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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein Homologous Protein Deficiency Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Antioxid. Redox Signal.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Abstract Aims: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a major cause of acute renal failure. The mechanisms of I/R injury include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammatory responses, hypoxia, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is involved in the ER stress signaling pathways. CHOP is a transcription factor and a major mediator of ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, the role of CHOP in renal I/R injury is still undefined. Here, we investigated whether CHOP could regulate I/R-induced renal injury using CHOP-knockout mice and cultured renal tubular cells as models. Results: In CHOP-knockout mice, loss of renal function induced by I/R was prevented. Renal proximal tubule damage was induced by I/R in wild-type mice; however, the degree of alteration was significantly less in CHOP-knockout mice. CHOP deficiency also decreased the I/R-induced activation of caspase-3 and -8, apoptosis, and lipid peroxidation, whereas the activity of endogenous antioxidants increased. In an in vitro I/R model, small interfering RNA targeting CHOP significantly reversed increases in H2O2 formation, inflammatory signals, and apoptotic signals, while enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidants in renal tubular cells. Innovation: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which demonstrates that CHOP deficiency attenuates oxidative stress and I/R-induced acute renal injury both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These findings suggest that CHOP regulates not only apoptosis-related signaling but also ROS formation and inflammation in renal tubular cells during I/R. CHOP may play an important role in the pathophysiology of I/R-induced renal injury. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
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Multidisciplinary Care Program for Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Reduces Renal Replacement and Medical Costs.
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Multidisciplinary care is advocated as an effective chronic kidney disease treatment program in a few, but not all studies. Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of multidisciplinary care on renal outcome and patient survival using a larger cohort.
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Identification of a Novel FN1-FGFR1 Genetic Fusion as a Frequent Event in Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumour.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours (PMT) are uncommon soft tissue and bone tumours that typically cause hypophosphataemia and tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) through secretion of phosphatonins including fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). PMT has recently been accepted by the World Health Organization as a formal tumour entity. The genetic basis and oncogenic pathways underlying its tumourigenesis remain obscure. In this study, we identified a novel FN1-FGFR1 fusion gene in 3 out of 4 PMTs by next-generation RNA sequencing. The fusion transcripts and proteins were subsequently confirmed with RT-PCR and western blotting. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis showed 6 cases with FN1-FGFR1 fusion, out of an additional 11 PMTs. Overall, 9 out of 15 PMTs (60%) harboured this fusion. The FN1 gene possibly provides its constitutively active promoter and the encoded protein's oligomerisation domains to over-express and facilitate the activation of the FGFR1 kinase domain. Interestingly, unlike the prototypical leukaemia-inducing FGFR1 fusion genes which are ligand-independent, the FN1-FGFR1 chimeric protein was predicted to preserve its ligand-binding domains, suggesting an advantage of the presence of its ligands (such as FGF23 secreted at high levels by the tumour) in the activation of the chimeric receptor tyrosine kinase, thus effecting an autocrine or paracrine mechanism of tumourigenesis.
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Modulation of nitrosative stress via glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GFD) from Taiwanofungus camphorata plays important roles in formaldehyde detoxification and antioxidation. The enzyme is bifunctional. In addition to the GFD activity, it also functions as an effective S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) against nitrosative stress. We investigated the modulation of HEK (human embryonic kidney) 293T cells under nitrosative stress by transfecting a codon optimized GFD cDNA from Taiwanofungus camphorata (Tc-GFD-O) to these cells. The parental and transfected HEK 293T cells were then subjected to S-nitrosoglutathione treatment to induce nitrosative stress. The results showed that in Tc-GFD-O-transfected 293T cells, the expression and activity of GFD increased. Additionally, these cells under the nitrosative stress induced by S-nitrosoglutathione showed both higher viability and less apoptosis than the parental 293T cells. This finding suggests that the Tc-GFD-O in HEK 293T cells may provide a protective function under nitrosative stress.
