assess the stimulation activity and histopathological effects of Nac, with 3.0% Nac-treated wounds being found to show better characteristics on re-epithelialization. Our results demonstrated that Nac can potentially promote wound healing activity, and may be a promising drug to accelerate burn wound healing.
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Comparison of the efficacy of ciclesonide with that of budesonide in mild to moderate asthma patients after step-down therapy: a randomised parallel-group study.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are widely used in asthma control. Ciclesonide (CIC) is an ICS with on-site lung activation for potent anti-inflammatory activity.
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Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations.
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Usefulness of offline fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements in the elderly asthmatic patients.
Allergy Asthma Proc
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement is an important noninvasive tool for evaluating eosinophilic inflammation of the airways. However, measurement of online FeNO in elderly people may not be possible if they are unable to perform the expiratory maneuver. The offline FeNO test is an alternative method that obviates the need for the expiratory maneuver. Adult asthma patients were enrolled and assigned to one of two age groups: group 1, aged >65 years old (n = 29), and group 2, control group, aged 20-65 years old (n = 27). Online and offline FeNO measurements were performed for all patients. There were no significant differences in pulmonary function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], percentage of predicted FEV1, and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) between the two groups but group 1 had significantly lower Asthma Control Test scores. There was a high correlation between online and offline FeNO levels (r = 0.908; p < 0.001). There was significantly higher mean FeNO level, regardless of online or offline measurements, in patients with poorly controlled asthma. Offline FeNO measurement was found to be a simple and convenient method of measuring FeNO in elderly patients and can be used as an objective guide for further management of eosinophilic inflammatory airway disease in this population.
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Decreased Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) expression may correlate with poor survival in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) play either anti- or pro-proliferation roles in different human cancers. Here, we investigated the expression of KLF4 in gastric cancers and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival. KLF4 expression was measured in 118 surgical specimens by immunohistochemical microarray assay. No association of cytoplasmic KLF4 expression with gender, TNM status, stage, survival, and pathological type was found. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, significantly higher overall survival rate was observed in patients with high cytoplasmic KLF4 expression compared to low cytoplasmic KLF4 expression. Univariate analysis revealed that cytoplasmic KLF4 expression, grade, histological type, lymph node metastasis, and stages were correlated to longer overall survival. Our results suggest that KLF4 may play an anti-oncogenic role in gastric tumorigenesis.
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Dioscorin pre-treatment protects A549 human airway epithelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a highly reactive oxygen species involved in lung and bronchial epithelium injury. Increased H(2)O(2) levels have been reported in expired breath condensates of patients with inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Protecting airway epithelial cells from oxidative stress is an important task in the prevention and management of airway diseases. Previous studies demonstrate that yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) has antioxidant and anti-trypsin activities. This study evaluated the validity of dioscorin in vitro. The results showed that dioscorin attenuated the alteration of H(2)O(2) on G2/M cell cycle arrest. This might be associated with the activation of I?B and subsequent inactivation of NF-?B. Furthermore, dioscorin suppressed IL-8 secretion and reduced changes of adhesion molecule expressions in H(2)O(2)-injured A549 cells. These results help in understanding the potential of traditional Chinese herbal medicine as treatment for airway inflammatory diseases.
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Composite pH predicts esomeprazole response in laryngopharyngeal reflux without typical reflux syndrome.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Factors predicting the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) are unclear. PPI treatment in patients without concomitant esophageal syndrome remains controversial. We investigated whether composite pH can predict PPI treatment response for LPR with or without concomitant typical reflux syndrome (CTRS).
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Human parvovirus B19 NS1 protein aggravates liver injury in NZB/W F1 mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Human parvovirus B19 (B19) has been associated with a variety of diseases. However, the influence of B19 viral proteins on hepatic injury in SLE is still obscure. To elucidate the effects of B19 viral proteins on livers in SLE, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2 proteins were injected subcutaneously into NZB/W F1 mice, respectively. Significant expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were detected in NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Markedly hepatocyte disarray and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in livers from NZB/WF 1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Additionally, significant increases of Tumor Necrosis Factor -? (TNF-?), TNF-? receptor, I?B kinase -? (IKK-?), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor (I?B) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) were detected in livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Accordingly, significant increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and U-plasminogen activator (uPA) were also detected in livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 as compared to those mice receiving PBS. Contrarily, no significant variation on livers from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 was observed as compared to those mice receiving PBS. These findings firstly demonstrated the aggravated effects of B19 NS1 but not VP1u or VP2 protein on hepatic injury and provide a clue in understanding the role of B19 NS1 on hepatic injury in SLE.
