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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Motion direction biases and decoding in human visual cortex.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have relied on multivariate analysis methods to decode visual motion direction from measurements of cortical activity. Above-chance decoding has been commonly used to infer the motion-selective response properties of the underlying neural populations. Moreover, patterns of reliable response biases across voxels that underlie decoding have been interpreted to reflect maps of functional architecture. Using fMRI, we identified a direction-selective response bias in human visual cortex that: (1) predicted motion-decoding accuracy; (2) depended on the shape of the stimulus aperture rather than the absolute direction of motion, such that response amplitudes gradually decreased with distance from the stimulus aperture edge corresponding to motion origin; and 3) was present in V1, V2, V3, but not evident in MT+, explaining the higher motion-decoding accuracies reported previously in early visual cortex. These results demonstrate that fMRI-based motion decoding has little or no dependence on the underlying functional organization of motion selectivity.
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Current management of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in Canada.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The detection of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is on the rise and its optimal management remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the current self-reported management of PTMC amongst Canadian otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons (OHNS) and endocrinologists and to identify factors influencing their management decisions.
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Mapping brain activity at scale with cluster computing.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Understanding brain function requires monitoring and interpreting the activity of large networks of neurons during behavior. Advances in recording technology are greatly increasing the size and complexity of neural data. Analyzing such data will pose a fundamental bottleneck for neuroscience. We present a library of analytical tools called Thunder built on the open-source Apache Spark platform for large-scale distributed computing. The library implements a variety of univariate and multivariate analyses with a modular, extendable structure well-suited to interactive exploration and analysis development. We demonstrate how these analyses find structure in large-scale neural data, including whole-brain light-sheet imaging data from fictively behaving larval zebrafish, and two-photon imaging data from behaving mouse. The analyses relate neuronal responses to sensory input and behavior, run in minutes or less and can be used on a private cluster or in the cloud. Our open-source framework thus holds promise for turning brain activity mapping efforts into biological insights.
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Derivation of Phase 3 dosing for peginterferon lambda-1a in chronic hepatitis C, Part 1: Modeling optimal treatment duration and sustained virologic response rates.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda) is under clinical development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV, HCV, respectively) infection. This is the first of two manuscripts detailing the pharmacodynamic derivation of Lambda dosing and treatment durations for Phase 3 studies in HCV, based on Phase 2 data. We describe here the derivation of a population model of Lambda exposure; the adaptation of a previously published viral dynamic model for Lambda treatment and host genotype, and its use to simulate sustained virologic responses (SVR). Lambda population pharmacokinetics was described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption, and 33.0?L per day clearance with 47% interindividual (36% intra-individual) variability. Weight explained a negligible proportion of the variability. Based on SVR predictions, optimum treatment durations were 48 weeks for HCV genotypes 1 or 4 (SVR estimates for 120, 180, and 240??g Lambda: 58%, 54%, 47%, respectively) and 24 weeks for genotypes 2 or 3 (75%, 72%, 67%). SVR predictions for 240??g were lower due to dropout predictions. The SVR model established the optimum treatment duration for Phase 3 studies but did not differentiate between 120 and 180??g dosing. A companion manuscript describes dose selection based on exposure-response/safety modeling.
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Derivation of Phase 3 dosing for peginterferon lambda-1a in chronic hepatitis C, Part 2: Exposure-response analyses for efficacy and safety variables.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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This is the second of two manuscripts detailing the pharmacodynamic derivation of peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda) dosing and treatment durations for Phase 3 studies in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, based on Phase 2 data. Herein, we describe the derivation of regression models for 12-week on-treatment virologic response and safety outcomes at 120, 180, and 240??g Lambda with ribavirin. In patients with HCV genotypes 1 or 4, there was a significant (P?=?0.024) relationship between undetectable HCV-RNA at Week 4 and Lambda exposure (AUC or Cmax ), with the largest difference between adjacent dose levels between the 180 and 120??g exposure ranges. Risk of Grade 3-4 aminotransferase or bilirubin elevations relative to a peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin control were related to Lambda exposure for all patients, and the largest increase between adjacent dose levels was seen for 240 versus 180??g. Anemia and neutropenia events were lower than control across all doses and exposures. Based on these data and those in our previous manuscript, Phase 3 studies will evaluate fixed 180?µg doses of Lambda in combination with ribavirin and a direct-acting antiviral for 24-48 weeks in HCV genotypes 1 or 4 or 12-24 weeks in genotypes 2 or 3.
