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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Relationship Between Colonoscopy Procedure Order and Adenoma Detection Rates: A Prospective Study.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the effects of the order of colonoscopic procedures and other possible factors on the adenoma detection rate (ADR).
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Gastric schwannoma: CT findings and clinicopathologic correlation.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics of gastric schwannoma.
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Hepatic fat, not visceral fat, is associated with gallbladder polyps - a study of 2643 healthy subjects.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) appear to be strongly associated with obesity and metabolic disease. To date, the relationship between GBPs and fatty liver has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GBPs are associated with fatty liver, which is an ectopic regional fat deposit, independent of visceral adipose tissue (VAT).
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[Synthesis and protective effect of ligustrazine intermediates against CoCl2-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cell].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Ligustrazine, one of the major effective components of the Chinese traditional medicinal herb Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort, has been reported plenty of biological activities, such as protect cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, neuroprotection and anti-tumor, et al. Because of its remarkable effects, studies on structural modification of ligustrazine have attracted much attention. Ligustrazine synthetic derivatives reported in recent decades are mainly derived from four primary intermediates (TMP-COOH, TMP-OH, TMP-NH2, HO-TMP-OH). To explore the neuroprotection activitiy of ligustrazine intermediates, six ligustrazine intermediates (2, 5, 8, 11, 12, 13) were synthesized and their protective effects against CoCl2-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells were studied. The target compounds were prepared via different chemical methods, including oxidation, substitution, esterification and amidation without changing the structure nucleus of ligustrazine. Compared with TMP (EC50 = 56.03 micromol x L(-1)), four compounds (2, 5, 12 and 13) exhibited higher activity (EC50 < 50 micromol x L(-1)) respectively, of which, compound 2 displayed the highest protective effect against the damaged PC12 cells (EC50 = 32.86 micromol x L(-1)), but target compounds 8 and 11 appeared lower activity (EC50 > 70 micromol x L(-1)). By structure-activity relationships analysis, the introduction of carboxyl, amino to the side chain of ligustrazine and appropriately increase the proportion of ligustrazine may contribute to enhance its neuroprotective activity, which provides a reference for the design, synthesis and activity screening of relevant series of ligustrazine derivatives in the future.
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Role of inflammasome activation in development and exacerbation of asthma.
Asia Pac Allergy
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Human airways contact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns present in many environments. Asthmatic's airways may be more susceptible to these patterns and lead to inflammasome activation; however, the participation of inflammasome in the development and exacerbation of asthma is not fully understood and remains controversial. Asthma is a heterogeneous group composed of different airway inflammation patterns with different underlying immune mechanisms. One mechanism is neutrophilic airway inflammation based on the axis of inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL) 1?/IL-18 production, T helper 17 activation, IL-8/IL-6 overproduction, and neutrophilic inflammation. The role of inflammasome activation has been highlighted in experimental asthma models and some evidence of inflammasome activation has been recently demonstrated in human neutrophilic asthmatic airways. In addition to caspase-1 activation, proteinase 3 and other protease from activated neutrophils directly cleave pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18 to IL-1? and IL-18, which contribute to the phenotype of subsequent adaptive immune responses without inflammasome activation. Data suggests that neutrophilics in asthmatic airways may have an additional effect in initiating inflammasome activation and amplifying immune responses. Among the mediators from neutrophils, S100A9 seems to be one candidate mediator to explain the action of neutrophils in amplifying the airway inflammation in concert with inflammasome.
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The analysis of mutations and exon deletions at TSC2 gene in angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are relatively rare hamartomatous or benign tumors that occasionally occur as part of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Mutations in either of the two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, have been attributed to the development of TSC. Between 1994 and January 2009, 83 patients were diagnosed with AML at the Samsung Medical Center. In that group of patients, 5 (6%) had AML with TSC (AML-TSC). Mutational analysis of the TSC2 gene was performed using 7 samples from the 5 AML-TSC patients and 14 samples from 14 patients with sporadic AML without TSC (AML-non-TSC). From this analysis, mutations in TSC genes were identified in 5 samples from the AML-TSC patients (mutation detection rate=71%) and 3 samples from AML-non-TSC patients (mutation detection rate=21%). In the case of AML-TSC, 6 mutations were found including 3 recurrent mutations and 3 novel mutations, while in the case of AML-non-TSC, 4 mutations were identified once, including 1 novel mutation. Also MLPA analysis of the TSC2 gene showed that TSC2 exon deletion is more frequently observed in AML-TSC patients than in AML-non-TSC patients. This is the first mutation and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses of TSC2 in Korean AMLs that focus on TSC. This study provides data that are representative of the distribution of mutations and exon deletions at TSC genes in clinically diagnosed AML-TSC cases of the Korean population.
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Hybrid iterative reconstruction technique for liver CT scans for image noise reduction and image quality improvement: evaluation of the optimal iterative reconstruction strengths.
Radiol Med
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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This study sought to investigate the effect of the hybrid iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm (iDose, Philips Healthcare) on the improvement of image quality of computed tomography (CT) scans of the liver and determine the appropriate level of IR strength for clinical use.
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T cell memory. Skin-resident memory CD8? T cells trigger a state of tissue-wide pathogen alert.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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After an infection, pathogen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells) persist in nonlymphoid tissues to provide rapid control upon reinfection, and vaccination strategies that create T(RM) cell pools at sites of pathogen entry are therefore attractive. However, it is not well understood how T(RM) cells provide such pathogen protection. Here, we demonstrate that activated T(RM) cells in mouse skin profoundly alter the local tissue environment by inducing a number of broadly active antiviral and antibacterial genes. This "pathogen alert" allows skin T(RM) cells to protect against an antigenically unrelated virus. These data describe a mechanism by which tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells protect previously infected sites that is rapid, amplifies the activation of a small number of cells into an organ-wide response, and has the capacity to control escape variants.
