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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
EVpedia: A Community Web Portal for Extracellular Vesicles Research.
Dae-Kyum Kim, Jaewook Lee, Sae Rom Kim, Dong-Sic Choi, Yae Jin Yoon, Ji Hyun Kim, Gyeongyun Go, Dinh Nhung, Kahye Hong, Su Chul Jang, Si-Hyun Kim, Kyong-Su Park, Oh Youn Kim, Hyun Taek Park, Ji Hye Seo, Elena Aikawa, Monika Baj-Krzyworzeka, Bas W M van Balkom, Mattias Belting, Lionel Blanc, Vincent Bond, Antonella Bongiovanni, Francesc E Borràs, Luc Buée, Edit I Buzás, Lesley Cheng, Aled Clayton, Emanuele Cocucci, Charles S Dela Cruz, Dominic M Desiderio, Dolores Di Vizio, Karin Ekström, Juan M Falcon-Perez, Chris Gardiner, Bernd Giebel, David W Greening, Julia Christina Gross, Dwijendra Gupta, An Hendrix, Andrew F Hill, Michelle M Hill, Esther Nolte-'t Hoen, Do Won Hwang, Jameel Inal, Medicharla V Jagannadham, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Young-Koo Jee, Malene Jørgensen, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yoon-Keun Kim, Thomas Kislinger, Cecilia Lässer, Dong Soo Lee, Hakmo Lee, Johannes van Leeuwen, Thomas Lener, Ming-Lin Liu, Jan Lötvall, Antonio Marcilla, Suresh Mathivanan, Andreas Möller, Jess Morhayim, François Mullier, Irina Nazarenko, Rienk Nieuwland, Diana N Nunes, Ken Pang, Jaesung Park, Tushar Patel, Gabriella Pocsfalvi, Hernando Del Portillo, Ulrich Putz, Marcel I Ramirez, Marcio L Rodrigues, Tae-Young Roh, Felix Royo, Susmita Sahoo, Raymond Schiffelers, Shivani Sharma, Pia Siljander, Richard J Simpson, Carolina Soekmadji, Philip Stahl, Allan Stensballe, Ewa Stępień, Hidetoshi Tahara, Arne Trummer, Hadi Valadi, Laura J Vella, Sun Nyunt Wai, Kenneth Witwer, María Yáñez-Mó, Hyewon Youn, Reinhard Zeidler, Yong Song Gho.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Extracellular vesicles are spherical bilayered proteolipids, harboring various bioactive molecules. Due to the complexity of the vesicular nomenclatures and components, online searches for extracellular vesicle-related publications and vesicular components are currently challenging.
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Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles and Molecular Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Ducks in South Korea.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Campylobacter is a food-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter bacteria are commensal in the intestines of many food production animals, including ducks and chickens. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter species in domestic ducks, and the agar dilution method was used to determine resistance of the isolates to eight antibiotics. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to determine the sequence types (STs) of selected Campylobacter isolates. Between May and September 2012, 58 duck farms were analyzed, and 56 (96.6%) were positive for Campylobacter. Among the isolates, 82.1% were Campylobacter jejuni, 16.1% were C. coli, and one was unidentified by PCR. Of the 46 C. jejuni isolates, 87.0%, 10.9%, and 21.7% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin, respectively. Among the C. coli isolates, all 9 strains were resistant to ampicillin, and 77.8% and 33.3% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, respectively. The majority of the Campylobacter isolates were classified as multidrug resistant. Twenty-eight STs were identified, including 20 STs for C. jejuni and 8 STs for C. coli. The most common clonal complexes in C. jejuni were the ST-21 complex and the ST-45 complex, while the ST-828 complex predominated in C. coli. The majority of isolates were of STs noted in ducks and humans from earlier studies, along with seven STs previously associated only with human disease. These STs overlapped between duck and human isolates, indicating that Campylobacter isolates from ducks should be considered potential sources of human infection.
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Saponarin from barley sprouts inhibits NF-?B and MAPK on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Saponarin (SA), a natural flavonoid, is known for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. SA is the predominant compound (1142.7 ± 0.9 mg per 100 g) in barley sprouts, constituting 72% of the total polyphenol content. We investigated, for the first time, the effects of SA from barley sprouts on cellular anti-inflammatory responses. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, SA suppressed the activation of NF-?B, as evidenced by the inhibition of NF-?B DNA binding, nuclear translocation, I?B? phosphorylation, and reporter gene expression, and it downregulated the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-6. Furthermore, SA reduced the transcription of NF-?B target molecules COX2 and FLIP inhibited the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and p38. These results suggest that SA isolated from barley sprouts exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages via inhibition of NF-?B, ERK and p38 signaling. Thus, SA may be a promising natural anti-inflammatory agent.
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Prevalence of Salmonella isolates and antimicrobial resistance in poultry meat from South Korea.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Contamination of Salmonella was assessed in duck and chicken meat collected from supermarkets, traditional markets, internet shopping malls, and wholesale markets in Jeonlado, South Korea, in 2013. Salmonella contamination was found in 51.3% of duck meat samples and 3.7% of chicken meat samples. Salmonella contamination of duck meat samples differed by meat type, i.e., 69.8% of samples of whole ducks and 33.9% of samples of duck pieces. Six serotypes were identified from 64 Salmonella isolates in duck meat: Salmonella Typhimurium (37.5%), Salmonella Enteritidis (21.8%), Salmonella Stanley (3.1%), Salmonella Regent (1.6%), Salmonella Winterthur (3.1%), and Salmonella Westhampton (1.6%). All isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Resistance to sulfisoxazole was most common (93.8% of isolates), followed by resistance to nalidixic acid (59.4%), ceftazidime (26.6%), and ampicillin (26.6%). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report Salmonella contamination in duck meat from Korea. Duck meat should be considered an important source of foodborne pathogens.
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Oral administration of herbal mixture extract inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis in BALB/c mice.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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CP001 is four traditional herbal medicine mixtures with anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of oral administration of CP001 ethanol extract on the 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mouse models. For that purpose, we observed the effects of oral administration of CP001 on skin inflammatory cell infiltration, skin mast cells, production of serum IgE, and expression of Th2 cytokine mRNA in the AD skin lesions of DNCB treated BALB/c mice. Histological analyses demonstrated that CP001 decreased dermis and epidermis thickening as well as dermal infiltration induced by inflammatory cells. In addition, CP001 decreased mast cell infiltration in count as well as dermal infiltration induced by inflammatory cells. In the skin lesions, mRNA expression of interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-13 was inhibited by CP001. CP001 also reduced the production of IgE level in mouse plasma. In addition, we investigated the effect of CP001 on the inflammatory allergic reaction using human mast cells (HMC-1). In HMC-1, cytokine production and mRNA levels of IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, and IL-8 were suppressed by CP001. Taken together, our results showed that oral administration of CP001 exerts beneficial effects in AD symptoms, suggesting that CP001 might be a useful candidate for the treatment of AD.
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Cognitive and psychosocial effects of oxcarbazepine monotherapy in newly diagnosed partial epilepsy.
