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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of the DPP-4 inhibitor gemigliptin when coadministered with rosuvastatin or irbesartan to healthy subjects.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Abstract Objective: Gemigliptin is a selective DPP4 inhibitor used to treat type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of gemigliptin, rosuvastatin, and irbesartan monotherapies and combination therapies. Research design and methods: Randomized, open-label, three-treatment, six-sequence, three-period, crossover studies were performed on healthy male volunteers. The three treatments were: 50?mg gemigliptin alone; 20?mg rosuvastatin (part A) or 300?mg irbesartan alone (part B); and rosuvastatin or irbesartan with concomitant gemigliptin. Each drug was administered as part of once daily, 7 day, repeated dosing regimens with a 14 day washout period. Clinical trial registration: NCT01823133 (part A) and NCT01825850 (part B). Main outcome measures: The primary PK parameters - Cmax and AUC? - were compared to the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CIs) that were determined for the combination therapies and monotherapies. Results: A total of 60 participants were administered the study drugs, and 52 participants (27 participants in part A; 25 participants in part B) were analyzed as part of the PK dataset. In part A, the GMRs (gemigliptin?+?rosuvastatin/gemigliptin) of the Cmax and AUC? values of gemigliptin were 0.955 (90% CI?=?0.874-1.044) and 1.023 (90% CI?=?0.991-1.057), and those of rosuvastatin were 1.012 (90% CI?=?0.946-1.084) and 1.086 (90% CI?=?1.032-1.142), respectively. In part B, the GMRs of the Cmax and AUC? values of gemigliptin were 1.046 (90% CI?=?0.964-1.134) and 1.035 (90% CI?=?1.005-1.065), and those of irbesartan were 0.966 (90% CI?=?0.897-1.040) and 1.050 (90% CI?=?0.993-1.111), respectively. The limitations of this study include its relatively short treatment period and small sample size, as only healthy participants were included. Conclusions: Gemigliptin does not affect the PK properties of rosuvastatin or irbesartan; also, rosuvastatin and irbesartan do not affect the PKs of gemigliptin.
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High EGFR gene copy number predicts poor outcome in triple-negative breast cancer.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer and is emerging as a therapeutic target. EGFR gene copy number alteration and mutation are highly variable and scientists have been challenged to define their prognostic significance in triple-negative breast cancer. We examined EGFR protein expression, EGFR gene copy number alteration and mutation of exon 18 to 21 in 151 cases of triple-negative breast cancer and correlated these findings with clinical outcomes. In addition, intratumoral agreement of EGFR protein overexpression and gene copy number alteration was evaluated. EGFR overexpression was found in 97 of 151 cases (64%) and high EGFR gene copy number was detected in 50 cases (33%), including 3 gene amplification (2%) and 47 high polysomy (31%). Five EGFR mutations were detected in 4 of 151 cases (3%) and included G719A in exon 18 (n=1), V786M in exon 20 (n=1), and L858R in exon 21 (n=3). One case had two mutations (G719A and L858R). High EGFR copy number, but not EGFR mutation, correlated with EGFR protein overexpression. Intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR protein overexpression and EGFR copy number alteration was not significant. In survival analyses, high EGFR copy number was found to be an independent prognostic factor for poor disease-free survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Our findings showed that EGFR mutation was a rare event, but high EGFR copy number was relatively frequent and correlated with EGFR overexpression in triple-negative breast cancer. Moreover, high EGFR copy number was associated with poor clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting that evaluation of EGFR copy number may be useful for predicting outcomes in patients with triple-negative breast cancer and for selecting patients for anti-EGFR-targeted therapy.
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O-Succinyl-L-homoserine-based C4-chemical production: succinic acid, homoserine lactone, ?-butyrolactone, ?-butyrolactone derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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There has been a significant global interest to produce bulk chemicals from renewable resources using engineered microorganisms. Large research programs have been launched by academia and industry towards this goal. Particularly, C4 chemicals such as succinic acid (SA) and 1,4-butanediol have been leading the path towards the commercialization of biobased technology with the effort of replacing chemical production. Here we present O-Succinyl-L-homoserine (SH) as a new, potentially important platform biochemical and demonstrate its central role as an intermediate in the production of SA, homoserine lactone (HSL), ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and its derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). This technology encompasses (1) the genetic manipulation of Escherichia coli to produce SH with high productivity, (2) hydrolysis into SA and homoserine (HS) or homoserine lactone hydrochloride, and (3) chemical conversion of either HS or homoserine lactone HCL (HSL·HCl) into drop-in chemicals in polymer industry. This production strategy with environmental benefits is discussed in the perspective of targeting of fermented product and a process direction compared to petroleum-based chemical conversion, which may reduce the overall manufacturing cost.
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Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.
J Cancer Prev
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study.
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Relationship between bone mineral density and a 10-year risk for coronary artery disease in a healthy Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. If BMD is related independently to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), BMD could play an important role in CHD risk prediction. We assessed the hypothesis that BMD is related independently to the risk of CHD.
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The relationship between bone mineral density and blood pressure in the Korean elderly population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Abstract It is not clear whether the inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and blood pressure (BP) could be generalizable to the general elderly population. We used data from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study sample consisted of 8439 men and postmenopausal women aged 50 years and older. We evaluated the relationship between BMD and BP. When adjusted for covariates, femur neck T-score [coefficient?=?-0.391, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.766 to -0.016, p?=?0.041] had an inverse relationship with diastolic BP (DBP), whereas lumbar spine BMD (coefficient?=?0.395, 95% CI 0.058-7.752, p?=?0.047) and T-score (coefficient?=?0.458, 95% CI 0.005-0.911, p?=?0.047) had a positive relationship with systolic BP (SBP). When adjusted for confounding factors, SBP (128.67?±?0.979?mmHg versus 126.36?±?0.545?mmHg, p?=?0.026) and DBP (78.8?±?0.622?mmHg versus 77.27?±?0.283?mmHg, p?=?0.016) were significantly higher in femur neck osteoporosis subjects than non-osteoporosis subjects. However, there were no differences in BP in relation to lumbar spine osteoporosis. Femur neck osteoporosis (odds ratio?=?1.422, 95% CI 1.107-1.827, p?=?0.006) had a significant and positive relationship with hypertension, whereas the other parameters of BMD were not significantly related to hypertension. In conclusion, higher BP and hypertension were significantly and positively correlated with femur neck osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women aged 50 years and older.
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Genetic association analysis of CNR1 and CNR2 polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a Korean population.
Psychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Located on 6q15 and 1p36.11, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2) genes are considered to be a positional and functional candidate gene for the development of mental disorders such as schizophrenia because CNR1 is known as a regulator of dopamine signaling in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. However, few genetic studies have been carried out to investigate an association of CNR1 and CNR2 polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia. In this study, although the result indicates that CNR1 and CNR2 variations are unlikely to influence schizophrenia susceptibility in a Korean population, the findings would provide meaningful information for further genetic studies.
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Favorable risk factors in patients with positive surgical margin after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.
Can J Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Positive surgical margin (PSM) has classically been associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP) and immediate adjuvant radiotherapy has been advocated based on two large randomized prospective clinical studies. However, a significant percentage of patients with PSM never experience BCR. This study evaluated factors potentially affecting risk of BCR among the patients with PSM after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).
