The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which enhances electrolyte clearance via cutaneous lymph vessels and increases eNOS expression in blood vessels. It is unclear whether this local MPS response to osmotic stress is important to systemic blood pressure control. Herein, we show that deletion of TonEBP in mouse MPS cells prevents the VEGFC response to a high-salt diet (HSD) and increases blood pressure. Additionally, an antibody that blocks the lymph-endothelial VEGFC receptor, VEGFR3, selectively inhibited MPS-driven increases in cutaneous lymphatic capillary density, led to skin Cl- accumulation, and induced salt-sensitive hypertension. Mice overexpressing soluble VEGFR3 in epidermal keratinocytes exhibited hypoplastic cutaneous lymph capillaries and increased Na+, Cl-, and water retention in skin and salt-sensitive hypertension. Further, we found that HSD elevated skin osmolality above plasma levels. These results suggest that the skin contains a hypertonic interstitial fluid compartment in which MPS cells exert homeostatic and blood pressure-regulatory control by local organization of interstitial electrolyte clearance via TONEBP and VEGFC/VEGFR3-mediated modification of cutaneous lymphatic capillary function.
This investigation applied novel techniques for characterizing and fractionating nanosilver particles and aggregates and relating these measurements to toxicological endpoints. The acute toxicity of eight nanosilver suspensions of varying primary particle sizes (10-80 nm) and coatings (citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, EDTA, proprietary) was assessed using three aquatic test organisms (Daphnia magna, Pimephales promelas, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). When 48-h lethal median concentrations (LC50) were expressed as total silver, both D. magna and P. promelas were significantly more sensitive to ionic silver (Ag(+)) as AgNO(3) (mean LC50 = 1.2 and 6.3 ?g/L, respectively) relative to a wide range in LC50 values determined for the nanosilver suspensions (2 -126 ?g/L). However, when LC50 values for nanosilver suspensions were expressed as fractionated nanosilver (Ag(+) and/or <4 nm particles), determined by ultracentrifugation of particles and confirmed field-flow-fractograms, the LC50 values (0.3-5.6 ?g/L) were comparable to the values obtained for ionic Ag(+) as AgNO(3). These results suggest that dissolved Ag(+) plays a critical role in acute toxicity and underscores the importance of characterizing dissolved fractions in nanometal suspensions.
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor type 1 (MCHR1) is a seven-transmembrane domain protein that modulates orexigenic activity of MCH, the corresponding endogenous peptide agonist. MCH antagonists are being explored as a potential treatment for obesity. In the current study, we examined the pharmacological impact of 11 naturally occurring mutations in the human MCHR1. Wild-type and mutant receptors were transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. MCHR1-mediated, G?(i)-dependent signaling was monitored by using luciferase reporter gene assays. Two mutants, R210H and P377S, failed to respond to MCH. Five other variants showed significant alterations in MCH efficacy, ranging from 44 to 142% of the wild-type value. At each of the MCH-responsive mutants, agonist potency and inhibition by (S)-methyl 3-((3-(4-(3-acetamidophenyl)piperidin-1-yl)propyl)carbamoyl)-4-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-6-(methoxymethyl)-2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (SNAP-7941), an established MCHR1 small-molecule antagonist, were similar to wild type. To explore the basis for inactivity of the R210H and P377S mutants, we examined expression levels of these receptors. Assessment by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that cell surface expression of both nonfunctional receptors was comparable with wild type. Overnight treatment with SNAP-7941, followed by washout of antagonist, enhanced MCH induced signaling by the wild-type receptor and restored MCH responsiveness of the P377S but not the R210H variant. It is of note that the two loss-of-function mutants were identified in markedly underweight individuals, raising the possibility that a lean phenotype may be linked to deficient MCHR1 signaling. Formal association studies with larger cohorts are needed to explore the extent to which signaling-deficient MCHR1 variants influence the maintenance of body weight.