Clin Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on cognition and psychosocial difficulties in patients with new-onset partial epilepsy.
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Induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis by apigenin by inhibiting STAT3 signaling in HER2-overexpressing MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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This study aimed to examine the effect of apigenin on proliferation and apoptosis in HER2-overexpressing MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells.
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DJ-1 protein regulates CD3+ T cell migration via overexpression of CXCR4 receptor.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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DJ-1-a multifunctional protein responding to oxidative stress-is a possible regulator of the inflammatory response that plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor, chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), have been implicated in the recruitment of inflammatory cells during atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the hypothesis that DJ-1 protein might participate in CD3+ T cell functions in response to SDF-1 and contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
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Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and their impacts on psychosocial functioning in people with epilepsy.
J Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in people with epilepsy (PWE) have not been studied systematically. We evaluated the severity, predictors, and psychosocial impact of OCS in PWE.
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Alkylated fullerene derivatives for solution-processable organic thin-film transistors and bulkheterojunction solar cells.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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In this paper, we report synthesis and characterization of alkylated fullerene derivatives for solution-processable organic thin film transistors and solar cells. Their physical, thermal, and semiconducting properties have been studied. Organic thin-film transistors fabricated from C60TH-Oc exhibit electron mobilities as high as 3.2 x 10(-2) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) with 32 V of a threshold voltage. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) was observed in a layered structure P3HT:C60TH-Oc (PCE = 0.44%), which was a twice value of P3HT:C60TH-Dd (PCE = 0.23%).
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One-step synthesis of N-doped graphene quantum sheets from monolayer graphene by nitrogen plasma.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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High-quality N-doped graphene quantum sheets are successfully fabricated from as-grown monolayer graphene on Cu using nitrogen plasma, which can be transferred as a film-like layer or easily dispersed in an organic solvent for further optoelectronic or photoelectrochemical applications.
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Direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts into induced neural stem cells.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Terminally differentiated cells can be directly converted into different types of somatic cells by using defined factors, thus circumventing the pluripotent state. However, low reprogramming efficiency, along with the absence of proliferation of some somatic cell types, makes it difficult to generate large numbers of cells with this method. Here we describe a protocol to directly convert mouse fibroblasts into self-renewing induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) that can be expanded in vitro, thereby overcoming the limitations associated with low reprogramming efficiency. The four transcription factors required for direct conversion into iNSCs (Sox2, Klf4, Myc (also known as c-Myc) and Pou3f4 (also known as Brn4)) do not generate a pluripotent cell state, and thus the risk for tumor formation after transplantation is reduced. By following the current protocol, iNSCs are observed 4-5 weeks after transduction. Two additional months are required to establish clonal iNSC cell lines that exhibit retroviral transgene silencing and that differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
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Effects of nitrogen incorporation in HfO(2) grown on InP by atomic layer deposition: an evolution in structural, chemical, and electrical characteristics.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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We investigated the effects of postnitridation on the structural characteristics and interfacial reactions of HfO2 thin films grown on InP by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a function of film thickness. By postdeposition annealing under NH3 vapor (PDN) at 600 °C, an InN layer formed at the HfO2/InP interface, and ionized NHx was incorporated in the HfO2 film. We demonstrate that structural changes resulting from nitridation of HfO2/InP depend on the film thickness (i.e., a single-crystal interfacial layer of h-InN formed at thin (2 nm) HfO2/InP interfaces, whereas an amorphous InN layer formed at thick (>6 nm) HfO2/InP interfaces). Consequently, the tetragonal structure of HfO2 transformed into a mixture structure of tetragonal and monoclinic because the interfacial InN layer relieved interfacial strain between HfO2 and InP. During postdeposition annealing (PDA) in HfO2/InP at 600 °C, large numbers of oxidation states were generated as a result of interfacial reactions between interdiffused oxygen impurities and out-diffused InP substrate elements. However, in the case of the PDN of HfO2/InP structures at 600 °C, nitrogen incorporation in the HfO2 film effectively blocked the out-diffusion of atomic In and P, thus suppressing the formation of oxidation states. Accordingly, the number of interfacial defect states (Dit) within the band gap of InP was significantly reduced, which was also supported by DFT calculations. Interfacial InN in HfO2/InP increased the electron-barrier height to ?0.6 eV, which led to low-leakage-current density in the gate voltage region over 2 V.
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Establishment of an orthotopic mouse non-muscle invasive bladder cancer model expressing the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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We established an orthotopic non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) mouse model expressing the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. After intravesical instillation of KU-7-lucs (day 0), animals were subsequently monitored by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) on days 4, 7, 14, and 21, and performed histopathological examination. We also validated the orthotopic mouse model expressing the mTOR signaling pathway immunohistochemically. In vitro BLI photon density was correlated with KU-7-luc cell number (r (2) = 0.97, P < 0.01) and in vivo BLI photon densities increased steadily with time after intravesical instillation. The tumor take rate was 84.2%, formed initially on day 4 and remained NMIBC up to day 21. T1 photon densities were significantly higher than Ta (P < 0.01), and histological tumor volume was positively correlated with BLI photon density (r (2) = 0.87, P < 0.01). The mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins were expressed in the bladder, and were correlated with the western blot results. Our results suggest successful establishment of an orthotopic mouse NMIBC model expressing the mTOR signaling pathway using KU-7-luc cells. This model is expected to be helpful to evaluate preclinical testing of intravesical therapy based on the mTOR signaling pathway against NMIBC.
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Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effect of herbal medicines (APR) in RAW264.7 cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a mixture of medicinal plants [Angelica gigas Nakai, Panax ginseng and Rhus verniciflua Stokes (APR)] on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Cells were treated with APR and LPS at various concentrations and indicated times. WST assay, trypan blue assay and quantification of activated cells demonstrated that APR suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. APR induced G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and necrosis factor ?B (NF-?B). APR also suppressed nitric oxide synthase isoform (iNOS) and prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (Cox-2) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression induced by LPS. Furthermore, APR decreased LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as induced PARP and caspase-3 cleavage, suggesting that APR causes apoptosis. In conclusion, the present study indicated that APR may be advantageous in treating inflammatory disease.