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Insights, attitudes and perceptions about asthma and its treatment: findings from a multinational survey of patients from 8 Asia-Pacific countries and Hong Kong.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey was conducted in North America, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region and Latin America to characterize patients insights, attitudes and perceptions about their asthma and its treatment. We report findings from the Asia-Pacific survey.
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Exacerbating effects of human parvovirus B19 NS1 on liver fibrosis in NZB/W F1 mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology that impacts various organs including liver. Recently, human parvovirus B19 (B19) is recognized to exacerbate SLE. However, the effects of B19 on liver in SLE are still unclear. Herein we aimed to investigate the effects of B19 on liver in NZB/W F1 mice by injecting subcutaneously with PBS, recombinant B19 NS1, VP1u or VP2, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that B19 NS1 protein significantly enhanced the TGF-?/Smad fibrotic signaling by increasing the expressions of TGF-?, Smad2/3, phosphorylated Smad2/3, Smad4 and Sp1. The consequent fibrosis-related proteins, PAI-1 and ?-SMA, were also significantly induced in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. Accordingly, markedly increased collagen deposition was also observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 NS1 protein. However, no significant difference was observed in livers of NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19 VP1u or VP2 as compared to the controls. These findings indicate that B19 NS1 plays a crucial role in exacerbating liver fibrosis in NZB/W F1 mice through enhancing the TGF-â/Smad fibrotic signaling.
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Curcumin alleviates eosinophilic meningitis through reduction of eosinophil count following albendazole treatment against Angiostrongylus cantonensis in mice.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is the most common cause of parasitic eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. By using an animal model of BALB/c mice infected with A. cantonensis, previous studies indicated that the anthelmintic drug, albendazole, could kill A. cantonensis larvae and prevent further infection. However, the dead larvae will induce severe immune responses targeting at brain tissues. To alleviate the detrimental effects caused by the dead larvae, we administered curcumin, a traditional anti-inflammatory agent, as a complementary treatment in addition to albendazole therapy, to determine whether curcumin could be beneficial for treatment. The results showed that although curcumin treatment alone did not reduce worm number, combined treatment by albendazole and curcumin helped to reduce eosinophil count in the cerebrospinal fluid, better than using albendazole alone. This alleviating effect did not affect albendazole treatment alone, since histological analysis showed similar worm eradication with or without addition of curcumin. Nevertheless, curcumin treatment alone and combined albendazole-curcumin treatment did not inhibit MMP-9 expression in the brain tissue. In conclusion, curcumin, when used as a complementary treatment to albendazole, could help to alleviate eosinophilic meningitis through suppression of eosinophil count in the cerebrospinal fluid.
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Usefulness of tumor marker CA-125 serum levels for the follow-up of therapeutic responses in tuberculosis patients with and without serositis.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum levels in patients with tuberculosis (TB) with and without tuberculous serositis. A total of 64 TB patients with a mean age of 58.17 ± 19.05 years were enrolled in this observational case series study. All patients underwent blood sampling for the measurement of CA-125 serum levels before treatment. If the CA-125 serum levels were found to be elevated, the patients underwent blood sampling in the initial treatment phase, continuation treatment phase, and every 6 months thereafter for 2 years. The treatment outcomes of the pulmonary TB group were evaluated using chest radiography and sputum examinations, and those of the tuberculous serositis group were evaluated on the basis of the amounts of fluid determined by ultrasound. All patients in the tuberculous serositis group and 45% of the patients in the pulmonary TB group had elevated CA-125 serum levels before treatment. The pretreatment mean CA-125 serum level was significantly higher in the tuberculous serositis group than in the pulmonary TB group. CA-125 serum levels decreased along with improvement in anti-TB treatment outcomes in both the groups. In conclusion, the CA-125 serum levels in combination with clinical responses, chest radiography, and sputum examinations, can offer better monitoring of therapeutic responses in anti-TB treatment.
