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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Early intervention following trauma may mitigate genetic risk for PTSD in civilians: a pilot prospective emergency department study.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Civilian posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and combat PTSD are major public health concerns. Although a number of psychosocial risk factors have been identified related to PTSD risk, there are no accepted, robust biological predictors that identify who will develop PTSD or who will respond to early intervention following trauma. We wished to examine whether genetic risk for PTSD can be mitigated with an early intervention.
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2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence.
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First records of Armigeres malayi and Armigeres milnensis in Timor-Leste.
J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Larval Armigeres malayi and larval Ar. milnensis were first collected from rainwater-filled broken coconut shells in the district of Manufahi, subdistrict Same, in southwest Timor-Leste in September 2010. In subsequent surveys, Ar. malayi and Ar. milnensis were frequently observed in water-filled coconut shells either as the sole culicid species, or coexisting with each other, or with larval Aedes albopictus or Culex spp. Although there have been a number of published surveys of Culicidae in Timor-Leste, these Armigeres species have not previously been recorded in this country. Little is known about the status of these species as potential vectors of human or animal disease; however, it has been suggested that Ar. milnensis is a potential vector of Dirofilaria immitis and other filariae, so they may merit further study from a human and veterinary health perspective, as well as for their role in local ecosystems, particularly their competitive impact on other mosquito species that oviposit in the same container habitats.
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Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women.
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Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume in older women with probable mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial.
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-recognised risk factor for dementia and represents a vital opportunity for intervening. Exercise is a promising strategy for combating cognitive decline by improving brain structure and function. Specifically, aerobic training (AT) improved spatial memory and hippocampal volume in healthy community-dwelling older adults. In older women with probable MCI, we previously demonstrated that resistance training (RT) and AT improved memory. In this secondary analysis, we investigated: (1) the effect of RT and AT on hippocampal volume and (2) the association between change in hippocampal volume and change in memory.
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Behavioral, clinical and pathological effects of multiple daily intraperitoneal injections on female mice.
Lab Anim (NY)
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Pharmacological agents are commonly administered to mice through multiple intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections. The i.p. route of administration is usually considered safe, but questions of animal welfare arise when protocols require that multiple injections be given to the same animal. IACUCs must consider the potential risks associated with multiple i.p. injections in order to determine the maximum number of injections an animal can receive within a study protocol, but there are no published studies of such potential risks. The authors investigated the effects of 30 daily i.p. saline injections on the behavior, body condition, weight, fecal corticosterone levels, hematology and pathology of female adult mice. Results indicate that multiple i.p. injections do not cause any ill effects in mice.
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The challenge of global water access monitoring: evaluating straight-line distance versus self-reported travel time among rural households in Mozambique.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Support is growing for the incorporation of fetching time and/or distance considerations in the definition of access to improved water supply used for global monitoring. Current efforts typically rely on self-reported distance and/or travel time data that have been shown to be unreliable. To date, however, there has been no head-to-head comparison of such indicators with other possible distance/time metrics. This study provides such a comparison. We examine the association between both straight-line distance and self-reported one-way travel time with measured route distances to water sources for 1,103 households in Nampula province, Mozambique. We find straight-line, or Euclidean, distance to be a good proxy for route distance (R(2) = 0.98), while self-reported travel time is a poor proxy (R(2) = 0.12). We also apply a variety of time- and distance-based indicators proposed in the literature to our sample data, finding that the share of households classified as having versus lacking access would differ by more than 70 percentage points depending on the particular indicator employed. This work highlights the importance of the ongoing debate regarding valid, reliable, and feasible strategies for monitoring progress in the provision of improved water supply services.
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Attachment anxiety moderates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and attention bias for emotion in adults.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Research indicates that some individuals who were maltreated in childhood demonstrate biases in social information processing. However, the mechanisms through which these biases develop remain unclear-one possible mechanism is via attachment-related processes. Childhood maltreatment increases risk for insecure attachment. The internal working models of self and others associated with insecure attachment may impact the processing of socially relevant information, particularly emotion conveyed in facial expressions. We investigated associations among child abuse, attachment anxiety and avoidance, and attention biases for emotion in an adult population. Specifically, we examined how self-reported attachment influences the relationship between childhood abuse and attention bias for emotion. A dot probe task consisting of happy, threatening, and neutral female facial stimuli was used to assess possible biases in attention for socially relevant stimuli. Our findings indicate that attachment anxiety moderated the relationship between maltreatment and attention bias for happy emotion; among individuals with a child abuse history, attachment anxiety significantly predicted an attention bias away from happy facial stimuli.
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Enhanced Ca²? influx from STIM1-Orai1 induces muscle pathology in mouse models of muscular dystrophy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Muscular dystrophy is a progressive muscle wasting disease that is thought to be initiated by unregulated Ca(2+) influx into myofibers leading to their death. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) through sarcolemmal Ca(2+) selective Orai1 channels in complex with STIM1 in the sarcoplasmic reticulum is one such potential disease mechanism for pathologic Ca(2+) entry. Here, we generated a mouse model of STIM1 overexpression in skeletal muscle to determine whether this type of Ca(2+) entry could induce muscular dystrophy. Myofibers from muscle-specific STIM1 transgenic mice showed a significant increase in SOCE in skeletal muscle, modeling an observed increase in the same current in dystrophic myofibers. Histological and biochemical analysis of STIM1 transgenic mice showed fulminant muscle disease characterized by myofiber necrosis, swollen mitochondria, infiltration of inflammatory cells, enhanced interstitial fibrosis and elevated serum creatine kinase levels. This dystrophic-like disease in STIM1 transgenic mice was abrogated by crossing in a transgene expressing a dominant-negative Orai1 (dnOrai1) mutant. The dnOrai1 transgene also significantly reduced the severity of muscular dystrophy in both mdx (dystrophin mutant mice) and ?-sarcoglycan-deficient (Sgcd(-/-)) mouse models of disease. Hence, Ca(2+) influx across an unstable sarcolemma due to increased activity of a STIM1-Orai1 complex is a disease determinant in muscular dystrophy, and hence, SOCE represents a potential therapeutic target.
