Adenosine kinase (ADK) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was selected as a target for design of antimycobacterial nucleosides. Screening of 7-(het)aryl-7-deazaadenine ribonucleosides with Mtb and human (h) ADKs and testing with wild-type and drug-resistant Mtb strains identified specific inhibitors of Mtb ADK with micromolar antimycobacterial activity and low cytotoxicity. X-ray structures of complexes of Mtb and hADKs with 7-ethynyl-7-deazaadenosine showed differences in inhibitor interactions in the adenosine binding sites. 1D (1)H STD NMR experiments revealed that these inhibitors are readily accommodated into the ATP and adenosine binding sites of Mtb ADK, whereas they bind preferentially into the adenosine site of hADK. Occupation of the Mtb ADK ATP site with inhibitors and formation of catalytically less competent semiopen conformation of MtbADK after inhibitor binding in the adenosine site explain the lack of phosphorylation of 7-substituted-7-deazaadenosines. Semiempirical quantum mechanical analysis confirmed different affinity of nucleosides for the Mtb ADK adenosine and ATP sites.
This work describes novel in vitro inhibitors of human mitochondrial (mdN) and cytosolic (cdN) 5'(3')-deoxynucleotidases. We designed a series of derivatives of the lead compound (S)-1-[2-deoxy-3,5-O-(phosphonobenzylidene)-?-d-threo-pentofuranosyl]thymine bearing various substituents in the para position of the benzylidene moiety. Detailed kinetic study revealed that certain para substituents increase the inhibitory potency (iodo derivative; K = 2.71 ?M) and some induce a shift in selectivity toward cdN (carboxy derivative, K = 11.60 ?M; iodoxy derivative, K = 6.60 ?M). Crystal structures of mdN in complex with three of these compounds revealed that various para substituents lead to two alternative inhibitor binding modes within the enzyme active site. Two binding modes were also identified for cdN complexes by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy.
In nonmammalian vertebrates, the functional units of hemostasis are thrombocytes. Thrombocytes are thought to arise from bipotent thrombocytic/erythroid progenitors (TEPs). TEPs have been experimentally demonstrated in avian models of hematopoiesis, and mammals possess functional equivalents known as megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (MEPs). However, the presence of TEPs in teleosts has only been speculated. To identify and prospectively isolate TEPs, we identified, cloned, and generated recombinant zebrafish thrombopoietin (Tpo). Tpo mRNA expanded itga2b:GFP(+) (cd41:GFP(+)) thrombocytes as well as hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the zebrafish embryo. Utilizing Tpo in clonal methylcellulose assays, we describe for the first time the prospective isolation and characterization of TEPs from transgenic zebrafish. Combinatorial use of zebrafish Tpo, erythropoietin, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf) allowed the investigation of HSPCs responsible for erythro-, myelo-, and thrombo-poietic differentiation. Utilizing these assays allowed the visualization and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo in real-time with time-lapse and high-throughput microscopy, allowing analyses of their clonogenic and proliferative capacity. These studies indicate that the functional role of Tpo in the differentiation of thrombocytes from HSPCs is well conserved among vertebrate organisms, positing the zebrafish as an excellent model to investigate diseases caused by dysregulated erythro- and thrombo-poietic differentiation.
We report enzymologic, thermodynamic and structural analyses of a series of six clinically derived mutant HIV proteases (PR) resistant to darunavir. As many as 20 mutations in the resistant PRs decreased the binding affinity of darunavir by up to 13 000-fold, mostly because of a less favorable enthalpy of binding that was only partially compensated by the entropic contribution. X-ray structure analysis suggested that the drop in enthalpy of darunavir binding to resistant PR species was mostly the result of a decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds and a loosening of the fit between the inhibitor and the mutated enzymes. The favorable entropic contribution to darunavir binding to mutated PR variants correlated with a larger burial of the nonpolar solvent-accessible surface area upon inhibitor binding. We show that even very dramatic changes in the PR sequence leading to the loss of hydrogen bonds with the inhibitor could be partially compensated by the entropy contribution as a result of the burial of the larger nonpolar surface area of the mutated HIV PRs.