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Loss of nuclear expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with oral cancer.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Krüppel-like factor 4 is not only involved in cell proliferation but also affects cell differentiation and extracellular matrix production via positive and negative regulation of the expression of a wide range of genes. To our knowledge, little information is available regarding the role of Krüppel-like factor 4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the associations between Krüppel-like factor 4 expression and clinical parameters of oral cancer using immunohistochemical assays in 215 surgical specimens. Compared with positive nuclear Krüppel-like factor 4 expression, we observed that negative nuclear Krüppel-like factor 4 expression was significantly associated with an advanced cancer stage (P = .046), a high tumor recurrence rate (P = .009), and a worse 3-year survival rate in patients with oral cancer (P = .046). Nuclear expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 was shown to have an inverse relationship with Ki67 expression (P = .046). Patients with negative nuclear expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 had significantly worse overall survival rates as defined by the log-rank test (P = .014). Patients with oral cancer with negative nuclear Krüppel-like factor 4 expression in tumor cells had poor prognoses and a 2.5-fold higher death risk. Compared with disease stage (P = .025), negative nuclear Krüppel-like factor 4 expression (P = .006) was an independent prognostic factor. Our results revealed that the loss of nuclear expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 is significantly associated with aggressive clinical manifestations and might be an adverse survival factor.
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Expression of Kr?ppel-like factor 5 in gastric cancer and its clinical correlation in Taiwan.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Kr?ppel-like factors (KLFs), highly conserved zinc-finger proteins, play either anti- or pro-proliferation roles in different human cancers through regulating a wide range of genes expression. Here, we investigated the expression of KLF5 in gastric cancers and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival rates. In this study, KLF5 expression was measured by an immunohistochemical microarray assay of tissue taken from 76 surgical specimens. Higher KLF5 expression was significantly associated with lower tumor grade (P?
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppresses eotaxin secretion and nuclear p-STAT6 in human lung fibroblast cells.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, has been proven to have anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties. We have investigated the activity of CAPE in regulating cytokine-induced eotaxin production and its related signal protein, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6), in human lung fibroblast.
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High incidence of acute promyelocytic leukemia specifically induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Carcinogenic agents such as N-methyl-N-nitrosourea can cause tumors. The aims of the present study were to evaluate and classify a subtype of AML (acute myeloid leukemia) that was induced by NMU. According to previous publications, NMU induces not only mammary cancer but also leukemia in Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. However, the subtype of leukemia involved in NMU-treated rats is unknown. We found that both organ weight and relative organ weights were significantly higher in NMU-exposed rats than in controls. Morphological changes of rat livers and spleens were assessed by histological evaluation (H&E staining), which found that these tissues were abnormal in appearance. Also, cytological examination of the blood showed immature white blood cells in a smear using Lius and Papanicolaou stains, indicating that gross abnormalities and histopathological changes were pathologically observed. NMU leukemia incidence was 97.1%. In this study, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was valuable in classifying the leukemia of poorly differentiated blasts induced by NMU. Paraffin blocks were stained for MPO, CD3, CD15, CD20, and CD34 markers. The NMU-induced group was positive for MPO, but negative for CD3, CD15, CD20, and CD34. These CD markers suggest that they are useful in helping diagnose APL (M3) leukemia. The model of NMU-induced leukemogenesis in an S-D rat suggests a more definite way to classify APL. This APL will provide an important tool for chemical carcinogenesis and leukemia studies.
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A free composite de-epithelialized anterolateral thigh and the vastus lateralis muscle flap for the reconstruction of a large defect of the anterior skull base: a case report.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Reconstruction of the anterior skull base is one of the greatest challenges for reconstructive surgeons. Sometimes, the defect is so large that a local flap is insufficient for the reconstruction. In this report, we present a case of malignant meningioma of the anterior skull base. The tumor was treated by surgical excision resulting in a large defect from the anterior skull base to the nasal cavity. The entire defect was within the cranial vault. The reconstruction was achieved using a free composite de-epithelialized anterolateral thigh and the vastus lateralis muscle flap. Postoperative monitoring included hand Doppler and daily endoscopic inspection. This patient was satisfied with the cosmetic result. After 10 months, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), performed to assess the flap, demonstrated that the volume of the de-epithelialized skin paddle of the anterolateral thigh flap had not changed, and that there was no tissue atrophy between the patients eyes that could have resulted in deformity.
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Relationship between asthma control status, the Asthma Control Test™ and urgent health-care utilization in Asia.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Accurate assessment of control is an integral part of asthma management. We investigated the relationship between control status derived from the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and urgent health-care utilization.
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Paeonia lactiflora Pall inhibits bladder cancer growth involving phosphorylation of Chk2 in vitro and in vivo.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Extracts of Paeonia lactiflora Pall (RPA), a traditional Chinese medicines has been shown to treat cancers.