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The Role of (18)?F-FDG PET/CT in Assessing Therapy Response in Cervix Cancer after Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy.
Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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To determine whether persisting cervical fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for cervical cancer can reflect residual malignancy.
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The effects of ethnic, social and cultural factors on axis I comorbidity of bipolar disorder: results from the clinical setting in Korea.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Ethnic, social and cultural factors contribute to axis I comorbid conditions in bipolar disorder (BPD). Korea has strict laws against illicit drugs and a relatively permissive prevailing attitude toward alcohol. The present study aimed to explore the lifetime axis I comorbidity rate in patients with BPD in Korea.
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Correlation of breast cancer incidence with the number of motor vehicles and consumption of gasoline in Korea.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time (R2 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship (R2 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.
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Association between HTR7 genetic polymorphisms and alcohol dependence, using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT).
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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A recent genome-wide association study has identified 5-hydroxytrytamine (serotonin) receptor 7, adenylate cyclase-coupled (HTR7) as a risk gene for alcohol dependence. In addition, the serotonergic system has been considered as a modulator that plays an important role in alcohol use disorders. Functional, pharmacological, and genetic studies of serotonin neurotransmission have revealed that serotonin receptors are potential targets for the treatment of alcohol use disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate whether associations between HTR7 genetic polymorphisms and alcohol dependence could be replicated.
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Association Analysis of TEC Polymorphisms with Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease in a Korean Population.
Genomics Inform
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The tyrosine-protein kinase Tec (TEC) is a member of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and has critical roles in cell signaling transmission, calcium mobilization, gene expression, and transformation. TEC is also involved in various immune responses, such as mast cell activation. Therefore, we hypothesized that TEC polymorphisms might be involved in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) pathogenesis. We genotyped 38 TEC single nucleotide polymorphisms in a total of 592 subjects, which comprised 163 AERD cases and 429 aspirin-tolerant asthma controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between TEC polymorphisms and the risk of AERD in a Korean population. The results revealed that TEC polymorphisms and major haplotypes were not associated with the risk of AERD. In another regression analysis for the fall rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) by aspirin provocation, two variations (rs7664091 and rs12500534) and one haplotype (TEC_BL2_ht4) showed nominal associations with FEV1 decline (p = 0.03-0.04). However, the association signals were not retained after performing corrections for multiple testing. Despite TEC playing an important role in immune responses, the results from the present study suggest that TEC polymorphisms do not affect AERD susceptibility. Findings from the present study might contribute to the genetic etiology of AERD pathogenesis.
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MicroRNA-9 is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, breast cancer stem cell phenotype, and tumor progression in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the progression of breast cancer. Some miRNAs, especially the miR-200 family, miR-9, and miR-155 have been reported to be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) phenotypes. This study was designed to evaluate the expression levels of these miRNAs in human breast cancer samples and analyzed their relationship with clinicopathologic features of the tumor including breast cancer subtype, EMT, BCSC phenotype, and prognosis. Expression levels of the miR-200 family, miR-9, and miR-155 were quantified using qRT-PCR. Breast cancer subtype, BCSC phenotype (CD44+/CD24- and ALDH1+), and expression of EMT markers (vimentin expression and E-cadherin loss) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. miR-9 was more highly expressed in HER2+ and triple-negative subtypes than in luminal subtypes. Its expression level was significantly higher in tumors with high T stage, high histologic grade, p53 overexpression, and high proliferation index. Expression of miR-9 was also higher in tumors showing the CD44+/CD24- phenotype, vimentin expression, and E-cadherin loss. Furthermore, high level of miR-9 expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for poor disease-free survival of the patients. Expression of miR-200a and miR-141 was highest in luminal A subtype, and miR-155 expression was highest in triple-negative subtype. Although the expression levels of some miR-200 family members and miR-155 showed difference with regard to EMT or BCSC phenotype, they were not associated with patients' prognosis. In conclusion, overexpression of miR-9 is found in tumors with aggressive phenotypes and is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, suggesting that it may serve as a potential biomarker for breast cancer progression and a target for treatment.
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Chronic lower urinary tract symptoms in young men without symptoms of chronic prostatitis: urodynamic analyses in 308 men aged 50 years or younger.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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We investigated the etiologies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and compared urodynamic characteristics between different diagnostic groups in young men with chronic LUTS.
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Anti-rotavirus effects by combination therapy of stevioside and Sophora flavescens extract.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Anti-rotaviral activities of Sophora flavescens extract (SFE) and stevioside (SV) from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni either singly or in various combinations were examined in vitro and in vivo using a porcine rotavirus G5[P7] strain. Combination of SFE and SV inhibited in vitro virus replication more efficiently than each single treatment. In the piglet model, SV had no effect on rotavirus enteritis, whereas SFE improved but did not completely cure rotaviral enteritis. Interestingly, combination therapy of SFE and SV alleviated diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. Acute toxicity tests including the piglet lethal dose 50, and body weight, organ weight and pathological changes for the combination therapy did not show any adverse effect on the piglets. These preliminary data suggest that the combination therapy of SV and SFE is a potential curative medication for rotaviral diarrhea in pigs. Determination of the efficacy of this combination therapy in other species including humans needs to be addressed in the future.
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The CCAAT element in the CIWI promoter regulates transcriptional initiation in chicken primordial germ cells.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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The P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI) protein, which associates with small non-coding RNAs, is responsible for maintaining the integrity of germ cells and stem cells. Thus, transcriptional regulation of PIWI is critical for its effective functional modulation. In this study, we identified the promoter region of the PIWI homolog in chicken (CIWI), and investigated the transcriptional regulatory elements that control expression of CIWI in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs). We constructed a vector that included the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene controlled by the 4-kb CIWI promoter. The vector was expressed in chicken PGCs, but not in chicken embryonic fibroblasts. Based on promoter deletion and fragmentation assays, we found that a 252-bp fragment of the CIWI promoter (-577 to -326 bp) was crucial for CIWI expression in PGCs. A CCAAT transcriptional regulatory element (-498 to -494 bp) was detected in the proximal region from the transcription initiation site of CIWI, and mutational analysis confirmed that this element regulates transcriptional initiation in chicken PGCs. Interestingly, the regions flanking the CCAAT element, which are positioned differently in HIWI (human), Miwi (mouse), and CIWI orthologs, were highly conserved. In addition, we predicted that specificity protein 1 (SP1) motifs modulate the transcriptional initiation of CIWI by binding to the 5'-flanking regions of the CCAAT box. Overall, 252 bp of the CIWI promoter possessing the transcriptional regulatory element CCAAT is crucial for regulating CIWI gene expression in chicken PGCs. This promoter may be applicable for the regulation of CIWI expression during germ-cell development.
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Polymorphisms of ATF6B Are Potentially Associated With FEV1 Decline by Aspirin Provocation in Asthmatics.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been observed to activate NF-kappaB and induce inflammatory responses such as asthma. Activating transcription factor 6? (ATF6B) is known to regulate ATF?-mediated ER stress response. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of ATF6B genetic variants with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) and its major phenotype, % decline of FEV1 by aspirin provocation.