Carborane-based compounds are promising lead structures for development of inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Here, we report structural and computational analysis applicable to structure-based design of carborane compounds with selectivity toward the cancer-specific CAIX isoenzyme. We determined the crystal structure of CAII in complex with 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane at 1.0?Å resolution and used this structure to model the 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane interactions with CAIX. A virtual glycine scan revealed the contributions of individual residues to the energy of binding of 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane to CAII and CAIX, respectively.
Abstract Human mitochondrial 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase (mdN) catalyzes dephosphorylation of nucleoside monophosphates, and thus helps maintain homeostasis of deoxynucleosides required for mitochondrial DNA synthesis. Mature mdN is a 23-kDa dimeric protein with highest expression levels in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle. We have identified an alternative splice variant of the mdN gene containing an 18-nucleotide insertion encoding 6 amino acids (GKWPAT) at the 3'-end of the penultimate exon 4. We recombinantly expressed this enzyme variant and characterized its biochemical and kinetic properties as well as its three-dimensional structure. Our high-resolution (1.27?Å) crystal structure revealed that the insertion forms a loop located in the vicinity of the active site pocket and affects enzyme kinetic parameters as well as protein thermal stability.
The human 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidases catalyze the dephosphorylation of deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates to the corresponding deoxyribonucleosides and thus help to maintain the balance between pools of nucleosides and nucleotides. Here, the structures of human cytosolic deoxyribonucleotidase (cdN) at atomic resolution (1.08?Å) and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleotidase (mdN) at near-atomic resolution (1.4?Å) are reported. The attainment of an atomic resolution structure allowed interatomic distances to be used to assess the probable protonation state of the phosphate anion and the side chains in the enzyme active site. A detailed comparison of the cdN and mdN active sites allowed the design of a cdN-specific inhibitor.
Insertions in the protease (PR) region of HIV represent an interesting mechanism of antiviral resistance against HIV PR inhibitors (PIs). We analyzed the capability of GS-8374, a phosphonate-containing experimental HIV PI, to inhibit replication of patient-derived recombinant HIV strains bearing insertions and numerous other mutations in the PR region; correlated enzyme inhibition with the catalytic activities of corresponding recombinant PRs in vitro; and provided biochemical and structural analysis of the PR-inhibitor complex.Insertions in the protease (PR) region of HIV represent an interesting mechanism of antiviral resistance against HIV PR inhibitors (PIs). Here, we demonstrated improved ability of a phosphonate-containing experimental HIV PI GS-8374 relative to other PIs to effectively inhibit patient-derived recombinant HIV strains bearing PR insertions and numerous other mutations. We correlated enzyme inhibition with the catalytic activities of corresponding recombinant PRs in vitro and provided biochemical and structural analysis of the PR-inhibitor complex.
The crystal structures of two novel carborane-sulfamide inhibitors in the complex with human carbonic anhydrase II (hCAII) have been studied using QM/MM calculations. Even though both complexes possess the strongly interacting sulfamide···zinc ion motif, the calculations have revealed the different nature of binding of the carborane parts of the inhibitors. The neutral closo-carborane cage was bound to hCAII mainly via dispersion interactions and formed only very weak dihydrogen bonds. On the contrary, the monoanionic nido cage interacted with the protein mainly via electrostatic interactions. It formed short and strong dihydrogen bonds (stabilization of up to 4.2 kcal/mol; H···H distances of 1.7 Å) with the polar hydrogen of protein NH2 groups. This type of binding is unique among all of the classical organic and inorganic inhibitors of hCAII. Virtual glycine scanning allowed us to identify the amino-acid side chains, which made important contributions to ligand-binding energies. In summary, using QM/MM calculations, we have provided a detailed understanding of the differences between the interactions of two carborane sulfamides, identified the amino acids of hCAII with which they interact, and thus paved the way for the computer-aided rational design of selective boron-cluster-containing hCAII inhibitors.
CA inhibitors: Human carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Various carborane cages are shown to act as active-site-directed inhibitors, and substitution with a sulfamide group and other substituents leads to compounds with high selectivity towards the cancer-specific isozyme?IX. Crystal structures of the carboranes in the active site provide information that can be applied to the structure-based design of specific inhibitors.