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Creating a memory book: undergraduate student experiences with end-of-life interviews.
Death Stud
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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This article examines the impact of interviewing at the end of life and the creation of a legacy document on student interviewers.. As part of an undergraduate class on death and dying, 36 students interviewed hospice patients, creating a hard cover memory book. An analysis of semistructured interviews with all of the students following completion of the project yielded three themes: greater appreciation for life, connection to my own family, and service and legacy. The importance of experiential approaches in death education was presented. Future research examining the emotional impact of these interviews on students was suggested.
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In pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis expression of progesterone receptor is frequently higher than that of estrogen receptor.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) of the lung is a rare low-grade malignancy affecting primarily women of childbearing age. LAM is characterized by the proliferation of SMA and HMB-45 positive spindle-shaped and epithelioid cells throughout the lung in the form of discrete lesions causing cystic destruction and ultimately respiratory insufficiency. LAM occurs sporadically or in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and is etiologically linked to mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Although LAM cells are known to express estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR, respectively), their respective expression level was never determined. Therefore, here we measured the immunohistochemical expression of ERs and PRs in a large series of pulmonary LAM cases using the Aperio Spectrum Analysis Platform. Our case series comprised open lung biopsy specimens from 20 LAM patients and lungs explanted during the course of lung transplant from 24 patients. All cases were positive for ER and PR. PR expression was statistically significantly higher than ER in 80 % of the biopsies while ER predominated only in one case. Specimens from explanted cases of LAM had relatively fewer PR-positive nuclei. As a result, PR expression was significantly higher than ER in 38 % of the cases, whereas ER predominated in 33 %. Overall, PR expression predominated in 57 % of cases and ER in 21 %. These data indicate that PR frequently prevails over ER in pulmonary LAM. LAM is unusual in its high PR/ER ratio; other female neoplasms show a definite prevalence of ER. Our findings therefore warrant further study of PR function in LAM.
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Psychosocial telephone intervention for dementia caregivers: A randomized, controlled trial.
Alzheimers Dement
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Identifying effective and accessible interventions for dementia caregivers is critical as dementia prevalence increases.
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Immunoglobulin Fc domain fusion to TRAIL significantly prolongs its plasma half-life and enhances its antitumor activity.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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TRAIL (Apo2L) is a potent inducer of cell death. Interest in TRAIL has increased, following the observation that TRAIL can selectively kill a wide variety of human cancer cells without killing normal cells both in vitro and when grown as xenografts. Therefore, TRAIL has been proposed as a promising anticancer agent and currently is being tested in clinical trials. However, recombinant TRAIL has a very short plasma half-life, which limits its therapeutic potential. To overcome this limitation, we investigated the ability of the human IgG1 fragment crystallizable region (Fc) to enhance TRAIL stability. In this report, we show that Fc-TRAIL chimeric protein displays higher specific activity in vitro and a significantly longer half-life in mice than recombinant human TRAIL (rh-TRAIL). No short-term toxicity, especially liver toxicity, was observed. More importantly, Fc-TRAIL was much more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model compared with rh-TRAIL. Our data suggest that fusion of Fc to TRAIL is able to improve the bioavailability and activity of TRAIL both in vitro and in vivo, and Fc-TRAIL may be explored for future clinical applications in cancer treatment and prevention.
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Disruptions in brain networks of older fallers are associated with subsequent cognitive decline: a 12-month prospective exploratory study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cognitive impairment and impaired mobility are major public health concerns. There is growing recognition that impaired mobility is an early biomarker of cognitive impairment and dementia. The neural basis for this association is currently unclear. We propose disrupted functional connectivity as a potential mechanism. In this 12-month prospective exploratory study, we compared functional connectivity of four brain networks- the default mode network (DMN), fronto-executive network (FEN), fronto-parietal network (FPN), and the primary motor sensory network (SMN)--between community-dwelling older adults with ? two falls in the last 12 months and their non-falling counterparts (? one fall in the last 12 months). Functional connectivity was examined both at rest and during a simple motor tapping task. Compared with non-fallers, fallers showed more connectivity between the DMN and FPN during right finger tapping (p ?= 0.04), and significantly less functional connectivity between the SMN and FPN during rest (p ? 0.05). Less connectivity between the SMN and FPN during rest was significantly associated with greater decline in both cognitive function and mobility over the12-month period (r = ?-0.32 and 0.33 respectively; p ? 0.04). Thus, a recent history of multiple falls among older adults without a diagnosis of dementia may indicate sub-clinical changes in brain function and increased risk for subsequent decline.
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Video surveillance captures student hand hygiene behavior, reactivity to observation, and peer influence in Kenyan primary schools.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods.
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Enteric pathogens in stored drinking water and on caregiver's hands in Tanzanian households with and without reported cases of child diarrhea.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in young children. Diarrheal pathogens are transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and for children the majority of this transmission is thought to occur within the home. However, very few studies have documented enteric pathogens within households of low-income countries.
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Clock Drawing as a Screen for Impaired Driving in Aging and Dementia: Is It Worth the Time?
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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Clock drawing is recommended by medical and transportation authorities as a screening test for unsafe drivers. The objective of the present study was to assess the usefulness of different clock drawing systems as screening measures of driving performance in 122 healthy and cognitively impaired older drivers. Clock drawing was measured using four different scoring systems. Driving outcomes included global ratings of safety and the error rate on a standardized on-road test. Findings revealed that clock drawing was significantly correlated with the driving score on the road test for each of the scoring systems. However, receiver operator curve analyses showed limited clinical utility for clock drawing as a screening instrument for impaired on-road driving performance with the area under the curve ranging from 0.53 to 0.61. Results from this study indicate that clock drawing has limited utility as a solitary screening measure of on-road driving, even when considering a variety of scoring approaches.
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Dabrafenib Therapy for Advanced Melanoma.
Ann Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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To summarize the clinical development of dabrafenib and to highlight the clinically relevant distinct characteristics of dabrafenib in contrast to vemurafenib.
