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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles derived from natural materials of mango fruit for bio-imaging probes.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Water soluble fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCP) obtained from a single natural source, mango fruit, were developed as unique materials for non-toxic bio-imaging with different colors and particle sizes. The prepared FCPs showed blue (FCP-B), green (FCP-G) and yellow (FCP-Y) fluorescence, derived by the controlled carbonization method. The FCPs demonstrated hydrodynamic diameters of 5-15 nm, holding great promise for clinical applications. The biocompatible FCPs demonstrated great potential in biological fields through the results of in vitro imaging and in vivo biodistribution. Using intravenously administered FCPs with different colored particles, we precisely defined the clearance and biodistribution, showing rapid and efficient urinary excretion for safe elimination from the body. These findings therefore suggest the promising possibility of using natural sources for producing fluorescent materials.
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Self-assembled proteinticle nanostructures for 3-dimensional display of antibodies.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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"Proteinticle" is a nano-scale protein particle that is self-assembled inside cells with constant 3D structure and surface topology. The binding of IgG to the B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB) molecules that are genetically inserted on the surface of proteinticle enables the variable domains of bound IgG to be well oriented to effectively capture antigens, accordingly forming a highly sensitive 3D IgG probe. The five different proteinticles that originate from humans, bacteria, and virus and totally differ in size, shape, and surface structure were used for the surface display of SPAB. The dissociation constant (KD) in the binding of IgG to SPAB on the proteinticle surface was estimated based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model: KD was 1-3 orders-of-magnitude lower compared to the previously reported KD in the binding of IgG to Staphylococcal protein A. The surface density and distribution of SPAB and especially the existence of hot (or highly congested) spots of SPAB, which depend on the surface structure and the number of subunits as well as size and shape of proteinticle, is of crucial importance for the effective binding of IgG to SPAB on proteinticles. Although the five different proteinticles were demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, SPAB-mediated immobilization of IgG on the other proteinticles would be very useful for the fabrication of sensitive 3D immunoassay platforms.
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Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer.
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Identification of a novel ARL13B variant in a Joubert syndrome-affected patient with retinal impairment and obesity.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Joubert syndrome (JS) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive ciliopathy with 22 genes implicated to date, including a small, ciliary GTPase, ARL13B. ARL13B is required for cilia formation in vertebrates. JS patients display multiple symptoms characterized by ataxia due to the cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, and that can also include ocular abnormalities, renal cysts, liver fibrosis or polydactyly. These symptoms are shared with other ciliopathies, some of which display additional phenotypes, such as obesity. Here we identified a novel homozygous missense variant in ARL13B/JBTS8 in a JS patient who displayed retinal defects and obesity. We demonstrate the variant disrupts ARL13B function, as its expression did not rescue the mutant phenotype either in Arl13b(scorpion) zebrafish or in Arl13b(hennin) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, while the wild-type ARL13B did. Finally, we show that ARL13B is localized within the primary cilia of neonatal mouse hypothalamic neurons consistent with the known link between hypothalamic ciliary function and obesity. Thus our data identify a novel ARL13B variant that causes JS and retinopathy and suggest an extension of the phenotypic spectrum of ARL13B mutations to obesity.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.156.
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A case of generalized varicelliform eruption after herpes zoster oticus.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To report the case of a healthy man with a previously unreported combination of generalized varicelliform eruption and herpes zoster oticus.
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A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and multicenter trial of prophylactic effects of ramosetronon postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after craniotomy: comparison with ondansetron.
BMC Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Craniotomy patients have a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-center study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic ramosetron in preventing PONV compared with ondansetron after elective craniotomy in adult patients.
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A dip-stick type biosensor using bioluminescent bacteria encapsulated in color-coded alginate microbeads for detection of water toxicity.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The use of genetically engineered bioluminescent bacteria, in which bioluminescence is induced by different modes of toxic action, represents an alternative to acute toxicity tests using living aquatic organisms (plants, vertebrates, or invertebrates) in an aqueous environment. A number of these bacterial strains have been developed, but there have been no attempts to develop a hand-held type of biosensor for monitoring or identification of toxicity. We report a facile dip-stick type biosensor using genetically engineered bioluminescent bacteria as a new platform for classification and identification of toxicity in water environments. This dip-stick type biosensor is composed of eight different optically color-coded functional alginate beads that each encapsulates a different bioluminescent bacterial strain and its corresponding fluorescent microbead. These color-coded microbeads exhibit easy identification of encapsulated microbeads, since each microbead has a different color code depending on the bioluminescent bacterial strain contained and improved cell-stability compared to liquid culture. This dip-stick type biosensor can discriminate different modes of toxic actions (i.e. DNA damage, oxidative damage, cell-membrane damage, or protein damage) of sample water tested by simply dipping the stick into the water samples. It was found that each color-coded microbead emitted distinct bioluminescence, and each dip-stick type biosensor showed different bioluminescence patterns within 2 hours, depending on the toxic chemicals contained in LB medium, tap water, or river water samples. This dip-stick type biosensor can, therefore, be widely and practically used in checking toxicity of water in the environment primarily in situ, possibly indicating the status of biodiversity.
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Chronic cholesterol depletion by lovastatin suppresses MUC5AC gene expression in human airway epithelial cells.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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We recently showed that acute cholesterol depletion in the plasma membrane of NCI-H292 cells by methyl-?-cyclodextrin suppressed IL-1beta-induced MUC5AC gene expression. Because cholesterol depletion is clinically used as an antihypersecretory method, chronic cholesterol depletion by lovastatin is more rational and safe than acute depletion. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether chronic cholesterol depletion by lovastatin is feasible and, if so, suppresses the expression of GMUC5AC in NCI-H292 cells. We also considered whether this alteration of MUC5AC expression is related to IL-1 receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity.
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Implementation of a Two-dimensional Behavior Matrix to Distinguish Individuals with Differential Depression States in a Rodent Model of Depression.
Exp Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Animal models of depression are used to study pathophysiology of depression and to advance therapeutic strategies. Stress-induced depression models in rodents are widely used. However, amenable behavioral criteria and experimental procedures that are suitable for animal models have not been established. Given that depression is clinically diagnosed by multiple symptomatic criteria and stress effects are imposed to the brain non-specifically in stress-induced depression models, analyses of depression states in rodents using multiple symptomatic criteria may provide more power than any methods relying on a single symptomatic criterion. To address this, C57BL/6 inbred mice were restrained for 2 h daily for 14 d, and depression states of individual mice were assessed using the U-field test, behavioral assessment developed to measure animal's sociability, and the tail suspension test and/or forced swim test, which are the typical methods that measure psychomotor withdrawal states. Although the majority of these mice showed severe depressive behaviors in both tests, a significant proportion of them, which were all inbred mice and received the same amount of restraints, expressed differential depression states in the sociability test and psychomotor withdrawal tests. To easily read-out differential depression states of individuals in two different tests, a standard method and basic parameters required to construct two-way behavior matrix were introduced. The utility and features of this two-way behavior analysis method for studies of different depressive states of individuals were discussed.