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Direct sequencing and comprehensive screening of genetic polymorphisms on CYP2 family genes (CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1) in five ethnic populations.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Recently, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1 have been reported to play a role in the metabolic effect of pharmacological and carcinogenic compounds. Moreover, genetic variations of drug metabolism genes have been implicated in the interindividual variation in drug disposition and pharmacological response. To define the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these four CYP2 family genes and to discover novel SNPs across ethnic groups, 288 DNAs composed of 48 African-Americans, 48 European-Americans, 48 Japanese, 48 Han Chinese, and 96 Koreans were resequenced. A total of 143 SNPs, 26 in CYP2A6, 45 in CYP2B6, 29 in CYP2C8, and 43 in CYP2E1, were identified, including 13 novel variants. Notably, two SNPs in the regulatory regions, a promoter SNP rs2054675 and a nonsynonymous rs3745274 (p.172Q>H) in CYP2B6, showed significantly different minor allele frequencies (MAFs) among ethnic groups (minimum P = 4.30 × 10(-12)). In addition, rs2031920 in the promoter region of CYP2E1 showed a wide range of MAF between different ethnic groups, and even among other various ethnic groups based on public reports. Among 13 newly discovered SNPs in this study, 5 SNPs were estimated to have potential functions in further in silico analyses. Some differences in genetic variations and haplotypes of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1 were observed among populations. Our findings could be useful in further researches, such as genetic associations with drug responses.
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Comparative transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq to discern differential expression of genes in liver and muscle tissues of adult Berkshire and Jeju Native Pig.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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RNA-seq is being rapidly adopted for the profiling of the transcriptomes in different areas of biology, especially in the studies related to gene regulation. The discovery of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adult animals of Jeju Native Pig (JNP) and Berkshire breeds of Sus scrofa, is of particular interest for the current study. For the better understanding of the gene expression profiles of the liver and longissimus dorsi muscle, DEGs were identified via RNA-seq. Sequence reads were obtained from Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the pig reference genome (Sscrofa10.2) using Tophat2. We identified 169 and 39 DEGs in the liver and muscle of JNP respectively, by comparison with Berkshire breed. Out of all identified genes, 41 genes in the liver and 9 genes in the muscle have given significant expression. Gene ontology (GO) terms of developmental process and KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic, immune response and protein binding were commonly enriched pathways in the two tissues. Further the heat map analysis by ArrayStar has shown the different levels of expression in JNP with respect to the Berkshire breed. The validation through real time PCR and western blotting also confirmed the differential expression of genes in both breeds. Genes pertaining to metabolic process and inflammatory and immune system are more enriched in Berkshire breed. This comparative transcriptome analysis of two tissues suggests a subset of novel marker genes which expressed differently between the JNP and Berkshire.
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Neuroprotective action of deer bone extract against glutamate or A?????-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal cells.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Water extracts of deer bone, called nokgol in Korean, and deer antlers have been traditionally used as anti-aging medicines. Deer antler extract is known to possess various activities, including anti-aging or anti-amnesic activity. However, there are no reports about the neuroprotective effect of deer bone extract (DBE). The objective of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of DBE on glutamate-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells (HT-22 cells) and to elucidate the mode of neuroprotective action of DBE. In this study, HT-22 cells was pretreated with DBE before stimulation with glutamate, and then, the effects of DBE on cell viability, oxidative stress markers, and MAP kinases were determined. Separately, the effect of DBE on H?O? or amyloid beta peptide (1-42) (A?????)-induced cytotoxicity of HT-22 cells was evaluated. DBE protected HT-22 cells from glutamate-induced cell death and prevented the increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage in HT-22 cells. DBE also prevented glutamate-induced oxidative stress, as indicated by increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation as well as by decreases in glutathione (GSH) levels and GSH peroxidase activity. In addition, DBE inhibited glutamate-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, indicators of oxidative stress-induced cell death. Furthermore, DBE also protected against H?O? and A?????-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that DBE may be a useful functional agent for the prevention against neurodegenerative disorders involving oxidative stress.
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Continuous noninvasive hemoglobin measurement is useful in patients undergoing double-jaw surgery.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Continuous measurement of hemoglobin by pulse CO-oximetry (SpHb; Masimo Radical 7 device, Masimo Corp, Irvine, CA) may be helpful during double-jaw surgery when massive hemorrhage is anticipated. Given the possible influence of low blood pressure on the detection of hemoglobin levels, the agreement of the SpHb was evaluated in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery when using hypotensive anesthesia.
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Extract from Acanthopanax senticosus prevents LPS-induced monocytic cell adhesion via suppression of LFA-1 and Mac-1.
Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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A crude extract from Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) has drawn increased attention because of its potentially beneficial activities, including anti-fatigue, anti-stress, anti-gastric-ulcer, and immunoenhancing effects. We previously reported that AS crude extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity through blockade of monocytic adhesion to endothelial cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown, and so this study was designed to investigate the pathways involved. It was confirmed that AS extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, and we found that whole extract was superior to eleutheroside E, a principal functional component of AS. A series of PCR experiments revealed that AS extract inhibited LPS-induced expression of genes encoding lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) in THP-1 cells. Consistently, protein levels and cell surface expression of LFA-1 and Mac-1 were noticeably reduced upon treatment with AS extract. This inhibitory effect was mediated by the suppression of LPS-induced degradation of I?B-?, a known inhibitor of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). In conclusion, AS extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity via the suppression of LFA-1 and Mac-1, lending itself as a potential therapeutic galenical for the prevention and treatment of various inflammatory diseases.
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(18)F-FDG PET as a single imaging modality in pediatric neuroblastoma: comparison with abdomen CT and bone scintigraphy.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) as a single imaging agent in neuroblastoma in comparison with other imaging modalities.
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Prostate-specific antigen density toward a better cutoff to identify better candidates for active surveillance.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To investigate the impact of prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) on existing prostate cancer (PCa) active surveillance (AS) protocols.
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3D braid scaffolds for regeneration of articular cartilage.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Regenerating articular cartilage in vivo from cultured chondrocytes requires that the cells be cultured and implanted within a biocompatible, biodegradable scaffold. Such scaffolds must be mechanically stable; otherwise chondrocytes would not be supported and patients would experience severe pain. Here we report a new 3D braid scaffold that matches the anisotropic (gradient) mechanical properties of natural articular cartilage and is permissive to cell cultivation. To design an optimal structure, the scaffold unit cell was mathematically modeled and imported into finite element analysis. Based on this analysis, a 3D braid structure with gradient axial yarn distribution was designed and manufactured using a custom-built braiding machine. The mechanical properties of the 3D braid scaffold were evaluated and compared with simulated results, demonstrating that a multi-scale approach consisting of unit cell modeling and continuum analysis facilitates design of scaffolds that meet the requirements for mechanical compatibility with tissues.
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Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulated with or without tumor growth factor-?. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency.