The Escherichia coli protein WrbA, an FMN-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, was crystallized under new conditions in the presence of FAD or the native cofactor FMN. Slow-growing deep yellow crystals formed with FAD display the tetragonal bipyramidal shape typical for WrbA and diffract to 1.2?Å resolution, the highest yet reported. Faster-growing deep yellow crystals formed with FMN display an atypical shape, but diffract to only ?1.6?Å resolution and are not analysed further here. The 1.2?Å resolution structure detailed here revealed only FMN in the active site and no electron density that can accommodate the missing parts of FAD. The very high resolution supports the modelling of the FMN isoalloxazine with a small but distinct propeller twist, apparently the first experimental observation of this predicted conformation, which appears to be enforced by the protein through a network of hydrogen bonds. Comparison of the electron density of the twisted isoalloxazine ring with the results of QM/MM simulations is compatible with the oxidized redox state. The very high resolution also supports the unique refinement of Met10 as the sulfoxide, confirmed by mass spectrometry. Bond lengths, intramolecular distances, and the pattern of hydrogen-bond donors and acceptors suggest the cofactor may interact with Met10. Slow incorporation of FMN, which is present as a trace contaminant in stocks of FAD, into growing crystals may be responsible for the near-atomic resolution, but a direct effect of the conformation of FMN and/or Met10 sulfoxide cannot be ruled out.
A series of 2,9-substituted 6-guanidinopurines, structurally related to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors olomoucine and roscovitine, has been synthesized and characterized. A new copper-catalyzed method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 6-guanidino-9-isopropylpurines under mild reaction conditions has been developed. All prepared compounds were screened for their CDK1 and CDK2 inhibitory activities, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects in the breast cancer-derived cell line MCF7. The most active derivative 16g possessed an identical side chain in the C2 position to roscovitine; this compound displayed approximately five fold higher inhibitory activity towards CDK2/cyclin E and more than ten fold increase in cytotoxicity in MCF7 cells. Interestingly and in contrast to previously described findings, (S)-6-guanidinopurine derivatives were generally more active than their (R)-counterparts. Kinase selectivity profiling of (R)- and (S)-enantiomers 16e and 16g, respectively, revealed that introduction of a guanidino group at the C6 position of the purine moiety decreased selectivity towards protein kinases compared to roscovitine. Nevertheless, increased inhibitory activity and decreased selectivity offer a good starting point for further development of new protein kinase inhibitors.
Secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) are extracellular proteolytic enzymes that enhance the virulence of Candida pathogens. These enzymes therefore represent possible targets for therapeutic drug design. Saps are inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of the classical inhibitor of aspartic proteases pepstatin A and also by the inhibitors of the HIV protease, but with the K(i) of micromolar values or higher. To contribute to the discussion regarding whether HIV protease inhibitors can act against opportunistic mycoses by the inhibition of Saps, we determined the structure of Sapp1p from Candida parapsilosis in complex with ritonavir (RTV), a clinically used inhibitor of the HIV protease. The crystal structure refined at resolution 2.4 Å proved binding of RTV into the active site of Sapp1p and provided the structural information necessary to evaluate the stability and specificity of the protein-inhibitor interaction.
Schistosomiasis caused by a parasitic blood fluke of the genus Schistosoma afflicts over 200 million people worldwide. Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1) is a gut-associated peptidase that digests host blood proteins as a source of nutrients. It is under investigation as a drug target. To further this goal, we report three crystal structures of SmCB1 complexed with peptidomimetic inhibitors as follows: the epoxide CA074 at 1.3 ? resolution and the vinyl sulfones K11017 and K11777 at 1.8 and 2.5 ? resolutions, respectively. Interactions of the inhibitors with the subsites of the active-site cleft were evaluated by quantum chemical calculations. These data and inhibition profiling with a panel of vinyl sulfone derivatives identify key binding interactions and provide insight into the specificity of SmCB1 inhibition. Furthermore, hydrolysis profiling of SmCB1 using synthetic peptides and the natural substrate hemoglobin revealed that carboxydipeptidase activity predominates over endopeptidolysis, thereby demonstrating the contribution of the occluding loop that restricts access to the active-site cleft. Critically, the severity of phenotypes induced in the parasite by vinyl sulfone inhibitors correlated with enzyme inhibition, providing support that SmCB1 is a valuable drug target. The present structure and inhibitor interaction data provide a footing for the rational design of anti-schistosomal inhibitors.