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Draft genome sequence of Halolamina rubra CBA1107(T), an agarolytic haloarchaeon isolated from solar salt.
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Halolamina rubra CBA1107(T) (=CECT 8421(T), JCM 19436(T)), an extremely halophilic archaeon, was isolated from non-purified solar salt in the Republic of Korea. H. rubra CBA1107(T) shows agarase activity, and its draft genome contains 2955,064bp with a G+C content of 69.0%. This is the first genome that has been sequenced in the genus Halolamina.
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Factors that determine prolonged cecal intubation time during colonoscopy: impact of visceral adipose tissue.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Various factors including age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and history of operation have been linked to the colonoscopic intubation time. The aims of this study were to identify the factors predicting cecal intubation time (CIT) and to evaluate the effect of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area on CIT.
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Tight regulation of ubiquitin-mediated DNA damage response by USP3 preserves the functional integrity of hematopoietic stem cells.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Histone ubiquitination at DNA breaks is required for activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. How the dynamic removal of this modification by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) impacts genome maintenance in vivo is largely unknown. To address this question, we generated mice deficient for Ub-specific protease 3 (USP3; Usp3?/?), a histone H2A DUB which negatively regulates ubiquitin-dependent DDR signaling. Notably, USP3 deletion increased the levels of histone ubiquitination in adult tissues, reduced the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) reserves over time, and shortened animal life span. Mechanistically, our data show that USP3 is important in HSC homeostasis, preserving HSC self-renewal, and repopulation potential in vivo and proliferation in vitro. A defective DDR and unresolved spontaneous DNA damage contribute to cell cycle restriction of Usp3?/? HSCs. Beyond the hematopoietic system, Usp3?/? animals spontaneously developed tumors, and primary Usp3?/? cells failed to preserve chromosomal integrity. These findings broadly support the regulation of chromatin ubiquitination as a key pathway in preserving tissue function through modulation of the response to genotoxic stress.
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Bizionia psychrotolerans sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A novel Gram-negative, non-flagellated, non-gliding, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated PB-M7(T), was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber collected from Pohang, South Korea. Growth was observed at 4-30 °C (optimum, 25 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0), and with 2.0-6.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.0%). In a phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain PB-M7(T) was found to belong to the genus Bizionia and to be most closely related to Bizionia echini KMM 6177(T) (99.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Bizionia hallyeonensis T-y7(T) (97.9%), Bizionia algoritergicola APA-1(T) (97.5%), Bizionia argentinensis JUB59(T) (97.5%) and Bizionia myxarmorum ADA-4(T) (97.1%). The predominant fatty acids of strain PB-M7(T) were identified as iso-C(15:0) (22.2%), iso-C(15:1) G (10.8%), iso-C(17:0) 3-OH (16.7%) and summed feature 3 (C(16:1) ?7c and/or C(16:1) ?6c; 11.2%). The major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The polar lipid profile of strain PB-M7(T) was found to contain phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid, three unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids. The DNA G + C content of strain PB-M7(T) was determined to be 33.4 mol% and the mean DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains of B. echini, B. hallyeonensis, B. algoritergicola, B. argentinensis, and B. myxarmorum were 52.9, 48.5, 46.5, 37.1 and 26.6%, respectively. Based on the data presented, strain PB-M7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bizionia, for which the name Bizionia psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of B. psychrotolerans is PB-M7(T) (= KCCM 43042 (T) = JCM 19924 (T)).
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Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 as an early potential diagnostic marker for Alzheimer's disease.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in individuals over 65years old. However, to date, no useful early diagnostic markers for AD have been discovered. We examined the utility of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a potential biomarker for AD in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD, as well as in nondemented healthy controls. Plasma PAI-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in samples collected from 76 patients with MCI, 74 patients with AD, and 76 healthy controls. Our results show that plasma PAI-1 levels gradually increased as dementia progressed. The mean levels of plasma PAI-1 in patients with MCI and AD patients were significantly higher than those of in healthy controls. Consistently, neuropsychological examination (e.g., MMSE, CDR) also demonstrated significant correlations between the plasma PAI-1 levels and cognitive function. In conclusion, the level of plasma PAI-1 is a potential biomarker for the early detection and diagnosis of AD.
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Aromatherapy for stress reduction in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of aromatherapy for stress management. Seven databases were searched from their inception through April 2014. RCTs testing aromatherapy against any type of controls in healthy human person that assessed stress level and cortisol level were considered. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies, data abstraction and validations. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria, and most of them had high risk of bias. Four RCTs tested the effects of aroma inhalation compared with no treatment, no aroma, and no odour oil. The meta-analysis suggested that aroma inhalation has favourable effects on stress management (n=80; standard mean difference (SMD), -0.96; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.48; P<0.0001; I(2)=0%). Three of included RCTs tested aroma inhalation on saliva or serum cortisol level compared with control and meta-analysis failed to show significant difference between two groups (n=88, SMDs -0.62; 95% CIs -1.26 to 0.02, P=0.06, I(2)=46%). In conclusion, there is limited evidence suggesting that aroma inhalation may be effective in controlling stress. However, the number, size and quality of the RCTs are too low to draw firm conclusions.