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A genome-wide association study identifies potential susceptibility Loci for hirschsprung disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital and heterogeneous disorder characterized by the absence of intramural nervous plexuses along variable lengths of the hindgut. Although RET is a well-established risk factor, a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HSCR has identified NRG1 as an additional susceptibility locus. To discover additional risk loci, we performed a GWAS of 123 sporadic HSCR patients and 432 unaffected controls using a large-scale platform with coverage of over 1 million polymorphic markers. The result was that our study replicated the findings of RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region (rawP?=?5.69×10-19 before a Bonferroni correction; corrP?=?4.31×10-13 after a Bonferroni correction) and NRG1 as susceptibility loci. In addition, this study identified SLC6A20 (adjP?=?2.71×10-6), RORA (adjP?=?1.26×10-5), and ABCC9 (adjP?=?1.86×10-5) as new potential susceptibility loci under adjusting the already known loci on the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A and NRG1 regions, although none of the SNPs in these genes passed the Bonferroni correction. In further subgroup analysis, the RET-CSGALNACT2-RASGEF1A genomic region was observed to have different significance levels among subgroups: short-segment (S-HSCR, corrP?=?1.71×10-5), long-segment (L-HSCR, corrP?=?6.66×10-4), and total colonic aganglionosis (TCA, corrP>0.05). This differential pattern in the significance level suggests that other genomic loci or mechanisms may affect the length of aganglionosis in HSCR subgroups during enteric nervous system (ENS) development. Although functional evaluations are needed, our findings might facilitate improved understanding of the mechanisms of HSCR pathogenesis.
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An approach to identify SNPs in the gene encoding acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2) and their proposed role in metabolic processes in pig.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The novel liver protein acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase-2 (ACAT2) is involved in the beta-oxidation and lipid metabolism. Its comprehensive relative expression, in silico non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) analysis, as well as its annotation in terms of metabolic process with another protein from the same family, namely, acetyl-CoA acyltransferase-2 (ACAA2) was performed in Sus scrofa. This investigation was conducted to understand the most important nsSNPs of ACAT2 in terms of their effects on metabolic activities and protein conformation. The two most deleterious mutations at residues 122 (I to V) and 281 (R to H) were found in ACAT2. Validation of expression of genes in the laboratory also supported the idea of differential expression of ACAT2 and ACAA2 conceived through the in silico analysis. Analysis of the relative expression of ACAT2 and ACAA2 in the liver tissue of Jeju native pig showed that the former expressed significantly higher (P<0.05). Overall, the computational prediction supported by wet laboratory analysis suggests that ACAT2 might contribute more to metabolic processes than ACAA2 in swine. Further associations of SNPs in ACAT2 with production traits might guide efforts to improve growth performance in Jeju native pigs.
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Effects of Group 1 versus Group 2 carbapenems on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems: a before and after intervention study of carbapenem-use stewardship.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been proposed for reducing bacterial resistance in the hospital environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a carbapenem-use stewardship program on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to Group 2 carbapenems.
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Differential methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene in patients with anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies in patients with anorexia nervosa suggest that oxytocin may be involved in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa. We examined whether there was evidence of variation in methylation status of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene in patients with anorexia nervosa that might account for these findings.
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Brain-metastatic Triple-negative Breast Cancer Cells Regain Growth Ability by Altering Gene Expression Patterns.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Backgroud/Aim: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) frequently metastasizes to the brain (BrM). However, genes responsible for BrM of TNBC are yet to be identified.
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Comprehensive Analysis of Sexual Function Outcome in Prostate Cancer Patients After Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Abstract Purpose: The recovery of potency following radical prostatectomy is complex and has a very wide range. In this study, we analyzed in detail the precise pattern of recovery of potency following robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Materials and Methods: Prospectively collected database of patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year after RARP were evaluated retrospectively. Of 503 patients identified, 483 patients completed the sexual health inventory for men (SHIM) preoperatively and postoperatively every 3 months for the first 12 months. Overall potency, usage of phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, and return to baseline erectile function were evaluated. Potency was defined as having erection that is sufficient for sexual intercourse more than 50% of attempts, while quality potency was defined as being potent without the use of PDE-5 inhibitors. Results: Preoperatively, the overall potency and quality potency rate were 67.1% and 48.1%, respectively. Postoperatively, the overall potency rate was 61.4%, while the quality potency rate was 37.2%. In multivariate regression analysis, independent predictors of potency recovery were young age (<60), preoperative potency status, and bilateral preservation of neurovascular bundles (NVBs). In men with SHIM>21, the overall potency and quality potency rate were 79.7% and 41.2%, respectively. More importantly, only 21.4% of the men with normal erection preoperatively (SHIM>21) returned to baseline erectile function (SHIM>21) 12 months after surgery. Conclusions: This study indicates that young age (<60), preoperative potency, and bilateral preservation of NVBs were positive predictors of potency recovery following RARP. However, an overwhelming majority of men experience a deterioration in the overall quality of erection after RARP.
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Lack of association between CD226 genetic variants and inflammatory demyelinating diseases in Korean population.
Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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This study was conducted to find the possible association between CD226 polymorphisms and inflammatory demyelinating diseases in Korean population.
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Lack of association between AQP4 polymorphisms and risk of inflammatory demyelinating disease in a Korean population.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are demyelinating autoimmune inflammatory diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS). Previous genome-wide or candidate gene studies have suggested that genetic variants might be associated with the risk of MS or NMO. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a commonly distributed water channel in astrocytes of the CNS, and its expression is decreased in NMO lesions due to astrocyte cytotoxicity. Previous studies have suggested the associations of AQP4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with MS and/or NMO. However, there have been few replication studies in various ethnic populations. This study, as the first of its kind performed in an Asian population, investigated associations of AQP4 SNPs with the risk of inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD), including MS and NMO, in a Korean population. A total of seven common AQP4 SNPs were selected based on status of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and then genotyped in 178 IDD cases (79 MS and 99 NMO patients) and 237 normal controls. Statistical analyses showed no significant associations between AQP4 SNPs/haplotypes and development of IDD, including MS and NMO (P>0.05). Further replications in larger cohorts and other ethnic groups are needed.
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UCP2 overexpression worsens mitochondrial dysfunction and accelerates disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Mitochondrial dysfunction leading to deficits in energy production, Ca(2+) uptake capacity, and free radical generation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Numerous studies link UCP2, a member of the uncoupling protein family, to protection of neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in various mouse models of acute stress and neurodegeneration, including Parkinsons disease. Here, we tested the potential neuroprotective effects of UCP2 and its ability to modulate mitochondrial function, in the G93A mutant SOD1 mouse model of familial ALS. Disease phenotype, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and Ca(2+) uptake capacity were investigated in the central nervous system of double transgenic mice, expressing both human mutant G93A SOD1 and human UCP2 (hUCP2). Unexpectedly, hUCP2 expression accelerated the disease course of SOD1 mutant mice. In addition, we did not observe a classical uncoupling effect of hUCP2 in G93A brain mitochondria, although we did detect a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondria challenged with the respiratory chain inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A. We also found that mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity was decreased in the double transgenic mice, as compared to G93A mice. In summary, our results indicate that the neuroprotective role of UCP2 in neurodegeneration is disease-specific and that, while a mild uncoupling by UCP2 in brain mitochondria may protect against neurodegeneration in some injury paradigms, the mitochondrial damage and the disease caused by mutant SOD1 cannot be ameliorated by UCP2 overexpression.