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Identification of the coexisting HER2 gene amplification and novel mutations in the HER2 protein-overexpressed mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Although overexpression, amplification, and somatic mutation of the HER2 gene have been noted in various types of human cancers, we report here for the first time that novel mutations and amplification of the HER2 gene occurred concomitantly in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
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Increased cardiac injury in NZB/W F1 mice received antibody against human parvovirus B19 VP1 unique region protein.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection has been postulated to both myocardial injury and development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the influence of anti-B19-VP1u antibodies on cardiac disorders in SLE is still obscure. To elucidate the effects of anti-B19-VP1u IgG in SLE, passive transfer of PBS, normal rabbit IgG or rabbit anti-B19-VP1u IgG was injected intravenously into NZB/W F1 mice, respectively. Significant expression of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? were detected in NZB/W F1 mice receiving rabbit anti-B19-VP1u IgG. Markedly cardiomyocyte disarray and lymphocyte infiltration were observed in left ventricle of hearts from NZB/W F1 mice receiving rabbit anti-B19-VP1u IgG. Additionally, significant increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) activity and protein expression were detected in left ventricle of hearts from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19-VP1u IgG. Accordingly, significant increase of phosphorylated p-38 and NF-?B proteins were observed in left ventricle of hearts from NZB/W F1 mice receiving B19-VP1u IgG. However, no significant variation of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) were detected among all experimental groups. These findings firstly demonstrated the aggravated effects of anti-B19 VP1u IgG on cardiac injury by induction of inflammatory but not myocardial infarction-associated proteins through activation of phosphorylated p-38 and NF-?B signaling.
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Gallic acid induces G2/M phase arrest of breast cancer cell MCF-7 through stabilization of p27(Kip1) attributed to disruption of p27(Kip1)/Skp2 complex.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Gallic acid (GA), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, is a natural polyphenolic acid and widely found in gallnuts, tea leaves and various fruits. Previous studies have shown that GA possesses anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and anticarcinogenic activity. In the present study, we aim to investigate the antitumor effects of GA on breast cancer cell. Our results revealed that GA treatment significantly reduced the cell growth of human breast cancer cell MCF-7 in a dose-dependent manner. Further flow cytometric analysis showed that GA induced significant G2/M phase arrest but slightly affected the population of sub-G1MCF-7 cells. Therefore, levels of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and their regulatory proteins involved in S-G2/M transition were investigated. Our findings revealed that levels of cyclin A, CDK2, cyclin B1 and cdc2/CDK1 were diminished; in contrast, levels of the negative regulators p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) were increased by GA treatment. Additionally, Skp2, a specific ubiquitin E3 ligase for polyubiquitination of p27(Kip1) was reduced by GA treatment. Further investigation showed that GA attenuated Skp2-p27(Kip1) association and diminished polyubiquitination of p27(Kip1) in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, knockdown of p27(Kip1) but not p21(Cip1) significantly alleviated GA-induced accumulation of G2/M phase. These findings indicate that GA may upregulate p27(Kip1) level via disruption of p27(Kip1)/Skp2 association and the consequent degradation of p27(Kip1) by proteosome, leading to G2/M phase arrest of MCF-7 cell. It is suggested that GA should be beneficial to treatment of breast cancer and p27(Kip1)-deficient carcinomas.
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Salvage of the skin envelope in complex incomplete avulsion injury of thumb with venous arterializaiton: a case report.
Microsurgery
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Treatment of an avulsion or degloving injury of the hand is a difficult but not unusual operation for plastic reconstructive or hand surgeons. The avulsion may be salvaged by arteriovenous shunting technique. We present a patient with incomplete avulsion injury of the distal phalanx of thumb. Arteriovenous shunting was created and the wound reconstructed primarily under venous arterialization. The avulsed skin envelope was survived well and functional status was improved.