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A solitary malignant schwannoma in the choana and nasal septum.
Case Rep Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Malignant schwannoma is an extremely rare tumor and the risk of malignant schwannoma increases in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease. Recently, we encountered a case of solitary malignant schwannoma in the choana and posterior nasal septum. Malignant schwannoma has not been previously reported in these locations. A 53-year-old man, who was immunologically healthy and showed no abnormal dermatological lesions, presented with a polypoid mass in the right nasal cavity and underwent endoscopic mass excision. The mass originated from the choana and the posterior portion of the right nasal septum. This mass was confirmed as a malignant schwannoma on histological examination and immunohistochemical staining. After endoscopic excision, postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was administered, and there was no recurrence at 1 year after treatment. This case suggests that a solitary malignant schwannoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mass in the posterior nasal cavity.
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Effects of Asiasari radix on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the gingiva.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Medicinal herbs used in traditional Oriental medicine, which have been in use clinically for thousands of years, are attractive sources of novel therapeutics or preventatives. Asiasari radix (A. radix) has been suggested for use in the treatment of dental diseases, including toothache and aphthous stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. radix extracts on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from the gingiva. An Asiasarum heterotropoides extract was centrifuged and freeze-dried in a lyophilizer. Stem cells derived from the gingiva were grown in the presence of A. radix at concentrations ranging between 0.1 µg/ml and 1 mg/ml (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 µg/ml). Cell morphology was evaluated with an optical microscope and the viability of the cells was quantitatively analyzed with a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay for up to seven days. The untreated control group exhibited normal fibroblast morphology. The shapes of the cells following 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml A. radix treatments were similar to those of the control group. However, a significant change was noted in the 1,000 µg/ml group on day 1, when compared with the untreated group. Furthermore, on day 7, the shapes of the cells following 100 and 1,000 µg/ml A. radix treatments were rounder and fewer cells were present, when compared with those of the control group. The cultures that grew in the presence of A. radix did not exhibit any changes in the CCK?8 assay on day 2; however, significant reductions in cell viability were noticed following 100 and 1,000 µg/ml A. radix treatment on days 5 and 7. Within the limits of this study, A. radix influenced the viability of the stem cells derived from the gingiva. Thus, the direct application of A. radix to oral tissues may produce adverse effects at high doses. Therefore, the concentration and application time of A. radix requires meticulous control to obtain optimal results. These effects require consideration, if the use of A. radix is planned for the treatment of dental diseases.
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Studies on distribution of ?1-antitrypsin, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and mast cell enzymes in diseased middle ear mucosa.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Antimicrobial agents (AMAs) and mast cells in chronic otitis media (COM) may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of COM. Among them, our results indicated that lysozyme may be the most important parameter of the mucosa infectivity in COM.
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Lipofibromatous hamartoma of a cranial nerve.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Lipofibromatous hamartomas (LFHs) are rare benign tumors that typically present as slow-growing firm masses in the subcutaneous soft tissue of the extremities. These often develop in young adults on the volar aspects of the hands, wrists, and forearms along major nerves and their branches. Only a single case of LFH growth along a cranial nerve has been reported. A 41-year-old man presented with a subcutaneous soft mass of the cheek. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferating fibrofatty tissue that surrounded and infiltrated the nerve structure and it was confirmed to be an LFH. After surgical excision, the patient experienced mild facial numbness and motor disturbance on the side ipsilateral to the resection. Because complete excision of the mass can cause sensory or motor disturbances, an accurate diagnosis and proper subsequent treatment, such as partial decompression, are necessary.
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The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea: study design and baseline results.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea.
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5-Nitro-5'hydroxy-indirubin-3'oxime Is a Novel Inducer of Somatic Cell Transdifferentiation.
Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim)
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Patient-derived cell transplantation is an attractive therapy for regenerative medicine. However, this requires effective strategies to reliably differentiate patient cells into clinically useful cell types. Herein, we report the discovery that 5-nitro-5'hydroxy-indirubin-3'oxime (5'-HNIO) is a novel inducer of cell transdifferentiation. 5'-HNIO induced muscle transdifferentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic cells. 5'-HNIO was shown to inhibit aurora kinase A, which is a known cell fate regulator. 5'-HNIO produced a favorable level of transdifferentiation compared to other aurora kinase inhibitors and induced transdifferentiation across cell lineage boundaries. Significantly, 5'-HNIO treatment produced direct transdifferentiation without up-regulating potentially oncogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming factors. Thus, our results demonstrate that 5'-HNIO is an attractive molecular tool for cell transdifferentiation and cell fate research.
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Treatment and Outcomes for Gangliogliomas: A Single-Center Review of 16 Patients.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Ganglioglioma is a rare and slowly growing benign tumor. We investigated the outcomes of patients who underwent different combination treatments.
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Simultaneous determination of flurbiprofen and its hydroxy metabolite in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for clinical application.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Flurbiprofen (FLB) is one of the phenylalkanoic acid derivatives of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used for the management of pain and inflammation in patients with arthritis. We developed and validated a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method utilizing tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of FLB and its major metabolite, 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen (4'-OH-FLB), in human plasma. Probenecid was used as an internal standard (IS). After liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether, chromatographic separation of the two analytes was achieved using a reversed-phase Luna C18 column (2.0mm×50mm, 5?m particles) with a mobile phase of 10mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.5)-methanol (15:85, v/v) and quantified by MS/MS detection in ESI negative ion mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 250?l/min and the retention times of FLB, 4'-OH-FLB, and IS were 1.1, 0.8, and 0.9min, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over a range of 0.01-10?g/ml for FLB and 0.01-1?g/ml for 4'-OH-FLB. The lower limit of quantifications using 100?l of human plasma was 0.01?g/ml for both analytes. The mean accuracy and precision for intra- and inter-run validation of FLB and 4'-OH-FLB were all within acceptable limits. The present HPLC-MS/MS method showed improved sensitivity for quantification of the FLB and its major metabolite in human plasma compared with previously described analytical methods. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in humans.
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DNA-damage-induced differentiation of leukaemic cells as an anti-cancer barrier.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Self-renewal is the hallmark feature both of normal stem cells and cancer stem cells. Since the regenerative capacity of normal haematopoietic stem cells is limited by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and DNA double-strand breaks, we speculated that DNA damage might also constrain leukaemic self-renewal and malignant haematopoiesis. Here we show that the histone methyl-transferase MLL4, a suppressor of B-cell lymphoma, is required for stem-cell activity and an aggressive form of acute myeloid leukaemia harbouring the MLL-AF9 oncogene. Deletion of MLL4 enhances myelopoiesis and myeloid differentiation of leukaemic blasts, which protects mice from death related to acute myeloid leukaemia. MLL4 exerts its function by regulating transcriptional programs associated with the antioxidant response. Addition of reactive oxygen species scavengers or ectopic expression of FOXO3 protects MLL4(-/-) MLL-AF9 cells from DNA damage and inhibits myeloid maturation. Similar to MLL4 deficiency, loss of ATM or BRCA1 sensitizes transformed cells to differentiation, suggesting that myeloid differentiation is promoted by loss of genome integrity. Indeed, we show that restriction-enzyme-induced double-strand breaks are sufficient to induce differentiation of MLL-AF9 blasts, which requires cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip1) (Cdkn1a) activity. In summary, we have uncovered an unexpected tumour-promoting role of genome guardians in enforcing the oncogene-induced differentiation blockade in acute myeloid leukaemia.