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Detection of IFN-? for latent tuberculosis diagnosis using an anodized aluminum oxide-based capacitive sensor.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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We describe a rapid, sensitive, and label-free method to detect interferon-gamma (IFN-?), a biomarker of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). IFN-? is detected by measuring the capacitance change caused by its binding to an anti-IFN-? antibody. The antibody is immobilized on the surface of an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO)-based capacitive sensor. With this technique, IFN-? can be detected in the range of ~0.1 pg/ml to ~10 ng/ml, with a detection limit of 0.2 pg/ml. We have also measured the concentration of IFN-? in clinical samples using the AAO-based capacitive sensor and compared this concentration with the results of the commercial QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) ELISA kit to determine whether the two sets of data are consistent. Comparable results were obtained with the two measurement strategies, demonstrating the applicability of the AAO-based capacitive sensor to the diagnosis of LTBI.
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An autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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A 12-year-old spayed female mixed-bred dog presented with nasal bleeding of 2 days duration and a skin nodule in the left flank. No abnormalities were found in coagulation profiles and blood pressure. Cytological evaluation of the nodule revealed numerous characteristic round organisms having a nucleus and a bar within macrophages and in the background, consistent with leishmaniasis. In vitro culture was unsuccessful but PCR of the nodular aspirate identified the organisms as Leishmania infantum, and the final diagnosis was canine leishmaniasis. No history of travel to endemic countries was noted. Because the dog had received a blood transfusion 2 years before the illness, serological screening tests were performed in all donor dogs of the commercial blood bank using the commercial Leishmania ELISA test kit, and there were no positive results. Additional 113 dogs with hyperglobulinemia from Seoul were also screened with the same kits but no positive results were obtained. To the best of the authors knowledge this is the first autochthonous case of canine leishmaniasis in Korea.
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Association Study of DKK2 Polymorphisms with Alcohol Dependence and Alcohol-Related Harm.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Alcohol dependence (AD) is a common disorder with both environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies have shown that the genomic region from chromosome 4q22-q32 is closely associated with AD. Furthermore, a study with Irish subjects revealed that the polymorphisms of Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor (DKK2), located at 4q25, showed a significant association with AD.
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition increases during the progression of in situ to invasive basal-like breast cancer.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in breast cancer invasion and metastatic progression. However, the pattern of expression of EMT markers in the progression from in situ to invasive breast carcinoma is not clear. To investigate this, we performed immunohistochemical analyses of EMT markers (expression of vimentin, smooth muscle actin, osteonectin, and N-cadherin; loss of E-cadherin; alteration of ?-catenin), breast cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD44(+)/CD24(-), ALDH1), and CD146, an EMT inducer, in invasive carcinomas and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Expression of EMT markers was closely associated with the basal-like subtype and CSC phenotype in invasive carcinoma but not in pure DCIS, except for vimentin. The expression of smooth muscle actin and N-cadherin, loss of E-cadherin, and alteration of ?-catenin were significantly higher in invasive carcinomas than in pure DCIS (P = .015, P = .029, P = .001, and P = .007, respectively). Subgroup analyses revealed greater loss of E-cadherin and alteration of ?-catenin in invasive carcinoma than in pure DCIS in basal-like subtype (P = .001) but not in non-basal-like subtypes. Moreover, expression of EMT markers and CD146 was higher in the invasive than in the DCIS component of basal-like cancers. Our study confirmed that EMT is an intrinsic characteristic of basal-like subtype and is associated with CSC phenotype. Furthermore, we showed higher expression of EMT markers in invasive carcinomas than in pure DCIS, especially in basal-like subtype, and in the invasive component of basal-like breast cancers, suggesting that EMT may be involved in the progression from in situ to invasive basal-like breast cancers.
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Effects of crosslinked dextran in hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose on soft tissue augmentation in rats.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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This study compared crosslinked dextrans in hydroxylpropyl methycellulose (DiHMs, pH 5 or 7) with polymethylmethacrylate in bovine collagen (PMMA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers on soft tissue augmentation and safety in rats. HA tended to maintain its size throughout the experimental period but was moveable and friable because of a lack of thick fibroconnective tissue formation. Although, PMMA induced moderately thick fibroconnective tissue formation, its size was decreased markedly from 3-week postimplantation (PI) and became the smallest at 24-month PI. DiHM (pH 7) elicited strong fibrous encapsulation around the filler. Its size decreased slowly but was still considerably maintained at 24-month PI. In contrast, the rate of the DiHM (pH 5) size decrease was slower than that of PMMA, faster DiHM (pH 7), but comparable to HA. Immunohistochemically, types I and III collagens were deposited inside and outside DiHMs (pH 5 and 7). DiHMs (pH 5 and 7), PMMA, and HA showed no adverse reactions. These results suggest that DiHM (pH 7) assures efficacy and safety and is a good candidate for soft tissue augmentation in both humans and animals. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.
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Needs analysis and development of a tailored mobile message program linked with electronic health records for weight reduction.
Int J Med Inform
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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We developed and pilot-tested a personalized text messaging service program based on data from electronic health records (EHRs) and lifestyle questionnaires for weight control.
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Tetrahydrofurofuran-type lignans inhibit breast cancer-mediated bone destruction by blocking the vicious cycle between cancer cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Breast cancer frequently spreads to bone. The interaction between bone metastases and microenvironment, referred as the "vicious cycle", increases both tumor burden and bone destruction. Therefore, inhibition at any point in this "vicious cycle" can reduce malignant osteolytic lesions in patients with advanced breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether tetrahydrofurofuran-type lignans derived from Magnoliae Flos, commonly used in traditional Asian medicine to treat inflammatory diseases, could block breast cancer-mediated bone loss. Aschatin, fargesin, lirioresinol B dimethyl ether, and magnolin at noncytotoxic concentrations suppressed mRNA expression and secretion of osteolytic factor PTHrP in MDA-MB-231 metastatic human breast cancer cells. Fargesin inhibited TGF-?-stimulated cell viability, migration, and invasion and decreased TGF-?-induced PTHrP production in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, these lignans reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-treated hFOB1.19 human osteoblastic cells and inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages. Aschatin, fargesin, lirioresinol B dimethyl ether, and magnolin substantially reduced bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts by inhibiting MMP-9 and cathepsin K activities. Furthermore, orally administered fargesin inhibited tumor growth and cancer-mediated bone destruction in mice with MDA-MB-231 cells injected into calvarial tissues. Aschatin, fargesin, lirioresinol B dimethyl ether, and magnolin blocked initiation and progression of the "vicious cycle" between breast cancer metastases and bone microenvironment by inhibiting PTHrP production in breast cancer cells and osteoclastic bone resorption. Therefore, these tetrahydrofurofuran-type lignans have the potential to serve as beneficial agents to prevent and treat cancer-induced bone destruction in breast cancer patients.
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Cerebroprotective effects of red ginseng extract pretreatment against ischemia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been traditionally used as a medicinal plant and has beneficial effects due to pharmacological properties. Although ginseng is thought to be protective under abnormal conditions, the effects of pretreatment with red ginseng (RG) extract on ischemic stroke have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the protective effects of RG extract after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Crude RG extract (360 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 2 weeks. Mice were then subjected to occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1 hour, followed by reperfusion for 4 and 24 hours. Pretreatment with RG extract followed by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) resulted in significant reduction of oxidized hydroethidine signals in ischemic areas. At 4 and 24 hours after I/R, the number of 8-hydroxyguanosine and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-positive cells decreased in the ischemic penumbra as seen using immunofluorescent staining. Western blotting showed that RG efficiently attenuated the protein levels of activated ASK1 in the ischemic penumbra. Consequently, DNA fragmentation and the infarct volume were reduced by RG extract pretreatment 24 hours after I/R. Also, RG extract resulted in better performance in rotarod test after I/R. Thus, RG pretreatment demonstrates a protective effect at suppressing ischemia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in ischemic lesions. Pretreatment with crude RG extract may be an effective strategy for preventing brain injury after an ischemic stroke.