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Association of increased travel distance to dialysis units with the risk of anemia in rural chronic hemodialysis elderly.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Geographic remoteness has been found to influence health-related outcomes negatively. As reported in the literature, rural dialysis patients have a higher risk of mortality with increasing travel distance to dialysis units. However, few studies have focused on the impact of travel distances on the development of dialysis complications. We utilized a prospectively collected chronic hemodialysis patient cohort from a rural regional hospital for analysis. Data on demographics, comorbidities, and serum laboratory results were obtained. Correlation analyses between travel distance to dialysis units and dialysis complications were conducted, and significantly correlated parameters were entered into multivariate logistic regression models to determine their exact associations. A total of 46 rural chronic hemodialysis patients were enrolled, with an average age higher than others in the literature. Significant correlation was found between travel distance and serum hemoglobin levels (R(2) ?=?-0.34, P value?=?0.029). Multivariate logistic regression found that every 1?km increase in travel distance was associated with an increased risk of anemia (hemoglobin <9?g/dL) (odds ratio 1.46; P value?=?0.01). Sensitivity analyses further showed that the associated risk was partially attenuated by serum albumin (odds ratio 1.83; P value?=?0.07) and ferritin (odds ratio 1.39; P value?=?0.08) levels. This is the first study to demonstrate the association between increased travel distance to dialysis units and the risk of anemia in chronic dialysis patients, especially elderly. Malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome could be partially responsible for the observed association. Further research is required to confirm our findings.
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Diagnostic performance of random urine samples using albumin concentration vs ratio of albumin to creatinine for microalbuminuria screening in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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A random urine sample measuring the albumin concentration (UAC) without simultaneously measuring the urinary creatinine is less expensive than measuring the ratio of albumin to creatinine (ACR), but comparisons of their diagnostic performance for microalbuminuria screening among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have not been undertaken in previous meta-analyses.
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VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PERITONITIS: CLINICAL COURSES AND LONG-TERM OUTCOMES.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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The clinical courses and long-term outcomes of viridans streptococcus (VS) peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis remain unclear.
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Acinetobacter Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis: A Changing Landscape over Time.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acinetobacter species are assuming an increasingly important role in modern medicine, with their persistent presence in health-care settings and antibiotic resistance. However, clinical reports addressing this issue in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis are rare.
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Comparative effectiveness of renin-angiotensin system blockers and other antihypertensive drugs in patients with diabetes: systematic review and bayesian network meta-analysis.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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To assess the effects of different classes of antihypertensive treatments, including monotherapy and combination therapy, on survival and major renal outcomes in patients with diabetes.
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Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population.
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Metabolic syndrome and abdominal fat are associated with inflammation, but not with clinical outcomes, in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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BACKGROUND: In the general population, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is correlated with visceral fat and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, little is known about the significance of abdominal fat and its association with inflammation and medication use in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We investigated the relationship of visceral fat area (VFA) with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and medication use in PD patients and followed their clinical outcomes. METHODS: In a prospective study from February 2009 to February 2012, we assessed diabetes mellitus (DM) status, clinical and PD-associated characteristics, medication use, CRP levels, components of MetS, and VFA in 183 PD patients. These patients were categorized into 3 groups based on MetS and DM status: non-MetS (group 1, n = 73), MetS (group 2, n = 65), and DM (group 3, n = 45). VFA was evaluated by computed tomography (CT) and corrected for body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Patients in group 1 had smaller VFAs than patients in groups 2 and 3 (3.2 +/- 1.8, 4.6 +/- 1.9, and 4.9 +/- 2.0 cm2/[kg/m2], respectively, P < 0.05) and lower CRP levels (0.97 +/- 2.31, 1.27 +/- 2.57, and 1.11 +/- 1.35 mg/dL, respectively, P < 0.05). VFA increased with the number of criteria met for MetS. After adjusting for age, body weight, and sex, CRP and albumin levels functioned as independent positive predictors of VFA; on other hand, the use of renin-angiotensin system blockers was inversely correlated with VFA in PD patients without DM. In the survival analysis, DM patients (group 3) had the poorest survival among the 3 groups, but no significant differences were found between groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: This study showed that VFA and MetS are associated with CRP levels but cannot predict survival in PD patients without DM. The complex relationship of nutritional parameters to VFA and MetS may explain these results. The type of antihypertensive medication used was also associated with the VFA. The mechanisms behind these findings warrant further investigation.