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The thickness of alveolar bone at the mandibular canine and premolar teeth in normal occlusion.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the alveolar bone thickness on the buccal and lingual aspects of mandibular canines and premolars using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The differences between the left side and the right side and that in male and female measurements were reviewed.
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A Suggestion of Modified Classification of Trigeminal Schwannomas According to Location, Shape, and Extension.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Comprehensive knowledge of the anatomical features of trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) is essential in planning surgery to achieve complete tumor resection. In the current report, we propose a modified classification of TSs according to their location of origin, shape, and extension into the adjacent compartment, and discuss appropriate surgical strategies with this classification.
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Design of a microscopic electrical impedance tomography system for 3D continuous non-destructive monitoring of tissue culture.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Non-destructive continuous monitoring of regenerative tissue is required throughout the entire period of in vitro tissue culture. Microscopic electrical impedance tomography (micro-EIT) has the potential to monitor the physiological state of tissues by forming three-dimensional images of impedance changes in a non-destructive and label-free manner. We developed a new micro-EIT system and report on simulation and experimental results of its macroscopic model.
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Photo- and pH-tunable multicolor fluorescent nanoparticle-based spiropyran- and BODIPY-conjugated polymer with graphene oxide.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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We report a stimuli-responsive fluorescent nanomaterial, based on graphene oxide coupled with a polymer conjugated with photochromic spiropyran (SP) dye and hydrophobic boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY) dye, for application in triggered target multicolor bioimaging. Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by catechol-conjugated polymers under mildly alkaline conditions, which enabled to formation of functionalized multicolor graphene nanoparticles that can be induced by irradiation with UV light and by changing the pH from acidic to neutral. Investigation of these nanoparticles by using AFM, fluorescence emission, and in vitro cell and in vivo imaging revealed that they show different tunable colors in bioimaging applications and, more specifically, in cancer-cell detection. The stability, biocompatibility, and quenching efficacy of this nanocomposite open a different perspective for cell imaging in different independent colors, sequentially and simultaneously.
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Robot-assisted neck dissection via a transaxillary and retroauricular approach versus a conventional transcervical approach in papillary thyroid cancer with cervical lymph node metastases.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Recently, robot-assisted neck dissection (ND) using a transaxillary approach in thyroid cancer patients with lateral neck metastases (LNM) was demonstrated to be feasible. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of a modified transaxillary and retroauricular (TARA) versus a conventional transcervical approach in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients with LNM.
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ATP-citrate lyase regulates cellular senescence via AMPK- and p53-dependent pathway.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) is a key enzyme involved in de novo lipogenesis by catalyzing cytosolic citrate into acetyl-coA and oxaloacetate. Upregulated ACLY in various types of tumors enhances the fatty acid synthesis and supplies an excess acetyl-CoA for histone acetylation. However, some evidence showed that its enzymatic activity alone is insufficient for explaining ACLY-silencing-mediated growth arrest in tumor cells. In this study, we found that ACLY-knockdown in primary human cells triggers cellular senescence and the activation of tumor suppressor p53. Acetyl-CoA backup in ACLY-knockdown cells could not alleviate the ACLY-silencing-induced p53 activation, suggesting an independent role of ACLY activity. Instead, ACLY physically interacted with the catalytic subunit of AMPK and inhibited AMPK activity. The activation of AMPK in ACLY-knockdown conditions may lead to p53 activation, ultimately leading to cellular senescence. In cancer cells, ACLY-silencing-induced p53 activation facilitated DNA-damage-induced cell death. Taken together, we propose a novel function of ACLY in cellular senescence and tumorigenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Evaluation of anatomical considerations in the posterior maxillae for sinus augmentation.
World J Clin Cases
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The edentulous posterior maxilla is considered a clinical challenge during dental implant treatment for many dental practitioners. This is because its insufficient bone quality, deficient alveolar ridge, spiny ridges, undercuts, and sinus pneumatization are often encountered after tooth loss. To overcome these problems, several approaches have been developed and are currently used, including sinus augmentation and bone augmentation. Today, two main procedures of sinus floor elevation for dental implant placement are in use: a two-stage technique using the lateral window approach, and a one-stage technique using a lateral or a crestal approach. In this study, we deal with the anatomic relations of the structures of the maxillary sinus during sinus augmentation. These anatomical findings can help in complications and potential injuries of the maxillary sinus procedures. It can be suggested that pre-operative evaluation is helpful for diagnosis and treatment planning and minimizing complication during the surgery.
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Carcinogenicity study of CKD-501, a novel dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? and ? agonist, following oral administration to Sprague Dawley rats for 94-101 weeks.
Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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CKD-501 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist. The current study was conducted in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats for 94-101 weeks to investigate the carcinogenic potential of CKD-501. 60 males received 0, 0.03, 0.12, or 1.0mg/kg/day, which was changed after 66 weeks to 0.24 mg/kg/day due to increased mortality, while 60 females received 0, 0.03, 0.06, or 0.12 mg/kg/day throughout the study period. After switching the dosage, no significant changes in the survival rates were observed. Non-neoplastic lesions such as bladder transitional cell hyperplasia and a diminished corpus luteum were observed in females administered 0.12 mg/kg/day and the right chamber dilation and left ventricular hypertrophy were increased dose dependently in both males and females. Non-neoplastic lesions such as bone marrow hypoplasia and fat cell proliferation and neoplastic lesions such as lipomas and liposarcomas observed in males and/or females were considered expected pharmacological effects for this compound. Compared to rosiglitazone, CKD-501 had a 4.4-fold higher margin of safety for tumor induction and did not cause bladder carcinoma as was observed with pioglitazone.
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Proteinticle/gold core/shell nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy without nanotoxicity.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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PGCS-NPs (40 nm) with excellent photo-thermal activity are developed, on the surface of which affibody peptides with specific affinity for EGFR and many small gold dots (1-3 nm) are densely presented. The IV-injected PGCS-NPs into EGFR-expressing tumor-bearing mice successfully perform targeted and photothermal therapy of cancer. It seems that the small gold dots released from disassembled PGCS-NPs are easily removed and never cause in vivo toxicity problems.