Thioredoxin reductases are homodimeric flavoenzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxidized thioredoxin substrate. Bacterial thioredoxin reductases represent a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. Recombinant thioredoxin reductase TrxB from Streptomyces coelicolor was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals to 2.4?Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 82.9, b = 60.6, c = 135.4?Å, ? = ? = 90.0, ? = 96.5°.
Isoquinolinesulfonamides inhibit human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs) and display selectivity toward therapeutically relevant isozymes. The crystal structure of hCA II in complex with 6,7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ylsulfonamide revealed unusual inhibitor binding. Structural analyses allowed for discerning the fine details of the inhibitor binding mode to the active site, thus providing clues for the future design of even more selective inhibitors for druggable isoforms such as the cancer associated hCA IX and neuronal hCA VII.
Fungal ?-N-acetylhexosaminidases are enzymes that are used in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of biologically interesting oligosaccharides. The enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae was produced and purified from its natural source and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction data from two crystal forms (primitive monoclinic and primitive tetragonal) were collected to resolutions of 3.2 and 2.4?Å, respectively. Electrophoretic and quantitative N-terminal protein-sequencing analyses confirmed that the crystals are formed by a complete biologically active enzyme consisting of a glycosylated catalytic unit and a noncovalently attached propeptide.
Galectin-4, a member of the tandem-repeat subfamily of galectins, participates in cell-membrane interactions and plays an important role in cell adhesion and modulation of immunity and malignity. The oligosaccharide specificity of the mouse galectin-4 carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) has been reported previously. In this work, the structure and binding properties of the N-terminal domain CRD1 were further investigated and the crystal structure of CRD1 in complex with lactose was determined at 2.1?Å resolution. The lactose-binding affinity was characterized by fluorescence measurements and two lactose-binding sites were identified: a high-affinity site with a K(d) value in the micromolar range (K(d1) = 600 ± 70?µM) and a low-affinity site with K(d2) = 28 ± 10?mM.
Haloalkane dehalogenases make up an important class of hydrolytic enzymes which catalyse the cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds in halogenated aliphatic compounds. There is growing interest in these enzymes owing to their potential use in environmental and industrial applications. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 can slowly detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Structural analysis of this enzyme complexed with target ligands was conducted in order to obtain detailed information about the structural limitations of its catalytic properties. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of complexes of wild-type DhaA with 2-propanol and with TCP and of complexes of the catalytically inactive variant DhaA13 with the dye coumarin and with TCP are described. The crystals of wild-type DhaA were plate-shaped and belonged to the triclinic space group P1, while the variant DhaA13 can form prism-shaped crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) as well as plate-shaped crystals belonging to the triclinic space group P1. Diffraction data for crystals of wild-type DhaA grown from crystallization solutions with different concentrations of 2-propanol were collected to 1.70 and 1.26?Å resolution, respectively. A prism-shaped crystal of DhaA13 complexed with TCP and a plate-shaped crystal of the same variant complexed with the dye coumarin diffracted X-rays to 1.60 and 1.33?Å resolution, respectively. A crystal of wild-type DhaA and a plate-shaped crystal of DhaA13, both complexed with TCP, diffracted to atomic resolutions of 1.04 and 0.97?Å, respectively.
FOXO4 is a member of the FOXO subgroup of forkhead transcription factors that constitute key components of a conserved signalling pathway that connects growth and stress signals to transcriptional control. Here, the 1.9?Å resolution crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of human FOXO4 (FOXO4-DBD) bound to a 13?bp DNA duplex containing a FOXO consensus binding sequence is reported. The structure shows a similar recognition of the core sequence as has been shown for two other FOXO proteins. Helix H3 is docked into the major groove and provides all of the base-specific contacts, while the N-terminus and wing W1 make additional contacts with the phosphate groups of DNA. In contrast to other FOXO-DBD-DNA structures, the loop between helices H2 and H3 has a different conformation and participates in DNA binding. In addition, the structure of the FOXO4-DBD-DNA complex suggests that both direct water-DNA base contacts and the unique water-network interactions contribute to FOXO-DBD binding to the DNA in a sequence-specific manner.