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Overexpression of the Na+/K+ ATPase ?2 but not ?1 Isoform Attenuates Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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The Na(+)/K(+)ATPase (NKA) directly regulates intracellular Na(+) levels, which in turn indirectly regulates Ca(2+) levels by proximally controlling flux through the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1). Elevated Na(+) levels have been reported during heart failure, which permits some degree of reverse mode Ca(2+) entry through NCX1, as well as less efficient Ca(2+) clearance.
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Challenges with cost-utility analyses of behavioural interventions among older adults at risk for dementia.
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Cognitive decline is one of the most prominent healthcare issues of the 21st century. Within the context of combating cognitive decline through behavioural interventions, physical activity is a promising approach. There is a dearth of health economic data in the area of behavioural interventions for dementia prevention. Yet, economic evaluations are essential for providing information to policy makers for resource allocation. It is essential we first address population and intervention-specific methodological challenges prior to building a larger evidence base. We use a cost-utility analysis conducted alongside the exercise for cognition and everyday living (EXCEL) study to illustrate methodological challenges specific to assessing the cost-effectiveness of behavioural interventions aimed at older adults at risk of cognitive decline.
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Myofibroblasts: Trust your heart and let fate decide.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Cardiac fibrosis is a substantial problem in managing multiple forms of heart disease. Fibrosis results from an unrestrained tissue repair process orchestrated predominantly by the myofibroblast. These are highly specialized cells characterized by their ability to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) components and remodel tissue due to their contractile properties. This contractile activity of the myofibroblast is ascribed, in part, to the expression of smooth muscle ?-actin (?SMA) and other tension-associated structural genes. Myofibroblasts are a newly generated cell type derived largely from residing mesenchymal cells in response to both mechanical and neurohumoral stimuli. Several cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors are induced in the injured heart, and in conjunction with elevated wall tension, specific signaling pathways and downstream effectors are mobilized to initiate myofibroblast differentiation. Here we will review the cell fates that contribute to the myofibroblast as well as nodal molecular signaling effectors that promote their differentiation and activity. We will discuss canonical versus non-canonical transforming growth factor-? (TGF?), angiotensin II (AngII), endothelin-1 (ET-1), serum response factor (SRF), transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and mechanical signaling pathways that are required for myofibroblast transformation and fibrotic disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Cardiac Fibroblast Review.
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New and emerging therapies for advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma.
J Oncol Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Soft tissue sarcomas include a rare variety of tumors, which require a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. Patients with advanced or metastatic disease are typically treated with anthracycline-based therapy, but these chemotherapy regimens are associated with poor response rates and average survival duration of one year. Much attention has been turned toward overexpressed gene pathways, and utilizing targeted therapies to inhibit tumor growth. Many new and approved targeted therapies and chemotherapy agents are currently in clinical and preclinical studies for soft tissue sarcoma. As the results of these studies are reported, we hope to see improved response rates and less toxicity, both in the frontline setting and for patients with advanced disease. This article will review the available data for some of the more promising therapies for advanced or metastatic soft tissue sarcomas.
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Mechanisms of post-supply contamination of drinking water in Bagamoyo, Tanzania.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Access to household water connections remains low in sub-Saharan Africa, representing a public health concern. Previous studies have shown water stored in the home to be more contaminated than water at the source; however, the mechanisms of post-supply contamination remain unclear. Using water quality measurements and structured observations of households in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, this study elucidates the causal mechanisms of the microbial contamination of drinking water after collection from a communal water source. The study identifies statistically significant loadings of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) occurring immediately after filling the storage container at the source and after extraction of the water from the container in the home. Statistically significant loadings of FIB also occur with various water extraction methods, including decanting from the container and use of a cup or ladle. Additionally, pathogenic genes of Escherichia coli were detected in stored drinking water but not in the source from which it was collected, highlighting the potential health risks of post-supply contamination. The results of the study confirm that storage containers and extraction utensils introduce microbial contamination into stored drinking water, and suggest that further research is needed to identify methods of water extraction that prevent microbial contamination of drinking water.
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Cognitive memory screening and referral program in community pharmacies in the United States.
Int J Clin Pharm
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Introduction 12 chain community pharmacy sites located in two geographic areas with the United States implemented easy-to-administer memory screening assessments for patients with risk factors of cognitive memory decline and referred at-risk patients to their physicians. Aim of the study To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-based cognitive memory screening and referral program, measure patient satisfaction with these advanced clinical services, and assess willingness to pay for cognitive memory screening services. Setting 12 chain pharmacy sites located in two geographic areas-ten Fred Meyer Pharmacies located in the Portland, Oregon area and two Kerr Drug Pharmacies located in North Carolina. Method Pharmacists were educated on Alzheimers disease, trained on how to provide cognitive memory screening exams, and equipped with screening and documentation tools. Following each screening, pharmacist provided education and counseling to the patients and referred at-risk patients to physicians for follow-up as appropriate. Main outcome measures Results of screenings; satisfaction of patients; willingness to pay. Results Pharmacists delivered cognitive memory assessments to 161 patients from June to November 2008. 44.1 % of patients experienced at least one cognitive deficiency that required referral to a physician based on the screening conducted. The cognitive memory screening and referral program was highly regarded by patients who completed the satisfaction survey, with 98.4 % of respondents indicating that they were either very satisfied or satisfied with the program. Conclusion Cognitive memory screening can be easily incorporated into clinical service offerings in community pharmacy practice and provides a valuable opportunity to identify patients at-risk and refer them to a physician for appropriate testing and diagnosis.
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Genome Sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus Strain T7A ATCC 39115, a Lignin-Degrading Actinomycete.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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We announce the availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces viridosporus strain T7A ATCC 39115, a plant biomass-degrading actinomycete. This bacterium is of special interest because of its capacity to degrade lignin, an underutilized component of plants in the context of bioenergy. It has a full complement of genes for plant biomass catabolism.
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Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access.