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Summary of proceedings of the second World Congress on Thyroid Cancer.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The second World Congress on Thyroid Cancer was held from July 10 to July 14, 2013, in Toronto, Canada. Its purpose was to provide a platform for the multidisciplinary discussion on research, education, and patient management of thyroid malignancy. Herein, we summarize the latest major trends and controversies within the field of thyroid oncology as discussed in the Congress including the use of ultrasound, standardization of cytology, role of molecular testing, treatment options for small recurrence including ablation and observation, management of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, importance of identification of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, role of minimally invasive thyroid surgery, trends in radioactive iodine treatment, advancements in targeted agents, and the importance of personalizing treatment to individual patients.
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Volume-outcome relationships for head and neck cancer surgery in a universal health care system.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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We aimed to assess whether surgeon and/or institution resection volume predicts long-term overall survival in head and neck cancer in a publicly funded healthcare system.
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Longer survival in patients with human papillomavirus-related head and neck cancer after positive postradiation planned neck dissection.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes between human papillomavirus (HPV)-related versus -unrelated head and neck cancer after pathological positive planned neck dissection.
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Recombinant interleukin-21 plus sorafenib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a phase 1/2 study.
J Immunother Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite the positive impact of targeted therapies on metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), durable responses are infrequent and an unmet need exists for novel therapies with distinct mechanisms of action. We investigated the combination of recombinant Interleukin 21 (IL-21), a cytokine with unique immunostimulatory properties, plus sorafenib, a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
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Coarse-scale biases for spirals and orientation in human visual cortex.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Multivariate decoding analyses are widely applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but there is controversy over their interpretation. Orientation decoding in primary visual cortex (V1) reflects coarse-scale biases, including an over-representation of radial orientations. But fMRI responses to clockwise and counter-clockwise spirals can also be decoded. Because these stimuli are matched for radial orientation, while differing in local orientation, it has been argued that fine-scale columnar selectivity for orientation contributes to orientation decoding. We measured fMRI responses in human V1 to both oriented gratings and spirals. Responses to oriented gratings exhibited a complex topography, including a radial bias that was most pronounced in the peripheral representation, and a near-vertical bias that was most pronounced near the foveal representation. Responses to clockwise and counter-clockwise spirals also exhibited coarse-scale organization, at the scale of entire visual quadrants. The preference of each voxel for clockwise or counter-clockwise spirals was predicted from the preferences of that voxel for orientation and spatial position (i.e., within the retinotopic map). Our results demonstrate a bias for local stimulus orientation that has a coarse spatial scale, is robust across stimulus classes (spirals and gratings), and suffices to explain decoding from fMRI responses in V1.
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Typical and atypical phenotypes of PNPO deficiency with elevated CSF and plasma pyridoxamine on treatment.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Pyridox(am)ine phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency causes severe early infantile epileptic encephalopathy and has been characterized as responding to pyridoxal-5-phosphate but not to pyridoxine. Two males with PNPO deficiency and novel PNPO mutations are reported and their clinical, metabolic, and video-electroencephalographic (EEG) findings described. The first child showed electro-clinical responses to pyridoxine and deterioration when pyridoxine was withheld. At last review, he has well-controlled epilepsy with pyridoxal-5-phosphate monotherapy and an autism spectrum disorder. The second child had a perinatal middle cerebral artery infarct and a myoclonic encephalopathy. He failed to respond to pyridoxine but responded well to pyridoxal-5-phosphate. At the age of 21 months he has global developmental delay and hemiparesis but is seizure-free with pyridoxal-5-phosphate monotherapy. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxamine levels were increased in both children during treatment with pyridoxine or pyridoxal-5-phosphate. These observations indicate that differential responses to pyridoxine and pyridoxal-5-phosphate treatment cannot be relied upon to diagnose PNPO deficiency.