The saliva of blood-feeding parasites is a rich source of peptidase inhibitors that help to overcome the hosts defence during host-parasite interactions. Using proteomic analysis, the cystatin OmC2 was demonstrated in the saliva of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata, an important disease vector transmitting African swine fever virus and the spirochaete Borrelia duttoni. A structural, biochemical and biological characterization of this peptidase inhibitor was undertaken in the present study. Recombinant OmC2 was screened against a panel of physiologically relevant peptidases and was found to be an effective broad-specificity inhibitor of cysteine cathepsins, including endopeptidases (cathepsins L and S) and exopeptidases (cathepsins B, C and H). The crystal structure of OmC2 was determined at a resolution of 2.45 A (1 A=0.1 nm) and was used to describe the structure-inhibitory activity relationship. The biological impact of OmC2 was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. OmC2 affected the function of antigen-presenting mouse dendritic cells by reducing the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-12, and proliferation of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells. This suggests that OmC2 may suppress the hosts adaptive immune response. Immunization of mice with OmC2 significantly suppressed the survival of O. moubata in infestation experiments. We conclude that OmC2 is a promising target for the development of a novel anti-tick vaccine to control O. moubata populations and combat the spread of associated diseases.
IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus belongs to the serpin family of protease inhibitors. It is produced in the salivary glands of the tick and its anti-inflammatory activity suggests that it plays a role in parasite-host interaction. Recombinant IRS-2 prepared by heterologous expression in a bacterial system was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive tetragonal space group P4(3) and diffracted to 1.8?Å resolution. Mass-spectrometric and electrophoretic analyses revealed that IRS-2 was cleaved by contaminating proteases during crystallization. This processing of IRS-2 mimicked the specific cleavage of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form (the so-called relaxed conformation), which produced well diffracting crystals. Activity profiling with specific substrates and inhibitors demonstrated traces of serine and cysteine proteases in the protein stock solution.
Following previous studies we herein report the exploration of the carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 22.214.171.124) inhibitory effects and enzyme selectivity of a small class of 1-(cyclo)alkylisoquinolines containing a sulfonamide function considered a key feature for inhibiting CA. The results of enzymatic assays against human (h) CA isoforms, hCA I and hCA II (cytosolic, ubiquitous enzymes), hCA IX (transmembrane, tumor-associated), and hCA XIV (transmembrane), suggested that the presence of C-1 small substituents on isoquinoline scaffold controls both inhibitory potency and selectivity. Some derivatives showed potent hCA IX and hCA XIV inhibitory effects at nanomolar concentrations as well as low affinity for the ubiquitous hCA II. Moreover, we report the X-ray crystal structure of one of these derivatives in complex with dominant human isoform II, thus confirming the sulfonamide--zinc interactions. Finally, the results of docking experiments suggested the hypothetic interactions in the catalytic binding site for the most active and selective hCA IX and hCA XIV inhibitor.
HIV protease (HIV PR) is a primary target for anti-HIV drug design. We have previously identified and characterized substituted metallacarboranes as a new class of HIV protease inhibitors. In a structure-guided drug design effort, we connected the two cobalt bis(dicarbollide) clusters with a linker to substituted ammonium group and obtained a set of compounds based on a lead formula [H(2)N-(8-(C(2)H(4)O)(2)-1,2-C(2)B(9)H(10))(1,2-C(2)B(9)H(11))-3,3-Co)(2)]Na. We explored inhibition properties of these compounds with various substitutions, determined the HIV PR:inhibitor crystal structure, and computationally explored the conformational space of the linker. Our results prove the capacity of linker-substituted dual-cage cobalt bis(dicarbollides) as lead compounds for design of more potent inhibitors of HIV PR.