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Benzo[a]pyrene inhibits angiogenic factors-induced alphavbeta3 integrin expression, neovasculogenesis, and angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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New blood vessel formation is necessary for the repair of ischemia-damaged tissues. Endothelial cells produce exogenous and endogenous angiogenic factors in the mediation of angiogenesis and neovasculogenesis during neovascularization. Exposure to environmental pollutants may alter proangiogenic capacity or desensitize the responses of endothelial cells to stimulation by basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), the major carcinogenic constituent found in tobacco smoke, for 24 h. Neovasculogenesis, migration, and proliferation were evaluated in solvent-treated and B[a]P-treated HUVECs. Endothelial capillary-like tube formation, cell migration, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and integrin expression were reduced in B[a]P-treated HUVECs with angiogenic factor stimulation, in comparison to solvent-treated HUVECs, although cell proliferation and Akt activation remained unaffected. Inhibition of B[a]P-mediated MAPK and neovasculogenesis was significantly rescued by pretreatment with ?-naphthoflavone, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist. The B[a]P-mediated inhibition of neovasculogenesis was also rescued in AhR-silenced HUVECs, suggesting the requirement for AhR in B[a]P-associated effects. B[a]P also inhibited angiogenesis in a chorioallantoic membrane assay. We conclude that B[a]P is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, and its effects are mediated via AhR-dependent phenotypic changes in B[a]P-treated HUVECs. These findings contribute to an understanding of the involvement of AhR agonists in vasculotoxicity.
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The differences of eosinophil- and neutrophil-related inflammation in elderly allergic and non-allergic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease in the elderly population and is characterized by airway inflammation. Whether it is a progressive condition resulting from allergic inflammation or a distinct condition involving a pathogen-induced reaction remains unclear.
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Early onset pneumonia in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Organophosphates and carbamates are potent cholinesterase inhibitors that are widely used as insecticides in agriculture. Pneumonia is a frequent complication of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning (CIP) and a risk factor for death. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the risk factors for pneumonia in patients with CIP.
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EP4 upregulation of Ras signaling and feedback regulation of Ras in human colon tissues and cancer cells.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Previous studies indicate that COX-2 and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor subtypes are involved in intestinal carcinogenesis and activation of downstream pathways. In this report, we try to understand the association of PGE(2) receptor and K-ras cellular mechanism during the development of colorectal cancer. We collected 21 colorectal cancer patients and compared the protein expression of tumor tissues and normal mucosa tissues by using immunoblot. Furthermore, we transferred empty vector and pcDNA-K-ras into Ras-HT29 colon cancer cells. Result showed that phosphorylation of Akt and EP(1)/EP(4) were over-expressed in the colorectal tumor tissue. K-ras induces HT29 cells proliferation through the expressions of COX-2, EP1/EP4, pAkt, GSK3beta and increases Tcf transcriptional factor activation. Additionally, Ras protein was suppressed when treated with EP(4) inhibitor in Ras-HT29 cell. In cell cycle assay, K-ras mutation causing cell cycle S phase was prolonged with an increase in the G2/M phase ratio. In conclusion, we suggested that Ras overexpression leads to cell proliferation through activating Ras/PI3K/GSK3beta/EP(4) PGE(2) receptor signals and caused a feedback regulation of Ras by EP4 in colorectal tumor progression.
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True cytokeratin 8/18 immunohistochemistry is of no use in distinguishing between primary endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas in a tissue microarray study.
Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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The choice of appropriate therapeutic plans for primary endocervical adenocarcinomas and endometrial adenocarcinomas depends on the site of origin of the tumor. The purpose of this study was to make clear whether the immunohistochemistry of the true cytokeratin 8/18 monoclonal antibody (Leica Microsystems, Newcastle, United Kingdom), instead of CAM 5.2 (Becton Dickinson Biosciences, San Jose, CA), has potential use in distinguishing between endocervical adenocarcinomas and endometrial adenocarcinomas. A tissue microarray was constructed using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues from 34 hysterectomy specimens, including 14 endocervical adenocarcinomas and 20 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Using the Bond-Max autostainer (Leica Microsystems) and the associated Bond Refine Polymer Detection Kit, tissue array sections were immunostained with cytokeratin 8, 18, and 8/18 commercially available antibodies. The immunohistochemical expressions of all 3 markers, cytokeratin 8, 18, and 8/18 showed nonsignificant (P>0.05) frequency differences between the immunostaining results (positive vs. negative) in tumors of both gynecologic adenocarcinomas. Although CAM 5.2 has been reported to be helpful in distinguishing between primary endocervical adenocarcinomas and endometrial adenocarcinomas, we could not verify this point of view using the true cytokeratin 8/18 monoclonal antibody (Leica Microsystems). It has often been mistakenly cited that CAM 5.2 reacts with cytokeratin 8 and 18, and the results herein confer that there is a wrong impression that cytokeratin 8/18 is differentially expressed in these 2 gynecologic malignancies. In conclusion, the true cytokeratin 8/18 monoclonal antibody is of no use in distinguishing between primary endocervical adenocarcinomas and endometrial adenocarcinomas.