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Tonic seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Periictal single-photon emission computed tomography suggests a corticopontine network.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe epileptic disorder with characteristic electroclinical features but diverse etiologies. The shared electroclinical characteristics suggest that common cerebral networks are involved in generating seizures. We sought to reveal these networks by comparing ictal and interictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
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Early diagnosis of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency using a high-throughput screening method and a trial of oral S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a treatment method.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to develop a high-throughput urine screening technique for adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency and to evaluate S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) as a potential treatment for this disorder.
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High resolution chromosomal microarray in undiagnosed neurological disorders.
J Paediatr Child Health
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Despite advances in medical investigation, many children with neurological conditions remain without a diagnosis, although a genetic aetiology is often suspected. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) screens for copy number variants (CNVs) and long continuous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) and may further enhance diagnostic yield. Although recent studies have identified pathogenic CNVs in intellectual disability, autism and epilepsy, the utility of CMA testing in a broader cohort of children with neurologic disorders has not been reported.
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Targeted resequencing in epileptic encephalopathies identifies de novo mutations in CHD2 and SYNGAP1.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Epileptic encephalopathies are a devastating group of epilepsies with poor prognosis, of which the majority are of unknown etiology. We perform targeted massively parallel resequencing of 19 known and 46 candidate genes for epileptic encephalopathy in 500 affected individuals (cases) to identify new genes involved and to investigate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in known genes. Overall, we identified pathogenic mutations in 10% of our cohort. Six of the 46 candidate genes had 1 or more pathogenic variants, collectively accounting for 3% of our cohort. We show that de novo CHD2 and SYNGAP1 mutations are new causes of epileptic encephalopathies, accounting for 1.2% and 1% of cases, respectively. We also expand the phenotypic spectra explained by SCN1A, SCN2A and SCN8A mutations. To our knowledge, this is the largest cohort of cases with epileptic encephalopathies to undergo targeted resequencing. Implementation of this rapid and efficient method will change diagnosis and understanding of the molecular etiologies of these disorders.
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Recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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The incidence of Well-differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (WDTC) has been increasing over the past several decades. Consequently, so has the incidence of recurrence, which ranges from 15% to 30%. Factors leading to increased risk of recurrence are well described. However, the impact of local and regional recurrence is not well understood, but distant recurrence dramatically reduces 10-year survival to 50%. Recurrent WDTC has several established options for treatment; Observation, Radioactive Iodine (RAI), Surgery and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT). Novel treatments such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol injection (PUEI) are beginning to gain popularity and have promising early results. A review of the current literature, outcome measurements and a strategy for revision surgery within the central neck compartment are discussed within this manuscript.
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Pattern of spread to the lateral neck in metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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There remains controversy surrounding the extent of lateral neck dissection required in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and suspicious or confirmed metastatic lateral neck lymphadenopathy. The evidence for this clinical dilemma has never been reviewed systematically nor has there been an attempt to meta-analyze the data by lymph node levels to better characterize the pattern of spread.
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Patients experiences following local-regional recurrence of thyroid cancer: a qualitative study.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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The psychosocial impact of local-regional thyroid cancer recurrence is not known. The aim of this study was to explore thyroid cancer patients experiences relating to diagnosis and treatment of local-regional disease recurrence.
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A functional and perceptual signature of the second visual area in primates.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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There is no generally accepted account of the function of the second visual cortical area (V2), partly because no simple response properties robustly distinguish V2 neurons from those in primary visual cortex (V1). We constructed synthetic stimuli replicating the higher-order statistical dependencies found in natural texture images and used them to stimulate macaque V1 and V2 neurons. Most V2 cells responded more vigorously to these textures than to control stimuli lacking naturalistic structure; V1 cells did not. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements in humans revealed differences between V1 and V2 that paralleled the neuronal measurements. The ability of human observers to detect naturalistic structure in different types of texture was well predicted by the strength of neuronal and fMRI responses in V2 but not in V1. Together, these results reveal a particular functional role for V2 in the representation of natural image structure.