The rigid duplex cyclodextrin 6 composed of two alpha-cyclodextrin macrocycles connected with two disulfide bonds in "transannular" (C6(I), C6(IV)) positions was prepared from partially debenzylated alpha-cyclodextrin 1 in four steps in 73% overall yield. In the last key step involving oxidative coupling of the thiol 5, predominance of the target duplex 6 can be attained under conditions of thermodynamic control. The structure of duplex cyclodextrin was established by MS as well as 2-D NMR methods and confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray analysis. The ability of the duplex cyclodextrin 6 to bind alpha,omega-alkanediols (C9-C14) and 1-alkanols (C9 and C10) was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry in aqueous solutions. The stability constants of the complexes gradually increase with the alkyl chain length and reach an unprecedently high value of K = 8.6 x 10(9) M(-1) for 1,14-tetradecanediol. It was found that the doubly bridged dimer 6 exhibits higher binding affinity toward the series of alpha,omega-alkanediols than the singly bridged analogue 10 by about 2 orders of magnitude in K (M(-1)) or 3.1-3.3 kcal/mol in deltaG(o), the enhancement being due to enthalpic factors. Theoretical calculations using DFT-D methods suggest that the enthalpic contribution stems from dispersion interactions.
Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from betaine to l-homocysteine, yielding dimethylglycine and l-methionine. In this study, we prepared a new series of BHMT inhibitors. The inhibitors were designed to mimic the hypothetical transition state of BHMT substrates and consisted of analogues with NH, N(CH(3)), or N(CH(3))(2) groups separated from the homocysteine sulfur atom by a methylene, ethylene, or a propylene spacer. Only the inhibitor with the N(CH(3)) moiety and ethylene spacer gave moderate inhibition. This result led us to prepare two inhibitors lacking a nitrogen atom in the S-linked alkyl chain: (RS,RS)-5-(3-amino-3-carboxypropylthio)-3-methylpentanoic acid and (RS)-5-(3-amino-3-carboxypropylthio)-3,3-dimethylpentanoic acid. Both of these compounds were highly potent inhibitors of BHMT. The finding that BHMT does not tolerate a true betaine mimic within these inhibitors, especially the nitrogen atom, is surprising and evokes questions about putative conformational changes of BHMT upon the binding of the substrates/products and inhibitors.
Darunavir is the most recently approved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease (PR) inhibitor (PI) and is active against many HIV type 1 PR variants resistant to earlier-generation PIs. Darunavir shows a high genetic barrier to resistance development, and virus strains with lower sensitivity to darunavir have a higher number of PI resistance-associated mutations than viruses resistant to other PIs. In this work, we have enzymologically and structurally characterized a number of highly mutated clinically derived PRs with high levels of phenotypic resistance to darunavir. With 18 to 21 amino acid residue changes, the PR variants studied in this work are the most highly mutated HIV PR species ever studied by means of enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography. The recombinant proteins showed major defects in substrate binding, while the substrate turnover was less affected. Remarkably, the overall catalytic efficiency of the recombinant PRs (5% that of the wild-type enzyme) is still sufficient to support polyprotein processing and particle maturation in the corresponding viruses. The X-ray structures of drug-resistant PRs complexed with darunavir suggest that the impaired inhibitor binding could be explained by change in the PR-inhibitor hydrogen bond pattern in the P2 binding pocket due to a substantial shift of the aminophenyl moiety of the inhibitor. Recombinant virus phenotypic characterization, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray structural analysis thus help to explain darunavir resistance development in HIV-positive patients.
Two previously reported holoprotein crystal forms of the flavodoxin-like E. coli protein WrbA, diffracting to 2.6 and 2.0 A resolution, and new crystals of WrbA apoprotein diffracting to 1.85 A, are refined and analysed comparatively through the lens of flavodoxin structures. The results indicate that differences between apo- and holoWrbA crystal structures are manifested on many levels of protein organization as well as in the FMN-binding sites. Evaluation of the influence of crystal contacts by comparison of lattice packing reveals the proteins global response to FMN binding. Structural changes upon cofactor binding are compared with the monomeric flavodoxins. Topologically non-equivalent residues undergo remarkably similar local structural changes upon FMN binding to WrbA or to flavodoxin, despite differences in multimeric organization and residue types at the binding sites. Analysis of the three crystal structures described here, together with flavodoxin structures, rationalizes functional similarities and differences of the WrbAs relative to flavodoxins, leading to a new understanding of the defining features of WrbAs. The results suggest that WrbAs are not a remote and unusual branch of the flavodoxin family as previously thought but rather a central member with unifying structural features.
