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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hydroxamic Acid-Based Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors Can Mediate Neuroprotection Independent of HDAC Inhibition.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition improves function and extends survival in rodent models of a host of neurological conditions, including stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Our understanding, however, of the contribution of individual HDAC isoforms to neuronal death is limited. In this study, we used selective chemical probes to assess the individual roles of the Class I HDAC isoforms in protecting Mus musculus primary cortical neurons from oxidative death. We demonstrated that the selective HDAC8 inhibitor PCI-34051 is a potent neuroprotective agent; and by taking advantage of both pharmacological and genetic tools, we established that HDAC8 is not critically involved in PCI-34051's mechanism of action. We used BRD3811, an inactive ortholog of PCI-34051, and showed that, despite its inability to inhibit HDAC8, it exhibits robust neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, molecular deletion of HDAC8 proved insufficient to protect neurons from oxidative death, whereas both PCI-34051 and BRD3811 were able to protect neurons derived from HDAC8 knock-out mice. Finally, we designed and synthesized two new, orthogonal negative control compounds, BRD9715 and BRD8461, which lack the hydroxamic acid motif and showed that they stably penetrate cell membranes but are not neuroprotective. These results indicate that the protective effects of these hydroxamic acid-containing small molecules are likely unrelated to direct epigenetic regulation via HDAC inhibition, but rather due to their ability to bind metals. Our results suggest that hydroxamic acid-based HDAC inhibitors may mediate neuroprotection via HDAC-independent mechanisms and affirm the need for careful structure-activity relationship studies when using pharmacological approaches.
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Selective HDAC inhibition for the disruption of latent HIV-1 infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as a potential anti-latency therapy for persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We utilized a combination of small molecule inhibitors and short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated gene knockdown strategies to delineate the key HDAC(s) to be targeted for selective induction of latent HIV-1 expression. Individual depletion of HDAC3 significantly induced expression from the HIV-1 promoter in the 2D10 latency cell line model. However, depletion of HDAC1 or -2 alone or in combination did not significantly induce HIV-1 expression. Co-depletion of HDAC2 and -3 resulted in a significant increase in expression from the HIV-1 promoter. Furthermore, concurrent knockdown of HDAC1, -2, and -3 resulted in a significant increase in expression from the HIV-1 promoter. Using small molecule HDAC inhibitors of differing selectivity to ablate the residual HDAC activity that remained after (sh)RNA depletion, the effect of depletion of HDAC3 was further enhanced. Enzymatic inhibition of HDAC3 with the selective small-molecule inhibitor BRD3308 activated HIV-1 transcription in the 2D10 cell line. Furthermore, ex vivo exposure to BRD3308 induced outgrowth of HIV-1 from resting CD4+ T cells isolated from antiretroviral-treated, aviremic HIV+ patients. Taken together these findings suggest that HDAC3 is an essential target to disrupt HIV-1 latency, and inhibition of HDAC2 may also contribute to the effort to purge and eradicate latent HIV-1 infection.
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An unbiased approach to identify endogenous substrates of "histone" deacetylase 8.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Despite being extensively characterized structurally and biochemically, the functional role of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) has remained largely obscure due in part to a lack of known cellular substrates. Herein, we describe an unbiased approach using chemical tools in conjunction with sophisticated proteomics methods to identify novel non-histone nuclear substrates of HDAC8, including the tumor suppressor ARID1A. These newly discovered substrates of HDAC8 are involved in diverse biological processes including mitosis, transcription, chromatin remodeling, and RNA splicing and may help guide therapeutic strategies that target the function of HDAC8.
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Class I HDAC imaging using [ (3)H]CI-994 autoradiography.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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[ (3)H]CI-994, a radioactive isotopologue of the benzamide CI-994, a class I histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), was evaluated as an autoradiography probe for ex vivo labeling and localizing of class I HDAC (isoforms 1-3) in the rodent brain. After protocol optimization, up to 80% of total binding was attributed to specific binding. Notably, like other benzamide HDACi, [ (3)H]CI-994 exhibits slow binding kinetics when measured in vitro with isolated enzymes and ex vivo when used for autoradiographic mapping of HDAC1-3 density. The regional distribution and density of HDAC1-3 was determined through a series of saturation and kinetics experiments. The binding properties of [ (3)H]CI-994 to HDAC1-3 were characterized and the data were used to determine the regional Bmax of the target proteins. Kd values, determined from slice autoradiography, were between 9.17 and 15.6 nM. The HDAC1-3 density (Bmax), averaged over whole brain sections, was of 12.9 picomol · mg(-1) protein. The highest HDAC1-3 density was found in the cerebellum, followed by hippocampus and cortex. Moderate to low receptor density was found in striatum, hypothalamus and thalamus. These data were correlated with semi-quantitative measures of each HDAC isoform using western blot analysis and it was determined that autoradiographic images most likely represent the sum of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 protein density. In competition experiments, [ (3)H]CI-994 binding can be dose-dependently blocked with other HDAC inhibitors, including suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). In summary, we have developed the first known autoradiography tool for imaging class I HDAC enzymes. Although validated in the CNS, [ (3)H]CI-994 will be applicable and beneficial to other target tissues and can be used to evaluate HDAC inhibition in tissues for novel therapies being developed. [ (3)H]CI-994 is now an enabling imaging tool to study the relationship between diseases and epigenetic regulation.