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Outcomes of incidentally discovered thyroid nodules referred to a high-volume head and neck surgeon.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Incidental thyroid nodules are commonly found by radiological studies done for other indications. The yearly incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing, in part because of detection of nonpalpable nodules on imaging performed for unrelated issues.
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Social environment, secondary smoking exposure, and smoking cessation among head and neck cancer patients.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Smoking during treatment of squamous cell head and neck cancer (HNC) has adverse affects on toxicity, treatment, and survival. The purpose of this report was to evaluate sociodemographic predictors of smoking cessation in HNC patients to support the development of a smoking cessation program.
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Rare copy number variants are an important cause of epileptic encephalopathies.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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Rare copy number variants (CNVs)--deletions and duplications--have recently been established as important risk factors for both generalized and focal epilepsies. A systematic assessment of the role of CNVs in epileptic encephalopathies, the most devastating and often etiologically obscure group of epilepsies, has not been performed.
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Long-term follow-up of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2011
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Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is an increasingly recognized epileptic syndrome that presents with multifocal refractory status epilepticus in previously normal children and evolves into a chronic, refractory, focal epilepsy with associated cognitive and behavioral difficulties. Herein we describe the features of the chronic epilepsy and critically review evidence for the etiology of this syndrome.
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Intracranial dissection mimicking transient cerebral arteriopathy in childhood arterial ischemic stroke.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Transient cerebral arteriopathy is a frequent cause of childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Differentiating this condition from intracranial carotid artery dissection is challenging but important for initial treatment. We describe 4 cases from the International Pediatric Stroke Study of intracranial carotid artery dissection, initially misdiagnosed as transient cerebral arteriopathy. Presentations were abrupt, with focal neurological deficits in 4, preceding headache in 3, and minor trauma in 1. Infarcts involved the anterior circulation, and magnetic resonance angiography showed unilateral arterial stenosis/occlusion. None had evidence of dissection. All received anticoagulation or thrombolysis. Three died from refractory intracranial hypertension. Intracranial carotid artery dissection was confirmed postmortem (n = 3) and on dedicated MR wall imaging showing intramural hematoma (n = 1). In differentiating transient cerebral arteriopathy from intracranial carotid artery dissection, routine magnetic resonance angiography is unreliable and adjunctive conventional angiography, gadolinium magnetic resonance angiography, or dedicated MRI wall imaging should be considered.
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Temporoparietooccipital disconnection in children with intractable epilepsy.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Temporoparietooccipital (TPO) disconnection is described mainly in children with diffuse posterior quadrant lesions and concordant electroencephalography (EEG) findings. The authors report on 16 children who underwent TPO surgery, including 4 with no definite epileptogenic lesion and 8 with generalized electroclinical manifestations.
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Metamers of the ventral stream.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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The human capacity to recognize complex visual patterns emerges in a sequence of brain areas known as the ventral stream, beginning with primary visual cortex (V1). We developed a population model for mid-ventral processing, in which nonlinear combinations of V1 responses are averaged in receptive fields that grow with eccentricity. To test the model, we generated novel forms of visual metamers, stimuli that differ physically but look the same. We developed a behavioral protocol that uses metameric stimuli to estimate the receptive field sizes in which the model features are represented. Because receptive field sizes change along the ventral stream, our behavioral results can identify the visual area corresponding to the representation. Measurements in human observers implicate visual area V2, providing a new functional account of neurons in this area. The model also explains deficits of peripheral vision known as crowding, and provides a quantitative framework for assessing the capabilities and limitations of everyday vision.
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Orientation decoding depends on maps, not columns.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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The representation of orientation in primary visual cortex (V1) has been examined at a fine spatial scale corresponding to the columnar architecture. We present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements providing evidence for a topographic map of orientation preference in human V1 at a much coarser scale, in register with the angular-position component of the retinotopic map of V1. This coarse-scale orientation map provides a parsimonious explanation for why multivariate pattern analysis methods succeed in decoding stimulus orientation from fMRI measurements, challenging the widely held assumption that decoding results reflect sampling of spatial irregularities in the fine-scale columnar architecture. Decoding stimulus attributes and cognitive states from fMRI measurements has proven useful for a number of applications, but our results demonstrate that the interpretation cannot assume decoding reflects or exploits columnar organization.
