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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Stereocontrolled Disruption of the Ugi Reaction toward the Production of Chiral Piperazinones: Substrate Scope and Process Development.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The factors determining diastereoselectivity observed in the multicomponent conversion of amino acids, aziridine aldehyde dimers, and isocyanides into chiral piperazinones have been investigated. Amino acid-dependent selectivity for either trans- or cis-substituted piperazinone products has been achieved. An experimentally determined diastereoselectivity model for the three-component reaction driven by aziridine aldehyde dimers has predictive value for different substrate classes. Moreover, this model is useful in reconciling the previously reported observations in multicomponent reactions between isocyanides, ?-amino acids, and monofunctional aldehydes.
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An Integrated Imaging Probe Design: The Synthesis of (99m) Tc/Re-Containing Macrocyclic Peptide Scaffolds.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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?-Sheets account for over 30?% of all secondary structural conformations found in proteins. The intramolecular hydrogen bonding that exists between the two peptide strands is imperative in maintaining this secondary structure. With the proper design, cyclic peptides may act as scaffolds emulating active ?-sheet regions, enabling investigation of their importance in molecular recognition and protein aggregation. Starting from Fmoc-Lys(Fmoc)-OH, macrocyclic peptides were synthesized on a solid support, with peptide-chain elongation extending from both the alpha and epsilon amines of the lysine. The branching peptides were cyclized with a pyridyl tridentate chelation core followed by coordination using [(99m) Tc/Re(CO)3 (H2 O)3 ](+) . Variable temperature (1) H?NMR spectroscopy studies were performed, demonstrating that intramolecular hydrogen bonding exists between the two sides of the uncoordinated macrocyclic peptide scaffolds. Additionally, computational modelling and circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis revealed that the peptide backbone exists in a similar conformation both before and after metal coordination. The ability to seamlessly incorporate a tridentate chelation core into the backbone of a macrocyclic peptide, without disrupting the secondary structure, can greatly assist in the design of metal-centric peptidomimetic imaging agents. This novel integrated imaging probe approach may facilitate the investigation into protein-protein interactions using macrocyclic ?-sheet scaffolds.
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Site-specific integration of amino acid fragments into cyclic peptides.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The concept of site-specific integration of fragments into macrocyclic entities has not yet found application in the realm of synthetic chemistry. Here we show that the reduced amidicity of aziridine amide bonds provides an entry point for the site-specific integration of amino acids and peptide fragments into the homodetic cyclic peptide architecture. This new synthetic operation improves both the convergence and divergence of cyclic peptide synthesis.
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Intravital imaging of human prostate cancer using viral nanoparticles targeted to gastrin-releasing Peptide receptors.
Small
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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Multivalent nanoparticles have several key advantages in terms of solubility, binding avidity, and uptake, making them particularly well suited to molecular imaging applications. Herein is reported the stepwise synthesis and characterization of NIR viral nanoparticles targeted to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors that are over-expressed in human prostate cancers. The pan-bombesin analogue, [?-Ala11, Phe13, Nle14]bombesin-(7-14), is conjugated to cowpea mosaic virus particles functionalized with an NIR dye (Alexa Fluor 647) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) using the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Targeting and uptake in human PC-3 prostate cells is demonstrated in vitro. Tumor homing is observed using human prostate tumor xenografts on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model using intravital imaging. Further development of this viral nanoparticle platform may open the door to potential clinical noninvasive molecular imaging strategies.
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Dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy is feasible and may improve locoregional control and laryngeal preservation in laryngo-hypopharyngeal cancers.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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To determine the safety and outcomes of induction chemotherapy followed by dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concomitant chemotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the larynx and hypopharynx (LA-SCCL/H).
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Phase I/II study of oncolytic HSV GM-CSF in combination with radiotherapy and cisplatin in untreated stage III/IV squamous cell cancer of the head and neck.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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This study sought to define the recommended dose of JS1/34.5-/47-/GM-CSF, an oncolytic herpes simplex type-1 virus (HSV-1) encoding human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), for future studies in combination with chemoradiotherapy in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN).
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Synthesis of bombesin-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and their specific uptake in prostate cancer cells.
J Nanopart Res
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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The imaging of molecular markers associated with disease offers the possibility for earlier detection and improved treatment monitoring. Receptors for gastrin-releasing peptide are overexpressed on prostate cancer cells offering a promising imaging target, and analogs of bombesin, an amphibian tetradecapeptide have been previously demonstrated to target these receptors. Therefore, the pan-bombesin analog [?-Ala11, Phe13, Nle14]bombesin-(7-14) was conjugated through a linker to dye-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the development of a new potential magnetic resonance imaging probe. The peptide was conjugated via click chemistry, demonstrating a complementary alternative methodology to conventional peptide-nanoparticle conjugation strategies. The peptide-functionalized nanoparticles were then demonstrated to be selectively taken up by PC-3 prostate cancer cells relative to unfunctionalized nanoparticles and this uptake was inhibited by the presence of free peptide, confirming the specificity of the interaction. This study suggests that these nanoparticles have the potential to serve as magnetic resonance imaging probes for the detection of prostate cancer.
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Synthesis of rhenium-centric reverse turn mimics.
Chemistry
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Molecular scaffolds have been shown to facilitate and stabilise secondary structural turn elements, with a central core-arranging functionality in a defined three-dimensional orientation. In a peptide-based molecular imaging probe, this approach is of particular value as it would essentially "hide" a metal radioisotope within the ligand framework, making the labelling element a critical component of the receptor-bound structure. Starting from a 1,2-diaminoethane loaded 2-chlorotrityl resin, a versatile set of triamine ligand systems were synthesised by using solid-phase Fmoc-based peptide chemistry. The resultant resin-bound peptides then underwent amide reduction by treatment with borane-THF at 65?°C. This provided complete conversion to the corresponding polyamine entities in high purity for the majority of the amino acids utilised. The triamines were then coordinated on solid support by using [NEt(4)](2)[Re(CO)(3)(Br)(3)] followed by resin cleavage and HPLC purification, to give the desired rhenium coordinated species. We have shown that amino acid sequences can be assembled, reduced and coordinated on-resin, resulting in a versatile set of metal-ligand constructs. These studies could be expanded to generate libraries of turn-based peptidomimetics containing Re/Tc(I) organometallic scaffolds, with the intention of developing an improved approach for finding new diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceutical entities.
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Investigation of isomer formation upon coordination of bifunctional histidine analogues with 99mTc/Re(CO)3.
Dalton Trans
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Histidine is a convenient tridentate chelator used in the synthesis of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals, as it can be pendantly attached to a biomolecule for molecular imaging applications. Once coordinated, it forms a neutral complex that is capable of forming diastereomers at the alpha amine of the histidine. This is demonstrated through the synthesis and characterization of four different histidine chelators; three small molecule chelators, which consist of a benzylated histidine at the alpha amine, and one modified dipeptide, containing a phenylalanine derivative at the C-terminus and a histidine at the N-terminus. Upon rhenium coordination, two products are observed, each having the desired exact mass of the metal-containing species. The two products have been characterized through LC-MS, (1)H, gCOSY, NOESY and ROESY NMR experiments, and the relative stereochemistry determined. The implications of diastereomer formation when using this chelation system for creating molecular imaging agents is also discussed.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.