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Distinguishing between primary endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas: is a 2-marker (Vim/CEA) panel enough?
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Gynecological pathologists are used to operating many panels of various markers in combination for the diagnostic distinction between primary endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas. The conventional 3-marker (ER/Vim/CEA) panel is the most promising tool. In this study, our aim is to investigate whether a 2-marker panel is enough to distinguish between these two gynecologic malignancies. Additionally, we wish to determine which one is the most favorable among eight panels tested, including six 2-marker (ER/CEA, PR/CEA, Vim/CEA, ER/p16(INK4a), PR/p16(INK4a), Vim/p16(INK4a)) and two 3-marker (ER/Vim/CEA, ER/Vim/p16(INK)) panels. A tissue microarray was constructed using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues from 35 hysterectomy specimens, including 14 primary endocervical adenocarcinomas and 21 primary endometrial adenocarcinomas. Utilizing the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method, tissue array sections were immunostained with five commercially available antibodies (ER, Vim, CEA, PR, and p16(INK4a)) to evaluate their individual frequencies of expression. We found that all eight aforementioned panels showed an encouraging range of overall accuracy (69.2% to 78.3%). However, one panel of 2-markers (Vim, CEA) exhibited the most efficiency (78.3%) in the diagnostic distinction between primary endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Based on the analyzed data, we conclude that the 2-marker (Vim/CEA) panel seems adequate to be an appropriate, convenient, and efficient means to distinguish between primary endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas. Even though there were a limited number of cases, this study still provides valuable references to help avoid wasting resources and unnecessary marker testing.
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Key process indicators of mortality in the implementation of protocol-driven therapy for severe sepsis.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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Severe sepsis and septic shock are life-threatening disorders. Integrating treatments into a bundle strategy has been proposed to facilitate timely resuscitation, but is difficult to implement. We implemented protocol-driven therapy for severe sepsis, and analyzed retrospectively the key process indicators of mortality in managing sepsis.
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Exhaled nitric oxide in a Taiwanese population: age and lung function as predicting factors.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) has been reported to be elevated in asthma and many other lung diseases. The present study investigated reference values and determinants of FE(NO) in a Taiwanese non-smoking, healthy adult population.
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Solanum nigrum L. extract inhibits 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatocarcinogenesis through overexpression of glutathione S-transferase and antioxidant enzymes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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Solanum nigrum L. (SN) is a widespread plant and is regarded as a common relish in the east and the south of Taiwan. Our previous study has found that SN water extract (SNWE) alleviated carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats. However, the effects of SNWE on chemical-induced hepatic injury and hepatocarcinogenesis remain unclear. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of SNWE on hepatic injury and hepatocarcinogenesis by using 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and AAF/NaNO(2) treatment. The serum biomarkers for hepatic injury, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase, and for hepatocarcinogenesis, alpha-fetoprotein, were determined. Our results showed that AAF treatment led to a significant decrease of body weight and an increase of liver/body weight and serum biomarkers for hepatic injury and hepatocarcinogenesis. Interestingly, the SNWE supplement significantly lowered the liver/body weight and the biomarkers but did not affect the body weight. Further investigation revealed that a SNWE supplement increased the expression of glutathione S-transferase-alpha and -mu, the level of transcription factor for protection from oxidative stress, Nrf2, and the level of downstream targets regulated by Nrf2, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase-1, and catalase. Moreover, the effects of SNWE on AAF/NaNO(2)-induced hepatoma were also investigated, and the findings revealed that SNWE suppressed the progression of the hepatoma and resulted in a great increase of the survival rate. Our findings indicate that the SNWE supplement significantly alleviated the AAF-induced hepatic injury and early hepatocarcinogenesis as well as the AAF/NaNO(2)-induced lethal hepatoma, which may result from the overexpression of glutathione S-transferases, Nrf2, and antioxidant enzymes.