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Global and time-resolved monitoring of crop photosynthesis with chlorophyll fluorescence.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Photosynthesis is the process by which plants harvest sunlight to produce sugars from carbon dioxide and water. It is the primary source of energy for all life on Earth; hence it is important to understand how this process responds to climate change and human impact. However, model-based estimates of gross primary production (GPP, output from photosynthesis) are highly uncertain, in particular over heavily managed agricultural areas. Recent advances in spectroscopy enable the space-based monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from terrestrial plants. Here we demonstrate that spaceborne SIF retrievals provide a direct measure of the GPP of cropland and grassland ecosystems. Such a strong link with crop photosynthesis is not evident for traditional remotely sensed vegetation indices, nor for more complex carbon cycle models. We use SIF observations to provide a global perspective on agricultural productivity. Our SIF-based crop GPP estimates are 50-75% higher than results from state-of-the-art carbon cycle models over, for example, the US Corn Belt and the Indo-Gangetic Plain, implying that current models severely underestimate the role of management. Our results indicate that SIF data can help us improve our global models for more accurate projections of agricultural productivity and climate impact on crop yields. Extension of our approach to other ecosystems, along with increased observational capabilities for SIF in the near future, holds the prospect of reducing uncertainties in the modeling of the current and future carbon cycle.
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Efficacy of ginseng adventitious root extract on hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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Ginseng has various bioactive effects on human health including its potential activity of improving the glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.
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Engineered protein nanoparticles for in vivo tumor detection.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Two different protein nanoparticles that are totally different in shape and surface structure, i.e. Escherichia coli DNA-binding protein (eDPS) (spherical, 10 nm) and Thermoplasma acidophilum proteasome (tPTS) (cylindrical, 12 × 15 nm) were engineered for in vivo optical tumor detection: arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (CDCRGDCFC) was genetically inserted to the surface of each protein nanoparticle, and also near-infrared fluorescence dye was chemically linked to the surface lysine residues. The specific affinity of RGD for integrin (?v?3) facilitated the uptake of RGD-presenting protein nanoparticles by integrin-expressing tumor cells, and also the protein nanoparticles neither adversely affected cell viability nor induced cell damage. After intravenously injected to tumor-bearing mice, all the protein nanoparticles successfully reached tumor with negligible renal clearance, and then the surface RGD peptides caused more prolonged retention of protein nanoparticles in tumor and accordingly higher fluorescence intensity of tumor image. In particular, the fluorescence of tumor image was more intensive with tPTS than eDPS, which is due presumably to longer in vivo half-life and circulation of tPTS that originates from thermophilic and acidophilic bacterium. Although eDPS and tPTS were used as proof-of-concept in this study, it seems that other protein nanoparticles with different size, shape, and surface structure can be applied to effective in vivo tumor detection.
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Mitochondrial Hsp90s suppress calcium-mediated stress signals propagating from mitochondria to the ER in cancer cells.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Resistance to cell death in the presence of stressful stimuli is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells acquired during multistep tumorigenesis, and knowledge of the molecular mechanism of stress adaptation can be exploited to develop cancer-selective therapeutics. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are physically interconnected organelles that can sense and exchange various stress signals. Although there have been many studies on stress propagation from the ER to mitochondria, reverse stress signals originating from mitochondria have not been well reported.
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Thanatophoric dysplasia in a dichorionic twin confirmed by genetic analysis at the early second trimester: A case report and literature review.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is caused by mutation of the gene that encodes fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGFR3). Owing to the poor prognosis for TD, prenatal diagnosis is critical to optimal perinatal management. We report here a case of TD in twin pregnancy, which was prenatally diagnosed by DNA analysis following amniocentesis at 15 weeks, and was managed by selective fetal termination. Prenatal ultrasonography and molecular analysis to detect TD-specific mutations enable accurate diagnosis of FGFR3-related TD in utero and appropriate obstetrical management at early gestation during twin pregnancy.
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Incidentally detected middle ear osteoma: two cases reports and literature review.
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Osteomas of the middle ear are rare benign neoplasms. To date, only a few cases have been reported. Osteomas of the middle ear are small, single, usually unilateral, peduncular growths, off-white in color, with a smooth or multilobular surface, asymptomatic or causing functional disorders. The most common symptom is conductive hearing loss because of impingement of the ossicular chain. Some cases are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally. We present two cases of incidentally detected middle ear osteoma. Based on a review of the main articles in the literature and analysis of two cases managed in our department, we describe the clinical spectrum, etiology, and management of middle ear osteomas.
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Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia.
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Regulation of retinal axon growth by secreted Vax1 homeodomain protein.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons of binocular animals cross the midline at the optic chiasm (OC) to grow toward their synaptic targets in the contralateral brain. Ventral anterior homeobox 1 (Vax1) plays an essential role in the development of the OC by regulating RGC axon growth in a non-cell autonomous manner. In this study, we identify an unexpected function of Vax1 that is secreted from ventral hypothalamic cells and diffuses to RGC axons, where it promotes axonal growth independent of its transcription factor activity. We demonstrate that Vax1 binds to extracellular sugar groups of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) located in RGC axons. Both Vax1 binding to HSPGs and subsequent penetration into the axoplasm, where Vax1 activates local protein synthesis, are required for RGC axonal growth. Together, our findings demonstrate that Vax1 possesses a novel RGC axon growth factor activity that is critical for the development of the mammalian binocular visual system.
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18F-FDG PET/CT in a case of multifocal skeletal tuberculosis without pulmonary disease and potential role for monitoring treatment response.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A 39-year-old man presented with left shoulder and interscapular pain. 99mTc-MDP bone scan demonstrated multiple active bone lesions including scapula, spines, ribs, and pelvis. Chest X-ray showed no active lung lesion, and MRI demonstrated infiltrative enhancing lesions in the T-spines and ribs, indicating skeletal metastasis. 18F-FDG PET/CT performed to search for hidden malignancy revealed multiple osteolytic lesions with intense FDG uptake, supporting metastasis. Tissue obtained from the T1 lesion showed no malignant cells but was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After 18 months of antituberculosis medication, follow-up 18F-FDG PET/CT showed complete normalization of FDG uptake in the skeletal lesions.
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Neural changes associated with emotion processing in children experiencing peer rejection: a functional MRI study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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This study was performed to investigate differences between children who did and did not experience peer rejection in psychological state through surveys and in emotion processing during an interpersonal stress challenge task to reflect naturalistic interpersonal face-to-face relationships. A total of 20 right-handed children, 10 to 12 yr of age, completed self-rating questionnaires inquiring about peer rejection in school, depression, and anxiety. They then underwent an interpersonal stress challenge task simulating conditions of emotional stress, in reaction to positive, negative and neutral facial expression stimuli, using interpersonal feedbacks, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) for an analysis of neural correlates during the task. Ten were the peer-rejection group, whereas the remainder were the control group. Based on the behavioral results, the peer-rejection group exhibited elevated levels of depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety and social anxiety as compared to the control group. The FMRI results revealed that the peer-rejection group exhibited greater and remarkably more extensive activation of brain regions encompassing the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to negative feedback stimuli of emotional faces. The different brain reactivities characterizing emotion processing during interpersonal relationships may be present between children who do and do not experience peer rejection.
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Combination treatment with doxorubicin and gamitrinib synergistically augments anticancer activity through enhanced activation of Bim.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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A common approach to cancer therapy in clinical practice is the combination of several drugs to boost the anticancer activity of available drugs while suppressing their unwanted side effects. In this regard, we examined the efficacy of combination treatment with the widely-used genotoxic drug doxorubicin and the mitochondriotoxic Hsp90 inhibitor gamitrinib to exploit disparate stress signaling pathways for cancer therapy.