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Microalbuminuria screening for detecting chronic kidney disease in the general population: a systematic review.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Microalbuminuria screening is widely used in high-risk populations but seldom used in the general population for detecting chronic kidney disease (CKD). Systematic reviews focused on screening for CKD are rare, and the issues about microalbuminuria screening in the general population have never been reviewed. We systematically reviewed studies regarding microalbuminuria screening and evaluated the benefits and harms of this screening method in the general population.
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Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patients receiving more than 3 months of PD were enrolled. We analyzed clinical features as well as outcomes of anaerobic PD peritonitis patients. RESULTS: Among 6 patients, 10 episodes of PD-associated peritonitis were caused by anaerobic pathogens (1.59% of all peritonitis episodes during study the period), in which the cultures from 5 episodes had mixed growth. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common species identified (4 isolates). Only 3 episodes were associated with gastrointestinal lesions, and 4 episodes were related to a break in sterility during exchange procedures. All anaerobic pathogens were susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole, but penicillin resistance was noted in 4 isolates. Ampicillin/sulbactam resistance was found in 2 isolates. In 5 episodes, a primary response was achieved using the first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime or aminoglycoside. In 3 episodes, the first-generation cephalosporin was replaced with aminoglycosides. Tenckhoff catheter removal was necessary in 2 episodes. Only one episode ended with mortality (due to a perforated bowel). CONCLUSION: Anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis might be predominantly caused by contamination, rather than intra-abdominal events. Half of anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis episodes had polymicrobial growth. The overall outcome of anaerobic peritonitis is fair, with a high catheter survival rate.
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Lean body mass predicts long-term survival in Chinese patients on peritoneal dialysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Reduced lean body mass (LBM) is one of the main indicators in malnutrition inflammation syndrome among patients on dialysis. However, the influence of LBM on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients outcomes and the factors related to increasing LBM are seldom reported.
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Withdrawal from long-term hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Withdrawal from dialysis is ethically appropriate for some patients with multiple comorbidities and a shortened life expectancy. Taiwan has the highest prevalence of dialysis patients in the world, and the National Health Insurance (NHI) program offers renal replacement therapy free of charge. In this review, we discuss its current status and many background issues related to withdrawing dialysis from patients with advanced renal failure in Taiwan. Compared with dialysis therapy, the medical resources for hospice care are relatively sparse. Since the announcement of the Statute for Palliative Care in 2000, there has been a gradual improvement in the laws and health polices supporting dialysis withdrawal. Culture and social customs also have a significant impact on the practice of hospice care. Based on current evidence and in accordance with the local environment, we propose recommendations for the clinical practice of dialysis withdrawal and hospice care. There remains a need to expand upon the community-based hospice care and home care systems to better serve patients. In conclusion, there are cross-cultural differences relating to dialysis withdrawal between Taiwan and Western countries. Our experience and clinical recommendations may be helpful for the countries with NHI systems or for the Eastern countries.
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Glycosylated hemoglobin and albumin-corrected fructosamine are good indicators for glycemic control in peritoneal dialysis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease and is an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality after dialysis. However, glycemic control among such patients is difficult to assess. The present study examined glycemic control parameters and observed glucose variation after refilling different kinds of fresh dialysate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
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High peritoneal KT/V and peritonitis rates are associated with peritoneal calcification.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Peritoneal calcification (PC) is a specific finding in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), but its prevalence, risk factors, and impacts in PD patients remain unclear. The present study investigated these issues and provided information useful for the management of PC.
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Citrobacter peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: rare occurrence with poor outcomes.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Non-Pseudomonas gram-negative bacteria are responsible for an increasing proportion of cases of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. The role of Citrobacter species in the etiology of PD-related peritonitis is often underestimated. In the present study, we aimed to describe the clinical features, laboratory findings, and short- and long-term outcomes in PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter.
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Dissecting the mechanisms of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Patients with symptoms of heart failure and preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function are commonly encountered in clinical practice especially in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that adiposity might influence LV diastolic function through systemic inflammation in this specific group.
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A computer-aided method for automatic localization and thickness measurement of peritoneum in ultrasound images.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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This paper presents a method of automatically measuring peritoneum thickness in ultrasound images. In our previous work, a method of manually selecting the region of interest (ROI) area has been developed. To achieve an automatic ROI area selection, two phases: Gaussian high-pass filtering and bilateral filtering, are used in the proposed method. In the bilateral filtering phase, the ultrasound image is enhanced for obtaining more details of the peritoneum so that probable areas can be extracted. In the other phase, the ultrasound image is processed with a Gaussian high pass filter, and the result is used to locate the precise area of peritoneum in the first phase result. The experimental results show that the proposed method has high accuracy and fast processing speed in determining the peritoneum area and its thickness distribution.