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Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection presenting with symptoms mimicking acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Hyperinfection syndrome with Strongyloides stercoralis is not uncommon in immunocompromised patients. We present 2 fatal cases of Strongyloides hyperinfection with initial presentation mimicking acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both cases had a history of COPD and had received systemic steroid treatment before or during admission. The initial chest radiograph in both of these cases showed diffuse axial interstitial pattern. The sputum examinations of Gram stain both yielded larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis precipitously. Case 1 developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and bacteremia of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae soon after admission, and died even after receiving albendazole and antibiotic treatment. Case 2 received albendazole and antibiotic treatment for over 2 weeks, but developed refractory aseptic meningitis and died of septic shock. Neither case had high eosinophil count in peripheral blood during admission. Clinical manifestations of unexplained wheezing and respiratory failure, increased infiltration on chest radiograph, Gram-negative bacteremia, and aseptic meningitis may all be clues of Strongyloides hyperinfection. Due to the high mortality rate and severe complications in these patients, clinicians should always keep this diagnosis in mind, especially when dealing with immunocompromised patients. We suggest that a screening test be done for patients who live in endemic areas and those who are going to receive steroids for chronic disease.
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p16 INK4 and CEA can be mutually exchanged with confidence between both relevant three-marker panels (ER/Vim/CEA and ER/Vim/p16 INK4) in distinguishing primary endometrial adenocarcinomas from endocervical adenocarcinomas in a tissue microarray study.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2009
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The accurate distinction between primary endocervical adenocarcinomas (ECA) and endometrial adenocarcinomas (EMA) may require the use of multiple ancillary monoclonal antibodies in panels of immunohistochemistry stains. In addition to reappraising the expressions of four commonly used individual monoclonal antibodies [estrogen receptor (ER), Vimentin (Vim), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and p16(INK4)], this study was designed to investigate whether CEA and p16(INK4) can be effectively exchanged between two relevant three-marker panels (ER/Vim/CEA vs. ER/Vim/p16(INK4)) in distinguishing ECA from EMA. A tissue microarray was constructed using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues from 35 hysterectomy specimens, including 14 ECA and 21 EMA. Utilizing the avidin-biotin technique, tissue array sections were immunostained with the four aforementioned individual markers (ER, Vim, CEA, and p16(INK4)). In addition to the four individual monoclonal antibodies, both their respective three-marker panels, proposed here, showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) frequency differences between these two gynecologic tumors (ECA vs. EMA). The panel performance and test effectiveness revealed that both three-marker panels are promising and very helpful. According to our data, when histomorphological and clinical doubt exists as to the primary site of origin, we recommend using either of these two conventional three-marker panels, which consist of ER/Vim/CEA and ER/Vim/p16(INK4). CEA and p16(INK4) can be interchanged with confidence without significantly influencing the panel presentations and efficiencies in distinguishing between adenocarcinomas of endocervical and endometrial origin.
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Impact of positive pleural lavage cytology on survival in patients having lung resection for non-small-cell lung cancer: An international individual patient data meta-analysis.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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Pleural lavage cytology is the microscopic study of cells obtained from saline instilled into and retrieved from the chest during surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer. The aims of this study were to collate multi-institutional individual patient data for meta-analysis to determine independence as a prognostic marker and to characterize the impact of positive results on stage-adjusted survival.
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Asthma drugs counter-regulate interleukin-8 release stimulated by sodium sulfite in an A549 cell line.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2009
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Clinical manifestations suggest that air pollution may induce deterioration of respiratory health. Some air pollutants, including sulfite, may play a role in the exacerbation of asthma. Sulfites are formed at bronchial mucosa from inhaled sulfur dioxide. It has been previously reported that sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)) has pro-inflammatory properties and enhances neutrophil adhesion to A549 cells. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a critical role in attracting inflammatory cells and is an excellent marker of pulmonary cell activation. To date, there have not been any reports on the effect of asthma drugs on the suppression of IL-8 production induced by sulfite in A549 cells or the involvement of specific signal transduction pathways. Thus, our study assessed the effects of salmeterol, fluticasone, and montelukast on human epithelial lung cell inflammation as well as the inhibitors in different signal transduction pathways.
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Scoring mechanisms of p16INK4a immunohistochemistry based on either independent nucleic stain or mixed cytoplasmic with nucleic expression can significantly signal to distinguish between endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas in a tissue microarray
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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Endocervical adenocarcinomas (ECAs) and endometrial adenocarcinomas (EMAs) are malignancies that affect uterus; however, their biological behaviors are quite different. This distinction has clinical significance, because the appropriate therapy may depend on the site of tumor origin. The purpose of this study is to evaluate 3 different scoring mechanisms of p16INK4a immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in distinguishing between primary ECAs and EMAs.
