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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Retrospective study of etiologic agents associated with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in stranded cetaceans in the canary islands.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. Histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. A PCR assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, West Nile virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on selected tissues to determine the presence of morbilliviral antigens. Six animals (5 striped dolphins and 1 common dolphin) showed IHC and/or molecular evidence of morbilliviral antigens and/or genomes, mainly in brain tissue. Conventional nested PCR detected herpesviral DNA in brain tissue samples from two striped dolphins. There was no evidence of West Nile virus, T. gondii, or Brucella spp. in any of the brain tissue samples examined. The information presented here increases the number of confirmed morbillivirus-positive cases within the Canarian archipelago from two previously reported cases to eight. Furthermore, a new nested-PCR method for the detection of morbillivirus is described here. Regarding herpesvirus, the phylogenetic analysis performed in the current study provides valuable information about a possible pathogenic branch of cetacean alphaherpesviruses that might be responsible for some fatal cases worldwide.
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Canine parvovirus-2b-associated erythema multiforme in a litter of English Setter dogs.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Erythema multiforme (EM) was diagnosed in a litter of English Setter puppies. The puppies developed erythematous cutaneous lesions at the age of 2 weeks. Microscopically, there was individual keratinocyte apoptosis associated with lymphocyte exocytosis in all layers of the epidermis. Intranuclear viral inclusions were seen in multiple tissues and organs. Tissues from the tongue, lymph node, spleen, skin, and small intestine were positive for Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) and negative for Canine distemper virus (CDV) and Canid herpesvirus 1 by fluorescent antibody test. Negative-staining electron microscopy detected parvovirus particles in the intestinal contents. The skin and small intestine were positive for CPV-2b and negative for CDV by polymerase chain reaction. The mucocutaneous junctions and small intestines stained positive for CPV by immunohistochemistry. The present report documents CPV-2b-associated EM in a litter of English Setters and substantiates the single previous report associating EM with CPV-2. The finding suggests that CPV should be considered as a possible cause of EM in dogs.
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Clinicoimmunopathologic findings in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus with positive cetacean morbillivirus antibody titers.
Dis. Aquat. Org.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Sera from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida were tested for antibodies to cetacean morbilliviruses from 2003 to 2007 as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. A suite of clinicoimmunopathologic variables were evaluated in morbillivirus-seropositive dolphins (n = 14) and seronegative healthy dolphins (n = 49). Several important differences were found. Serum alkaline phosphatase, creatine phosphokinase, chloride, albumin and albumin/globulin ratios were significantly lower in seropositive dolphins. Innate immunity appeared to be upregulated with significant increases in lysozyme concentration and marginally significant increases in monocytic phagocytosis. Adaptive immunity was also impacted in dolphins with positive morbillivirus antibody titers. Mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation responses were significantly reduced in dolphins with positive morbillivirus antibody titers, and marginally significant decreases were found for absolute numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes. The findings suggest impairment of cell-mediated adaptive immunity, similar to the immunologic pattern reported with acute morbillivirus infection in other species. In contrast, dolphins with positive morbillivirus antibody titers appeared to have at least a partially upregulated humoral immune response with significantly higher levels of gamma globulins than healthy dolphins, which may represent an antibody response to morbillivirus infection or other pathogens. These data suggest that subclinical dolphin morbillivirus infection in IRL dolphins may produce clinicoimmunopathologic perturbations that impact overall health.
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Morbillivirus infection in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southeastern United States: seroepidemiologic and pathologic evidence of subclinical infection.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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From 2003 to 2007, sera (n=234) from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting two southeast Atlantic estuarine regions, the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL and Charleston, SC (CHS) were tested for antibodies to cetacean morbilliviruses as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. Positive morbillivirus titers were found on initial capture in 12 of 122 (9.8%) IRL dolphins in the absence of an epizootic. All CHS dolphins were seronegative. Positive fluctuating morbillivirus titers and seroconversion were found in IRL dolphins. Seropositivity was detected in dolphins 8-13 years of age as well as in dolphins that were alive during the 1987-1988 epizootic. During the study period, pathologic and immunohistochemical findings from stranded IRL dolphins (n=14) did not demonstrate typical morbillivirus-associated lesions or the presence of morbillivirus antigen. The findings suggest that morbillivirus infections are occurring in the absence of widespread mortality in IRL dolphins.