A novel enzyme, DbeA, belonging to the haloalkane dehalogenase family (EC 126.96.36.199) was isolated from Bradyrhizobium elkani USDA94. This haloalkane dehalogenase is closely related to the DbjA enzyme from B. japonicum USDA110 (71% sequence identity), but has different biochemical properties. DbeA is generally less active and has a higher specificity towards brominated and iodinated compounds than DbjA. In order to understand the altered activity and specificity of DbeA, its mutant variant DbeA1, which carries the unique fragment of DbjA, was also constructed. Both wild-type DbeA and DbeA1 were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of DbeA belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), while the crystals of DbeA1 belonged to the monoclinic space group C2. Diffraction data were collected to 2.2 A resolution for both DbeA and DbeA1 crystals.
Opportunistic pathogens of the genus Candida cause infections representing a major threat to long-term survival of immunocompromised patients. Virulence of the Candida pathogens is enhanced by production of extracellular proteolytic enzymes and secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) are therefore studied as potential virulence factors and possible targets for therapeutic drug design. Candida parapsilosis is less invasive than C. albicans, however, it is one of the leading causative agents of yeast infections. We report three-dimensional crystal structure of Sapp1p from C. parapsilosis in complex with pepstatin A, the classical inhibitor of aspartic proteases. The structure of Sapp1p was determined from protein isolated from its natural source and represents the first structure of Sap from C. parapsilosis. Overall fold and topology of Sapp1p is very similar to the archetypic fold of monomeric aspartic protease family and known structures of Sap isoenzymes from C. albicans and Sapt1p from C. tropicalis. Structural comparison revealed noticeable differences in the structure of loops surrounding the active site. This resulted in differential character, shape, and size of the substrate binding site explaining divergent substrate specificities and inhibitor affinities. Determination of structures of Sap isoenzymes from various species might contribute to the development of new Sap-specific inhibitors.
HIV protease is a primary target for the design of virostatics. Screening of libraries of non-peptide low molecular weight compounds led to the identification of several new compounds that inhibit HIV PR in the low micromolar range. X-ray structure of the complex of one of them, a dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazepinone derivative, showed that two molecules of the inhibitor bind to the PR active site. Covalent linkage of two molecules of such a compound by a two-carbon linker led to a decrease of the inhibition constant of the resulting compound by 3 orders of magnitude. Molecular modeling shows that these dimeric inhibitors form two crucial hydrogen bonds to the catalytic aspartates that are responsible for their improved activity compared to the monomeric parental building blocks. Dibenzo[b,e][1,4]diazepinone analogues might represent a potential new class of HIV PIs.
A series of arylsulfonamides has been synthesized and investigated for the inhibition of some selected human carbonic anhydrase isoforms. The studied compounds showed significant inhibitory effects in the nanomolar range toward druggable isoforms (hCA VII, hCA IX, and hCA XIV) (K(i) values from 4.8 to 61.7 nM), whereas they generally exhibited significant selectivity over hCA I and hCA II, that are ubiquitous and considered off-target isoforms. On the basis of biochemical data, we herein discussed structure-affinity relationships for this series of arylsulfonamides, suggesting a key role for alkoxy substituents in CA inhibition. Furthermore, X-ray crystal structures of complexes of two active inhibitors (I and 2a) with hCA II allowed us to elucidate the main interactions between the inhibitor and specific amino acid residues within the catalytic site.
Cytosolic dNT-1 nucleotidase plays a key role in the homeostasis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides in mammalian cells. The enzyme is responsible for the dephosphorylation of physiological substrates as well as nucleoside analogues that are used in antiviral and anticancer therapies, therefore selective inhibition of the dNT-1 nucleotidase activity may lead to an increase in efficacy of this type of therapeutic compounds. Here, we report the backbone (1)H, (13)C and (15)N assignments for the 47 kDa dNT-1 dimer, which will be used for structural characterisation of dNT-1 complexes with small molecule inhibitors obtained through modification of pyrimidine nucleotide scaffolds or optimisation of successful binders obtained from the screening of fragment libraries.
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