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Pathogenicity of porcine G9P[23] and G9P[7] rotaviruses in piglets.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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G9 group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are considered important pathogens in pigs and humans, and pigs are hypothesized to be a potential host reservoir for human. However, intestinal and extra-intestinal pathogenicity and viremia of porcine G9 RVAs has remained largely unreported. In this study, colostrum-deprived piglets were orally infected with a porcine G9P[23] or G9P[7] strain. Histopathologically, both strains induced characteristic small intestinal lesions. Degeneration and necrosis of parenchymal cells were observed in the extra-intestinal tissues, but most predominantly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). RVA antigen was continuously detected in the small intestinal mucosa and MLNs, but only transiently in cells of the liver, lung, and choroid plexus. Viral RNA levels were much higher in the feces and the MLNs compared to other tissues. The onset of viremia occurred at day post infection (DPI) 1 with the amount of viral RNA reaching its peak at DPI 3 or 5, before decreasing significantly at DPI 7 and remaining detectable until DPI 14. Our data suggest that porcine G9 RVAs have a strong small intestinal tropism, are highly virulent for piglets, have the ability to escape the small intestine, spread systemically via viremia, and replicate in extra-intestinal tissues. In addition, MLNs might act as a secondary site for viral amplification and the portal of systemic entry. These results add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of human G9 RVAs, and the validity of the pig model for use with both human and pig G9 RVAs in further studies.
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Lack of association between DISC1 polymorphisms and risk of schizophrenia in a Korean population.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The DISC1 gene is considered to be a strong candidate gene for the development of schizophrenia. This study examines the association of DISC1 polymorphisms with schizophrenia in a Korean population. Although we fail to discover convincing evidence that DISC1 affects schizophrenia development, our findings may be useful for further genetic studies.
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Different virulence of porcine and porcine-like bovine rotavirus strains with genetically nearly identical genomes in piglets and calves.
Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Direct interspecies transmissions of group A rotaviruses (RVA) have been reported under natural conditions. However, the pathogenicity of RVA has never been directly compared in homologous and heterologous hosts. The bovine RVA/Cow-tc/KOR/K5/2004/G5P[7] strain, which was shown to possess a typical porcine-like genotype constellation similar to that of the G5P[7] prototype RVA/Pig-tc/USA/OSU/1977/G5P9[7] strain, was examined for its pathogenicity and compared with the porcine G5P[7] RVA/Pig-tc/KOR/K71/2006/G5P[7] strain possessing the same genotype constellation. The bovine K5 strain induced diarrhea and histopathological changes in the small intestine of piglets and calves, whereas the porcine K71 strain caused diarrhea and histopathological changes in the small intestine of piglets, but not in calves. Furthermore, the bovine K5 strain showed extra-intestinal tropisms in both piglets and calves, whereas the porcine K71 strain had extra-intestinal tropisms in piglets, but not in calves. Therefore, we performed comparative genomic analysis of the K71 and K5 RVA strains to determine whether specific mutations could be associated with these distinct clinical and pathological phenotypes. Full-length sequencing analyses for the 11 genomic segments for K71 and K5 revealed that these strains were genetically nearly identical to each other. Two nucleotide mutations were found in the 5 untranslated region (UTR) of NSP5 and the 3 UTR of NSP3, and eight amino acid mutations in VP1-VP4 and NSP2. Some of these mutations may be critical molecular determinants for RVA virulence and/or pathogenicity.
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A genome-wide association study of total serum and mite-specific IgEs in asthma patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is one of the central players in asthma and allergic diseases. Although the serum IgE level, a useful endophenotype, is generally increased in patients with asthma, genetic factors influencing IgE regulation in asthma are still not fully understood. To identify the genetic variations associated with total serum and mite-specific IgEs in asthmatics, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 657,366 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in 877 Korean asthmatics. This study found that several new genes might be associated with total IgE in asthmatics, such as CRIM1 (rs848512, P?=?1.18×10(-6); rs711254, P?=?6.73×10(-6)), ZNF71 (rs10404342, P?=?7.60×10(-6)), TLN1 (rs4879926, P?=?7.74×10(-6)), and SYNPO2 (rs1472066, P?=?8.36×10(-6); rs1038770, P?=?8.66×10(-6)). Regarding the association of specific IgE to house dust mites, it was observed that intergenic SNPs nearby to OPRK1 and LOC730217 might be associated with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D.p.) and Dermatophagoides farinae (D.f.) in asthmatics, respectively. In further pathway analysis, the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and adherens junction pathways were estimated to play a role in the regulation of total IgE levels in asthma. Although functional evaluations and replications of these results in other populations are needed, this GWAS of serum IgE in asthmatics could facilitate improved understanding of the role of the newly identified genetic variants in asthma and its related phenotypes.
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Effect of sodium bicarbonate administration on mortality in patients with lactic acidosis: a retrospective analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Lactic acidosis is a common cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered for an arterial pH <7.15 but paradoxically depresses cardiac performance and exacerbates acidosis by enhancing lactate production. This study aimed to evaluate the cause and mortality rate of lactic acidosis and to investigate the effect of factors, including sodium bicarbonate use, on death.
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Effect of diffuse panbronchiolitis critical region 1 polymorphisms on the risk of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease in Korean asthmatics.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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The functional role of the human diffuse panbronchiolitis critical region 1 (DPCR1) gene, located in the major histocompatibility complex class I, has not been widely investigated. However, this gene is a well known genetic marker for diffuse panbronchiolitis, a disease affecting human respiratory bronchioles. In this study we explored the association between polymorphisms in DPCR1 and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), an asthma phenotype.
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Free amino acid and phenolic contents and antioxidative and cancer cell-inhibiting activities of extracts of 11 greenhouse-grown tomato varieties and 13 tomato-based foods.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds that benefit nutrition and human health. The nature and concentrations of these compounds are strongly influenced by varietal factors such as size and color as well as by processing. To better understand how these factors affect the concentration of nutrients and bioactive compounds, we analyzed 11 Korean tomato varieties grown under the same greenhouse conditions and 13 processed commercial tomato products for free amino acids and amino acid metabolites by HPLC, for individual phenolics by HPLC-MS, for total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, for antioxidative activity by the FRAP and DPPH methods, and for cancer cell-inhibiting effects by the MTT assay. We also determined the protein content of the tomatoes by an automated Kjeldahl method. The results show that there is a broad range of bioactive compounds across tomato varieties and products. Small tomatoes had higher contents of bioactive compounds than the large ones. The content of phenolic compounds of processed products was lower than that of fresh tomatoes. Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent. Dietary and health aspects of the results are discussed.