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Effects of Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis model.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. The prevalence of AR is increasing worldwide. We investigated whether Hyeonggaeyeongyo-tang (HYT) is effective to suppress the progression of AR induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Male BALB/c mice were used for this study. Allergic rhinitis was induced by OVA. Treatment with HYT was assessed to study the effect of HYT on allergic rhinitis in mice. Histological analysis, immunohistochemistry, multiplex cytokine assay, blood analysis, and cell viability assay were performed to verify inhibitory effect of HYT on allergic rhinitis. HYT did not show any toxicity maintaining body weight. Food intake was steady without variation in mice. HYT reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and mast cells into nasal cavity. HYT reduced the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in the blood. HYT decreased the splenocyte cell viability. Antihistamines and steroids are the most common medications used to treat allergic rhinitis. However, long-term use of drug generates resistance or side effects requiring the development of new drug. Our present study clearly demonstrates that HYT suppresses the progression of allergic rhinitis induced by OVA. This suggests that HYT might be a useful drug for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
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Structural basis of a novel activity of bacterial 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase homologues distinct from mammalian 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase activity.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Escherichia coli 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase (eCTPS), a homologue of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS), possesses a much stronger catalytic activity to cleave the side chain of sepiapterin in vitro compared with genuine PTPS activity and catalyzes the conversion of dihydroneopterin triphosphate to 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin in vivo. Crystal structures of wild-type apo eCTPS and of a Cys27Ala mutant eCTPS complexed with sepiapterin have been determined to 2.3 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. The structures are highly conserved at the active site and the Zn(2+) binding site. However, comparison of the eCTPS structures with those of mammalian PTPS homologues revealed that two specific residues, Trp51 and Phe55, that are not found in mammalian PTPS keep the substrate bound by stacking it with their side chains. Replacement of these two residues by site-directed mutagenesis to the residues Met and Leu, which are only found in mammalian PTPS, converted eCTPS to the mammalian PTPS activity. These studies confirm that these two aromatic residues in eCTPS play an essential role in stabilizing the substrate and in the specific enzyme activity that differs from the original PTPS activity. These aromatic residues Trp51 and Phe55 are a key signature of bacterial PTPS enzymes that distinguish them from mammalian PTPS homologues.
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Cilostazol inhibits insulin-stimulated expression of sterol regulatory binding protein-1c via inhibition of LXR and Sp1.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Hepatic steatosis is common in obese individuals with hyperinsulinemia and is an important hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Sterol regulatory binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a master regulator of lipogenic gene expression in the liver. Hyperinsulinemia induces transcription of SREBP-1c via activation of liver X receptor (LXR) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Cilostazol is an antiplatelet agent that prevents atherosclerosis and decreases serum triglyceride levels. However, little is known about the effects of cilostazol on hepatic lipogenesis. Here, we examined the role of cilostazol in the regulation of SREBP-1c transcription in the liver. The effects of cilostazol on the expression of SREBP-1c and its target genes in response to insulin or an LXR agonist (T0901317) were examined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis on cultured hepatocytes. To investigate the effect of cilostazol on SREBP-1c at the transcriptional level, transient transfection reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) were performed. Cilostazol inhibited insulin-induced and LXR-agonist-induced expression of SREBP-1c and its downstream targets, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, in cultured hepatocytes. Cilostazol also inhibited activation of the SREBP-1c promoter by insulin, T0901317 and Sp1 in a luciferase reporter assay. EMSA analysis showed that cilostazol inhibits SREBP-1c expression by repressing the binding of LXR and Sp1 to the promoter region. These results indicate that cilostazol inhibits insulin-induced hepatic SREBP-1c expression via the inhibition of LXR and Sp1 activity and that cilostazol is a negative regulator of hepatic lipogenesis.
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Sitagliptin attenuates methionine/choline-deficient diet-induced steatohepatitis.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), such as sitagliptin, may play an important role in the prevention of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study was conducted to elucidate whether sitagliptin could prevent steatohepatitis by inhibiting pathways involved in hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.
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Economic burden of colorectal cancer in Korea.
J Prev Med Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service.
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Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity.
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Prevalence of Duck Circovirus Infection of Subclinical Pekin Ducks in South Korea.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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An investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence and infection pattern of duck circovirus (DuCV) in subclinical Pekin ducks on South Korean duck farms. A total of 147 samples collected from 92 duck farms in five provinces was examined from 2011 to 2012. The overall prevalence of DuCV PCR-positive from pooled bursa of Fabricius and liver samples was 21.8% (32/147). The prevalence of DuCV PCR-positive increased significantly in 3-week-old ducks compared to that in 1-week-old ducks (P<0.05). DuCV in association with Riemerella and Salmonella infections (10.9%; 16/147) occurred at the same level compared with single DuCV PCR-positive (10.9%; 16/147). Compared with relationship of bacterial diseases morbidity (salmonellosis, Riemerella infection) in existing DuCV or not, morbidity was higher in circovirus-positive (50%; 16/32) than in circovirus-negative farms (26.1%; 30/115). Our findings provide baseline information on the degree of DuCV infection and distribution and pattern of DuCV in ducks and it is evident that DuCV can be associated with subclinical diseases and subclinical infection could be economically important.
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Chicken embryo lethality assay for determining the virulence of Riemerella anatipestifer isolates.
Avian Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Riemerella anatipestifer is the causative agent of polyserositis and septicaemia in waterfowl. Twenty-one serotypes have been reported, and there is a strong variation in virulence between strains according to serotype or strain. However, little information is available to assess virulence, such as virulence-associated genes; thus, it is difficult to estimate the risk from field strains. Hence, we established a chicken embryo lethality assay (ELA) model to determine the virulence of R. anatipestifer strains. Three virulent strains (RA T1, RA T7, and V-1) and three avirulent strains (Av-1, Av-2, and Av-3), which were confirmed by duck challenge, were used to perform the ELA. Inoculating 10(2) to 10(4) colony-forming units into the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old embryos discriminated between virulent and avirulent strains based on mortality. Differences in invasion rates into embryonic tissues were found between the RA T1 and Av-1 strains. The maximum colony-forming units of the RA T1 strain were about 1000 times higher than those of the Av-1 strain in the tissue invasion rate for 4 days. We found that the virulent strains killed embryos at mortality rates ? 50% during the first 3 days after inoculation and that the avirulent strains had death rates of ? 20% over 5 days. These results obtained by repeated testing suggest that the ELA could be used as a first-line screening method to determine the virulence of R. anatipestifer strains.
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Intravesical Instillation of c-MYC Inhibitor KSI-3716 Suppresses Orthotopic Bladder Tumor Growth.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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c-MYC is a promising target for cancer therapy but its use is restricted by unwanted, devastating side effects. We explored whether intravesical instillation of the c-MYC inhibitor KSI-3716 could suppress tumor growth in murine orthotopic bladder xenografts.
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A case of sheathless transradial coronary intervention for complex coronary lesions with a standard guiding catheter.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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One of the major limitations of transradial coronary intervention is the inability to use large guiding system, which leads to the development of dedicated sheathless guide catheter system. However, these devices are not available in the Republic of Korea. We present a case in which conventional guiding catheter was used for sheathless transradial coronary intervention in the treatment of complex coronary anatomy.
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Combined information from resting-state functional connectivity and passive movements with functional magnetic resonance imaging differentiates fast late-onset motor recovery from progressive recovery in hemiplegic stroke patients: a pilot study.
J Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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To investigate the value of combining information from resting-state functional connectivity and passive movements, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in acute stroke patients with severe motor impairment.
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Silibinin inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathway in HMC-1 human mast cells.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Silibinin is the major active molecule of silymarin, the mixture of flavonolignans extracted from Cirsium japonicum. It has been used for the treatment of hepatitis and inflammation-related diseases. In the present study, the effects of silibinin on allergic inflammation and its signaling were investigated in the induced human mast cells.
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The economic burden of epilepsy in Korea, 2010.
J Prev Med Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The purposes of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of epilepsy and to estimate the cost of epilepsy in Korea, 2010.