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RB family tumor suppressor activity may not relate to active silencing of E2F target genes.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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The retinoblastoma protein pRB and its two homologs p130 and p107 form the family of pocket proteins and play a major role in cell-cycle regulation and suppression of human and mouse tumorigenesis. Pocket proteins regulate the activity of E2F transcription factors during G1-S transition. Two mechanisms have been described: (i) pocket protein binding blocks the transactivation domain of activator E2Fs, inhibiting E2F-dependent transcription and (ii) E2F-bound pocket proteins can recruit chromatin remodeling proteins containing an LxCxE motif (x encoding any amino acid), resulting in active repression of E2F target genes. To investigate the importance of pRB's LxCxE-interacting motif in cell-cycle control and tumor suppression, we generated mouse embryonic fibroblasts and mice expressing a mutant pRB protein carrying an asparagine for phenylalanine substitution at position 750, abrogating LxCxE binding. Because p130 may compensate for loss of pRB, we studied pRB(N750F) activity in the presence and absence of p130. The pRB-LxCxE interaction was not required for cell-cycle arrest upon mitogen deprivation and cell-cell contact, but did contribute to RAS(V12)- and radiation-induced cell-cycle arrest. Remarkably, the pRB-LxCxE interaction was not required for suppression of in vitro and in vivo transformation, even in the absence of p130. These results indicate that pRB's tumor suppressor activity is not effectuated by active silencing of E2F target genes, but rather by regulation of activator E2Fs or another unidentified mechanism. Furthermore, the in vitro response of pocket protein-perturbed cells to mitogen deprivation and cell-cell contact seems a better predictor of tumor development than the response to ectopic RAS(V12) expression. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5266-76. ©2014 AACR.
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C-KIT-positive undifferentiated tumor of the liver: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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With recent advances in cancer stem cell analysis, it has been postulated that the transformation of hepatic stem and progenitor cells underlies the development of certain liver cancers. Human C-KIT is a transmembrane type III receptor protein with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity that has been proposed as a marker for human embryonic stem cells. In addition, human C-KIT functions in maintaining the undifferentiated state of stem cells, and has been identified as a marker for human hematopoietic and hepatic stem/progenitor cells. The present study identified an unusual case of a C-KIT-positive hepatic tumor with an undifferentiated stem cell phenotype distinct from existing descriptions of liver tumors. A 69-year-old male with Ampulla of Vater (AoV) cancer was admitted to the hospital for the treatment of a hepatic mass that was incidentally detected during evaluation of AoV cancer. Microscopically, the hepatic tumor was composed of solidly packed small, round and uniform undifferentiated cells, which resembled that of a small-blue-round-cell tumor. The immunophenotype of neoplastic cells (C-KIT(+)/EpCAM(+)/E-cadherin(+)/keratin 7(-)/keratin 19(-)/?-fetoprotein(-)/albumin(-)) supported primitive stem cell features with no hepatic or biliary phenotypes. Polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing revealed no C-KIT mutations. It is suggested that this tumor may have originated from transformed C-KIT(+)/EpCAM(+)/E-cadherin(+) cells, which are more primitive and undifferentiated than bipotential hepatic progenitor cells.
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Anti-aging Potential of Extracts Prepared from Fruits and Medicinal Herbs Cultivated in the Gyeongnam Area of Korea.
Prev Nutr Food Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Many recent studies have focused on maintaining a healthy life by preventing and/or postponing the aging process. Numerous studies have reported that continuous exposure to reactive oxygen species can stimulate skin aging and that excessive accumulation of fat can cause an impaired skin barrier and tissue structure alterations. Thus, the maintenance of antioxidant homeostasis and the suppression of adipose accumulation are important strategies for skin anti-aging. Here, we prepared three types of extracts [whole juice, acetone-perchloric acid (PCA), and ethanol] from 20 fruits and medicinal herbs native to the Gyeongnam area of Korea. The total phenolic content of each extract was analyzed, and we observed higher total phenolic contents in the medicinal herbs. Consistent with this, the results of the oxygen radical absorbance activity capacity assay indicated that the in vitro antioxidant activities of the medicinal herb extracts were stronger than those of the fruit extracts. The fruits and medicinal herbs had strong effects on cell-based systems, including H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes and 3T3-L1 lipid accumulation. Nishimura Wase persimmon, Taishu persimmon, wrinkled giant hyssop, sweet wormwood, Chinese cedar, red perilla, tan shen, hiyodori-jogo, and cramp bark may be natural anti-aging materials with effective antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities. Taken together, our findings may provide scientific evidence supporting the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals from fruits and medicinal herbs.
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Synthesis, interaction with DNA and antiproliferative activities of two novel Cu(II) complexes with norcantharidin and benzimidazole derivatives.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Two novel complexes [Cu(L)2(Ac)2]·3H2O (1) (L=N-2-methyl benzimidazole demethylcantharate imide, C16H15N3O3, Ac=acetate, C2H3O2) and [Cu(bimz)2(DCA)] (2) (bimz=benzimidazole, C7H6N2; DCA=demethylcantharate, C8H8O5) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction techniques. Cu(II) ion was four-coordinated in complex 1, Cu(II) ion was five-coordinated in complex 2. A large amount of intermolecular hydrogen-bonding and ?-? stacking interactions were observed in these complex structures. The DNA-binding properties of these complexes were investigated using electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, viscosity measurements and agarose gel electrophoresis. The interactions between the complexes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by fluorescence spectra. The antiproliferative activities of the complexes against human hepatoma cells (SMMC7721) were tested in vitro. And the results showed that these complexes could bind to DNA in moderate intensity via partial intercalation, and complexes 1 and 2 could cleave plasmid DNA through hydroxyl radical mechanism. Title complexes could effectively quench the fluorescence of BSA through static quenching. Meanwhile, title complexes had stronger antiproliferative effect compared to L and Na2(DCA) within the tested concentration range. And complex 1 possessed more antiproliferative active than complex 2.