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Hands and water as vectors of diarrheal pathogens in Bagamoyo, Tanzania.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of under-five childhood mortality worldwide, with at least half of these deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission of diarrheal pathogens occurs through several exposure routes including drinking water and hands, but the relative importance of each route is not well understood. Using molecular methods, this study examines the relative importance of different exposure routes by measuring enteric bacteria (pathogenic Escherichia coli) and viruses (rotavirus, enterovirus, adenovirus) in hand rinses, stored water, and source waters in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Viruses were most frequently found on hands, suggesting that hands are important vectors for viral illness. The occurrence of E. coli virulence genes (ECVG) was equivalent across all sample types, indicating that both water and hands are important for bacterial pathogen transmission. Fecal indicator bacteria and turbidity were good predictors of ECVG, whereas turbidity and human-specific Bacteroidales were good predictors of viruses. ECVG were more likely found in unimproved water sources, but both ECVG and viral genes were detected in improved water sources. ECVG were more likely found in stored water of households with unimproved sanitation facilities. The results provide insights into the distribution of pathogens in Tanzanian households and offer evidence that hand-washing and improved water management practices could alleviate viral and bacterial diarrhea.
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Assessment of driving-related skills prediction of unsafe driving in older adults in the office setting.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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To examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Assessment of Driving-Related Skills (ADReS), a clinical tool recommended by the American Medical Association for identifying potentially unsafe older drivers that includes tests of vision, motor function, and cognition.
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A telephone intervention for dementia caregivers: Background, design, and baseline characteristics.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Family caregivers of individuals with dementia are at heightened risk for emotional and mental health problems. Many caregivers do not seek assistance or become isolated in their caregiving role. Multi-component interventions have demonstrated efficacy for reducing emotional distress and burden, although these approaches are potentially costly and are not widely accessible. In response to these issues, we developed the Family Intervention: Telephone Tracking - Caregiver (FITT-C), which is an entirely telephone-based psychosocial intervention. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design, methodology, and baseline data for the trial. This study uses a randomized controlled trial design to examine the efficacy of the FITT-C to reduce depressive symptoms and burden in distressed dementia caregivers. All participants (n=250) received a packet of educational materials and were randomly assigned to receive 6months of the FITT-C intervention or non-directive telephone support. The FITT-C intervention was designed to reduce distress in caregivers and is based on the McMaster Model of Family Functioning, transition theory, and Lazarus and Folkmans Stress and Coping Models. The primary dependent variables were depressive symptoms (Centers for Epidemiological Studies - Depression) and burden (Zarit Burden Interview, Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist - Reaction). Secondary outcome measures included family functioning, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results of the study will provide important data about the efficacy of a telephone-based approach to reduce distress in dementia caregivers.
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Lymphatic endothelial differentiation in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm affecting almost exclusively women of childbearing age. LAM belongs to the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumors, characterized by spindle and epithelioid cells with smooth muscle and melanocytic differentiation. LAM cells infiltrate the lungs, producing multiple, bilateral lesions rich in lymphatic channels and forming cysts, leading to respiratory insufficiency. Here we used antibodies against four lymphatic endothelial markers-podoplanin (detected by D2-40), prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE1)-to determine whether LAM cells show lymphatic differentiation. Twelve of 12 diagnostic biopsy specimens (early-stage LAM) and 19 of 19 explants (late-stage LAM) showed immunopositivity for D2-40 in most neoplastic cells. PROX1, VEGFR-3, and LYVE1 immunoreactivity varied from scarce in the early stage to abundant in the late stage. Lymphatic endothelial, smooth muscle, and melanocytic markers were partially co-localized. These findings indicate that lymphatic endothelial differentiation is a feature of LAM and provide evidence of a previously unidentified third lineage of differentiation in this neoplasm. This study has implications for the histological diagnosis of LAM, the origin of the neoplastic cells, and potential future treatment with drugs targeting lymphangiogenesis.
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The association between childhood trauma and lipid levels in an adult low-income, minority population.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The objective of this study is to investigate the association between childhood trauma and lipid profiles in adults from a highly traumatized population at-risk for cardiovascular disease.
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Anal findings in children with and without probable anal penetration: a retrospective study of 1115 children referred for suspected sexual abuse.
Child Abuse Negl
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Interpreting the significance of anal findings in child sexual abuse can be difficult. The aim of this study is to compare the frequency of anal features between children with and without anal penetration. This is a retrospective blinded review of consecutive charts of children seen for suspected sexual abuse at a regional referral center from January 1. 2005 to December 31. 2009 Based on predetermined criteria, children were classified into two groups: low or high probability of anal penetration. The charts of 1115 children were included, 84% girls and 16% boys with an age range from 0.17 to 18.83 years (mean 9.20 year). 198 children (17.8%) were classified as belonging to the anal penetration group. Bivariate analysis showed a significant positive association between the following features and anal penetration: Anal soiling (p=0.046), fissure (p=0.000), laceration (p=0.000) and total anal dilatation (p=0.000). Logistic regression analysis and stratification analysis confirmed a positive association of soiling, anal lacerations and anal fissures with anal penetration. Total anal dilation was significantly correlated with a history of anal penetration in girls, in children examined in the prone knee chest position and in children without anal symptoms. Several variables were found to be significantly associated with anal penetration, including the controversial finding of total anal dilatation. Due to limitations in the study design, this finding should still be interpreted with caution in the absence of a clear disclosure from the child.
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Point-of-care focused cardiac ultrasound for prediction of pulmonary embolism adverse outcomes.
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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In patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), right ventricular strain (RVS) on transthoracic echocardiography by Cardiology has been shown to be an independent predictor of 30-day adverse outcomes. However, it is not known how emergency practitioner-performed point-of-care focused cardiac ultrasound (FOCUS) with assessment for RVS compares with other prognostic methods in the Emergency Department (ED).
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Barriers for integrating personalized medicine into clinical practice: a qualitative analysis.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Personalized medicine-tailoring interventions based on individuals genetic information-will likely change routine clinical practice in the future. Yet, how practitioners plan to apply genetic information to inform medical decision making remains unclear. We aimed to investigate physicians perception about the future role of personalized medicine, and to identify the factors that influence their decision in using genetic testing in their practice. We conducted three semi-structured focus groups in three health regions (Fraser, Vancouver coastal, and Interior) in British Columbia, Canada. In the focus groups, participants discussed four topics on personalized medicine: (i) physicians general understanding, (ii) advantages and disadvantages, (iii) potential impact and role in future clinical practice, and (iv) perceived barriers to integrating personalized medicine into clinical practice. Approximately 36% (n = 9) of physicians self-reported that they were not familiar with the concept of personalized medicine. After introducing the concept, the majority of physicians (68%, n = 19 of 28) were interested in incorporating personalized medicine in their practice, provided they have access to the necessary knowledge and tools. Participants mostly believed that genetic developments will directly affect their practice in the future. The key concerns highlighted were physicians access to clinical guidelines and training opportunities for the use of genetic testing and data interpretation. Despite the challenges that personalized medicine can create, in general, physicians in the focus groups expressed strong interest in using genetic information in their practice if they have access to the necessary knowledge and tools.