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Dioscorin protects tight junction protein expression in A549 human airway epithelium cells from dust mite damage.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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In addition to being an allergen, the trypsin activity of dust mite extract also destroys the tight junctions of bronchial epithelium. Such damage can lead to airway leakage, which increases airway exposure to allergens, irritants, and other pathogens. Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam, demonstrates anti-trypsin activity, as well as other potential anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the protective role of dioscorin for tight junctions.
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Developing a scale to measure self-efficacy on asthma teaching for health care providers.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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A number of educational programs have focused on promoting the knowledge of asthma to health care professionals, but not teaching competency. Increasing the cognition of self-efficacy on patient teaching could enhance the competency in teaching for patients with asthma. However, at present we do not have an appropriate tool to measure self-efficacy on asthma teaching for health care providers.
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Polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by improving antioxidative conditions and regulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus has been found to possess antioxidant effects. In this study, polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HPE) were used to detect anti-inflammatory effects on nitrite and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated RAW264.7 cells. Sequentially, an animal model examination was performed to confirm the effects of HPE on LPS-induced hepatic inflammation. The results showed that HPE reduced 94.6% of xanthine oxidase activity in vitro, and decreased nitrite and PGE(2) secretions in LPS-induced cells. In LPS-treated rats, HPE significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase. In the liver, lipid peroxidation and liver lesions decreased, and catalase activity and glutathione increased. The study also revealed that down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and p-P38 might have been involved. In sum, this study found an anti-inflammatory potency of HPE both in vitro and in vivo.
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Systemic inflammation is associated with pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing haemodialysis.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an overlooked cardiovascular morbidity in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Inflammation has been demonstrated to play a significant role with certain types of PH in non-uraemic patients, but studies analysing the mechanisms in dialyzed patients with PH are rare. Hence, we investigated systemic and local inflammation biomarkers associated with PH in uraemia patients to elucidate the potential mechanism.
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Optimal value of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in inhaled corticosteroid treatment for patients with chronic cough of unknown cause.
J Chin Med Assoc
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Chronic cough related to eosinophilic inflammation has become an important cause of cough in recent years. Although fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO) measurement is an important monitoring tool, its lack of reference level may limit its usefulness. This study aimed to determine the optimal FeNO level to guide inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) management in patients with chronic cough.
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Comparative study of patients in correct usage of and preference for the Swinghaler and Turbuhaler multidose inhalers.
J Asthma
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Current dry powder inhalers (DPIs), introduced to overcome problems associated with pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), possess not only difficulties originating from their designs but also other barriers that prevent their correct usage. The authors of this study investigated the ease and correctness of use of Swinghaler, a new device in the form of multidose DPI, as well as the preference of the study participants for either a Swinghaler or a Turbuhaler.
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Curcumin Protects against UVB-Induced Skin Cancers in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse: Analysis of Early Molecular Markers in Carcinogenesis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Curcumin (CUR) has been shown to possess a preventive effect against various cancers and interfere with multiple-cell signaling pathways. We evaluated the protective effects of CUR in regression of UVB-induced skin tumor formation in SKH-1 hairless mice and its underlying early molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis. Mice irradiated with UVB at 180?mJ/cm(2) twice per week elicited 100% tumor incidence at 20 weeks. Topical application of CUR prior to UVB irradiation caused delay in tumor appearance, multiplicity, and size. Topical application of CUR prior to and immediately after a single UVB irradiation (180?mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-induced thymine dimer-positive cells, expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and apoptotic sunburn cells together with an increase in p53 and p21/Cip1-positive cell population in epidermis. Simultaneously, CUR also significantly inhibited NF-?B, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide (NO) levels. The results suggest that the protective effect of CUR against photocarcinogenesis is accompanied by downregulation of cell proliferative controls, involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis, transcription factors NF-?B, and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2, and NO, while upregulation of p53 and p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair.
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Combined rpoB duplex PCR and hsp65 PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism with capillary electrophoresis as an effective algorithm for identification of mycobacterial species from clinical isolates.
BMC Microbiol.
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Mycobacteria can be quickly and simply identified by PCR restriction-enzyme analysis (PRA), but misidentification can occur because of similarities in band sizes that are critical for discriminating among species. Capillary electrophoresis can provide computer-aided band discrimination. The aim of this research was to develop an algorithm for identifying mycobacteria by combined rpoB duplex PRA (DPRA) and hsp65 PRA with capillary electrophoresis.
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