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Thymidine phosphorylase influences [(18)F]fluorothymidine uptake in cancer cells and patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine nucleoside salvage pathway, catalyses the reversible phosphorylation of thymidine, thereby generating thymine and 2-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate. By regulating the levels of endogenous thymidine, TP may influence [(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) uptake. We investigated the effect of TP activity on [(18)F]FLT uptake by tumours.
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Protective effect of silymarin against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Silymarin is a plant extract with strong antioxidant properties in addition to anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic actions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential preventive effect of silymarin on cisplatin ototoxicity in an auditory cell line, HEI-OC1 cells.
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An unusual prenatal manifestation of a huge congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation with favorable perinatal outcome.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare condition which is easily detectable by prenatal ultrasonography. Fetuses with large CCAMs associating with hydrops are predisposed to perinatal mortality, therefore prenatal intervention is required. While macrocystic CCAM is treated prenatally by thoracentesis or thoraco-amniotic shunt, microcystic or mixed CCAM is difficult to manage in the fetus. In these latter lesions, fetal lobectomy, sclerotherapy, or laser ablation was used to treat lesions directly. We present an unusual prenatal case of mixed CCAM associating with hydrops and marked ascites, which was conservatively managed with prenatal abdomino-amniotic shunting and successfully treated by postnatal surgery.
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Variability of offending allergens of allergic rhinitis according to age: optimization of skin prick test allergens.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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This study evaluates offending allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) according to age that establish a minimal panel for skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify if a patient is sensitized.
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Role of dopamine D2 receptors in optimizing choice strategy in a dynamic and uncertain environment.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In order to investigate roles of dopamine receptor subtypes in reward-based learning, we examined choice behavior of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-knockout (D1R-KO and D2R-KO, respectively) mice in an instrumental learning task with progressively increasing reversal frequency and a dynamic two-armed bandit task. Performance of D2R-KO mice was progressively impaired in the former as the frequency of reversal increased and profoundly impaired in the latter even with prolonged training, whereas D1R-KO mice showed relatively minor performance deficits. Choice behavior in the dynamic two-armed bandit task was well explained by a hybrid model including win-stay-lose-switch and reinforcement learning terms. A model-based analysis revealed increased win-stay, but impaired value updating and decreased value-dependent action selection in D2R-KO mice, which were detrimental to maximizing rewards in the dynamic two-armed bandit task. These results suggest an important role of dopamine D2 receptors in learning from past choice outcomes for rapid adjustment of choice behavior in a dynamic and uncertain environment.
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Transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of PPAR? expression during adipogenesis.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The nuclear receptor PPAR? is a master regulator of adipogenesis. PPAR? is highly expressed in adipose tissues and its expression is markedly induced during adipogenesis. In this review, we describe the current knowledge, as well as future directions, on transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of PPAR? expression during adipogenesis. Investigating the molecular mechanisms that control PPAR? expression during adipogenesis is critical for understanding the development of white and brown adipose tissues, as well as pathological conditions such as obesity and diabetes. The robust induction of PPAR? expression during adipogenesis also serves as an excellent model system for studying transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of cell-type-specific gene expression.
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H3K4 mono- and di-methyltransferase MLL4 is required for enhancer activation during cell differentiation.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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Enhancers play a central role in cell-type-specific gene expression and are marked by H3K4me1/2. Active enhancers are further marked by H3K27ac. However, the methyltransferases responsible for H3K4me1/2 on enhancers remain elusive. Furthermore, how these enzymes function on enhancers to regulate cell-type-specific gene expression is unclear. In this study, we identify MLL4 (KMT2D) as a major mammalian H3K4 mono- and di-methyltransferase with partial functional redundancy with MLL3 (KMT2C). Using adipogenesis and myogenesis as model systems, we show that MLL4 exhibits cell-type- and differentiation-stage-specific genomic binding and is predominantly localized on enhancers. MLL4 co-localizes with lineage-determining transcription factors (TFs) on active enhancers during differentiation. Deletion of Mll4 markedly decreases H3K4me1/2, H3K27ac, Mediator and Polymerase II levels on enhancers and leads to severe defects in cell-type-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Together, these findings identify MLL4 as a major mammalian H3K4 mono- and di-methyltransferase essential for enhancer activation during cell differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01503.001.
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Enhanced performance of flexible nanocrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells using seed layers with high hydrogen dilution.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Flexible hydrogenated nanocrystalline (nc-Si:H) thin-film solar cells were prepared by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD), and the effect of highly crystalline intrinsic Si seed layers at the initial growth stage of i nc-Si:H absorbers on their structural and electrical properties and on the performance of solar cells was investigated. The crystallization of i nc-Si:H absorbers was significantly enforced by the introduction of highly crystalline seed layers, resulting in the reduction of defect-dense a-Si:H grain boundary and incubation layer thickness. The open circuit voltage of the nc-Si:H solar cells with the seed layers was improved by the decrease of charged defect density in the defect-rich amorphous region.
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Proteinticle Engineering for Accurate 3D Diagnosis.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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In nature certain proteins are self-assembled inside cells to form nanoscale particles (named "proteinticles") with constant structure and surface topology. Unlike chemically synthesized nanomaterials (e.g., various metal, carbon, and polymer nanoparticles), a variety of functional proteinticles can be easily created through genetic modification of the proteinticle surface, i.e., by adding or inserting specified proteins/peptides to the N- or C-terminus or the internal region of the protein constituent. Here we present proteins/peptides that recognize disease-specific antibodies on the surface of human ferritin based proteinticles for accurate 3D diagnosis of human autoimmune and infectious diseases. The surface display of the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) with native conformation successfully discriminated between autoantibodies to native or denatured MOG, leading to the reliable diagnosis of multiple sclerosis with enhanced accuracy. Also we simultaneously displayed different antigenic peptides from hepatitis C virus (HCV) on the same proteinticle surface with modulating the composition of each peptide. The proteinticles with the heterogeneous peptide surface detected anti-HCV antibodies in patient sera with 100% accuracy. The proposed method of proteinticle engineering can be applied in general to the sensitive and specific diagnosis of many other human diseases.