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FKBP5 and attention bias for threat: associations with hippocampal function and shape.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The FKBP5 gene product regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and has been associated with many stress-related psychiatric disorders. The study of intermediate phenotypes, such as emotion-processing biases and their neural substrates, provides a way to clarify the mechanisms by which FKBP5 dysregulation mediates risk for psychiatric disorders.
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Noncanonical EF-hand motif strategically delays Ca2+ buffering to enhance cardiac performance.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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EF-hand proteins are ubiquitous in cell signaling. Parvalbumin (Parv), the archetypal EF-hand protein, is a high-affinity Ca(2+) buffer in many biological systems. Given the centrality of Ca(2+) signaling in health and disease, EF-hand motifs designed to have new biological activities may have widespread utility. Here, an EF-hand motif substitution that had been presumed to destroy EF-hand function, that of glutamine for glutamate at position 12 of the second cation binding loop domain of Parv (ParvE101Q), markedly inverted relative cation affinities: Mg(2+) affinity increased, whereas Ca(2+) affinity decreased, forming a new ultra-delayed Ca(2+) buffer with favorable properties for promoting cardiac relaxation. In therapeutic testing, expression of ParvE101Q fully reversed the severe myocyte intrinsic contractile defect inherent to expression of native Parv and corrected abnormal myocardial relaxation in diastolic dysfunction disease models in vitro and in vivo. Strategic design of new EF-hand motif domains to modulate intracellular Ca(2+) signaling could benefit many biological systems with abnormal Ca(2+) handling, including the diseased heart.
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Serotonin syndrome manifesting as patient movement during total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil.
J Clin Anesth
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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A patient who manifested signs of serotonin syndrome during an intravenous anesthetic with remifentanil and propofol is presented. The patient displayed lower extremity clonus, nystagmus, and diaphoresis. At the time of surgery, the patient was being treated with fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor). A presumptive diagnosis of serotonin syndrome was made intraoperatively and all opioids were discontinued. His symptoms resolved in the Postanesthesia Care Unit without incident.
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Study of PcaV from Streptomyces coelicolor yields new insights into ligand-responsive MarR family transcription factors.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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MarR family proteins constitute a group of >12 000 transcriptional regulators encoded in bacterial and archaeal genomes that control gene expression in metabolism, stress responses, virulence and multi-drug resistance. There is much interest in defining the molecular mechanism by which ligand binding attenuates the DNA-binding activities of these proteins. Here, we describe how PcaV, a MarR family regulator in Streptomyces coelicolor, controls transcription of genes encoding ?-ketoadipate pathway enzymes through its interaction with the pathway substrate, protocatechuate. This transcriptional repressor is the only MarR protein known to regulate this essential pathway for aromatic catabolism. In in vitro assays, protocatechuate and other phenolic compounds disrupt the PcaV-DNA complex. We show that PcaV binds protocatechuate in a 1:1 stoichiometry with the highest affinity of any MarR family member. Moreover, we report structures of PcaV in its apo form and in complex with protocatechuate. We identify an arginine residue that is critical for ligand coordination and demonstrate that it is also required for binding DNA. We propose that interaction of ligand with this arginine residue dictates conformational changes that modulate DNA binding. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism by which ligands attenuate DNA binding in this large family of transcription factors.
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Effect of cognitive status on self-regulatory driving behavior in older adults: an assessment of naturalistic driving using in-car video recordings.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Previous findings that older drivers engage in strategic self-regulatory behaviors to minimize perceived safety risks are primarily based on survey reports rather than actual behavior. This study analyzed in-car video recording of naturalistic driving of 18 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and 20 age-matched controls in order to (1) characterize self-regulatory behaviors engaged by older drivers and (2) assess how behaviors change with cognitive impairment. Only participants who were rated "safe" on a prior standardized road test were selected for this study. Both groups drove primarily in environments that minimized the demands on driving skill and that incurred the least risk for involvement in major crashes. Patients with AD displayed further restrictions of driving behavior beyond those of healthy elderly individuals, suggesting additional regulation on the basis of cognitive status. These data provide critical empirical support for findings from previous survey studies indicating an overall reduction in driving mobility among older drivers with cognitive impairment.
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A multistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individuals overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used.
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Predictors of job satisfaction among peer providers on professional treatment teams in community-based agencies.
Psychiatr Serv
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine factors that predict job satisfaction among peer providers employed on professional treatment teams in community-based behavioral health agencies.
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Physical activity improves verbal and spatial memory in older adults with probable mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.
J Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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We report secondary findings from a randomized controlled trial on the effects of exercise on memory in older adults with probable MCI. We randomized 86 women aged 70-80 years with subjective memory complaints into one of three groups: resistance training, aerobic training, or balance and tone (control). All participants exercised twice per week for six months. We measured verbal memory and learning using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and spatial memory using a computerized test, before and after trial completion. We found that the aerobic training group remembered significantly more items in the loss after interference condition of the RAVLT compared with the control group after six months of training. In addition, both experimental groups showed improved spatial memory performance in the most difficult condition where they were required to memorize the spatial location of three items, compared with the control group. Lastly, we found a significant correlation between spatial memory performance and overall physical capacity after intervention in the aerobic training group. Taken together, our results provide support for the prevailing notion that exercise can positively impact cognitive functioning and may represent an effective strategy to improve memory in those who have begun to experience cognitive decline.
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Change in body fat mass is independently associated with executive functions in older women: a secondary analysis of a 12-month randomized controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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To investigate the independent contribution of change in sub-total body fat and lean mass to cognitive performance, specifically the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution, in community-dwelling older women.
