Intrusive memories are highly vivid, emotional and involuntary recollections which cause significant distress across psychological disorders including posttraumatic disorder (PTSD). Recent evidence has potentially extended our understanding of the development of intrusive memories by identifying biological factors which significantly impact on memories for emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigated the role of stress on the development of intrusions for negative and neutral images, and indexed the potential contributions of sex (estrogen and progesterone) and stress (noradrenaline and cortisol) hormones. Whilst viewing the images, half the participants underwent a cold pressor stress (CPS) procedure to induce stress while the control participants immersed their hands in warm water. Saliva samples were collected to index estrogen, progesterone and noradrenergic and cortisol response. Participants (55 university students, 26 men, 29 women) viewed a series of negatively arousing and neutral images. Participants completed recall and intrusions measures 2days later. Negative images resulted in greater recall and more intrusions than neutral images. In the cold water condition females recalled fewer neutral memories than males. Cortisol increase predicted decreased recall of negative memories in males, and estrogen predicted increased intrusions of negative images in women. These findings are consistent with evidence that circulating levels of ovarian hormones influence memory for emotionally arousing events, and provides the first evidence of the influence of sex hormones on intrusive memories. These results provide one possible explanation for the higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women.
We introduce a technique for measuring detection efficiency that is traceable to the primary standard, the cryogenic radiometer, through a reference silicon photodiode trap detector. The trap detector, used in conjunction with a switched integrator amplifier, can measure signals down to the 0.1 pW (3 x 10? photons second-1) level with 0.1% uncertainty in a total integration time of 300 seconds. This provides a convenient calibration standard for measurements at these levels across the optical spectrum (UV - near IR). A second technique is also described, based on correlated photons produced via parametric down-conversion. This can be used to directly measure detection efficiency in the photon counting regime, and provides a route for expanding the formulation of the candela in terms of photon flux to enable it to address the needs of emerging quantum optical technologies and applications. The two independent techniques were cross-validated by a comparison carried out at 702.2 nm, which showed agreement to within 0.2%.
We present a method for using the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference technique to quantify photon indistinguishability within an associated uncertainty. The method allows the relative importance of various experimental factors affecting the HOM visibility to be identified, and enables the actual indistinguishability, with an associated uncertainty, to be estimated from experimentally measured quantities. A measurement equation has been derived that accounts for the non-ideal performance of the interferometer. The origin of each term of the equation is explained, along with procedures for their experimental evaluation and uncertainty estimation. These uncertainties are combined to give an overall uncertainty for the derived photon indistinguishability. The analysis was applied to measurements from an interferometer sourced with photon pairs from a parametric downconversion process. The measured photon indistinguishably was found to be 0.954+/-0.036 by using the prescribed method.
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Nintendo Wii compared to traditional balance therapy in improving balance, motivation, and functional ability in children undergoing acute rehabilitation after brain injury. Methods: A non-concurrent, randomized multiple baseline single-subject research design was used with three participants. Data were analyzed by visual inspection of trend lines. Results: Daily Wii balance training was equally motivating to traditional balance therapy for two participants and more motivating for one participant. While improvements in dynamic balance were observed, the results for static balance remain inconclusive. All participants demonstrated improvements in functional ability. Conclusion: Wii balance therapy is a safe, feasible, and motivating intervention for children undergoing acute rehabilitation after an acquired brain injury. Further research to examine the effectiveness of Wii balance therapy in this population is warranted.
Microinfarcts are a common clinical feature of the aging brain, particularly in patients with cognitive decline or vascular or Alzheimers dementia. However, the natural history of these lesions remains largely unexplored. Here we describe a mouse (C57BL/6J) model of multiple diffuse microinfarcts induced by unilateral internal carotid artery injection of cholesterol crystals (40-70 ?m). Microinfarcts were spread throughout the deep cortex, subcortical tissue, and hippocampus and were comprised of a core positive for CD68 (a marker for reactive microglia and macrophages), surrounded by large regions of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive reactive astrogliosis. Widespread reactive gliosis, including mislocalization of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 persisted long after injury, recovering only after 1 month after stroke. Within the cortex, neuronal cell death progressed gradually over the first month, from ?35% at 3 d to 60% at 28 d after stroke. Delayed demyelination was also observed in lesions, beginning 28 d after stroke. These findings demonstrate that microinfarct development follows a distinct course compared to larger regional infarcts such as those induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. The long-lasting gliosis, delayed neuronal loss, and demyelination suggest that the therapeutic window for microinfarcts may be much wider (perhaps days to weeks) than for larger strokes.
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