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Depressor muscle division through a subbrow excision for the improvement of brow ptosis.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to introduce a technique of dividing forehead depressor muscles with a subbrow excision for improvement of brow ptosis or redundant upper eyelid skin and glabella wrinkles. Upper incisions were designed at the lower limit of the eyebrow with a lateral extension along the eyebrow curvature. After measuring the redundant upper eyelid skin, the excess skin was excised. The orbital part of the orbicularis oculi muscle was identified and split longitudinally. The forehead depressor muscles (depressor supercilii, oblique and transverse head of corrugator, and medial part of orbicularis oculi) in the brow fat pad were identified and avulsed. In the patients who have a lowered brow, the brow was elevated and fixed to the underlying periosteum about 1 cm above the superior orbital rim after subgaleal dissection. During the dissection, the supraorbital nerve was preserved. Preaponeurotic fat was transferred and sutured between the cut stumps of the corrugator and procerus. The 78 patients (19 men, 60 women; age range, 41-72 years [mean, 52.0 ± 7.1 years]) were operated on. The follow-up periods ranged from 3 to 48 months. Preoperative and postoperative photographs were taken, and the following evaluations were conducted by 1 surgeon via a Likert scale (1 = not improved, 2 = slightly improved, 3 = somewhat improved, 4 = much improved, 5 = markedly improved). The mean score for improvement of the glabella frowns in contraction was 3.7 ± 1.6. The mean score for the improvement of the glabella frowns in relaxation was 4.1 ± 1.3. The mean score for improvement of drooping eyelids was 4.7 ± 0.5. The mean score for the improvement of forehead wrinkles was 4.8 ± 0.7. We improved brow ptosis, redundant upper eyelid skin, and glabella wrinkles simultaneously using a subbrow excision and depressor muscle division while preserving the superficial branch of the supraorbital nerve.
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Graded Otx2 activities demonstrate dose-sensitive eye and retina phenotypes.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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In the human, mutations of OTX2 (Orthodenticle homeobox 2 transcription factor) translate into eye malformations of variable expressivity (even between the two eyes of the same individual) and incomplete penetrance, suggesting the existence of subtle thresholds in OTX2 activity. We have addressed this issue by analyzing retinal structure and function in six mutant mice with graded Otx2 activity: Otx2(+/+), Otx2(+/AA), Otx2(+/GFP), Otx2(AA/AA), Otx2(AA/GFP) and Otx2(GFP/GFP). Null mice (Otx2(GFP/GFP)) fail to develop the head and are embryonic lethal, and compound heterozygous Otx2(AA/GFP) mice show a truncated head and die at birth. All other genotypes develop until adulthood. We analyzed eye structure and visual physiology in the genotypes that develop until adulthood and report that phenotype severity parallels Otx2 activity. Otx2(+/AA) are only mildly affected whereas Otx2(+/GFP) are more affected than Otx2(+/AA) but less than Otx2(AA/AA) mice. Otx2(AA/AA) mice later manifest the most severe defects, with variable expressivity. Electrophysiological and histological analyses of the mouse retina revealed progressive death of bipolar cells and cone photoreceptors that is both Otx2 activity- and age-dependent with the same ranking of phenotypic severity. This study demonstrates the importance of gene dosage in the development of age-dependent pathologies and underscores the fact that small gene dosage differences can cause significant pathological states.
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Configuration-controlled Au nanocluster arrays on inverse micelle nano-patterns: versatile platforms for SERS and SPR sensors.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Nanopatterned 2-dimensional Au nanocluster arrays with controlled configuration are fabricated onto reconstructed nanoporous poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) inverse micelle monolayer films. Near-field coupling of localized surface plasmons is studied and compared for disordered and ordered core-centered Au NC arrays. Differences in evolution of the absorption band and field enhancement upon Au nanoparticle adsorption are shown. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with theoretical studies based on the finite-difference time-domain method and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The realized Au nanopatterns are exploited as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering and integrated into Kretschmann-type SPR sensors, based on which unprecedented SPR-coupling-type sensors are demonstrated.
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Photoresponsive fluorescent reduced graphene oxide by spiropyran conjugated hyaluronic acid for in vivo imaging and target delivery.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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This present article demonstrates the strategy to prepare photoresponsive reduced graphene oxide with mussel inspired adhesive material dopamine (DN) and photochromic dye spiropyran (SP) conjugated to the backbone of the targeting ligand hyaluronic acid (HA; HA-SP). Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by prepared HA-SP accepting the advantages of catechol chemistry under mildly alkaline condition enabling to achieve functionalized graphene (rGO/HA-SP) as fluorescent nanoparticles. Due to containing HA, rGO/HA-SP can bind to the CD44 cell receptors. The prepared rGO/HA-SP is able to retain its photochromic features and can be converted to merocyanine (MC) form upon irradiation with UV light (wavelength: 365 nm) displaying purple color. Photochromic behavior of rGO/HA-SP was monitored by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. In vitro fluorescence behavior, examined by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), of rGO/HA-SP in cancerous A549 cell lines assured that efficient delivery of rGO/HA-SP was gained due to HA as targeting ligand. In this work, we have shown that in vivo fluorescence image of spiropyran is possible by administrating MC form solution of rGO/HA-SP using Balb/C mice as in vivo modal. Accumulation of rGO/HA-SP in tumor tissue from biodistribution analysis strongly supports the specific delivery of prepared graphene to the target destination. The well tuned drug release manner from the surface of rGO/HA-SP strongly recommends the developed material not only as fluorescent probe for diagnosis but also as a drug carrier in drug delivery system.
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A randomised controlled trial comparing a thermal massager with artificial teardrops for the treatment of dry eye.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a thermal massager for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.
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Mortality of patients with obstructive sleep apnea in Korea.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with diverse health risks, including death. However, the role of OSA as a risk factor for death has never been studied in Asians. This study is aimed at evaluating the influence of OSA on the mortality in Korean sleep clinic population.
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Prevalence of ocular symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis: Korean multicenter study.
Am J Rhinol Allergy
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Allergic rhinitis (AR) is often accompanied by multiple ocular symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ocular symptoms and the impact of ocular symptoms on the quality of life in patients with AR.
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A Case of Myocarditis Following Neonatal Meningitis Caused by Coxsackievirus B1 in Spite of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Enteroviral infection is one of the most common neonatal infections, and most patients recover without complications. This report describes a neonate who experienced meningitis followed by myocarditis. A 4-day-old boy was admitted with fever, diagnosed with enteroviral meningitis and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). However, myocarditis was subsequently diagnosed in spite of IVIG treatment, and coxsackievirus B1 (CXB1) was revealed as a cause. A left ventricular aneurysm persisted even though the patient recovered with repeated high-dose IVIG treatment and cardiac supportive care. This report describes a rare case where myocarditis developed several days after a diagnosis of CXB1 meningitis in spite of IVIG treatment. It is important to pay attention to the patients clinical condition until the end of the second viremia of enterovirus and to consider high-dose IVIG treatment when treating enteroviral infections for neonates.
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Determining the applicability of threshold of toxicological concern approaches to substances found in foods.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) decision-support methods present a pragmatic approach to using data from well-characterized chemicals and protective estimates of exposure in a stepwise fashion to inform decisions regarding low-level exposures to chemicals for which few data exist. It is based on structural and functional categorizations of chemicals derived from decades of animal testing with a wide variety of chemicals. Expertise is required to use the TTC methods, and there are situations in which its use is clearly inappropriate or not currently supported. To facilitate proper use of the TTC, this paper describes issues to be considered by risk managers when faced with the situation of an unexpected substance in food. Case studies are provided to illustrate the implementation of these considerations, demonstrating the steps taken in deciding whether it would be appropriate to apply the TTC approach in each case. By appropriately applying the methods, employing the appropriate scientific expertise, and combining use with the conservative assumptions embedded within the derivation of the thresholds, the TTC can realize its potential to protect public health and to contribute to efficient use of resources in food safety risk management.