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Apoptosis Repressor with a CARD Domain (ARC) Restrains Bax-Mediated Pathogenesis in Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Myofiber wasting in muscular dystrophy has largely been ascribed to necrotic cell death, despite reports identifying apoptotic markers in dystrophic muscle. Here we set out to identify the contribution of canonical apoptotic pathways to skeletal muscle degeneration in muscular dystrophy by genetically deleting a known inhibitor of apoptosis, apoptosis repressor with a card domain (Arc), in dystrophic mouse models. Nol3 (Arc protein) genetic deletion in the dystrophic Sgcd or Lama2 null backgrounds showed exacerbated skeletal muscle pathology with decreased muscle performance compared with single null dystrophic littermate controls. The enhanced severity of the dystrophic phenotype associated with Nol3 deletion was caspase independent but dependent on the mitochondria permeability transition pore (MPTP), as the inhibitor Debio-025 partially rescued skeletal muscle pathology in Nol3 (-/-) Sgcd (-/-) double targeted mice. Mechanistically, Nol3 (-/-) Sgcd (-/-) mice showed elevated total and mitochondrial Bax protein levels, as well as greater mitochondrial swelling, suggesting that Arc normally restrains the cell death effects of Bax in skeletal muscle. Indeed, knockdown of Arc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts caused an increased sensitivity to cell death that was fully blocked in Bax Bak1 (genes encoding Bax and Bak) double null fibroblasts. Thus Arc deficiency in dystrophic muscle exacerbates disease pathogenesis due to a Bax-mediated sensitization of mitochondria-dependent death mechanisms.
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Effects of maternal dietary exposure to cadmium during pregnancy on mammary cancer risk among female offspring.
J Carcinog
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Since heavy metal cadmium is an endocrine disrupting chemical, we investigated whether maternal exposure to cadmium during the pregnancy alters mammary tumorigenesis among female offspring.
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An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences) of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI.
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Differential Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of catechol-O-methyltransferase is Associated with Impaired Fear Inhibition in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is critical for the catabolic regulation of synaptic dopamine, resulting in altered cortical functioning. The COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism has been implicated in human mental illness, with Met/Met homozygotes associated with increased susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our primary objective was to examine the intermediate phenotype of fear inhibition in PTSD stratified by COMT genotype (Met/Met, Val/Met, and Val/Val) and differential gene regulation via methylation status at CpG sites in the COMT promoter region. More specifically, we examined the potential interaction of COMT genotype and PTSD diagnosis on fear-potentiated startle during fear conditioning and extinction and COMT DNA methylation levels (as determined using genomic DNA isolated from whole blood). Participants were recruited from medical and gynecological clinics of an urban hospital in Atlanta, GA, USA. We found that individuals with the Met/Met genotype demonstrated higher fear-potentiated startle to the CS- (safety signal) and during extinction of the CS+ (danger signal) compared to Val/Met and Val/Val genotypes. The PTSD+ Met/Met genotype group had the greatest impairment in fear inhibition to the CS- (p?=?0.006), compared to Val carriers. In addition, the Met/Met genotype was associated with DNA methylation at four CpG sites, two of which were associated with impaired fear inhibition to the safety signal. These results suggest that multiple differential mechanisms for regulating COMT function - at the level of protein structure via the Val(158)Met genotype and at the level of gene regulation via differential methylation - are associated with impaired fear inhibition in PTSD.
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Exploring nursing students level of preparedness for disaster response.
Nurs Educ Perspect
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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This descriptive study explores students perceptions of personal and program preparedness for disasters. Participants in this online survey included 1,348 nursing students from every state plus Guam, Puerto Rico, and theVirgin Islands. The study explored three questions: a) the level of preparedness, including learning about different types of disasters, preparing disaster plans, creating disaster kits, and participating in community disaster response efforts; b) the impact of disasters on nursing students; and c) strategies to assist nursing students during disasters. Results indicated that nursing students throughout the country are generally not well prepared for disasters. Nurse educators need to develop strategies to prepare their students for disasters. The American Red Cross provides templates for organizations, including colleges and universities, to prepare their campuses for emergencies. Faculty need to collaborate with staff and students to develop and implement plans appropriate for their programs.
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Water supply services for Africas urban poor: the role of resale.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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In sub-Saharan Africa only 35% of the urban population has access to a piped water connection on their premises. The majority of households obtain water from public standpipes or from neighbors who are connected to the municipal network. Water resale is often prohibited, however, because of concerns about affordability and risks to public health. Using data collected from 1,377 households in Maputo, Mozambique, we compare the microbiological quality, as well as the time and money costs of water supply from individual house connections, public standpipes, and water obtained from neighbors. Households with their own water connections have better service across virtually all indicators measured, and express greater satisfaction with their service, as compared with those using other water sources. Households purchasing water from their neighbors pay lower time and money costs per liter of water, on average, as compared with those using standpipes. Resale competes favorably with standpipes along a number of service quality dimensions; however, after controlling for water supply characteristics, households purchasing water from neighbors are significantly less likely to be satisfied with their water service as compared with those using standpipes.
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Older women in the homeless shelter: personal perspectives and practice ideas.
J Women Aging
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
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This article reports on the themes generated by interviews conducted with 10 women over the age of 50, currently homeless and residing in an overnight homeless shelter. In-depth interviews were conducted asking women to tell their stories, talk about their lives in the shelter, and speak about their needs, hopes, and dreams. Based on an analysis of these interviews, the following themes emerged and were presented: The System is Too Confusing, Chaos in the Shelter System, Women as Nurturers, and Fractured Families. Discussion of these themes was presented, and practice, administrative, and research implications were suggested.
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Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.
J Water Health
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.
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GM-CSF is not essential for optimal fertility or for weight control.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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Independent studies with GM-CSF-/- mice have concluded that GM-CSF is necessary for normal reproductive outcome and for the maintenance of normal weight. In contrast to the literature we report that GM-CSF-/- and wild type (C57Bl/6) mice over a continuous 12 month period had similar litter size and neonatal survival. Likewise, unlike a literature observation, for the two mouse strains both male and female mice had similar weight gain when fed on a normal chow diet and monitored until 30 weeks of age. It is concluded that GM-CSF is not necessary for an optimal fertility outcome or for normal weight maintenance during development.