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Expression, localization and function of a cis-prenyltransferase in the tapetum and microspores of lily anthers.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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The cis-prenyltransferase gene LLA66 (Lilium longiflorum anther-66), the first prenyltransferase to be identified in the tapetum and microspores, was selected from a suppression subtractive cDNA library during microspore development in the anther of L. longiflorum. The LLA66 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 308 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 35.7 kDa. Thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR was employed to obtain the 5-regulatory region of LLA66. Sequence alignment revealed that the LLA66 protein shares 30-41% identity with cis-prenyltransferases of various broad-spectrum species and is phylogenetically distinct from other monocot cis-prenyltransferases. Based on critical regulatory domains in cis-prenyltransferase, LLA66 was concluded to catalyze the production of long-chain polyprenyl products. RNA blot analysis indicated that the LLA66 gene is anther specific and differentially expressed during microspore development in the anther. In situ hybridization with the digoxigenin-labeled antisense riboprobe of LLA66 showed strong signals at the tapetal layer of the anther wall. The LLA66 mRNA was also coordinately detected in the microspores. Furthermore, gibberellin inhibitor analysis indicated that the LLA66 gene is endogenously induced by gibberellin, but its induction is independent of ethylene regulation. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that gene expression of LLA66 both in the microspore and in the anther wall increased to the maximum level, at which stage the tapetum became highly active and secretory. The enzyme activity of prenyltransferases in various stages of microspore development correlated with tapetal growth and disintegration. LLA66 was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the His-tagged LLA66 protein was affinity purified using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic acid-agarose. The involvement of cis-prenyltransferase in the anther in the synthesis of dolichols and polyprenols is discussed.
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress implicated in the development of renal fibrosis.
Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2011
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated apoptosis plays a role in organ remodeling after insult. The effect of ER stress on renal tubular damage and fibrosis remains controversial. This study aims to investigate whether ER stress is involved in tubular destruction and interstitial fibrosis in vivo. Renal cell apoptosis was proven by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) stain and poly-ADP ribose polymerase expression in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) kidney. ER stress was evoked and confirmed by the upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and the common Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) motif of ER retention proteins after UUO. ER stress-associated proapoptotic signals, including B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma 2-associated × protein (BAX) expression, caspase-12 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, were activated in the UUO kidney. Prolonged ER stress attenuated both unsplicing and splicing X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) protein expression, but continued to activate inositol-requiring 1? (IRE1?)-JNK phosphorylation, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? subunit (eIF2?), activating transcription factor (ATF)-4, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) and cleavage activating transcription factor 6 (cATF6)-CHOP signals, which induce ER stress-related apoptosis but attenuate adaptive unfolded protein responses in UUO kidneys. However, renal apoptosis and fibrosis were attenuated in candesartan-treated UUO kidney. Candesartan was associated with maintenance of XBP-1 expression and attenuated ATF4, cATF6 and CHOP protein expression. Taken together, results show that overwhelming ER stress leads to renal cell apoptosis and subsequent fibrosis; and candesartan, at least in part, restores renal integrity by blocking ER stress-related apoptosis. Reducing ER stress may present a way to attenuate renal fibrosis.
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An arsenate reductase homologue possessing phosphatase activity from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam): kinetic studies and characterization.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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A cDNA encoding a putative arsenate reductase homologue (IbArsR) was cloned from sweet potato (Ib). The deduced protein showed a high level of sequence homology (16-66%) with ArsRs from other organisms. A 3-D homology structure was created based on AtArsR (PDB code 1T3K ) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The putative active site of protein tyrosine phosphatase (HC(X)(5)R) is conserved in all reported ArsRs. IbArsR was overexpressed and purified. The monomeric nature of the enzyme was confirmed by 15% SDS-PAGE and molecular mass determination of the native enzyme via ESI Q-TOF. The IbArsR lacks arsenate reductase activity but possesses phosphatase activity. The Michaelis constant (K(M)) value for p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) was 11.11 mM. The phosphatase activity was inhibited by 0.5 mM sodium arsenate [As(V)]. The proteins half-life of deactivation at 25 °C was 6.1 min, and its inactivation rate constant K(d) was 1.1 × 10(-1) min(-1). The enzyme was active in a broad pH range from 4.0 to 11.0 with optimum activity at pH 10.0. Phosphatase would remove phosphate group from nucleic acid or dephosphorylation of other enzymes as regulation signaling.