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Inter-area correlations in the ventral visual pathway reflect feature integration.
J Vis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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During object perception, the brain integrates simple features into representations of complex objects. A perceptual phenomenon known as visual crowding selectively interferes with this process. Here, we use crowding to characterize a neural correlate of feature integration. Cortical activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, simultaneously in multiple areas of the ventral visual pathway (V1-V4 and the visual word form area, VWFA, which responds preferentially to familiar letters), while human subjects viewed crowded and uncrowded letters. Temporal correlations between cortical areas were lower for crowded letters than for uncrowded letters, especially between V1 and VWFA. These differences in correlation were retinotopically specific, and persisted when attention was diverted from the letters. But correlation differences were not evident when we substituted the letters with grating patches that were not crowded under our stimulus conditions. We conclude that inter-area correlations reflect feature integration and are disrupted by crowding. We propose that crowding may perturb the transformations between neural representations along the ventral pathway that underlie the integration of features into objects.
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Decision making for the extent of thyroidectomy in the patient with atypical cytologic results.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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to identify additional preoperative factors that could reliably be used to aid in determining the appropriate extent of thyroidectomy.
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Diminishing diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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Follicular carcinomas have been reported as 10% to 15% of thyroid malignancies. Refinements in the histologic criteria applied in the classification of follicular lesions have occurred. We aim to document the true incidence of follicular cancers in a cohort from a high-volume endocrine practice.
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EpCAM nuclear localization identifies aggressive thyroid cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (EpEx) of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and nuclear signaling by its intracellular oncogenic domain Ep-ICD has recently been implicated in increased proliferation of cancer cells. The clinical significance of Ep-ICD in human tumors remains an enigma.
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Phase 1b study of pegylated interferon lambda 1 with or without ribavirin in patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Interferon lambda 1 (IFN-lambda1) is a type III IFN that produces intracellular responses similar to those of IFN-alpha but in fewer cell types because of differences in the receptor distribution pattern, and this could potentially result in an improved safety profile. This was an open-label three-part study of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Part 1 evaluated single-agent pegylated interferon lambda (PEG-IFN-lambda) at 1.5 or 3.0 microg/kg administered every 2 weeks or weekly for 4 weeks in patients who had relapsed after previous IFN-alpha-based treatment. Part 2 evaluated weekly doses of PEG-IFN-lambda ranging from 0.5 to 2.25 microg/kg in combination with ribavirin (RBV) for 4 weeks in treatment-relapse patients. Part 3 evaluated weekly PEG-IFN-lambda at 1.5 microg/kg in combination with RBV for 4 weeks in treatment-naive patients. Fifty-six patients were enrolled: 24 patients in part 1, 25 patients in part 2, and 7 patients in part 3. Antiviral activity was observed at all PEG-IFN-lambda dose levels (from 0.5 to 3.0 microg/kg). Two of seven treatment-naive patients (29%) achieved rapid virological response. Treatment was well tolerated with minimal flu-like symptoms and no significant hematologic changes other than RBV-associated decreases in hemoglobin. The most common adverse events were fatigue (29%), nausea (12%), and myalgia (11%). Six patients experienced increases in aminotransferases that met protocol-defined criteria for dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) or temporarily holding therapy with PEG-IFN-lambda. Most DLT occurred in patients with high PEG-IFN-lambda exposure.
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Nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of Ep-ICD is frequently detected in human epithelial cancers.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2010
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We previously demonstrated that nuclear and cytoplasmic accumulation of the intracellular domain (Ep-ICD) of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) accompanied by a reciprocal reduction of its extracellular domain (EpEx), occurs in aggressive thyroid cancers. This study was designed to determine whether similar accumulation of Ep-ICD is a common event in other epithelial cancers.
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Epilepsy in hemiplegic cerebral palsy due to perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke.