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DNA damage and breast cancer.
World J Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Cancer is intimately related to the accumulation of DNA damage, and repair failures (including mutation prone repair and hyperactive repair systems). This article relates current clinical categories for breast cancer and their common DNA damage repair defects. Information is included on the potential for accumulation of DNA damage in the breast tissue of a woman during her lifetime and the role of DNA damage in breast cancer development. We then cover endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damage, types of DNA damage repair and basic signal transduction pathways for three gene products involved in the DNA damage response system; namely BRCA1, BRIT1 and PARP-1. These genes are often considered tumor suppressors because of their roles in DNA damage response and some are under clinical investigation as likely sources for effective new drugs to treat breast cancers. Finally we discuss some of the problems of DNA damage repair systems in cancer and the conundrum of hyper-active repair systems which can introduce mutations and confer a survival advantage to certain types of cancer cells.
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Older men in the homeless shelter: in-depth conversations lead to practice implications.
J Gerontol Soc Work
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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This article reports on the themes generated by face-to-face interviews conducted with 10 men over the age of 50, currently homeless and residing in an overnight homeless shelter. In-depth interviews were conducted asking these men to tell their stories, talk about their lives in the shelter, and speak about their needs, hopes, and dreams. Based on an analysis of interviews, the following themes emerged and were presented: Talk of Work, Barriers to Housing are Overwhelming, Family Estrangement, and Coping Strategies. Discussion of these themes is presented and practice, administrative and research implications are suggested.
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Sustained economic benefits of resistance training in community-dwelling senior women.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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To determine whether the health and cost benefits of resistance training were sustained 12 months after formal cessation of the intervention.
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Failure of nebulized irritant, acidic, or hypotonic solutions or external mechanical stimulation of the trachea to consistently induce coughing in healthy, awake dogs.
Can. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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A useful approach for evaluating antitussive drugs in humans is to determine the sensitivity of the cough reflex to a standard challenge. The purpose of this study was to determine if methods used to induce coughing in humans would be effective when used on awake, untrained, healthy dogs for future application in therapeutic trials involving dogs with spontaneous disease. Methods tested were: mechanically stimulating the trachea by digital compression as well as by vibration from an electric shaver, neck massager, and palm sander (11 dogs), and administering nebulized irritant (3000 ?M capsaicin), acidic (1 M citric acid), and hypotonic (deionized water) solutions using face masks (4 dogs). The threshold for success was defined as induction of at least 2 moderate or strong coughs in at least 75% of the dogs. None of the methods tested was successful. Digital compression induced soft (n = 2) or moderate (n = 1) coughing in 3 of 11 dogs tested. Nebulization of citric acid induced 1 soft cough in 1 of 4 dogs. It was concluded that coughing cannot be successfully induced in awake, healthy dogs using methods that are successful in humans. Other strategies must be developed so that cough sensitivity can be objectively and non-invasively measured in dogs for clinical research purposes.
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Postoperative pain trajectories in chronic pain patients undergoing surgery: the effects of chronic opioid pharmacotherapy on acute pain.
J Pain
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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For 2 weeks following surgery, 55 patients with preexisting chronic pain (CP) reported daily postoperative pain with movement and at rest. Of these, 30 CP patients used opioid pharmacotherapy for CP management and 25 did not. We modeled pain resolution in each patient using a linear fit so that each patient yielded 2 scores for each pain rating: 1) an intercept, or initial level of pain, immediately after surgery; and 2) a slope, or rate of pain resolution. The patients not using opioid pharmacotherapy had a mean pain with movement intercept of 5.4 and a slope of -.20, while the patients using opioid pharmacotherapy had a significantly higher mean intercept of 7.68 (P = .001) and a slope of -.21, sustaining higher pain levels over days. The opioid pharmacotherapy patients had the same rate of pain resolution as the other CP patients, and both groups resolved their pain more slowly than normal surgery patients. Preexisting CP may predispose a patient undergoing surgery to a slower rate of postoperative pain resolution. Chronic pain patients who use opioids share this predisposition but in addition, they are at risk for markedly higher postoperative pain across the entire pain resolution trajectory.
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Understanding household behavioral risk factors for diarrheal disease in Dar es Salaam: a photovoice community assessment.
J Environ Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2011
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Whereas Tanzania has seen considerable improvements in water and sanitation infrastructure over the past 20 years, the country still faces high rates of childhood morbidity from diarrheal diseases. This study utilized a qualitative, cross-sectional, modified Photovoice method to capture daily activities of Dar es Salaam mothers. A total of 127 photographs from 13 households were examined, and 13 interviews were conducted with household mothers. The photographs and interviews revealed insufficient hand washing procedures, unsafe disposal of wastewater, uncovered household drinking water containers, a lack of water treatment prior to consumption, and inappropriate toilets for use by small children. The interviews revealed that mothers were aware and knowledgeable of the risks of certain household practices and understood safer alternatives, yet were restricted by the perceived impracticality and financial constraints to make changes. The results draw attention to the real economic and behavioral challenges faced in reducing the spread of disease.
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Functional movement screening: predicting injuries in officer candidates.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Functional movement screening (FMS) is a musculoskeletal assessment method that incorporates seven movements and yields an overall score based on movement quality. The objectives of this study were to document the distribution of scores and to determine whether FMS scores could predict injury in a large military cohort.
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Surface water and groundwater nitrogen dynamics in a well drained riparian forest within a poorly drained agricultural landscape.