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Use of a uniconcave balloon in emergency cerclage.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Pushing bulging fetal membranes back into the uterine cavity effectively without rupture of fetal membranes during emergency cerclage is a concern to obstetricians. We have developed a new uniconcave balloon device for repositioning fetal membranes into the uterus during emergency cerclage. Our technique can be accomplished easily with few complications.
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A phenolic acid phenethyl urea derivative protects against irradiation-induced osteoblast damage by modulating intracellular redox state.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Because irradiation may cause osteoradionecrosis, antioxidant supplementation is often used to suppress irradiation-mediated injury. This study examined whether a synthetic phenethyl urea compound, (E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxystyryl)urea (DPDS-U), prevents irradiation-mediated cellular damage in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. A relatively high dose of irradiation (>4?Gy) decreased cell viability and proliferation and induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase with the attendant increase of cyclin B1. Irradiation with 8?Gy induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity in the cells. These events were significantly suppressed by treatment with 200?µM DPDS-U or 5?mM N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). DPDS-U or irradiation alone significantly increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. Interestingly, pretreatment with DPDS-U facilitated irradiation-induced activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. The potential of DPDS-U to mediate HO-1 induction and protect against irradiation-mediated cellular damage was almost completely attenuated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific siRNA or treatment with a pharmacological HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX. Additional experiments revealed that DPDS-U induced a radioprotective mechanism that differs from that induced by NAC through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Collectively, our data suggest that DPDS-U-induced radioprotection is due to its dual function as an antioxidant to remove directly excessive intracellular ROS and as a prooxidant to stimulate intracellular redox-sensitive survival signal.
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A case of catamenial hemoptysis treated by bronchial artery embolization.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Catamenial hemoptysis is a rare condition, characterized by recurrent hemoptysis associated with the presence of intrapulmonary or endobronchial endometrial tissue. Therapeutic strategies proposed for intrapulmonary endometriosis with catamenial hemoptysis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization is a well-established modality in the management of massive or recurrent hemoptysis, but has seldom been used for the treatment of catamenial hemoptysis. We report a case of catamenial hemoptysis associated with pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis, which was successfully treated by a bronchial artery embolization.
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Combination of TAT-HMGB1A and R3V6 amphiphilic peptide for plasmid DNA delivery with anti-inflammatory effect.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is not only a non-histone nuclear protein but also a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Previously, it has been shown that HMGB1 box A domain (HMGB1A) is an antagonist of HMGB1. HMGB1A can deliver plasmid DNA (pDNA) into cells due to its positive charge and ability to form complexes with pDNA. In this study, TAT-linked HMGB1A (TAT-HMGB1A) was produced using recombinant DNA technology. The pDNA/TAT-HMGB1A/R3V6 ternary complex was then prepared for efficient delivery of pDNA by coating the pDNA/HMGB1A complex with the R3V6 amphiphilic peptide. The particle size of the pDNA/TAT-HMGB1A/R3V6 complex was approximately 120?nm and had the highest delivery efficiency at a 1:5:15 weight ratio. The pDNA/TAT-HMGB1A/R3V6 complex had a higher transfection efficiency than the pDNA/poly-L-lysine (PLL), pDNA/R3V6, and pDNA/TAT-HMGB1A complexes. In the RAW 264.7 cells activated by lipopolysaccharides, the TNF-? and IL-6 levels were decreased by the addition of the pDNA/TAT-HMGB1A/R3V6 complex, suggesting that TAT-HMGB1A maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of HMGB1A. Delivery of the heme oxygenease-1 (HO-1) gene using TAT-HMGB1A/R3V6 further decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, due to the anti-inflammatory effect of HO-1. The results suggest that the pDNA/TAT-HMGB1A/R3V6 complex may be a useful gene carrier for gene therapy of inflammatory diseases.
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Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, and rod-shaped bacterial strain designated UB-M7(T) was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) collected from Pohang in South Korea. Strain UB-M7(T) displayed optimal growth at 25 °C, pH 7.0-7.5, and with 2.0-3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain UB-M7(T) clustered with Phaeobacter arcticus DSM 23566(T), Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 16374(T), Phaeobacter gallaeciensis BS107(T), and Phaeobacter leonis 306(T), exhibiting 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 96.8, 96.6, 96.4, and 96.2 %, respectively. Strain UB-M7(T) was found to exhibit the highest gyrB sequence similarity value of 80.6 % to the type strain of P. arcticus. The major respiratory quinone of strain UB-M7(T) was found to be ubiquinone 10 (Q-10). The major cellular fatty acids (>5 % of the total fatty acids) are summed features 8 (comprising C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c), 11-methyl C18:1 ?7c, and cyclo C19:0 ?8c. The DNA G+C content was found to be 58.5 mol% and DNA-DNA relatedness value with P. arcticus JCM 14644(T) was 17.2 ± 2.4 %. The major polar lipids of strain UB-M7(T) were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine; one phospholipid, and three other lipids remain unidentified. Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic properties it is concluded that strain UB-M7(T) represents a novel species in the genus Phaeobacter, for which the name Phaeobacter marinintestinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UB-M7(T) (=KCCM 43045(T) = JCM 19926(T)).
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A novel fusion of TPR and ALK in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion is the most common mechanism for overexpression and activation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Several fusion partners of ALK have been reported, including echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4, TRK-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), protein tyrosine phosphatase and nonreceptor type 3, and huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1).