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Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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This study charted 237 fatal cases of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) observed from May 2002 to May 2003 in a single Oklahoma feed yard. Postmortem lung samples were used for agent identification and histopathology. Late in the study, 94 skin samples (ear notches) were tested for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Bovine respiratory disease morbidity was 14.7%, and the mortality rate of all causes was 1.3%, with more than half (53.8%) attributed to BRD (0.7% total of all causes). The agents isolated were the following: Mannheimia haemolytica (25.0%), Pasteurella multocida (24.5%), Histophilus somni (10.0%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (35.0%), Salmonella spp. (0.5%), and Mycoplasma spp. (71.4%). Viruses recovered by cell culture were BVDV-1a noncytopathic (NCP; 2.7%), BVDV-1a cytopathic (CP) vaccine strain (1.8%), BVDV-1b NCP (2.7%), BVDV-2a NCP (3.2%), BVDV-2b CP (0.5%), and Bovine herpesvirus 1 (2.3%). Gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were 4.6% positive for Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and 10.8% positive for Bovine coronavirus. Bovine viral diarrhea virus IHC testing was positive in 5.3% of the animals. The mean values were determined for the treatment data: fatal disease onset (32.65 days), treatment interval (29.15 days), number of antibiotic treatments (2.65), number of different antibiotics (1.89), and day of death (61.81 days). Lesions included the following: 1) duration: acute (21%), subacute (15%), chronic (40.2%), healing (2.8%), normal (18.1%), and autolyzed (2.8%); 2) type of pneumonia: lobar bronchopneumonia (LBP; 27.1%), LBP with pleuritis (49.1%), interstitial pneumonia (5.1%), bronchointerstitial pneumonia (1.4%), septic (0.9%), embolic foci (0.5%), other (2.8%), normal (10.3%), and autolyzed (2.8%); and 3) bronchiolar lesions: bronchiolitis obliterans (39.7%), bronchiolar necrosis (26.6%), bronchiolitis obliterans/bronchiolar necrosis (1.4%), other bronchiolar lesions (6.5%), and bronchiolar lesion negative (25.7%). Statistically significant relationships were present among the agents, lesions, and the animal treatment, disease onset, and mortality data. Clinical illnesses observed in this study were lengthier than those reported 16-20 years ago, based on fatal disease onset, treatment interval, and day of death.
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New recognition of Enterovirus infections in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2009
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An enterovirus was cultured from an erosive tongue lesion of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The morphology of virions on negative staining electron microscopy was consistent with those of enteroviruses. Analysis of 2613 bp of the polyprotein gene identified the isolate as a novel enterovirus strain, tentatively named bottlenose dolphin enterovirus (BDEV), that nests within the species Bovine enterovirus. Serologic evidence of exposure to enteroviruses was common in both free-ranging and managed collection dolphins. Managed collection dolphins were more likely to have high antibody levels, although the highest levels were reported in free-ranging populations. Associations between enterovirus antibody levels, and age, sex, complete blood counts, and clinical serum biochemistries were explored. Dolphins with higher antibody levels were more likely to be hyperproteinemic and hyperglobulinemic.
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Real-time RT-PCR assays for the rapid and differential detection of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) assays for identifying and differentiating infections caused by dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) were developed by targeting the hypervariable C-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Total DMV and PMV RNA extracted from infected Vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) produced positive cycle threshold (C(T)) values after the 17th and 25th cycles, respectively. The assays were then validated using infected cetacean tissue RNA. The assays were specific for either DMV or PMV and did not cross-react with canine distemper virus (CDV), phocid distemper virus (PDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and measles virus (MV). The glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene was targeted as control for RNA quality, and a consensus GAPDH probe that reacted with 11 different marine mammal species, generating positive C(T) values ranging from the 21st to the 37th cycle was used. The rtRT-PCR assays have advantages over conventional assays in that they are rapid, easier to scale up, and are less prone to cross-contamination and have improved the limit of detection and specificity.
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Prevalence of and risk factors for serum antibodies against Leptospira serovars in US veterinarians.
J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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To determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Leptospira serovars among veterinarians and identify risk factors for seropositivity in veterinary care settings.
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Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and strandings.
Vet. Res.
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Herpesviruses have been recognized in marine mammals, but their clinical relevance is not always easy to assess. A novel otarine herpesvirus-3 (OtHV3) was detected in a geriatric California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and using a newly developed quantitative PCR assay paired with histology, OtHV3 was associated with esophageal ulcers and B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in this animal. The prevalence and quantities of OtHV3 were then determined among buffy coats from 87 stranded and managed collection sea lions. Stranded sea lions had a higher prevalence of OtHV3 compared to managed collection sea lions (34.9% versus 12.5%; p = 0.04), and among the stranded sea lions, yearlings were most likely to be positive. Future epidemiological studies comparing the presence and viral loads of OtHV3 among a larger population of California sea lions with and without lymphoid neoplasia or esophageal ulcers would help elucidate the relevance of OtHV3-associated pathologies to these groups.
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Morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia.
J. Wildl. Dis.
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We report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia between December 2005 and January 2011. Antibody to CMV was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (P=0.018). There was high antibody prevalence (83%, n=6) in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Two of 13 (15%) captive cetaceans sampled between November 2005 and January 2011 had CMV antibodies and, as infection was unlikely to have occurred while in captivity, CMV infection appears to have been present in Australian wild cetaceans since at least 1985. These results indicate that morbillivirus infection is occurring without widespread cetacean mortality in this region. However, as the deaths of two immature Australian offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were attributed to CMV infection, morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of disease in cetaceans in Australia. Captive cetacean populations may be prone to significant mortality as a result of CMV introduction, so strict quarantine procedures should be enforced when injured or stranded cetaceans are hospitalized and rehabilitated at Australian zoos and marine parks.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.