J. Environ. Qual.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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The effectiveness of riparian zones in mitigating nutrient in ground and surface water depends on the climate, management, and hydrogeomorphology of a site. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a well drained, mixed-deciduous riparian forest to buffer a river from N originating from a poorly drained grass seed cropping system. The study site was adjacent to the Calapooia River in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Water was found to move from the rapid drainage of swale surface water. During winter hydrological events, the riparian forest also received river water. Low nitrate (NO3-) concentrations (0.2-0.4 mg NO3- -NL(-1)) in the shallow groundwater of the cropping system were associated with low rates of mineralization and nitrification (33 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and high grass seed crop uptake of N (155 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The riparian forest soil had higher rates of mineralization (117 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) that produced quantities of soil N that were within the range of literature values for plant uptake, leading to relatively low concentrations of shallow groundwater NO3 (0.6-1.8 mg NO3- -NL(-1)). The swale that dissected the cropping system and riparian area was found to have the highest rates of denitrification and to contribute dissolved organic C to the river. Given the dynamic nature of the hydrology of the Calapooia River study site, data suggest that the riparian forest plays a role not only in reducing export of NO3- from the cropping system to the river but also in processing nutrients from river water.
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Intravenous and sublingual buprenorphine in horses: pharmacokinetics and influence of sampling site.
Vet Anaesth Analg
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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To describe the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of intravenous (IV) and sublingual (SL) buprenorphine in horses, and to determine the effect of sampling site on plasma concentrations after SL administration.
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The Ravello Profile: development of a global standard neuropsychological assessment for young people with anorexia nervosa.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Recent research suggests that neuropsychological factors may play an important role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa. However, it has been difficult to draw firm conclusions because of the wide range of assessments and norms that have been used. The aim of the Ravello Profile is to define a common shared neuropsychological assessment battery that can be adopted by researchers and clinicians working with young people. We describe the background to the Ravello Profile and the process of developing it, before specifying the recommended tests. We present an illustrative case example and consider some of the potential clinical and research applications of the profile with young people suffering from anorexia nervosa.
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Falls-related self-efficacy is independently associated with quality-adjusted life years in older women.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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falls-related self-efficacy is associated with falls, falls-related injury and subsequent functional decline which may lead to poor health-related quality-of-life (HRQL). To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of falls-related self-efficacy to HRQL. Our primary objective was to determine whether falls-related self-efficacy is independently associated HRQL, measured by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), in older women after accounting for known covariates.
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A retrospective analysis of the effect of patient-specific factors on voriconazole concentrations in oncology patients.
J Oncol Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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To identify patient-specific factors significantly associated with voriconazole exposure. DESIGN SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective, single center at an academic medical center. Consecutive, adult oncology inpatients who received voriconazole by mouth and had at least one voriconazole level over a 14-month period. Voriconazole was ordered for 292 patients during the study period, a level was obtained in 41 patients. Nine patients were excluded; the study population was comprised of 32 patients.
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Impact of family functioning on quality of life in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures versus epilepsy.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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To evaluate different contributions of aspects of family functioning (FF) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) versus epileptic seizures (ES).
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The effects of informational interventions on household water management, hygiene behaviors, stored drinking water quality, and hand contamination in peri-urban Tanzania.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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Safe water storage and hand hygiene have been shown to reduce fecal contamination and improve health in experimental settings; however, triggering and sustaining such behaviors is challenging. This study investigates the extent to which personalized information about Escherichia coli contamination of stored water and hands influenced knowledge, reported behaviors, and subsequent contamination levels among 334 households with less than 5-year-old children in peri-urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. One-quarter of the study participants received information about strategies to reduce risk of water- and sanitation-related illness. Respondents in another three study cohorts received this same information, along with their households water and/or hand-rinse test results. Findings from this study suggest that additional work is needed to elucidate the conditions under which such testing represents a cost-effective strategy to motivate improved household water management and hand hygiene.
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TNF is necessary for castration-induced prostate regression, whereas TRAIL and FasL are dispensable.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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TNF, a proinflammatory and immune-regulatory cytokine, is a potent apoptotic stimulus in vitro. However, there have been few examples of a physiologic role for TNF-induced apoptosis in vivo. Here, we describe a novel role for TNF in prostate epithelial cell apoptosis after androgen withdrawal. Employing high-resolution serial magnetic resonance imaging to measure mouse prostate volume changes over time, we demonstrate that the extent of castration-induced prostate regression is significantly reduced in mice null for either the Tnf or Tnfr1 genes but not mice deficient for TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or Fas signaling. Wild-type mice receiving soluble TNF (sTNF) receptor 2 (to bind TNF and block signaling) before castration exhibit an identical reduction of prostate regression. Together, these data indicate that uniquely among known extrinsic death signals, TNF is required for castration-induced prostate regression. Additionally, membrane-bound TNF protein and stromal cell specific TNF mRNA levels increase in rat prostate after castration. This is consistent with a paracrine role for TNF in prostate regression. When injected into the peritoneum of Tnf(-/-) mice at the time of castration, sTNF restores normal levels of prostate regression. However, wild-type mice receiving sTNF in the absence of castration do not exhibit prostate regression, indicating that TNF alone is not sufficient but acts in the context of additional castration-induced signals. These findings support a physiologic role for TNF in prostate regression after androgen withdrawal. Understanding this role may lead to novel therapies for prostate cancer.
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Ronidazole pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral immediate-release capsule administration in healthy cats.
J. Feline Med. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Ronidazole (RDZ) is an effective treatment for feline Tritrichomonas foetus infection, but has produced neurotoxicity in some cats. An understanding of the disposition of RDZ in cats is needed in order to make precise dosing recommendations. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of intravenous (IV) RDZ and immediate-release RDZ capsules were evaluated. A single dose of IV RDZ (mean 9.2mg/kg) and a 95mg immediate-release RDZ capsule (mean 28.2mg/kg) were administered to six healthy cats in a randomized crossover design. Plasma samples were collected for 48 h and assayed for RDZ using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Systemic absorption of oral RDZ was rapid and complete, with detection in the plasma of all cats by 10 min after dosing and a bioavailability of 99.64 (±16.54)%. The clearance of RDZ following IV administration was 0.82 (±0.07) ml/kg/min. The terminal half-life was 9.80 (±0.35) and 10.50 (±0.82) h after IV and oral administration, respectively, with drug detectable in all cats 48h after both administrations. The high oral bioavailability of RDZ and slow elimination may predispose cats to neurotoxicity with twice-daily administration. Less frequent administration should be considered for further study of effective treatment of T foetus-infected cats.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.