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Conventional stents versus stents loaded with (125)iodine seeds for the treatment of unresectable oesophageal cancer: a multicentre, randomised phase 3 trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The combination of stent insertion and single high-dose brachytherapy is a feasible and safe palliative treatment regimen in patients with unresectable oesophageal cancer. We aimed to further assess the efficacy of this treatment strategy compared to a conventional covered stent in patients with dysphagia caused by unresectable oesophageal cancer.
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Supercharging and augmenting venous drainage of an anterolateral thigh free flap: options and indications.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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This study introduces the options for supercharging and augmenting venous drainage of an anterolateral thigh free flap. Clinical indications and options for additional microvascular anastomoses are reviewed in 5 consecutive patients. The indications were simultaneous mucosal and cutaneous defects, divergent mucosal defects, and extensively wide and long cutaneous defects. Three additional vascular pedicles were anastomosed: the transverse branch of the lateral circumflex (n = 3), a perforator coming directly off the superficial femoral artery (n = 1), and a posterior perforator from the profundus femoral artery (n = 1). The anastomosis of a separate pedicle from the superior, medial, and/or posterior-lateral thigh may be a useful technique when confronted with an extensive defect that may not reliably be reconstructed with a routine anterolateral thigh flap based on a single perforator.
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The safety of cesarean myomectomy in women with large myomas.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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To evaluate the safety of cesarean myomectomy in large myomas sized >5 cm.
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MET is a potential target for use in combination therapy with EGFR inhibition in triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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MET, a cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, is involved in the development of triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer (TNBC/BLBC). However, its utility as a therapeutic target in this subtype of breast cancer is poorly understood. To evaluate MET fully as a potential therapeutic target for TNBC/BLBC, we investigated the relationship between MET expression and clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer and the functional effect of MET inhibition. Using automated immunohistochemistry (Ventana), we analyzed MET expression in 924 breast cancer patients with relevant clinicopathologic parameters. BLBC showed the strongest relationship with MET expression (57.5%, p?
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Safety and immunogenicity of therapeutic DNA vaccine with antiviral drug in chronic HBV patients and its immunogenicity in mice.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine, HB-110, in mice and Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) undergoing adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) treatment.
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Comprehensive analysis of RET and ROS1 rearrangement in lung adenocarcinoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The success of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients has elicited efforts to find new oncogenic fusions in lung cancer. These efforts have led to the discovery of novel oncogenic fusion genes such as ROS1 and RET. However, the molecular and clinicopathologic characteristics associated with RET or ROS1 fusion, compared with ALK fusion-positive lung cancer, remain unclear. We accordingly analyzed the clinicopathologic characteristics of RET- and ROS1-fusion-positive lung adenocarcinomas. We further performed immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) in 15 cases of RET and 9 cases of ROS1 fusion tumors by identified NanoString's nCounter screening. RET fusion-positive patients were younger in age, never-smokers, and in early T stage; ROS1 fusion-positive patients had a higher number of never-smokers compared with patients with quintuple-negative (EGFR-/KRAS-/ALK-/ROS1-/RET-) lung adenocarcinoma. Histologically, RET and ROS1 fusion tumors share the solid signet-ring cell and mucinous cribriform pattern, as previously mentioned in the histology of ALK fusion tumors. Therefore, it can be presumed that fusion gene-associated lung adenocarcinomas share similar histologic features. In immunohistochemistry, the majority of 15 RET and 9 ROS1 fusion-positive cases showed positivity of more than moderate intensity and cytoplasmic staining for RET and ROS1 proteins, respectively. In FISH, the majority of RET and ROS1 rearrangement showed two signal patterns such as one fusion signal and two separated green and orange signals (1F1G1O) and an isolated 3' green signal pattern (1F1G). Our study has provided not only characteristics of fusion gene-associated histologic features but also a proposal for a future screening strategy that will enable clinicians to select cases needed to be checked for ROS1 and RET rearrangements based on clinicohistologic features.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 19 September 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.107.
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New strategies for prevention and treatment of splenic artery steal syndrome after liver transplantation.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To explore a prophylactic procedure to prevent splenic artery steal syndrome (SASS), as well as a therapeutic intervention to correct it.
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Multiple cells-of-origin of mutant K-Ras-induced mouse lung adenocarcinoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Much controversy surrounds the cell-of-origin of mutant K-Ras (K-RasG12D)-induced lung adenocarcinoma. To shed light on this issue, we have used technology that enables us to conditionally target K-RasG12D expression in Surfactant Protein C (SPC)(+) alveolar type 2 cells and in Clara cell antigen 10 (CC10)(+) Clara cells by use of cell-type-restricted recombinant Adeno-Cre viruses. Experiments were performed both in the presence and absence of the tumor suppressor gene p53, enabling us to assess what effect the cell-of-origin and the introduced genetic lesions have on the phenotypic characteristics of the resulting adenocarcinomas. We conclude that both SPC-expressing alveolar type 2 cells and CC10-expressing Clara cells have the ability to initiate malignant transformation following the introduction of these genetic alterations. The lungs of K-Ras(lox-Stop-lox-G12D/+) and K-Ras(lox-Stop-lox-G12D/+);tumor suppressor gene Trp53(F/F) mice infected with Adeno5-SPC-Cre and Adeno5-CC10-Cre viruses displayed differences in their tumor spectrum, indicating distinct cellular routes of tumor initiation. Moreover, using a multicolor Cre reporter line, we demonstrate that the resulting tumors arise from a clonal expansion of switched cells. Taken together, these results indicate that there are multiple cellular paths to K-RasG12D-induced adenocarcinoma and that the initiating cell influences the histopathological phenotype of the tumors that arise.