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Application of speckle-tracking echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease in patients with maintenance hemodialysis.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Satisfactory and noninvasive diagnostic tools for coronary artery disease (CAD) are not available in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to elucidate a reliable tool to diagnose CAD in these patients.
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Impact of timing of renal replacement therapy initiation on outcome of septic acute kidney injury.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Sepsis is the leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critical patients. The optimal timing of initiating renal replacement therapy (RRT) in septic AKI patients remains controversial. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of early or late initiation of RRT, as defined using the simplified RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function, and end-stage renal failure) classification (sRIFLE), on hospital mortality among septic AKI patients.
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Tamoxifen downregulates connective tissue growth factor to ameliorate peritoneal fibrosis.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Peritoneal fibrosis (PF), including simple sclerosis and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), is a serious complication in patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis. Tamoxifen has successfully been used in treating EPS; however, the mechanism of tamoxifen in treating EPS fibrosis disorders remains unclear. This study demonstrates a possible antifibrotic mechanism of tamoxifen. A bleach-induced PF rat model was applied as the in vivo treatment target. Tamoxifen was intraperitoneally injected daily to treat PF. The PF scores and thickness of the submesothelial zone over the liver surface were measured as indicators for the severity of PF. Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) were used as an in vitro model to test the antifibrotic effect of tamoxifen. Gene expressions of transforming growth factors-? (TGF-?), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and collagen were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reactions. In HPMC, tamoxifen showed paradoxical effects between collagen I and TGF-?. Tamoxifen also inhibited TGF-?-induced collagen and CTGF. The possible antifibrotic effect of tamoxifen is through inhibiting CTGF to block collagen synthesis, although it enhances TGF-? which increases fibrosis. These results provide a possible molecular mechanism for tamoxifen.
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Preoperative proteinuria predicts adverse renal outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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Whether preoperative proteinuria associates with adverse renal outcomes after cardiac surgery is unknown. Here, we performed a secondary analysis of a prospectively enrolled cohort of adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) at a medical center and its two affiliate hospitals between 2003 and 2007. We excluded patients with stage 5 CKD or those who received dialysis previously. We defined proteinuria, measured with a dipstick, as mild (trace to 1+) or heavy (2+ to 4+). Among a total of 1052 patients, cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) developed in 183 (17.4%) patients and required renal replacement therapy (RRT) in 50 (4.8%) patients. In a multiple logistic regression model, mild and heavy proteinuria each associated with an increased odds of CSA-AKI, independent of CKD stage and the presence of diabetes mellitus (mild: OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.52; heavy: OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 to 3.90). Heavy proteinuria also associated with increased odds of postoperative RRT (OR 7.29, 95% CI 3.00 to 17.73). In summary, these data suggest that preoperative proteinuria is a predictor of CSA-AKI among patients undergoing CABG.
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Left ventricular systolic strain in chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis patients.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2010
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Background: The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis on heart function is not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the influence of different stages of CKD and maintenance hemodialysis on heart function. Methods: One hundred fifty-three patients were categorized into 3 subgroups [56 without CKD as controls; 37 with moderate-advanced CKD, stages 3, 4 or 5, and 60 with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis]. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography with strain analysis (2D strain analysis). Results: There was no significant difference of gender, age and LV ejection fraction among groups. Compared with controls, global peak systolic longitudinal strain (GS(l)), circumferential strain and strain rate were decreased in the CKD group. Along with the decline of renal function, GS(l) deteriorated. Moreover, compared with moderate-advanced CKD patients, GS(l), circumferential strain and strain rate were better in ESRD group receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Conclusions: Worsening renal function was associated with a reduction of systolic function, and could be quantified by 2D strain analysis. The hemodialysis patients have better LV systolic function than the moderate-advanced CKD patients.