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Target delivery and cell imaging using hyaluronic acid-functionalized graphene quantum dots.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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This work demonstrates the way to achieve efficient and target specific delivery of a graphene quantum dot (GQD) using hyaluronic acid (HA) (GQD-HA) as a targeting agent. HA has been anchored to a GQD that accepts the fascinating adhesive properties of the catechol moiety, dopamine hydrochloride, conjugated to HA, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a particle size of ?20 nm, and the fluorescence spectra revealed significant fluorescence intensity even after the anchoring of HA. The prepared GQD-HA was applied to CD44 receptor overexpressed tumor-bearing balb/c female mice, and the in vivo biodistribution investigation demonstrated more bright fluorescence from the tumor tissue. In vitro cellular imaging, via a confocal laser scanning microscope, exhibited strong fluorescence from CD44 overexpressed A549 cells. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed the effectiveness of using HA as targeting molecule. The loading and release kinetics of the hydrophobic drug doxorubicin from a GQD under mildly acidic conditions showed that a GQD can be considered as a novel drug carrier, while the nontoxic behavior from the MTT assay strongly supports the identification of GQD-HA as a biocompatible material.
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Assessing the scale of resource recovery for centralized and satellite wastewater treatment.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Wastewater treatment to recover water, energy, and other resources is largely carried out at centralized treatment facilities. An alternative is local treatment at satellite facilities where wastewater is removed from a collection system, resources are recovered locally, and the residuals are returned to the collection system. Satellite systems decrease the pipe and energy required for delivery of treated water and may decrease cost. But decisions regarding the geographic scale of resource recovery require consideration of many criteria. In this study, we rank water and energy recovery options for a simplified test case at three scale configurations: a centralized configuration and two hybrid configurations. We first choose criteria for decision-making. Quantitative performance metrics are defined for each criterion, weighted, and computed for each configuration. We then rank configurations. Rankings depend upon the decision-making strategy. For our test case, though, several strategies yield the same top-ranked configuration: a hybrid where communities close to the centralized facility use centralized resource recovery; communities far from the centralized facility use satellite resource recovery. Our ranking is sensitive to initial investment cost for satellite treatment. The results underscore the importance of cost-effective treatment systems and of an accurate and comprehensive analysis of design components.
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New Bifunctional Chelator for (64)Cu-Immuno-Positron Emission Tomography.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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A new tetraazamacrocyclic bifunctional chelator, TE2A-Bn-NCS, was synthesized in high overall yield from cyclam. An extra functional group (NCS) was introduced to the N-atom of TE2A for specific conjugation with antibody. The Cu complex of TE2A-Bn-NCS showed high kinetic stability in acidic decomplexation and cyclic voltammetry studies. X-ray structure determination of the Cu-TE2A-Bn-NH2 complex confirmed octahedral geometry, in which copper atom is strongly coordinated by four macrocyclic nitrogens in equatorial positions and two carboxylate oxygen atoms occupy the elongated axial positions. Trastuzumab was conjugated with TE2A-Bn-NCS and then radiolabeled with (64)Cu quantitatively at room temperature within 10 min. Biodistribution studies showed that the (64)Cu-labeled TE2A-Bn-NCS-trastuzumab conjugates maintain high stability in physiological conditions, and NIH3T6.7 tumors were clearly visualized up to 3 days by (64)Cu-immuno-positron emission tomography imaging in animal models.
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A protein nanofiber hydrogel for sensitive immunoassays.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Amyloid-like protein nanofibers were assembled in vitro using a recombinant protein fusion, with yeast Sup35 and human SSB/La proteins as assembly units, where the length of the nanofibers was mostly between 100 and 400 nm. The protein nanofibers, hereafter referred to as Sup35-based protein nanofiber probes (SuPNPs), were used to sensitively detect anti-SSB/La antibodies [Sjögrens syndrome (SS)-specific marker]. After, the SuPNPs were vinylated and subsequently linked to acrylamide. The polymerization reaction with acrylamide formed a SuPNP-hydrogel with uniform porosity, where the SuPNPs were directly cross-linked to polyacrylamide. Alternatively, biotinylated SuPNPs (bt-SuPNP) were attached to a streptavidin-hydrogel, resulting in the formation of a bt-SuPNP-hydrogel. When both the SuPNP-hydrogel and bt-SuPNP-hydrogel were used as 3D assay platforms for the detection of anti-SSB/La antibodies in a buffer solution, the LODs (limit of detection) were found to be 10 pM for both, showing 100-fold enhancement in sensitivity compared to conventional 2D polystyrene (PS) plate-based assays. It seems that the exposed surface and uniform distribution of the SuPNPs within the 3D space of the porous hydrogel matrix interacted more effectively with the anti-SSB/La antibodies, leading to more sensitive detection. The equal sensitivity demonstrated by the SuPNP- and bt-SuPNP-hydrogels above indicates that the target binding activity of the SuPNPs remains unchanged when either directly cross-linked to the hydrogel or indirectly immobilized to the hydrogel via streptavidin. When used to detect anti-SSB/La antibodies in human serum, the SuPNP-hydrogel is 1000 times more sensitive than a 2D PS plate. It seems that non-specific adsorption of the serum proteins occurs heavily on the 2D PS plate. While diagnostic assays for Sjögrens syndrome were demonstrated as proof-of-concept in this study, the SuPNP-hydrogel can be generally applied for the sensitive and specific detection of many other disease markers.
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Origin of new broad Raman D and G peaks in annealed graphene.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Since graphene, a single sheet of graphite, has all of its carbon atoms on the surface, its property is very sensitive to materials contacting the surface. Herein, we report novel Raman peaks observed in annealed graphene and elucidate their chemical origins by Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Graphene annealed in oxygen-free atmosphere revealed very broad additional Raman peaks overlapping the D, G and 2D peaks of graphene itself. Based on the topographic confirmation by AFM, the new Raman peaks were attributed to amorphous carbon formed on the surface of graphene by carbonization of environmental hydrocarbons. While the carbonaceous layers were formed for a wide range of annealing temperature and time, they could be effectively removed by prolonged annealing in vacuum. This study underlines that spectral features of graphene and presumably other 2-dimensional materials are highly vulnerable to interference by foreign materials of molecular thickness.
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Incidence, risk factors and management of incisional hernia in a high volume liver transplant center.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Incisional hernia after liver transplantation is a common complication with an incidence between 5% and 34%. This prospective study analyzed risk factors, surgical management and long-term results after hernia repair.
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p53 regulates glucose metabolism by miR-34a.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Cancer cells rely mainly on glycolysis rather than mitochondrial respiration for energy production, which is called the Warburg effect. p53 mutations are observed in about half of cancer cases, and p53 controls the cell cycle and cell death in response to cellular stressors. p53 has been emphasized as a metabolic regulator involved in glucose, glutamine, and purine metabolism. Here, we demonstrated metabolic changes in cancer that occurred through p53. We found that p53-inducible microRNA-34a (miR-34a) repressed glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase 1, hexokinase 2, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase), and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1. Treatment with an anti-miR-34a inhibitor relieved the decreased expression in these enzymes following DNA damage. miR-34a-mediated inhibition of these enzymes resulted in repressed glycolysis and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. The results suggest that p53 has a miR-34a-dependent integrated mechanism to regulate glucose metabolism.