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Genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction and in silico flux analysis of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Thermus thermophilus, an extremely thermophilic bacterium, has been widely recognized as a model organism for studying how microbes can survive and adapt under high temperature environment. However, the thermotolerant mechanisms and cellular metabolism still remains mostly unravelled. Thus, it is highly required to consider systems biological approaches where T. thermophilus metabolic network model can be employed together with high throughput experimental data for elucidating its physiological characteristics under such harsh conditions.
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HIP1-ALK, a novel fusion protein identified in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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The most common mechanism underlying overexpression and activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in non-small-cell lung carcinoma could be attributed to the formation of a fusion protein. To date, five fusion partners of ALK have been reported, namely, echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4, tropomyosin-related kinase-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1, and protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 3.
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Temozolomide Increases the Number of Mismatch Repair-Deficient Intestinal Crypts and Accelerates Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Lynch Syndrome.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Lynch syndrome, a nonpolyposis form of hereditary colorectal cancer, is caused by inherited defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Most patients carry a germline mutation in 1 allele of the MMR genes MSH2 or MLH1. With spontaneous loss of the wild-type allele, cells with defects in MMR exist among MMR-proficient cells, as observed in healthy intestinal tissues from patients with Lynch syndrome. We aimed to create a mouse model of this situation to aid in identification of environmental factors that affect MMR-defective cells and their propensity for oncogenic transformation.
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Developed diplopia and ptosis due to a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma during pregnancy.
Obstet Gynecol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Physiologic pituitary enlargement is common during normal pregnancy. However, symptoms such as diplopia, blurred vision and headache resulting from physiologic pituitary enlargement are very rare during pregnancy. A 39-year-old woman complained of sudden diplopia and left eye ptosis at 33th weeks of gestation. An magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the pituitary enlargement compressing the optic chiasm. Notwithstanding the medication of bromocriptine, her symptoms did not regress during pregnancy. At 5 months after delivery, her symptoms dramatically resolved without any surgery, and her visual acuity was normalized. Her MRI scan also revealed more decreased size of pituitary gland compared to antenatal MRI. We report a case of visual loss due to the physiologic pituitary enlargement of nonfunctioning adenoma during pregnancy, which regressed spontaneously after delivery without any surgery.
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Quantitative determination of enzalutamide, an anti-prostate cancer drug, in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This report details a method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) that allows one to determine the concentration of an atypical anticancer drug, enzalutamide, in rat plasma. Specifically, this method involves the addition of an acetonitrile and bicalutamide (internal standard) solution to plasma samples. Following centrifugation of this mixture, an aliquot of the supernatant was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. Separation was achieved using a column packed with octadecylsilica (5 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm) with 10 mM ammonium acetate in acetonitrile as the mobile phase; detection was accomplished using MS/MS by multiple-reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source. This method demonstrated a linear standard curve (r = 0.997) over a concentration range of 0.001-1 µg/mL, as well as an intra- and inter-assay precision of 2.7 and 5.1%, respectively, and an accuracy range from 100.8 to 105.6%. The lower limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL in 50 ?L of rat plasma sample. We also demonstrated that this analytical method could be successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of enzalutamide in rats.
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Rapid target gene validation in complex cancer mouse models using re-derived embryonic stem cells.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Human cancers modeled in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models (GEMMs) can provide important mechanistic insights into the molecular basis of tumor development and enable testing of new intervention strategies. The inherent complexity of these models, with often multiple modified tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, has hampered their use as preclinical models for validating cancer genes and drug targets. In our newly developed approach for the fast generation of tumor cohorts we have overcome this obstacle, as exemplified for three GEMMs; two lung cancer models and one mesothelioma model. Three elements are central for this system; (i) The efficient derivation of authentic Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) from established GEMMs, (ii) the routine introduction of transgenes of choice in these GEMM-ESCs by Flp recombinase-mediated integration and (iii) the direct use of the chimeric animals in tumor cohorts. By applying stringent quality controls, the GEMM-ESC approach proofs to be a reliable and effective method to speed up cancer gene assessment and target validation. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate that MycL1 is a key driver gene in Small Cell Lung Cancer.
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Exonic variants associated with development of aspirin exacerbated respiratory diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is one phenotype of asthma, often occurring in the form of a severe and sudden attack. Due to the time-consuming nature and difficulty of oral aspirin challenge (OAC) for AERD diagnosis, non-invasive biomarkers have been sought. The aim of this study was to identify AERD-associated exonic SNPs and examine the diagnostic potential of a combination of these candidate SNPs to predict AERD. DNA from 165 AERD patients, 397 subjects with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA), and 398 normal controls were subjected to an Exome BeadChip assay containing 240K SNPs. 1,023 models (210-1) were generated from combinations of the top 10 SNPs, selected by the p-values in association with AERD. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was calculated for each model. SNP Function Portal and PolyPhen-2 were used to validate the functional significance of candidate SNPs. An exonic SNP, exm537513 in HLA-DPB1, showed the lowest p-value (p?=?3.40×10-8) in its association with AERD risk. From the top 10 SNPs, a combination model of 7 SNPs (exm537513, exm83523, exm1884673, exm538564, exm2264237, exm396794, and exm791954) showed the best AUC of 0.75 (asymptotic p-value of 7.94×10-21), with 34% sensitivity and 93% specificity to discriminate AERD from ATA. Amino acid changes due to exm83523 in CHIA were predicted to be "probably damaging" to the structure and function of the protein, with a high score of '1'. A combination model of seven SNPs may provide a useful, non-invasive genetic marker combination for predicting AERD.