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Trichosanthes kirilowii Ethanol Extract and Cucurbitacin D Inhibit Cell Growth and Induce Apoptosis through Inhibition of STAT3 Activity in Breast Cancer Cells.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Trichosanthes kirilowii tuber is a traditional medicine which exhibits various medicinal effects including antidiabetic and anticancer activities in several cancer cells. Recently, it was reported that Cucurbitacin D (CuD) isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii also induces apoptosis in several cancer cells. Constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is an oncogenic transcription factor, is often observed in many human malignant tumor, including breast cancer. In the present study, we tested whether Trichosanthes kirilowii ethanol extract (TKE) or CuD suppresses cell growth and induces apoptosis through inhibition of STAT3 activity in breast cancer cells. We found that both TKE and CuD suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, both TKE and CuD inhibited nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of STAT3. Taken together, our results indicate that TKE and its derived compound, CuD, could be potent therapeutic agents for breast cancer, blocking tumor cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis through suppression of STAT3 activity.
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Water extract of deer bones activates macrophages and alleviates neutropenia.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Extracts from deer bones, called nok-gol in Korean, have long been used to invigorate Qi. While neutropenia is not well detected in normal physiological condition, it could be a cause of severe problems to develop diseases such as infectious and cancerous diseases. Thus, a prevention of neutropenia in normal physiology and pathophysiological states is important for maintaining Qi and preventing disease progress. In cell biological aspects, activated macrophages are known to prevent neutropenia. In this study, we demonstrate that water extract of deer bone (herein, NG) prevents neutropenia by activating macrophages. In mouse neutropenia model system in vivo where ICR mice were treated with cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress, an oral administration of NG altered the number of blood cells including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. This in vivo effect of NG was relevant to that of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) that was known to improve neutropenia. Our in vitro studies further showed that NG treatment increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoted macrophagic differentiation of mouse monocytic Raw264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, NG enhanced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and secretions of cytokines including IL-6 and TNF- ? . Consistently, NG treatment induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, IKK, I ? B ? , and NF- ? B in Raw264.7 cells. Thus, our data suggest that NG is helpful for alleviating neutropenia.
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Teaching neuroimages: anoxic brain injury with unilateral hemispheric cortical involvement.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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A 55-year-old woman collapsed with chest pain and cardiac arrest. Her pulse was restored after 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but she remained comatose. Brain MRI (figure) revealed bilateral basal ganglia and right hemispheric cortical lesion, which was typical for anoxic brain injury except for the unilateral cortical involvement. Neck CT angiography showed severe stenosis in the right proximal internal carotid artery. The unilateral cortical injury could be explained by compromised cerebral blood flow due to preexisting carotid stenosis. This case demonstrates an atypical pattern of anoxic brain injury secondary to focal vascular stenosis.
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Clusterin decreases hepatic SREBP-1c expression and lipid accumulation.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Hepatic steatosis is emerging as the most important cause of chronic liver disease and is associated with the increasing incidence of obesity with insulin resistance. Sterol regulatory binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a master regulator of lipogenic gene expression in the liver. Hyperinsulinemia induces SREBP-1c transcription through liver X receptor (LXR), specificity protein 1, and SREBP-1c itself. Clusterin, an 80-kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein, has been functionally implicated in several physiological processes including lipid transport; however, little is known about its effect on hepatic lipogenesis. The present study examined whether clusterin regulates SREBP-1c expression and lipid accumulation in the liver. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of clusterin inhibited insulin- or LXR agonist-stimulated SREBP-1c expression in cultured liver cells. In reporter assays, clusterin inhibited SREBP-1c promoter activity. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of clusterin in the livers of mice fed a high-fat diet inhibited hepatic steatosis through the inhibition of SREBP-1c expression. Reporter and gel shift assays showed that clusterin inhibits SREBP-1c expression via the repression of LXR and specificity protein 1 activity. This study shows that clusterin inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation through the inhibition of SREBP-1c expression and suggests that clusterin is a negative regulator of SREBP-1c expression and hepatic lipogenesis.
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Anti?inflammatory and anti?proliferative effects of Rhus verniciflua Stokes in RAW264.7 cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Inflammatory response is a major defense mechanism against pathogens and chemical or mechanical injury. Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) has traditionally been used as an ingredient in East Asian medicine for the treatment of gastritis, stomach cancer and atherosclerosis. The aim of the current study was to analyze the effect of RVS on LPS?induced inflammatory responses in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. RAW264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of RVS and LPS at specific time points. WST assay, trypan blue assay and quantification of activated cells revealed that RVS suppressed cell proliferation in a dose?dependent manner. RVS induced G1 cell cycle arrest, suppressed iNOS and COX?2 mRNA expression induced by LPS and decreased intracellular ROS levels induced by LPS. In addition, RVS induced PARP and caspase?3 cleavage suggesting that RVS causes cell death. Results of the present study indicate that RVS may be advantageous in treating inflammatory disease.
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Houttuynia cordata Thunb inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the NF?B signaling pathway in HMC-1 human mast cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is widely used in oriental medicine as a remedy for inflammation. However, at present there is no explanation for the mechanism by which HCT affects the production of inflammatory cytokines. The current study aimed to determine the effect of an essence extracted from HCT on mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Inflammatory cytokine production induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus a calcium ionophore, A23187, was measured in the human mast cell line, HMC-1, incubated with various concentrations of HCT. TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 secreted protein levels were measured using an ELISA assay. TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR analysis. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were examined by western blot analysis. The NF-?B promoter activity was examined by luciferase assay. It was observed that HCT inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced TNF-? and IL-6 secretion and reduced the mRNA levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-8. It was also noted that HCT suppressed the induction of NF-?B activity, inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-?B and blocked the phosphorylation of I?B? in stimulated HMC-1 cells. It was concluded that HCT is an inhibitor of NF-?B and cytokines blocking mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. These results indicate that HCT may be used for the treatment of mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases.
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The Extract of Herbal Medicines Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Our study investigated whether the extract of six herbal medicines (OB-1) has an inhibitory effect on obesity. High-fat diet-(HFD-) induced rats and controls were treated with 40?mg/100?g body weight of OB-1 or saline once a day for 5 weeks. After significant changes in body weight were induced, OB-1 and saline were administered to each subgroup of HFD and control groups for additional 5 weeks. No statistically significant decrease of body weight in OB-1-treated rats was found compared to controls. However, OB-1-treated rats were found to be more active in an open-field test and have a reduction in the size of adipocytes compared to controls. We observed no changes in the mRNA expressions of leptin and adiponectin from adipocytes between OB-1- and saline-treated rats with HFD-induced obesity group. However, OB-1 treatments were shown to be inversely correlated with accumulation of lipid droplets in liver tissue, suggesting that OB-1 could inhibit a lipid accumulation by blocking the pathway related to lipid metabolism. Moreover, the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was significantly increased in OB-1-treated rats with HFD compared to controls. These results suggest that OB-1 has no direct antiobesity effect and, however, could be a regulator of cellular metabolism.