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Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of Yukatan minipig brains for neurotherapy applications.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of six Yukatan minipig brains was performed. The animals were placed in stereotaxic conditions currently used in experiments. To allow for correctpositioning of the animal in the MRI instrument, landmarks were previously traced on the snout of the pig. To avoid movements, animal were anesthetized. The animals were placed in a prone position in a Siemens Magnetom Avanto 1.5 System with a head coil. Axial T2-weighted and sagittal T1-weighted MRI images were obtained from each pig. Afterwards, the brains of the pigs were fixed and cut into axial sections. Histologic and MR images were compared. The usefulness of this technique is discussed.
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In vivo pathogenic role of mutant SOD1 localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Mutations in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mutant SOD1 causes a complex array of pathological events, through toxic gain of function mechanisms, leading to selective motor neuron degeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the well established toxic effects of mutant SOD1, but its mechanisms are just starting to be elucidated. A portion of mutant SOD1 is localized in mitochondria, where it accumulates mostly on the outer membrane and inside the intermembrane space (IMS). Evidence in cultured cells suggests that mutant SOD1 in the IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and compromises cell viability. Therefore, to test its pathogenic role in vivo we generated transgenic mice expressing G93A mutant or wild-type (WT) human SOD1 targeted selectively to the mitochondrial IMS (mito-SOD1). We show that mito-SOD1 is correctly localized in the IMS, where it oligomerizes and acquires enzymatic activity. Mito-G93ASOD1 mice, but not mito-WTSOD1 mice, develop a progressive disease characterized by body weight loss, muscle weakness, brain atrophy, and motor impairment, which is more severe in females. These symptoms are associated with reduced spinal motor neuron counts and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, characterized by decreased cytochrome oxidase activity and defective calcium handling. However, there is no evidence of muscle denervation, a cardinal pathological feature of ALS. Together, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 in the mitochondrial IMS causes mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, but per se it is not sufficient to cause a full-fledged ALS phenotype, which requires the participation of mutant SOD1 localized in other cellular compartments.
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Acetazolamide-challenged perfusion magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity in patients with symptomatic middle cerebral artery stenosis: comparison with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emis
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Acetazolamide-challenged perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown as a method for assessment of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) capacity in patients with atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease of internal carotid artery. We have assessed the feasibility of the acetazolamide-challenged perfusion MRI for evaluating CVR in symptomatic patients with severe middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis (?70%) by comparison with the acetazolamide-challenged technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
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Fetal development of deep back muscles in the human thoracic region with a focus on transversospinalis muscles and the medial branch of the spinal nerve posterior ramus.
J. Anat.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Fetal development of human deep back muscles has not yet been fully described, possibly because of the difficulty in identifying muscle bundle directions in horizontal sections. Here, we prepared near-frontal sections along the thoracic back skin (eight fetuses) as well as horizontal sections (six fetuses) from 14 mid-term fetuses at 9-15 weeks of gestation. In the deep side of the trapezius and rhomboideus muscles, the CD34-positive thoracolumbar fascia was evident even at 9 weeks. Desmin-reactivity was strong and homogeneous in the superficial muscle fibers in contrast to the spotty expression in the deep fibers. Thus, in back muscles, formation of the myotendinous junction may start from the superficial muscles and advance to the deep muscles. The fact that developing intramuscular tendons were desmin-negative suggested little possibility of a secondary change from the muscle fibers to tendons. We found no prospective spinalis muscle or its tendinous connections with other muscles. Instead, abundant CD68-positive macrophages along the spinous process at 15 weeks suggested a change in muscle attachment, an event that may result in a later formation of the spinalis muscle. S100-positive intramuscular nerves exhibited downward courses from the multifidus longus muscle in the original segment to the rotatores brevis muscles in the inferiorly adjacent level. The medial cutaneous nerve had already reached the thoracolumbar fascia at 9 weeks, but by 15 weeks the nerve could not penetrate the trapezius muscle. Finally, we propose a folded myotomal model of the primitive transversospinalis muscle that seems to explain a fact that the roofing tile-like configuration of nerve twigs in the semispinalis muscle is reversed in the multifidus and rotatores muscles.
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Lack of association of RAD51 genetic variations with hepatitis B virus clearance and occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Korean population.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The RecA homolog, E. coli (S. cerevisiae) (RAD51) may modulate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by maintaining genome integrity and mediating homologous DNA repairs. In this study, 16 sequence variations were detected by resequencing all exons, the exon-intron boundary, and promoter regions of the human RAD51 gene in DNA samples of 24 unrelated individuals. To investigate the association of common variations in the RAD51 locus with HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence, six common polymorphisms were genotyped in a total of 1,103 Korean HBV cohort, composed of 433 spontaneously recovered patients as controls and 670 chronic carriers of HBV, who were stratified further into 327 cirrhosis/chronic hepatitis patients and 343 patients with HCC infected with HBV. Logistic analyses revealed no significant association of RAD51 polymorphisms and haplotypes with HBV clearance and HCC occurrence (P > 0.05). Furthermore, with age of infection as an important factor in disease progression to HCC, results from the Cox proportional hazards analysis showed no significant associations between any of the tested RAD51 variants and the age of onset of HCC (P > 0.05), suggesting that genetic polymorphisms of RAD51 may not play an important role in clearance of HBV and disease progression to HCC. Although studies in other populations are needed to confirm these findings, this preliminary data may contribute to the current knowledge on the pathogenesis of hepatitis.
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Isolation and culture of neurons and astrocytes from the mouse brain cortex.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Many experimental animal models of human neurodegenerative diseases have been developed to understand the events leading toward neuronal dysfunction and death. However, definitive comprehension of the molecular and cellular mechanisms in these animal models is problematic because of the complexity of the intact nervous tissue. Primary neuronal cultures prepared from rodent nervous tissues represent a powerful tool not only to study the individual contribution of different cell types (such as neurons or glia) to disease progression, but also to investigate the role of neuron-glia interactions during development and pathogenesis of disease. Here, we describe a method to isolate and culture neurons and astrocytes from the mouse cerebral cortex, and we also present a practical application for transfection and subsequent immunofluorescence.
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UBE3C genetic variations as potent markers of nasal polyps in Korean asthma patients.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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The human ubiquitin protein ligase E3C (UBE3C) regulates airway inflammatory responses and is hypothesized to be associated with the presence of nasal polyps in asthma-related diseases. A total of 24 UBE3C single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in a 467 Korean asthma cohort that was stratified into more homogenous phenotypes of 114 aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease subgroup and 353 aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) subjects. Association analysis revealed that 16 UBE3C SNPs were significantly associated with presence of nasal polyps in the overall asthma group (P=0.0008 and P(corr)=0.01; odds ratio (OR)=0.60). The strength of association from 10 polymorphisms was increased in the ATA subgroup (P=0.0002 and P(corr)=0.003; OR=0.49). In addition, UBE3C_ht1 was found to be consistently associated with nasal polyps in the overall asthmatics group (P=0.006) and the ATA phenotype (P=0.002; P(corr)=0.02) via a codominant mechanism. Our findings provide evidence that variations in UBE3C are potent genetic markers of nasal polyps development in Korean asthmatics and may contribute novel insights into the clinical relevance and potential involvement of UBE3C in respiratory deficiencies.
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TGFBR3 polymorphisms and its haplotypes associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and age of hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and is mainly caused by viral infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV). Recently, the decreased expression level of the transforming growth factor, beta receptor III (TGFBR3) gene, has been implicated in HCC and other human cancers. This study investigated whether TGFBR3 polymorphisms might be associated with HBV clearance and HCC occurrence.