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CKD-501, a novel selective PPAR? agonist, shows no carcinogenic potential in ICR mice following oral administration for 104 weeks.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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CKD-501 is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonist that is effective for the treatment of diabetes. However, its carcinogenic potential remains controversial. The current carcinogenicity study was conducted over a period of 104 weeks in ICR mice. Three groups, each consisting of 60 male and 60 female mice, received oral CKD-501 dosages of 0.2, 1.0 or 6.0 mg?kg(-1) day(-1) . The mortality rates of the male control, 0.2, 1.0 and 6.0 mg kg(-1) ?day(-1) treated groups were 60%, 68%, 58% and 67%, respectively and 57%, 68% and 67% in the female control, 0.2 and 1.0?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1) treated groups. It was 67% in the female 6.0?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1) treated group, which was terminated at week 98 due to its increased mortality rate. No significant treatment-related effects were observed on the survival rates, with the exception of females in the 6.0?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1) group. Body weights increased in females receiving 1.0 and 6.0?mg?kg(-1) ?day(-1) due to the class effects of the PPAR? agonist. Differences were not found in hematology parameters between the CKD-501-treated groups and their corresponding controls, but the histopathological evidence did not reveal any findings attributed to CKD-501. Treated animals exhibited non-neoplastic findings (adipocyte proliferation, bone marrow hypoplasia cardiomyopathy), but all of these were expected changes for this class of compound. There were no treatment-related neoplastic changes in this study. The results of this study therefore demonstrate a lack of carcinogenicity following oral administration of CKD-501 to ICR mice for 104?weeks. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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An update of animal models of Alzheimer disease with a reevaluation of plaque depositions.
Exp Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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Animal models of Alzheimer disease (AD) are used to study the mechanisms underlying AD pathogenesis, genetic interactions with genes of interest, and environmental risk factors that cause sporadic AD as well as to test the therapeutic effects of AD drug-candidates on neuropathology and cognitive function. To attain a comparative view on the AD models developed, representative AD lines were selected and summarized with respect to transgenic constructs and AD-related pathology. In addition, age-dependent plaque deposition data available in the literature for six representative AD models such as Tg2576, PDAPP, TgAPP23, Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9, 3xTg-AD, and 5XFAD mice were reevaluated using a photographic plaque reference scale method that was introduced recently. Tg2576, PDAPP, and TgAPP23 mice, which carry the amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgene, produced initially slow, but progressively accelerated plaque deposition as they aged, resulting in logistic plaque deposition. In contrast, Tg-APPswe/PS1dE9 and 3xTg-AD mice, which carry both APP and PS1 transgenes, developed abruptly accelerated plaque formation from the beginning, resulting in logarithmic plaque deposition. 5XFAD mice, which also carry both the APP and PS1 transgenes, developed a logarithmic deposition beginning at 2 months. This comparative analysis suggests that AD models may be classified into two distinct plaque deposition groups, and that early plaque models such as APPswe/PS1dE9, 3xTg-AD and 5XFAD might be useful to study the biochemical aspects of APP metabolism, whereas late plaque models such as Tg2576, PDAPP, and TgAPP23 might be useful to study more physiological and environmental aspects of AD pathogenesis, which occur on a longer time scale.
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection for nonpedunculated submucosal invasive colorectal cancer: is it feasible?
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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There have been no definite indications for additional surgical resection after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of submucosal invasive colorectal cancer (SICC). The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of ESD for nonpedunculated SICC and to determine the need for subsequent surgery after ESD.
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A novel wedge technique to correct the curved deviation of the cartilaginous nasal septum.
Auris Nasus Larynx
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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To introduce a novel wedge technique in endonasal septoplasty to correct the curved deviation of the cartilaginous septum and describe the surgical procedure and results.
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Balanced plication of Müller muscle tendon through conjunctiva for blepharoptosis correction.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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We developed a method for plication of the Müller muscle tendon through the conjunctiva for the correction of blepharoptosis.The locations of 5 skin slits were marked according to the double-fold shape requested by patients. The skin at points marked on the eyelid was penetrated for creation of slits measuring 2 to 3 mm in length. After turning the upper eyelid inside out, a 5-0 nylon suture was applied at the upper margin of the central part of the tarsal plate and pulled in the anterioresuperior direction for exposure of the vascular arcades of the superior conjunctiva. A 7-0 white nylon suture was introduced from the most medial slit (first slit) of the upper eyelid to the conjunctiva of the upper tarsal border, then back to the original slit, and tied. The needle was moved to the second slit through the intramuscular plane tunnel and pierced to the conjunctiva of the upper tarsal border. From the upper tarsal border, the needle was inserted into the same opening, involving the Müller muscle, and extracted from the conjunctiva. From here, the needle was inserted in the reverse direction via the upper tarsal border to the second skin slit. Again, the needle was moved to the third slit and the forth slit through the subcutaneous tunnel, and the same procedures were repeated. The needle was then extracted at the fifth slit (the most lateral slit). From here, the needle pierced the conjunctiva of the upper tarsal border, then back to the original slit, like at the first slit. Thereafter, the needle was moved to the forth slit through the subcutaneous tunnel, plicating the Müller muscle, as before. The same procedures were performed at the third and second slit, and the needle finally appeared at the first slit. Thereafter, the 6-0 nylon was tightened.From March 2011 to March 2012, 147 patients underwent an operation (14 males, 133 females; age range, 15-68 years). The mean (SD) width of the palpebral fissure showed an increase from 1.7 (0.5) mm (range, 1.0-2.5 mm). The mean (SD) amount of plication was 8.1 (2.8) mm (range, 4.0-14.0 mm). No significant correlation was observed between the amount of plication and increasing amount of width of the palpebral fissure (P = 0.496, Pearson correlation). Among the 147 patients who underwent an operation, 50 patients (34%) were very satisfied, 61 (41%) were satisfied, 26 (18%) found the results acceptable, and 10 were dissatisfied with the results.We think that our method is a simple and minimally invasive method for the correction of blepharoptosis.
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A rare case of interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma in the nasal cavity.
Case Rep Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an extremely rare neoplasm that mainly arises from the lymphoid tissues of the immune system. Although this neoplasm typically occurs anywhere along the lymph nodes, it can also be found at extranodal sites, especially in the head and neck. We experienced a rare case of extranodal IDCS in the nasal cavity, a location that has not been previously reported. A 73-year-old woman presented with a polyp-like mass in the nasal cavity and underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. A histologic study confirmed the mass as IDCS by immunohistochemistry with S-100 antibody, and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy was administered. Although the incidence is extremely rare, this case suggests that extranodal IDCS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nasal cavity masses.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.