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Adenovirus expressing both thymidine kinase and soluble PD1 enhances antitumor immunity by strengthening CD8 T-cell response.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Adenoviruses harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene under the regulation of a trans-splicing ribozyme targeting human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-TR) show marked and specific antitumor activity. In addition to inducing tumor cell death by direct cytotoxicity, it is becoming clear that HSVtk also induces antitumor immunity. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressed on tumor cell surfaces mediates tumor-induced immunoresistance by inhibiting PD1-expressing tumor-infiltrating T cells. Here, we explored whether a soluble form of PD1 (sPD1-Ig), which blocks PD-L1, could synergize with TERT-TR-regulated HSVtk to enhance the adenoviral therapeutic efficacy by boosting antitumor immunity. Tumor antigen released by HSVtk-transduced tumors successfully primed tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells via dendritic cells (DC). Regression of murine tumors was markedly enhanced when sPD1-Ig was incorporated into the adenovirus as compared with a single-module adenovirus expressing only HSVtk. This effect was abolished by CD8 T-cell depletion. Consistent with this, following adoptive transfer of tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells into tumor-bearing Rag1(-/-) mice, dual-module adenovirus significantly enhanced CD8 T cell-mediated tumor rejection. In addition, secondary tumor challenge at a distal site was completely suppressed in mice treated with a dual-module adenovirus. These results suggest that a dual-targeting strategy to elicit both tumor antigen priming and tumor-induced immunoresistance enhances CD8 T cell-mediated antitumor immunity.
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Non-neurologic complications following surgery for scoliosis.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-neurologic complications following surgery for scoliosis and to identify factors that can increase this risk.
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Phenolic phytochemical displaying SARS-CoV papain-like protease inhibition from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) is a key enzyme that plays an important role in SARS virus replication. The ethanol extract of the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia showed high activity against the SARS-CoV PLpro with an IC(50) of value of 15?µg/ml. Due to its potency, subsequent bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract led to six aromatic compounds (1-6), which were identified as bavachinin (1), neobavaisoflavone (2), isobavachalcone (3), 4-O-methylbavachalcone (4), psoralidin (5) and corylifol A (6). All isolated flavonoids (1-6) inhibited PLpro in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) ranging between 4.2 and 38.4?µM. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots and their secondary replots indicated that inhibitors (1-6) were mixed inhibitors of PLpro. The analysis of K(I) and K(IS) values proved that the two most promising compounds (3 and 5) had reversible mixed type I mechanisms.
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Serologic survey for antibodies to canine parvovirus and influenza virus in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in South Korea.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Sera from 102 wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were screened for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) and influenza A virus (IAV) in South Korea. Sixteen samples were antibody positive for CPV and all samples were negative for IAV antibodies.
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Complete solubilization and purification of recombinant human growth hormone produced in Escherichia coli.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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High-level expression of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) leads to the formation of insoluble aggregates as inclusion bodies devoid of biological activity. Until recently, significant efforts have been made to improve the recovery of active hGH from inclusion bodies. Here, we developed an efficient procedure for the production of completely soluble hGH by minimizing the formation of inclusion bodies and optimizing protein purification conditions. Under the newly established conditions we were able to obtain most of the total hGH in the soluble fraction. We show that the soluble protein can be efficiently purified in high yield by a series of chromatographic procedures. We analyzed the resulting hGH using various analytical techniques such as reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism (CD). These multiple analyses support the conclusion that we obtained highly pure hGH with the expected molecular mass and intact secondary structure. The biological activity of purified hGH was also confirmed by evaluating its growth-promoting effect using a cell proliferation assay. Taken together, we describe a straightforward strategy for the production of completely soluble and biologically active hGH in E. coli.
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The Autophagy-Related Marker LC3 Can Predict Prognosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Defects of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are related to many diseases and tumors. However, only a few studies have examined hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as related to these processes. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression and extent of autophagy and ER stress-related markers in HCC and their influence on clinical characteristics and prognosis for each protein.
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Economic burden of asthma in Korea.
Allergy Asthma Proc
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Understanding the magnitude of the economic impact of an illness on society is fundamental to planning and implementing relevant policies. South Korea operates a compulsory universal health insurance system providing favorable conditions for evaluating the nationwide economic burden of illnesses. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic costs of asthma imposed on Korean society. The Korean National Health Insurance claims database was used for determining the health care services provided to asthma patients defined as having at least one inpatient or outpatient claim(s) with a primary diagnosis of asthma in 2008. Both direct and indirect costs were included. Direct costs were those associated directly with treatment, medication, and transportation. Indirect costs were assessed in terms of the loss of productivity in asthma patients and their caregivers and consisted of morbidity cost, mortality cost, and caregivers time cost. The estimated cost for 2,273,290 asthma patients in 2008 was $831 million, with an average per capita cost of $336. Among the cost components, outpatient and medication costs represented the largest cost burden. Although the costs for children accounted for the largest proportion of the total cost, the per capita cost was highest among patients ?50 years old. The economic burden of asthma in Korea is considerable. Considering that the burden will increase with the rising prevalence, implementation of effective national prevention approaches aimed at the appropriate target populations is imperative.
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Are ex vivo mesothelial cells representative of the in vivo transition from epithelial-to-mesenchymal cells in peritoneal membrane?
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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We investigated whether ex vivo mesothelial cells found in peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluents were representative of the in vivo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in peritoneal membrane.
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The Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtAIRP2 plays combinatory roles with AtAIRP1 in abscisic acid-mediated drought stress responses.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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The ubiquitin (Ub)-26S proteasome pathway is implicated in various cellular processes in higher plants. AtAIRP1, a C3H2C3-type RING (for Really Interesting New Gene) E3 Ub ligase, is a positive regulator in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent drought response. Here, the AtAIRP2 (for Arabidopsis ABA-insensitive RING protein 2) gene was identified and characterized. AtAIRP2 encodes a cytosolic C3HC4-type RING E3 Ub ligase whose expression was markedly induced by ABA and dehydration stress. Thus, AtAIRP2 belongs to a different RING subclass than AtAIRP1 with a limited sequence identity. AtAIRP2-overexpressing transgenic (35S:AtAIRP2-sGFP) and atairp2 loss-of-function mutant plants exhibited hypersensitive and hyposensitive phenotypes, respectively, to ABA in terms of seed germination, root growth, and stomatal movement. 35S:AtAIRP2-sGFP plants were highly tolerant to severe drought stress, and atairp2 alleles were more susceptible to water stress than were wild-type plants. Higher levels of drought-induced hydrogen peroxide production were detected in 35S:AtAIRP2-sGFP as compared with atairp2 plants. ABA-inducible drought-related genes were up-regulated in 35S:AtAIRP2-sGFP and down-regulated in atairp2 progeny. The positive effects of AtAIRP2 on ABA-induced stress genes were dependent on SNF1-related protein kinases, key components of the ABA signaling pathway. Therefore, AtAIRP2 is involved in positive regulation of ABA-dependent drought stress responses. To address the functional relationship between AtAIRP1 and AtAIRP2, FLAG-AtAIRP1 and AtAIRP2-sGFP genes were ectopically expressed in atairp2-2 and atairp1 plants, respectively. Constitutive expression of FLAG-AtAIRP1 and AtAIRP2-sGFP in atairp2-2 and atairp1 plants, respectively, reciprocally rescued the loss-of-function ABA-insensitive phenotypes during germination. Additionally, atairp1/35S:AtAIRP2-sGFP and atairp2-2/35S:FLAG-AtAIRP1 complementation lines were more tolerant to dehydration stress relative to atairp1 and atairp2-2 single knockout plants. Overall, these results suggest that AtAIRP2 plays combinatory roles with AtAIRP1 in Arabidopsis ABA-mediated drought stress responses.