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Life expectancy, expected years of life lost and survival of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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Expected years of life lost (EYLL) in dialysis patients are rarely discussed. This study compared life expectancy, EYLL and survival between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients.
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Risk factors for high dialysate glucose use in PD patients--a retrospective 5-year cohort study.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Use of high concentrations of glucose for peritoneal dialysis (PD) may produce unfavorable results. Our previous study showed that high initial glucose load is associated with poor PD technique survival.
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Benefits of sevelamer on markers of bone turnover in Taiwanese hemodialysis patients.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Sevelamer hydrochloride is a recently developed phosphate binder, which is a quaternary amine anion exchanger without calcium or aluminum. Sevelamer is effective in controlling hyperphosphatemia without increasing the calcium load in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated whether sevelamer restored bone metabolism in chronic HD patients.
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Skin color is associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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Changes in skin color are common among dialysis patients. They are associated with urochrome pigments, hemoglobin, and changes in cutaneous vasculature. Insulin resistance (IR) is strongly linked to cutaneous vascular dysfunction and is prevalent in dialysis patients. We postulated skin color may be associated with IR in dialysis patients because of the alternation in cutaneous vasculature.
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N-acetylcysteine-mediated antioxidation prevents hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis and collagen synthesis in rat mesangial cells.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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High-glucose (HG)-induced mesangial apoptosis and fibrogenesis possibly involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and activated mitochondrial stress. We investigated the therapeutic effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cellular apoptosis and matrix accumulation in HG-treated rat mesangial cells (RMCs).
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Cloning, expression, and purification of a functional glutathione reductase from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam): kinetic studies and characterization.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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A cDNA encoding a putative glutathione reductase (GR) was cloned from sweet potato (Ib). The deduced protein showed high level of sequence homology with GRs from other plants (79-38%). A three-dimensional (3-D) homology structure was created. The active site Cys residues are conserved in all reported GR. Functional IbGR was overexpressed and purified. The purified enzyme showed an active monomeric form on a 10% native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The monomeric nature of the enzyme was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and molecular mass determination of the native enzyme. The Michaelis constant (K(m)) values for GSSG (glutathione disulfide) and NADPH (?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form) were 0.114 and 0.056 mM, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), but not by Ca(2+). The proteins half-life of deactivation at 70 °C was 3.3 min, and its thermal inactivation rate constant K(d) was 3.48 × 10(-1) min(-1). The enzyme was active in a broad pH range from 6.0 to 11.0 and in the presence of imidazole up to 0.8 M. The native enzyme appeared to be resistant to digestion by trypsin or chymotrypsin.
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Functional expression of Francisella tularensis FabH and FabI, potential antibacterial targets.
Protein Expr. Purif.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
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Francisella tularensis is an extremely infectious airborne pathogen that has long been considered as a potential biological weapon. Enzymes of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway are attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial agents because of differences between the biosynthesis pathways of bacteria and mammals. We report here the first expression of three functional enzymes in F. tularensis FAS-II pathway: FabH (3-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III) which initiates elongation in FAS-II; FabD (Malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase) which catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl moiety from malonyl-CoA to ACP generating malonyl-ACP, and FabI (enoyl-ACP reductase) which catalyzes the reduction of enoyl-acyl-ACP derivatives. The genes encoding the FabD, FabH, and FabI were custom synthesized and cloned in pET15b expression vector. Each recombinant His-tagged fusion protein was overexpressed by IPTG induction, and then purified by affinity chromatography on a Ni-NTA column. The purified FabH and FabI have been used as targets for new drug development. Screening of a class of indole-2-carboxylic acid compounds has led to the discovery of several new compounds with promising activity against F. tularensis FabH or FabI enzymes. For example, indole derivative WIUAKP-001 inhibited 80% the FabH enzyme at 40 microM with IC(50) value of 2 microM whereas WIUAKP-031 inhibited 98% the FabI enzyme at 37.5 microM with IC(50) value of 6 microM. These compounds hold great promise for future development of new indole derivatives as inhibitors of type II FAS enzymes, and as potential new treatment for tularemia.
