Every cell of the mammalian organism needs iron as trace element in numerous oxido-reductive processes as well as for transport and storage of oxygen. The very versatility of ionic iron makes it a toxic entity which can catalyze the production of radicals that damage vital membranous and macromolecular assemblies in the cell. The mammalian organism maintains therefore a complex regulatory network of iron uptake, excretion and intra-body distribution. Intracellular regulation in different cell types is intertwined with a global hormonal signalling structure. Iron deficiency as well as excess of iron are frequent and serious human disorders. They can affect every cell, but also the organism as a whole.
The Alternative Splicing and Transcript Diversity database (ASTD) gives access to a vast collection of alternative transcripts that integrate transcription initiation, polyadenylation and splicing variant data. Alternative transcripts are derived from the mapping of transcribed sequences to the complete human, mouse and rat genomes using an extension of the computational pipeline developed for the ASD (Alternative Splicing Database) and ATD (Alternative Transcript Diversity) databases, which are now superseded by ASTD. For the human genome, ASTD identifies splicing variants, transcription initiation variants and polyadenylation variants in 68%, 68% and 62% of the gene set, respectively, consistent with current estimates for transcription variation. Users can access ASTD through a variety of browsing and query tools, including expression state-based queries for the identification of tissue-specific isoforms. Participating laboratories have experimentally validated a subset of ASTD-predicted alternative splice forms and alternative polyadenylation forms that were not previously reported. The ASTD database can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/astd.
Hemizygous TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice are a murine model for chronic inflammation. We utilized these animals to study iron-kinetics and corresponding protein expression in an iron-deficient and iron-adequate setting. (59)Fe-absorption was determined in ligated duodenal loops in vivo. Whole body distribution of i.v. injected (59)Fe was analysed, and the organ specific expression of ferroportin, transferrin receptor-1, hepcidin and duodenal DMT-1 was quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Duodenal (59)Fe-lumen-to-body transport was not affected by the genotype. Duodenal (59)Fe-retention was increased in TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice, suggesting higher (59)Fe-losses with defoliated enterocytes. Iron-deficiency increased duodenal (59)Fe-lumen-to-body transport, and higher duodenal (59)Fe-tissue retention went along with higher duodenal DMT-1, ferroportin, and liver hepcidin expression. TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice significantly increase their (59)Fe-content in inflamed joints and ilea, and correspondingly reduce splenic (59)Fe-content. Leukocyte infiltrations in the joints suggest a substantial shift of iron-loaded RES cells to inflamed tissues as the underlying mechanism. This finding was paralleled by increased non-haem iron content in joints and reduced haemoglobin and haematocrit concentrations in TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice. In conclusion, erythropoiesis in inflamed TNF(DeltaARE/+) mice could be iron-limited due to losses with exfoliated iron-loaded enterocytes and/or to increased iron-retention in RES cells that shift from the spleen to inflamed tissues.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.