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Crystallization and preliminary X-ray data analysis of a DJ-1 homologue from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDJ-1D).
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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A DJ-1 homologue protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDJ-1D) belongs to the DJ-1/ThiJ/Pfpl superfamily and contains two tandem arrays of DJ-1-like sequences, but no structural information is available to date for this protein. AtDJ-1D was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized for structural analysis. A crystal of AtDJ-1D was obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using 0.22 M NaCl, 0.1 M bis-tris pH 6.5, 21% polyethylene glycol 3350. AtDJ-1D crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 56.78, b = 75.21, c = 141.68 Å, ? = 96.87°, and contained a trimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to 2.05 Å resolution. The structure of AtDJ-1D has been determined using the multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method.
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Phytoestrogens induce apoptosis via extrinsic pathway, inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB signaling in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Phytoestrogens are known to prevent tumor induction. But their molecular mechanisms of action are largely unknown. This study aimed to examine the effect of genistein and quercetin on proliferation and apoptosis in HER2-expressing breast cancer cells.
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Real-time monitoring of anticancer drug release in vitro and in vivo on titania nanoparticles triggered by external glutathione.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) appeared to adsorb efficiently on TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) as evidenced by visible absorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy data. The adsorbed drugs were found released in a controlled way by external glutathione (GSH). Fluorescence of DOX appeared to be quenched substantially by TiO(2) NPs. The fabrication and release of DOX on TiO(2) NPs were checked by monitoring the fluorescence. We could monitor real-time drug release in the live cell using fluorescence imaging techniques. By these methods, we were able to monitor up to a nanomolar amount of DOX release in vitro from TiO(2) NPs triggered by external GSH. In vivo fluorescence images of DOX were obtained from the subcutaneous site in living mice after GSH treatment. On the basis of label-free fluorescence quenching measurements, a real-time release of DOX on TiO(2) NPs can be monitored in vitro and in vivo after an external trigger of GSH.
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?-Carotene and lutein inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of NF-?B and IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric inflammation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent mediator of the inflammatory response by activating and recruiting neutrophils to the site of infection. Oxidant-sensitive transcription factor NF-?B regulates the expression of IL-8 in the immune and inflammatory events. Carotenoids (carotenes and oxygenated carotenoids) show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Low intake of ?-carotene leads to high risk of gastric cancer. Oxygenated carotenoid lutein inhibited NF-?B activation in experimental uveitis. The present study aims to investigate whether ?-carotene and lutein inhibit H(2)O(2)-induced activation of NF-?B and expression of IL-8 in gastric epithelial AGS cells. The cells were treated with carotenoids 2 h prior to the treatment of H(2)O(2). mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR analyses. IL-8 level in the medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-?B activation was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. ROS levels of the cells were detected by confocal microscopic analysis for fluorescent dichlorofluorescein. As a result, H(2)O(2 )induced the activation of NF-?B and expression of IL-8 in AGS cells time-dependently. ?-Carotene and lutein showed inhibitory effects on H(2)O(2)-induced increase in intracellular ROS levels, activation of NF-?B, and IL-8 expression in AGS cells. In conclusion, supplementation of carotenoids such as ?-carotene and lutein may be beneficial for the treatment of oxidative stress-mediated gastric inflammation.
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Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
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Kimchi fermentation usually relies upon the growth of naturally-occurring various heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This sometimes makes it difficult to produce kimchi with uniform quality. The use of Leuconostoc mesenteroides as a starter has been considered to produce commercial fermented kimchi with uniform and good quality in Korea. In this study, a combination of a barcoded pyrosequencing strategy and a (1)H NMR technique was used to investigate the effects of Leu. mesenteroides strain B1 as a starter culture for kimchi fermentation. Baechu (Chinese cabbage) and Chonggak (radish) kimchi with and without Leu. mesenteroides inoculation were prepared, respectively and their characteristics that included pH, cell number, bacterial community, and metabolites were monitored periodically for 40 days. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the numbers of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) in starter kimchi decreased more quickly than that in non-starter kimchi. Members of the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were dominant LAB regardless of the kimchi type or starter inoculation. Among the three genera, Leuconostoc was the most abundant, followed by Lactobacillus and Weissella. The use of Leu. mesenteroides as a starter increased the Leuconostoc proportions and decreased the Lactobacillus proportions in both type of kimchi during kimchi fermentation. However, interestingly, the use of the kimchi starter more highly maintained the Weissella proportions of starter kimchi compared to that in the non-starter kimchi until fermentation was complete. Metabolite analysis using the (1)H NMR technique showed that both Baechu and Chonggak kimchi with the starter culture began to consume free sugars earlier and produced a little greater amounts of lactic and acetic acids and mannitol. Metabolite analysis demonstrated that kimchi fermentation using Leu. mesenteroides as a starter was completed earlier with more production of kimchi metabolites compared to that not using a starter, which coincided with the decreases in pH and the increases in bacterial cell number. The PCA strategy using all kimchi components including carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, and others also showed that starter kimchi fermented faster with more organic acid and mannitol production. In conclusion, the combination of the barcoded pyrosequencing strategy and the (1)H NMR technique was used to effectively monitor microbial succession and metabolite production and allowed for a greater understanding of the relationships between the microbial community and metabolite production in kimchi fermentation.
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[Shifting in seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV during recent 10 years in adults resident in Daegu and Gyeongbuk province].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There have been only few studies on the population-adjusted seroprevalence of HBV and HCV and on the change of them for more than 10 years in Korea. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate them at a single health center in Daegu and Gyeongbuk province considering the population composition ratio.
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N-methyl D-aspartate channels link ammonia and epithelial cell death mechanisms in Helicobacter pylori Infection.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Ammonia/ammonium (A/A) is a cytotoxin generated by H pylori that kills gastric epithelial cells. We investigated whether A/A cytotoxicity occurs by activating N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) channels, which results in Ca(2+) permeation and epithelial cell death.