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Genetic association analysis of TAP1 and TAP2 polymorphisms with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease and its FEV1 decline.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) induces bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients characterized with a clinical condition of severe decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after ingestion of aspirin. Two genes consisting a heterodimer, transporter 1 and 2, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP) (TAP1 and TAP2) within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, have been implicated in immunodeficiency and bronchiectasis development. To investigate the associations of TAP1 and TAP2 genetic polymorphisms with AERD and phenotypic FEV1 decline, a total of 43 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 12 SNPs of TAP1 and 31 SNPs of TAP2 were genotyped in 93 AERD patients and 96 aspirin-tolerant asthma controls. Interestingly, regression analysis revealed that polymorphisms and haplotypes of TAP2 were associated with FEV1 decline by aspirin provocation (P=0.002-0.04), with about twofold decline rate of FEV1 in most of minor homozygotes compared with major homozygotes. In addition, nominal evidences of association between TAP2 and AERD development were observed (P=0.02-0.04). However, TAP1 polymorphisms showed no relations to both AERD and FEV1 decline after aspirin challenge (P>0.05). Although further functional evaluations and replications are required, our preliminary findings provide supporting information that variants of TAP2 might be predisposing factors for FEV1 decline-related symptoms.
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The genetic effect of copy number variations on the risk of alcoholism in a Korean population.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Alcoholism, a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by excessive alcohol consumption, has been a leading cause of morbidity and premature death. This condition is believed to be influenced by genetic factors. As copy number variation (CNV) has been recently discovered in human genome, genomic diversity of human genome is more frequent than previously thought. Many studies have reported evidences that CNV is associated with the development of complex diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that CNV can predict the risk of alcoholism.
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Homicide and bipolar I disorder: a 22-year study.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Non-serious offenses in manic phase have been mainly studied in patients with bipolar disorder. However, some authors reported that depressive phase is related with the violent and homicidal manifestations of bipolar disorder.
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Lack of association between CD58 genetic variations and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease in a Korean population.
J Asthma
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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Exacerbation of asthma symptoms due to aspirin ingestion may lead to life-threatening lung failure. The adhesion molecule CD58 gene may play a crucial role in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) pathogenesis by mediating the biological functions of asthma-inducing mechanisms including T helper cells, proinflammatory cytokines, and natural killer T cells.
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Genetic variations in KIFC1 and the risk of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease in a Korean population: an association analysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Modest effects of genes in various pathways are significant in the etiology of complex human diseases, including aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). By functioning as a relevant component of respiratory processes, the human kinesin family member C1 (KIFC1) is hypothesized to play a role in AERD pathogenesis. A case-control analysis was carried out by comparing the genotype distribution of six KIFC1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms between 93 AERD cases and 96 aspirin-tolerant asthma controls in a Korean population. After controlling for confounds, logistic and regression models via various modes of genetic inheritance facilitated the association analysis. Initial results revealed significant association at 0.05 level of significance between several KIFC1 variations and AERD (P = 0.01-0.05, OR = 1.81-1.90) as well as fall rate of forced expiratory volume in the 1st second, an important diagnostic marker of airways constriction (P = 0.04-0.05). However, the signals were not deemed significant after multiple testing corrections (P (corr) > 0.05). Although the results do not support a major role of KIFC1 in AERD pathogenesis in a Korean asthma cohort, further replication and validation studies are required to clarify the current findings.
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Prevention of free fatty acid-induced hepatic lipotoxicity by carnitine via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Mitochondria are the main sites for fatty acid oxidation and play a central role in lipotoxicity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
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Detection and molecular characterization of porcine type 3 orthoreoviruses circulating in South Korea.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Orthoreoviruses infect virtually all mammalian species, causing systemic infections including mild gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses. However, little is known about the prevalence or genetic diversity of porcine orthoreoviruses in South Korea. We examined 237 diarrheic fecal samples collected from 78 pig farms around the country. RT-PCR utilizing primers specific for the L1 gene of mammalian orthoreoviruses showed that 45 (19.0%) samples were positive. The 10 strains isolated from orthoreovirus-positive samples formed typical perinuclear cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and had an atypical hemagglutination pattern; these are characteristics of type 3 orthoreovirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene in these 10 Korean and other strains showed that type 3 orthoreoviruses could be divided into four lineages; the 10 Korean strains were included in porcine lineage IV, along with T3/porcine/Sichuan/2006. Sequence analysis showed that strains in lineage IV had nucleotide identities of 97.0-98.1% and deduced amino acid identities of 96.4-98.2%. Sequence analysis of the ?1 protein, a viral attachment protein, revealed that the amino acid sequences associated with neurotropism (amino acids 198-204, 249I, 350D, and 419E) were highly conserved among the Korean strains, confirming that neural tropism was present. In conclusion, our findings suggest that porcine orthoreovirus infections are endemic in pig farms in South Korea and that the 10 novel Korean porcine orthoreoviruses belong to porcine lineage IV of type 3 orthoreovirus. In addition, sequence analysis of S1 genes encoding the ?1 protein showed that the 9 of 10 Korean porcine orthoreoviruses exhibited neural tropism.
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Risk factors for prolonged carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium among patients in intensive care units: a case-control study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for prolonged carriage of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in intensive care units (ICUs).
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Antioxidant effects of fermented red ginseng extracts in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats.
J Ginseng Res
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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The antioxidant activities of fermented red ginseng (FRG) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The contents of total polyphenol and total flavonoid in FRG extracts were 17.01±2.00 ?g/mg and 18.42±3.97 ?g/mg, respectively. These extracts were capable of directly scavenging ?, ?-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl free radicals. The antioxidative effects of the FRG extracts in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were also investigated. The activities of plasma alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and ?-glutamyltransferase were significantly decreased by extract administration as compared to an STZ control group. Hepatic glutathione content depleted by STZ treatment was significantly increased by treatment of the FRG extracts, but the elevation of lipid peroxide content induced by STZ was significantly decreased by the extracts. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase decreased after STZ-treatment were recovered by the treatment of the FRG extracts. These results indicate that FRG extracts have antioxidative effets in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
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Association of FANCC polymorphisms with FEV1 decline in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a clinical condition characterized by severe decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) following the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin. The exacerbated inflammatory response in Fancc-deficient mice has been reported to be associated with hemopoietic responses that are also related to AERD pathogenesis. To investigate associations of FANCC polymorphisms with AERD and related phenotypes, this study genotyped 25 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 592 Korean asthmatics including 163 AERD and 429 aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) subjects. Logistic analysis revealed that genetic polymorphisms of the FANCC gene might not be directly related to AERD development and nasal polyposis (P > 0.05). However, the FEV1 decline by aspirin provocation showed significant associations with FANCC polymorphisms (P = 0.006-0.04) and a haplotype (unique to rs4647416G > A, P = 0.01 under co-dominant, P = 0.006 under recessive model). In silico analysis showed that the "A" allele of rs4647376C > A, which was more prevalent in AERD than in ATA, could act as a potential branch point (BP) site for alternative splicing (BP score = 4.16). Although replications in independent cohorts and further functional evaluations are still needed, our preliminary findings suggest that FANCC polymorphisms might be associated with the obstructive symptoms in allergic diseases.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.