Dev Med Child Neurol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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The aim of this study was to describe the frequency, risk factors, manifestations, and outcome of epilepsy in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) due to perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS).
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Application of post-surgical stimulated thyroglobulin for radioiodine remnant ablation selection in low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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We present our ongoing experience in the use of postsurgical stimulated serum thyroglobulin (Stim-Tg) to assist in radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) decision-making.
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Thyroid cancer outcomes in Filipino patients.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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To compare the outcomes of patients having thyroid cancer among Filipinos vs non-Filipinos.
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Predictors of malignancy in thyroid fine-needle aspirates "cyst fluid only" cases: can potential clues of malignancy be identified?
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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A recent consensus conference on thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology concluded that specimens with abundant histiocytes and few or no follicular cells should be interpreted as "cyst fluid only," under the category of "nondiagnostic." The purpose of the current study was to identify any cytomorphologic characteristics in this type of specimen that are predictive of an underlying malignancy.
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Identification of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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To determine the feasibility of identification of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) during routine thyroidectomy and to describe the EBSLN position according to the Cernea classification system.
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Influence of previous radiation exposure on pathologic features and clinical outcome in patients with thyroid cancer.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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To determine whether previous radiation exposure to the head and neck is related to less favorable pathologic and clinical outcome in patients after surgical management of thyroid cancer.
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Interferon lambda as a potential new therapeutic for hepatitis C.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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Interferon lambdas (IFN-lambda) are Type III interferons with biological activity, including induction of antiviral genes, similar to Type I IFNs, but signal through a distinct receptor complex. The expression pattern for the IFN-lambda receptor is more cell specific than the widely distributed IFN-alpha receptor, suggesting in vivo, IFN-lambda may have fewer side effects than IFN-alpha, such as less hematologic toxicities. A PEGylated form of IFN-lambda (PEG-rIL-29) was well tolerated in animals and did not result in hematologic toxicity. Clinical data from initial studies of PEG-rIL-29 has demonstrated antiviral effects in patients with hepatitis C without producing hematologic toxicity. These preclinical and early clinical data support PEG-rIL-29 as a potential new therapeutic agent for treatment of patients with hepatitis C.
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Influence of age and primary tumor size on the risk for residual/recurrent well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Though age and primary tumor size predict cancer-specific survival in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC), their influence on residual/recurrent disease has not been elucidated.
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Prognostic factors in patients with multiple recurrences of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
J Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Introduction. Patients with multiple recurrences of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) have markedly reduced overall survival when compared with those who have 45, stage III/IV disease, distant metastasis, vascular invasion, MACIS score >6, and time to recurrence of <12 months were found to be significant predictors for mortality in this subgroup. Conclusions. Patients with multiple recurrences of WDTC follow a distinct clinical course, marked with multiple treatment failures and a substantial risk of mortality.
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Intrinsic epileptogenicity of cortical tubers revealed by intracranial EEG monitoring.
Neurology
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We sought to identify intracranial EEG patterns characteristic of epileptogenic tubers and to understand the contribution of perituberal cortex.
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Predictors of Level II and Vb Neck Disease in Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
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OBJECTIVE To identify predictors of levels II and Vb involvement in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with lateral neck metastasis. DESIGN Large case series. SETTING High-volume tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS Consecutive sample of 185 patients who underwent 248 selective neck dissections of at least levels II to V for pathologically proven PTC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Significant independent predictors of level II and Vb metastasis, including age and pathologic variables (tumor diameter, dominant nodule cellular pathology, multifocality, extracapsular invasion, positive margins, and lymphovascular invasion). RESULTS Levels II and Vb were involved in 49.3% and 29.2% of our cohort, respectively. Age and lymphovascular invasion were independent predictors of level Vb involvement with metastasis (logistic regression: odds ratio for age = 0.92, SE = 0.03, P = .02; and odds ratio for lymphovascular invasion = 5.52, SE = 0.80, P = .03). No significant predictors were identified for level II involvement. CONCLUSIONS Levels II and Vb were involved in a significant number of patients with PTC and lateral neck disease. Younger age and lymphovascular involvement were independent risk factors for level Vb involvement in patients with PTC and lateral neck metastasis. The increased risk might be of marginal clinical significance. No significant predictors were identified for level II involvement. Our findings do not favor a limited neck dissection on the basis of any of the studys clinical or pathologic variables, and we therefore recommend the routine excision of levels IIa to Vb in all patients with PTC presenting with lateral neck disease.