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Induction of Fas-mediated extrinsic apoptosis, p21WAF1-related G2/M cell cycle arrest and ROS generation by costunolide in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2011
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Costunolide (C(15)H(20)O(2)) is a sesquiterpene lactone that was isolated from many herbal medicines and it has diverse effects according to previous reports. However, the anti-cancer effects and the mechanism of actions are still unknown in breast cancer. In this study, we first observed that costunolide inhibits cell growth in a dose-and time-dependent manner. To examine the mechanism by which costunolide inhibits cell growth, we checked the effect of costunolide on apoptosis and the cell cycle. Costunolide induced apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, including the activation of Fas, caspase-8, caspase-3, and degradation of PARP. However, did not have the same effect on the intrinsic pathway as revealed by analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) with JC-1 dye and expression of Bcl2 and Bax proteins level. Furthermore, costunolide induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase via decrease in Cdc2, cyclin B1 and increase in p21WAF1 expression, independent of p53 pathway in p53-mutant MDA-MB-231 cells and increases Cdc2-p21WAF1 binding. In addition, costunolide had a slight induced effect on ROS generation. Among the mechanisms of p21WAF1 induction examined, costunolide-induced increase in p21WAF1 expression was related with protein stability and ROS generation. Through this study we confirm that costunolide induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death via extrinsic pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells suggesting that it could be a promising anticancer drug especially for ER-negative breast cancer.
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Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates methionine choline deficient diet-induced steatohepatitis in C57BL/6 mice.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease that causes fat accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis. Increased oxidative stress contributes to hepatic inflammation and fibrosis by upregulation of Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. This study examined whether alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring thiol antioxidant, prevents steatohepatitis through the inhibition of several pathways involved in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis.
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Recanalization of an accidentally crushed coronary stent by intravascular ultrasonography catheter entrapment.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) imaging is a user-friendly technique widely used during coronary interventions. An 80-year-old man was admitted with chest pain, and successful percutaneous coronary intervention was performed with stent implantation. One week later, the patient complained of further chest pain. Urgent coronary angiography showed total occlusion of the middle left anterior descending artery and the aspiration of thrombi was high. IVUS imaging showed inadequate stent strut apposition and distal dissection. We attempted another stent implantation but the IVUS catheter was stuck on the 0.014 inch wire. Therefore, we tried to pass the wire across the lateral side. After the wire was successfully passaged, the sprinter balloon was passed through the crushed stent to expand it. After 4 days later, the patient was discharged with no symptoms or electrocardiographic change.
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Cytotoxicity of serum protein-adsorbed visible-light photocatalytic Ag/AgBr/TiO2 nanoparticles.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Photocytotoxicity of visible-light catalytic Ag/AgBr/TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) was examined both in vitro and in vivo. The Ag/AgBr/TiO(2) NPs were prepared by the deposition-precipitation method. Their crystalline structures, atomic compositions, and light absorption property were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) intensities, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopic tools. The Ag/AgBr/TiO(2) NPs appeared to be well internalized in human carcinoma cells as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cytotoxicity of cetylmethylammonium bromide (CTAB) appeared to be significantly reduced by adsorption of serum proteins in the cellular medium on the NP surfaces. Two types of human cervical HeLa and skin A431 cancer cells were tested to check their viability after the cellular uptake of the Ag/AgBr/TiO(2) NPs and subsequent exposure to an illumination of visible light from a 60 W/cm(2) halogen lamp. Fluorescence images taken to label mitochondria activity suggest that the reactive oxygen species should trigger the photo-destruction of cancer cells. After applying the halogen light illumination for 50-250 min and ?8 ppm (?g/mL) of photocatalytic Ag/AgBr/TiO(2) NPs, we observed a 40-60% selective decrease of cell viability. Ag/AgBr/TiO(2) NPs were found to eliminate xenograft tumors significantly by irradiating visible light in vivo for 10 min.
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The Effect of Metabolic Syndrome on Myocardial Contractile Reserve during Exercise in Non-Diabetic Hypertensive Subjects.
J Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic dysfunction. This study uses relatively load-independent Doppler tissue echocardiography to examine whether MS is associated with decreased longitudinal contractile reserve during dynamic exercise.
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Concentration-dependent fluorescence live-cell imaging and tracking of intracellular nanoparticles.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Using live-cell imaging techniques we investigated concentration-dependent intracellular movements of fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) in real-time after their entry into HeLa cells via incubation. Intracellular particle traces appeared to be a mixture of both random and fairly unidirectional movements of the particles. At rather low concentrations of NPs, a majority of the non-random intracellular particle trajectories are assumed to mostly go along microtubule networks after endocytosis, as evidenced from the inhibition test with nocodazole. On the other hand, as the concentrations of NPs increased, random motions were more frequently observed inside the cells.
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Effect of pertussis toxin and herbimycin A on proteinase-activated receptor 2-mediated cyclooxygenase 2 expression in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important risk factor for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), subgroup of G-protein coupled receptor family, is highly expressed in gastric cancer, and chronic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis and inflammation. We previously demonstrated that H. pylori induced the expression of PAR2 and COX-2 in gastric epithelial cells. Present study aims to investigate whether COX-2 expression induced by H. pylori in Korean isolates is mediated by PAR2 via activation of G(i) protein and Src kinase in gastric epithelial AGS cells. Results showed that H. pylori-induced COX-2 expression was inhibited in the cells transfected with antisense oligonucleotide for PAR2 or treated with Gi protein blocker pertussis toxin, Src kinase inhibitor herbimycin A and soybean trypsin inbitor, indicating that COX-2 expression is mediated by PAR2 through activation of Gi protein and Src kinase in gastric epithelial cells infected with H. pylori in Korean isolates. Thus, targeting the activation of PAR2 may be beneficial for prevention or treatment of gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis associated with H. pylori infection.
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Structural insights into the dual substrate specificities of mammalian and Dictyostelium dihydropteridine reductases toward two stereoisomers of quinonoid dihydrobiopterin.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Up to now, d-threo-tetrahydrobiopterin (DH(4), dictyopterin) was detected only in Dictyostelium discoideum, while the isomer L-erythro-tetrahydrobioterin (BH(4)) is common in mammals. To elucidate the mechanism of DH(4) regeneration by D. discoideum dihydropteridine reductase (DicDHPR), we have determined the crystal structure of DicDHPR complexed with NAD(+) at 2.16 Å resolution. Significant structural differences from mammalian DHPRs are found around the coenzyme binding site, resulting in a higher K(m) value for NADH (K(m)=46.51±0.4 ?M) than mammals. In addition, we have found that rat DHPR as well as DicDHPR could bind to both substrates quinonoid-BH(2) and quinonoid-DH(2) by docking calculations and have confirmed their catalytic activity by in vitro assay.
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Anesthetic care for electroconvulsive therapy during pregnancy -A case report-.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended for patients with psychotic disorders that do not respond to medication. Usually, many psychotropic medications have teratogenic effects on the fetus. ECT seems to be a relatively safe and effective treatment during pregnancy. We report here on a 33-year-old primigravida patient in her third trimester receiving ECT.
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Neural correlates related to action observation in expert archers.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2011
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A growing body of evidence suggests that activity of the mirror neuron system is dependent on the observers motor experience of a given action. It remains unclear, however, whether activity of the mirror neuron system is also associated with the observers motor experience in sports game. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate differences in activation of the mirror neuron system during action observation between experts and non-archer control subjects. We used video of Western-style archery in which participants were asked to watch the archery movements. Hyperactivation of the premotor and inferior parietal cortex in expert archers relative to non-archer control subjects suggests that the human mirror neuron system could contain and expand representations of the motor repertoire. The fact that dorsomedial prefrontal cortex was more active in expert archers than in non-archer control subjects indicates a spontaneous engagement of theory of mind in experts when watching video of Western-style archery. Compared with the non-archer control subjects, expert archers showed greater activation in the neural system in regions associated with episodic recall from familiar and meaningful information, including the cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus. The results demonstrate that expertise effects stimulate brain activity not only in the mirror neuron system but also in the neural networks related to theory of mind and episodic memory.