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Targeted inhibition of FAK, PYK2 and BCL-XL synergistically enhances apoptosis in ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell lines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) displays a higher resistance to first line chemotherapy, requiring the development of new therapeutics. We previously identified a frequent chromosomal gain at 8q24 that harbors the focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) gene; the potential of this gene as a therapeutic target remains to be evaluated in OCCCs. We first examined the dependence of OCCCs on FAK and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. FAK was overexpressed in 20% of 67 OCCC samples, and this overexpression was correlated with its copy number gain. FAK copy number gains and mutations in PIK3CA accounted for about 40% of OCCC samples, suggesting that the FAK/PI3K/AKT axis is an attractive candidate for targeted therapeutics. We, therefore, treated ovarian cancer cell lines, including OCCC subtypes, with the FAK inhibitors PF-562,271 (PF271), and PF-573,228 (PF228). Ovarian cancer cells were more sensitive to PF271 than PF228. We then searched for single agents that exhibited a synergistic effect on cell death in combination with PF271. We found that co-treatment of PF271 with ABT-737, a BCL-2/BCL-XL antagonist, was profoundly effective at inducing apoptosis. RMGI and OVISE cells were more sensitive to ABT-737 than OVMANA and SKOV3 cells, which have PIK3CA mutations. Mechanistically, PF271 treatment resulted in the transient down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1 via the PI3K/AKT pathway. Therefore, PF271/ABT-737 treatment led to the inhibition of the anti-apoptotic proteins MCL1 and BCL-XL/BCL-2. We suggest that pharmacological inhibition of BCL-XL and FAK/PYK2 can be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OCCC.
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Evolution of the shape of the conducting channel in complementary resistive switching transition metal oxides.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Ultimate control of the defect distribution and local conduction path in a bipolar resistive switching (BRS) Pt/TiO2/Pt sample, which was in a unipolar reset state, is provided by means of voltage pulsing and the resulting time-transient current analysis. The limited amount of oxygen vacancies in this system allowed reversibly switching-diode-like current-voltage curves, which was also confirmed in another Magnéli-phase-containing Pt/WO3/Pt sample. Such careful control of the defect distribution allowed the achievement of a complementary resistive switching (CRS) curve even from a single switching layer. The unlimited vacancy source in the Pt/TiO2/TiO2-x/Pt sample did not allow the switching-diode type and the CRS behavior. The data retention of the on-state in the BRS was critically dependent on the shape of the rejuvenated conduction channel. The required time to lead to the rejuvenation of the conducting channel was ?70-100 ns when the threshold voltage for the BRS set of ?-1 V was applied.
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[Cloning and expressing of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases I gene fragment and preparation of monoclonal antibodies against the recombinant protein].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To prepare the monoclonal antibody (mAb) against tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases I (TIMP-I) fusion protein.
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Silk fibroin and 4-hexylresorcinol incorporation membrane for guided bone regeneration.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a silk fibroin (SF) and 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) incorporation membrane could be used for a guided bone regeneration technique. Fourier transform infrared measurements were obtained to determine change of physical property of SF membrane by 4-HR incorporation. Two peri-implant defects, 3.0 × 5.0 mm (width × length), were prepared on the lateral side of the implant hole in the tibia of New Zealand white rabbits (n = 8). The peri-implant defect was left unfilled in the control group. Silk fibroin + 4-HR membrane was applied to the peri-implant defect in the experimental group. The 8 animals were killed at 8 weeks after implantation. Subsequently, removal torque test and histomorphometric evaluation were done. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed no specific chemical interaction between 4-HR and SF. In the histomorphometric analysis, the mean bone regeneration was 18.3 ± 1.9 mm(2) in the experimental group and 9.3 ± 0.9 mm(2) in the control group (P = 0.004). In conclusion, the SF and 4-HR incorporation membrane successfully regenerated bone in the rabbit tibia peri-implant bone defect model.
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Fascin1 expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is a prognostic marker and knockdown of fascin1 suppresses the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Fascin1 (FSCN1) involved in cell motility and filopodia assembly plays important roles in biological processes such as cancer invasion and metastasis of multiple epithelial tumors. High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is aggressive and metastatic by acquiring an invasive phenotype and this step requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the expression of fascin1 in HGSOC tissues as well as its clinical significance such as prognostic predictors and its utility of therapeutic target. Fascin1 and ?-catenin were evaluated using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 79 HGSOC. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach was used to knock down fascin1 expression in ovarian cancer cell lines to determine whether fascin1 contributes to tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Fascin1 expression levels were determined by western blot analysis after siRNA transfection using two human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and OVCAR3). Fascin1 overexpression was significantly correlated with lymph node involvement, distance metastasis and high International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (III/IV) (P<0.05). A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the fascin1 expression group was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P=0.010). We showed that inactivation of fascin1 by siRNA transfection led to a drop in cell viability, and significantly decreased tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness compared to untransfected cells. We found that fascin1 expression is a potential poor marker of prognosis for patients with HGSOC and knockdown of fascin1 suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration, this could be applied for therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer treatment.
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Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR.