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An Ep-ICD based index is a marker of aggressiveness and poor prognosis in thyroid carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
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Nuclear accumulation of the intracellular domain of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-ICD) in tumor cells was demonstrated to predict poor prognosis in thyroid carcinoma patients in our earlier study. Here, we investigated the clinical significance of Ep-ICD subcellular localization index (ESLI) in distinguishing aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) from non-aggressive cases.
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Epileptic spasms: experience with a high-dose oral corticosteroid protocol.
J Paediatr Child Health
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To audit clinical practice and assess early outcomes for infants with epileptic spasms after an agreed initial treatment protocol was adopted.
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Metastatic papillary thyroid cancer with lateral neck disease: pattern of spread by level.
Head Neck
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Currently, there is no clear consensus on the extent of this lateral neck dissection required in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with lateral neck metastasis. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with metastatic PTC, and identify the pattern of lymphatic spread to the lateral neck.
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Waiting for thyroid surgery: a study of psychological morbidity and determinants of health associated with long wait times for thyroid surgery.
Laryngoscope
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Patients with thyroid pathology tend have longer surgical wait times. Uncertainty during this wait can have negative psychologically impact. This study aims to determine the degree of psychological morbidity in patients waiting for thyroid surgery.
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Randomized controlled trial of a computerized decision aid on adjuvant radioactive iodine treatment for patients with early-stage papillary thyroid cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Decision-making on adjuvant radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment for early-stage papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is complex because of uncertainties in medical evidence. Using a parallel, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial design, we examined the impact of a patient-directed computerized decision aid (DA) on the medical knowledge and decisional conflict in patients with early-stage PTC considering the choice of being treated with adjuvant RAI or not. The DA describes the rationale, possible risks and benefits, and the medical evidence uncertainty relating to the choice.
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Predictive value of metastatic cervical lymph node ratio in papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence.
Head Neck
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of metastatic cervical lymph nodes resected (metastatic lymph node ratio [MLNR]) predicted papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) recurrence, and whether MLNR could alter the predictive ability of TNM nodal classification for recurrence in PTC.
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Symptomatic generalized epilepsy after HHV6 posttransplant acute limbic encephalitis in children.
Epilepsia
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Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) is the major cause of posttransplant acute limbic encephalitis (PALE) in immunosuppressed patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Memory impairment and temporal lobe epilepsy following PALE are reported in adults, but sequelae in young children are unknown. We report three children with HHV6-associated PALE 20-23 days after cord blood transplantation for leukemias who developed symptomatic generalized epilepsy. Patients were followed for 2-8 years and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and video-electroencephalography (EEG). Two patients underwent viral and autoimmune testing and immunotherapies. Generalized seizures, including tonic seizures, developed 11-18 months after HHV6-associated PALE. Seizures were frequent and resistant to multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Generalized slow spike-wave and low-voltage fast activity were recorded on interictal and ictal EEGs. The two younger patients regressed in their general abilities, synchronous with seizure evolution, whereas the older patient developed a severe amnestic syndrome that halted intellectual development. Serial MRI studies revealed bilateral signal change and atrophy in the medial temporal structures of all patients. In the two investigated patients, there was no evidence of chronic HHV6 infection, minimal evidence of cerebral inflammation, and no significant improvement with pulse with intravenous methylprednisolone and immunoglobulin. The severe and generalized seizure, cognitive, and EEG sequelae of HHV6-related PALE in these children may be due to a chronic, viral, or immune-mediated inflammatory process or developmental epileptogenesis resulting from bilateral hippocampal injury at an early age, although there was a paucity of evidence for either.
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Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome is not caused by SCN1A mutations.
Epilepsy Res.