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Discovery of the first histone deacetylase 6/8 dual inhibitors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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We disclose the first small molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (3, BRD73954) capable of potently and selectively inhibiting both HDAC6 and HDAC8 despite the fact that these isoforms belong to distinct phylogenetic classes within the HDAC family of enzymes. Our data demonstrate that meta substituents of phenyl hydroxamic acids are readily accommodated upon binding to HDAC6 and, furthermore, are necessary for the potent inhibition of HDAC8.
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FDG-PET imaging reveals local brain glucose utilization is altered by class I histone deacetylase inhibitors.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The purpose of this work--the first of its kind--was to evaluate the impact of chronic selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor treatment on brain activity using uptake of the radioligand (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET). HDAC dysfunction and other epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in diverse CNS disorders and animal research suggests HDAC inhibition may provide a lead toward developing improved treatment. To begin to better understand the role of the class I HDAC subtypes HDAC 1, 2 and 3 in modulating brain activity, we utilized two benzamide inhibitors from the literature, compound 60 (Cpd-60) and CI-994 which selectively inhibit HDAC 1 and 2 or HDACs 1, 2 and 3, respectively. One day after the seventh treatment with Cpd-60 (22.5 mg/kg) or CI-994 (5 mg/kg), (18)FDG-PET experiments (n=11-12 rats per treatment group) revealed significant, local changes in brain glucose utilization. These 2-17% changes were represented by increases and decreases in glucose uptake. The pattern of changes was similar but distinct between Cpd-60 and CI-994, supporting that (18)FDG-PET is a useful tool to examine the relationship between HDAC subtype activity and brain activity. Further work using additional selective HDAC inhibitors will be needed to clarify these effects as well as to understand how brain activity changes influence behavioral response.
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Potent and selective inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) does not require a surface-binding motif.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Hydroxamic acids were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their ability to selectively inhibit human histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). Several inhibitors, including compound 14 (BRD9757), exhibited excellent potency and selectivity despite the absence of a surface-binding motif. The binding of these highly efficient ligands for HDAC6 is rationalized via structure-activity relationships. These results demonstrate that high selectivity and potent inhibition of HDAC6 can be achieved through careful choice of linker element only.
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A selective HDAC 1/2 inhibitor modulates chromatin and gene expression in brain and alters mouse behavior in two mood-related tests.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, are projected to lead global disease burden within the next decade. Pharmacotherapy, the primary--albeit often ineffective--treatment method, has remained largely unchanged over the past 50 years, highlighting the need for novel target discovery and improved mechanism-based treatments. Here, we examined in wild type mice the impact of chronic, systemic treatment with Compound 60 (Cpd-60), a slow-binding, benzamide-based inhibitor of the class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) family members, HDAC1 and HDAC2, in mood-related behavioral assays responsive to clinically effective drugs. Cpd-60 treatment for one week was associated with attenuated locomotor activity following acute amphetamine challenge. Further, treated mice demonstrated decreased immobility in the forced swim test. These changes are consistent with established effects of clinical mood stabilizers and antidepressants, respectively. Whole-genome expression profiling of specific brain regions (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus) from mice treated with Cpd-60 identified gene expression changes, including a small subset of transcripts that significantly overlapped those previously reported in lithium-treated mice. HDAC inhibition in brain was confirmed by increased histone acetylation both globally and, using chromatin immunoprecipitation, at the promoter regions of upregulated transcripts, a finding consistent with in vivo engagement of HDAC targets. In contrast, treatment with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a non-selective fast-binding, hydroxamic acid HDAC 1/2/3/6 inhibitor, was sufficient to increase histone acetylation in brain, but did not alter mood-related behaviors and had dissimilar transcriptional regulatory effects compared to Cpd-60. These results provide evidence that selective inhibition of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in brain may provide an epigenetic-based target for developing improved treatments for mood disorders and other brain disorders with altered chromatin-mediated neuroplasticity.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.