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Rate of decline of residual renal function is associated with all-cause mortality and technique failure in patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2009
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Residual renal function (RRF) at the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy can predict patient outcome. However, RRF declines with time at variable rates in different patients. This study was performed to compare the impact of baseline RRF and the rate of RRF decline on patient survival and on death-censored technique survival after initiation of long-term PD.
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Intraperitoneal vascular endothelial growth factor C level is related to peritoneal dialysis ultrafiltration.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Local inflammation and neovascularization have a negative influence on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Patients with higher peritoneal transport have higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) levels in their dialysate. However, the relationship of other members of the VEGF family, such as VEGF-C, to peritoneal transport or ultrafiltration (UF) is yet to be studied.
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Micrococcus species-related peritonitis in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis.
Int Urol Nephrol
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Peritonitis is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and remains the most common cause of PD failure. Micrococci are catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, and gram-positive cocci that are spherical, often found in tetrad, and belong to the family Micrococcaceae. Micrococcus species are commonly found in the environment, and it is now recognized that Micrococcus species can be opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The only consistent predisposing factor for Micrococcus infection is an immunocompromised state. We report three cases of Micrococcus PD peritonitis. Improper practice of PD may have been the causative factor. Although Micrococcus species are low-virulence pathogens, infection could result in refractory peritonitis and subsequent PD failure. Intraperitoneal administration of vancomycin for at least 2 weeks is recommended for Micrococcus peritonitis.
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Fibrin-Induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelial cells as a mechanism of peritoneal fibrosis: effects of pentoxifylline.
PLoS ONE
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Excessive fibrin deposition in the peritoneum is thought to be involved in the development of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), an important cause of morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. We investigated fibrin-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) as a possible mechanism of fibrin involvement in EPS. In vitro, fibrin overlay of PMCs altered their morphology; increased ?-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, fibroblast specific protein-1, and ?(v)?(3) integrin expression; and decreased cytokeratin 18 and E-cadherin expression. Fibrin overlay also increased focal adhesion kinase and Src kinase phosphorylation. Fibrin-induced changes were inhibited by treating the cells with ?(v)?(3) integrin antibody or pentoxifylline (PTX). In a rat model, intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus and fibrinogen induced severe EPS features, which were attenuated by PTX treatment. PTX-treated rats also showed preserved peritoneal ultrafiltration function and lower concentrations of cytokines than the untreated rats. S. aureus- and fibrinogen-injected rats had higher percentage of cytokeratin-positive cells in the omentum fibrotic tissue than controls; this was also reduced by PTX treatment. Our results suggest that fibrin induces EMT of PMCs by engaging ?(v)?(3) integrin and activating associated kinases. Our EPS animal model showed that fibrin-induced EMT was involved in the pathogenesis of peritoneal fibrosis and was inhibited by PTX.
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Risk factors for herpes zoster reactivation in maintenance hemodialysis patients.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
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Herpes zoster (HZ) reactivation is common in immunocompromised patients. Advanced renal failure is also reportedly associated with impairment of cellular immunity. There is not any study yet assessing risk factors of HZ reactivation in hemodialysis patients.
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U-curve association between timing of renal replacement therapy initiation and in-hospital mortality in postoperative acute kidney injury.
PLoS ONE
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Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcomes in surgical patients. This study aims to evaluate whether the timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT) initiation affects the in-hospital mortality of patients with postoperative AKI.
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Increased procollagen type I C-terminal peptide levels indicate diastolic dysfunction in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance dialysis therapy.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
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Cardiac dysfunction is common among patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of diastolic dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis.
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Women on hemodialysis have lower self-reported health-related quality of life scores but better survival than men.
J. Nephrol.
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Hemodialysis patients suffer from poor quality of life and survival. A retrospective cohort study was performed to examine the sex differences in self-reported quality of life and mortality in a Taiwanese hemodialysis cohort.
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Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as risk factors for development of chronic kidney disease and rapid decline in renal function in elderly.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Studies addressing the association of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance with the risks of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the progression of renal function were either lacking or inconclusive.
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Safety issues of long-term glucose load in patients on peritoneal dialysis--a 7-year cohort study.
PLoS ONE
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Effects of long-term glucose load on peritoneal dialysis (PD) patient safety and outcomes have seldom been reported. This study demonstrates the influence of long-term glucose load on patient and technique survival.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.