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Two distinctive epileptic encephalopathies, febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) and Dravet syndrome (DS), present with febrile status epilepticus in a normal child followed by refractory focal seizures and cognitive decline although there are differentiating features. Abnormalities of the sodium channel gene SCN1A are found in 75% of DS patients. We found no SCN1A mutations or copy number variants in 10 patients with FIRES. Other genetic etiologies deserve consideration.
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Parathyroid cancer: outcome analysis of 16 patients treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital.
Head Neck
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The purpose of this study was to discuss the appropriate management options for parathyroid carcinomas, which is still a subject of controversy.
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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pegylated interferon lambda-1 in cynomolgus monkeys.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
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Type III lambda interferons (IFNs) have activity similar to type I IFNs, but a more restricted receptor distribution. A pegylated human IFN lambda-1 (pegIFN?) is under development for chronic hepatitis C. Induction of receptor signaling (STAT1 phosphorylation) and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) by pegIFN? were assessed in, respectively, cynomolgus monkey leukocyte subsets and hepatocytes stimulated in vitro. ISG induction by pegIFN? or IFN? was also assessed in peripheral leukocytes and liver biopsies after single and repeat (x3) dosing of pegIFN? (0.03, 0.3, 3.0 mg/kg) or unpegylated IFN?-2b (10(7) IU/kg). Single-dose pharmacokinetics of pegIFN? were evaluated. Strong ISG induction occurred in cultured hepatocytes and liver biopsies with both pegIFN? and IFN?. However, STAT1 phosphorylation, MHC class 1 upregulation, and ISG induction in leukocytes only occurred with IFN?. Serum neopterin was unaffected by pegIFN?; however, ?-2-microglobulin was elevated at all doses. The terminal half-life of pegIFN? was 23 h with a 59 mL/kg volume of distribution, consistent with other pegylated IFNs. Serum exposure was dose-proportional across the dosing range. These data demonstrate the suitability of cynomolgus monkeys for the preclinical evaluation of pegIFN?. Additionally, the absence of pegIFN? pharmacologic activity in leukocytes is consistent with its low receptor expression in blood.
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Temporal eye movement strategies during naturalistic viewing.
J Vis
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The deployment of eye movements to complex spatiotemporal stimuli likely involves a variety of cognitive factors. However, eye movements to movies are surprisingly reliable both within and across observers. We exploited and manipulated that reliability to characterize observers temporal viewing strategies while they viewed naturalistic movies. Introducing cuts and scrambling the temporal order of the resulting clips systematically changed eye movement reliability. We developed a computational model that exhibited this behavior and provided an excellent fit to the measured eye movement reliability. The model assumed that observers searched for, found, and tracked a point of interest and that this process reset when there was a cut. The model did not require that eye movements depend on temporal context in any other way, and it managed to describe eye movements consistently across different observers and two movie sequences. Thus, we found no evidence for the integration of information over long time scales (greater than a second). The results are consistent with the idea that observers employ a simple tracking strategy even while viewing complex, engaging naturalistic stimuli.
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Efficacy and safety of central compartment neck dissection for recurrent thyroid carcinoma.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
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To explore the safety and efficacy of central compartment neck dissection (CCND) in the treatment of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) recurrences in the central compartment of the neck.
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Volume-outcome associations in head & neck cancer treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Head Neck
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Background: Due to the relative rarity of head and neck malignancies and their complex treatment, some groups have advocated for regionalized care. Studies comparing high and low volume centers have demonstrated mixed results. Methods: Systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE including all studies examining a volume-outcome relationship in the treatment of head and neck cancer patients with meta-analysis for long-term survival results. Results: Seventeen studies were identified. Meta-analysis was performed for studies that assessed long term survival. High-volume hospitals (5 studies; HR 0.886 95% CI 0.820-0.956) and high-volume surgeons (2 studies; HR 0.767 95% CI 0.641-0.919) have better overall survival than low-volume hospitals and surgeons, respectively. Conclusions: Volume-outcome associations exist for head and neck oncologic procedures although this has not been fully investigated for salivary gland malignancies. Future quality of care studies in head and neck oncology should focus on processes of care which may explain this relationship. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.