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Outcome of cefazolin prophylaxis for total knee arthroplasty at an institution with high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of cefazolin prophylaxis for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in a hospital with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection.
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A novel chimeric DNA vaccine: enhancement of preventive and therapeutic efficacy of DNA vaccine by fusion of Mucin 1 to a heat shock protein 70 gene.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Intensive efforts to improve vaccines against cancer are currently outgoing. Mucin 1 (Muc1) is a tumor-specific antigen that is overexpressed and heavily glycosylated in a variety of adenocarcinomas. In the present study, the efficacy of an anticancer DNA vaccination strategy was demonstrated using Muc1 fusion vaccines. To enhance antigen presentation and tumor-suppressive efficacy, a chimeric Muc1 vaccine was designed, encoding the transmembrane- and C-terminal domain-deleted Muc1 gene (?TM) fused to the human HSP70 gene. To confirm the expression and secretion of fusion protein, cell culture supernatants were subjected to Western blotting. We found secreted Muc1 ?TM-HSP0 fusion protein in the supernatants. These results demonstrate that the Muc1 ?TM-HSP0 construct can be efficiently expressed and secreted from transfected cells. When the chimeric Muc1 vaccine was administered to mice, antigen-specific cellular immune responses were observed. Notably, we observed that antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic responses were effectively induced only in the group of mice that had been vaccinated with the chimeric Muc1 vaccine. Concurrent with the Muc1-specific tumor-suppressive effect, the growth of established Muc1-expressing B16 mouse melanoma cells was also significantly inhibited by vaccination with the chimeric Muc1 vaccine. The growth of B16 mouse melanoma cells expressing human Muc1 in C57BL/6 mice was effectively suppressed by the Muc1-HSP70 chimeric DNA vaccine. Our results reveal that the antitumor efficacy of the chimeric DNA vaccine was improved by the presence of HSP/70.
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Use of multidetector computed tomography for evaluating coronary artery disease in patients undergoing dialysis.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in patients undergoing dialysis. The accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detecting coronary disease has not been determined, and little information is available regarding the performance of MDCT in patients undergoing dialysis.
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Induction of apoptotic cell death by ursolic acid through mitochondrial death pathway and extrinsic death receptor pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Ursolic acid (3-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from leaves, berries, fruits, and flowers of medicinal plants, such as Rosemarinus officinalis. Ursolic acid has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis, tumor promotion, and suppress angiogenesis. In our present study, we found that ursolic acid decreased cell proliferation rate and induce apoptosis in human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. When we checked the expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis signal by using immunoblotting, we found that ursolic acid induces various apoptotic molecules related to either extrinsic or intrinsic apoptosis signal pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells. In our study, we found that ursolic acid induced the appearance of Fas receptor and cleavage of caspase-8, -3 and PARP. We also found that ursolic acid induced Bax up-regulation and Bcl-2 down-regulation and release of cytochrome C to the cytosol from mitochondria. Moreover, ursolic acid cleaved caspase-9 and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) as shown with JC-1 staining. These data indicate that ursolic acid induce apoptosis through both mitochondrial death pathway and extrinsic death receptor dependent pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data clearly indicate that ursolic acid could be used as a potential anticancer drug for breast cancer.
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The economic burden of inflammatory heart disease in Korea.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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The incidence of inflammatory heart diseases is not yet as high as those of other cardiovascular diseases; however, inflammatory heart diseases do have relatively high mortality rate. Therefore, update information on the economic burden of inflammatory heart diseases are necessary in order to appropriate policy making on these diseases.
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The differences in neural network activity between methamphetamine abusers and healthy subjects performing an emotion-matching task: functional MRI study.
NMR Biomed
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Methamphetamine (MA) abusers commonly exhibit socially problematic behaviors, such as diminished empathy, decreased emotional regulation and interpersonal violence, which may be attributable to alterations in emotional experience. However, few studies have used functional MRI to examine directly the emotional experience of threatening or fearful non-face images in MA abusers. In this study, we investigated possible differences in neural correlates of negative emotional experiences between abstinent MA abusers and healthy subjects using complex visual scenes depicting fear or threat derived from the International Affective Picture System. In within-group analyses, healthy subjects and MA abusers activated a similarly distributed cortical network, prominently including the amygdala, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal cortex. In between-group analyses, however, MA abusers showed a reduced activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insula, and increased activation in the fusiform gyrus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex, relative to healthy subjects. Hypoactivation of the insula in MA abusers relative to healthy subjects suggests that the ability to have an emotional response to threatening scenes and empathy for anothers pain could be compromised in MA abusers. Hyperactivity in the fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex in MA abusers relative to healthy subjects indicates that threatening and fearful images from the International Affective Picture System may remind MA abusers of episodic memory related to similar experiences. Therefore, functional impairment of these neural networks in MA abusers may contribute to altered emotional experience in social interactions, which could lead to increased negative mood and stress in interpersonal communication.
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The economic burden of musculoskeletal disease in Korea: a cross sectional study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Musculoskeletal diseases are becoming increasingly important due to population aging. However, studies on the economic burden of musculoskeletal disease in Korea are scarce. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study to measure the economic burden of musculoskeletal disease in Korea using nationally representative data.
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Induction of apoptotic cell death by phytoestrogens by up-regulating the levels of phospho-p53 and p21 in normal and malignant estrogen receptor ?-negative breast cells.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism by which phytoestrogens suppress the growth of normal (MCF-10A) and malignant (MDA-MB-231) estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-negative breast cells. We hypothesized that phytoestrogen inhibits the proliferation of ER?-negative breast cancer cells. We found that all tested phytoestrogens (genistein, apigenin, and quercetin) suppressed the growth of both MCF-10A and MDA-MB-231 cells, as revealed by proliferation assays. These results were accompanied by an increase in the sub-G0/G1 apoptotic fractions as well as an increase in the cell population in the G2/M phase in both cell types, as revealed by cell cycle analysis. When we assessed the effect of phytoestrogens on the level of intracellular signaling molecules by Western blot analysis, we found that phytoestrogens increased the level of active p53 (phospho-p53) without changing the p53 level in both MCF-10A and MDA-MB-231 cells. Phytoestrogens also induced an increase in p21, a p53 target gene, and a decrease in either Bcl-xL or cyclin B1 in both cell types. In contrast, the protein levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog, cyclin D1, cell division control protein 2 homolog, phospho-cell division control protein 2 homolog, and p27 were not changed after phytoestrogen treatment. Our data indicate that phytoestrogens induce apoptotic cell death of ER?-negative breast cancer cells via p53-dependent pathway and suggest that phytoestrogens may be promising agents in the treatment and prevention of ER?-negative breast cancer.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.