We showed recently that mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells provide a buffering mechanism for salt-sensitive hypertension by driving interstitial lymphangiogenesis, modulating interstitial Na(+) clearance, and increasing endothelial NO synthase protein expression in response to very high dietary salt via a tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C regulatory mechanism. We now tested whether isotonic saline and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt treatment leads to a similar regulatory response in Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were fed a low-salt diet and received tap water (low-salt diet LSD), 1.0% saline (high-salt diet HSD), or DOCA+1.0% saline (DOCA-HSD). To test the regulatory role of interstitial MPS cells, we further depleted MPS cells with clodronate liposomes. HSD and DOCA-HSD led to Na(+) accumulation in the skin, MPS-driven tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C-mediated hyperplasia of interstitial lymph capillaries, and increased endothelial NO synthase protein expression in skin interstitium. Clodronate liposome MPS cell depletion blocked MPS infiltration in the skin interstitium, resulting in unchanged tonicity-responsive enhance binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C levels and absent hyperplasia of the lymph capillary network. Moreover, no increased skin endothelial NO synthase protein expression occurred in either clodronate liposome-treated HSD or DOCA-salt rats. Thus, absence of the MPS-cell regulatory response converted a salt-resistant blood-pressure state to a salt-sensitive state in HSD rats. Furthermore, salt-sensitive hypertension in DOCA-salt rats was aggravated. We conclude that MPS cells act as onsite controllers of interstitial volume and blood pressure homeostasis, providing a local regulatory salt-sensitive tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/vascular endothelial growth factor C-mediated mechanism in the skin to maintain normal blood pressure in states of interstitial Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation. Failure of this physiological extrarenal regulatory mechanism leads to a salt-sensitive blood pressure response.
In salt-sensitive hypertension, the accumulation of Na(+) in tissue has been presumed to be accompanied by a commensurate retention of water to maintain the isotonicity of body fluids. We show here that a high-salt diet (HSD) in rats leads to interstitial hypertonic Na(+) accumulation in skin, resulting in increased density and hyperplasia of the lymphcapillary network. The mechanisms underlying these effects on lymphatics involve activation of tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells infiltrating the interstitium of the skin. TonEBP binds the promoter of the gene encoding vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C, encoded by Vegfc) and causes VEGF-C secretion by macrophages. MPS cell depletion or VEGF-C trapping by soluble VEGF receptor-3 blocks VEGF-C signaling, augments interstitial hypertonic volume retention, decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and elevates blood pressure in response to HSD. Our data show that TonEBP-VEGF-C signaling in MPS cells is a major determinant of extracellular volume and blood pressure homeostasis and identify VEGFC as an osmosensitive, hypertonicity-driven gene intimately involved in salt-induced hypertension.
Knowledge gaps in nanomaterial fate and toxicity currently limit the ability of risk assessments to characterize the environmental implications of nanomaterials. This problem is further complicated by the lack of standardized characterization and preparation methodologies for researchers to gain the needed information to assist risk assessors. In the present study, data were generated to determine if multiwalled nanotube (MWNT) fate and toxicity are altered by engineered surface modifications or by different dispersal methods. While dissolved organic matter was a good dispersing agent of MWNTs in water, the humic acid fraction was a more effective dispersant than the fulvic acid fraction. When stabilized in organic matter, the functional group attached to the MWNT controlled its toxicity. Underivatized MWNTs induced relatively moderate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia after 96 h (25 +/- 19% survival at 26 mg/L), while hydrophilic groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl) reduced this toxicity (93 +/- 12% survival at 48 mg/L). However, other functional groups (alkyl, amine) increased toxicity (0 +/- 0% survival at <15 mg/L). In dispersal method studies, sonication of MWNTs increased fragmentation relative to magnetic stirring. The sonication treatment of MWNTs also slightly reduced the mortality of C. dubia in the water column but increased toxicity in the sediment to Leptocheirus plumulosus and Hyalella azteca. Findings in the present study indicate that nanotubes engineered for specific applications need to be managed independently and that laboratory methods to disperse and test nanotubes in bioassays need to be standardized to obtain repeatable results for comparison of materials.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.