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Dual function of Yap in the regulation of lens progenitor cells and cellular polarity.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Hippo-Yap signaling has been implicated in organ size determination via its regulation of cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis (Pan, 2007). The vertebrate lens comprises only two major cell types, lens progenitors and differentiated fiber cells, thereby providing a relatively simple system for studying size-controlling mechanisms. In order to investigate the role of Hippo-Yap signaling in lens size regulation, we conditionally ablated Yap in the developing mouse lens. Lens progenitor-specific deletion of Yap led to near obliteration of the lens primarily due to hypocellularity in the lens epithelium (LE) and accompanying lens fiber (LF) defects. A significantly reduced LE progenitor pool resulted mainly from failed self-renewal and increased apoptosis. Additionally, Yap-deficient lens progenitor cells precociously exited the cell cycle and expressed the LF marker, ?-Crystallin. The mutant progenitor cells also exhibited multiple cellular and subcellular alterations including cell and nuclear shape change, organellar polarity disruption, and disorganized apical polarity complex and junction proteins such as Crumbs, Pals1, Par3 and ZO-1. Yap-deficient LF cells failed to anchor to the overlying LE layer, impairing their normal elongation and packaging. Furthermore, our localization study results suggest that, in the developing LE, Yap participates in the cell context-dependent transition from the proliferative to differentiation-competent state by integrating cell density information. Taken together, our results shed new light on Yaps indispensable and novel organizing role in mammalian organ size control by coordinating multiple events including cell proliferation, differentiation, and polarity.
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[Establishment of a purificatory method for alpha-fetoprotein variant by affinity adsorption].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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To establish a purificatory method of alpha-fetoprotein variant (AFP-L3) based on microspincolumn with lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA).
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Real-time identification of the evolution of conducting nano-filaments in TiO2 thin film ReRAM.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Unipolar resistance switching (RS) in TiO2 thin films originates from the repeated formation and rupture of the Magnéli phase conducting filaments through repeated nano-scale phase transitions. By applying the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) type kinetic model to the careful analysis on the evolution of transient current in a pulse-switching, it was possible to elucidate the material specific evolution of the Magnéli phase filament. This methodology was applied to the two types of TiO2 films grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and sputtering. These two samples have structurally and electrically distinctive properties: PEALD film exhibited high variability in switching parameters and required an electroforming while sputtered film showed higher uniformity without distinct electroforming process. The JMA-type kinetic analysis of the RS behaviors revealed that the rejuvenation of the filament is accomplished by repeated one-dimensional nucleation followed by a two-dimensional growth in PEALD samples, whereas one-dimensional nucleation-free mechanism dominates in sputtered films.
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Epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver: CT and MRI features.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging features of epithelioid angiomyolipoma of the liver (Epi-HAML), with pathology as a reference. We reviewed the CT/MRI findings of six lesions of Epi-HAML and found absence of adipose tissue in the lesions. In addition, recognizing the imaging features of no capsule, and hypervasularity with central punctiform or filiform vessels as a characteristic enhancement may distinguish Epi-HAML from other hepatic tumors.
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Therapeutic strategies for well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma is an uncommon subtype of mesothelioma with a frequently indolent course, although it occasionally manifests in a more aggressive form. To establish a treatment strategy for this rare disease, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 15 patients with well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma.
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Blockade of TGF-? signaling greatly enhances the efficacy of TCR gene therapy of cancer.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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TCR gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of various human malignancies. However, the tumoricidal activity of TCR-modified T cells may be limited by local immunosuppressive mechanisms within the tumor environment. In particular, many malignancies induce T cell suppression in their microenvironment by TGF-? secretion. In this study, we evaluate whether blockade of TGF-? signaling in TCR-modified T cells enhances TCR gene therapy efficacy in an autochthonous mouse tumor model. Treatment of mice with advanced prostate cancer with T cells genetically engineered to express a tumor-reactive TCR and a dominant-negative TGF-? receptor II induces complete and sustained tumor regression, enhances survival, and leads to restored differentiation of prostate epithelium. These data demonstrate the potential to tailor the activity of TCR-modified T cells by additional genetic modification and provide a strong rationale for the clinical testing of TGF-? signaling blockade to enhance TCR gene therapy against advanced cancers.
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Radiation- and anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity and the influence of ErbB2 blocking agents.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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In Her2-positive breast cancer patients, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2)-signaling is often combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The risk of cardiac toxicity after anthracyclines and radiotherapy is recognized, but little is known about increased risk when these treatments are combined with ErbB2 inhibition. This study investigated whether ErbB2 inhibition increased radiation or anthracycline-induced toxicity. In an in vitro study, human cardiomyocytes were treated with irradiation or doxorubicin, alone or in combination with trastuzumab, and evaluated for cell survival and growth. Groups of mice received 0 or 14 Gy to the heart, alone or in combination with lapatinib, or 3 × 4 mg/kg doxorubicin alone or in combination with lapatinib. Mice were evaluated 40 weeks after treatment for cardiac damage. Changes in cardiac function ((99m)Tc-Myoview gated SPECT) were related to histomorphology and microvascular damage. Radiation or doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte toxicity (in vitro) were not exacerbated by trastuzumab. Cardiac irradiation of mice decreased microvascular density (MVD) and increased endothelial damage in surviving capillaries (decrease alkaline phosphatase expression and increased von Willebrand factor), but these changes were not exacerbated by lapatinib. Inflammatory responses in the irradiated epicardium (CD45+ and F4/80+ cells) were significantly reduced in combination with lapatinib. Irradiation, doxorubicin, and lapatinib each induced cardiac fibrosis but this was not further enhanced when treatments were combined. At the ultra-structural level, both lapatinib and doxorubicin induced mitochondrial damage, which was enhanced in combined treatments. Lapatinib alone also induced mild changes in cardiac function but this was not enhanced in the combined treatments. Trastuzumab did not enhance direct radiation or anthracycline toxicity of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Lapatinib did not enhance the risk of radiation or anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity in mice up to 40 weeks after treatment, but mitochondrial damage was more severe after doxorubicin combined with lapatinib.
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[The investigantion of comparative experiments for different clinical laboratory instruments].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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To estimate the consistency of two VITROS 3600 chemiluminescent analyzers according to the requirement of ISO15189.
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Synthesis, interaction with DNA and antiproliferative activities of two novel Cu(II) complexes with Schiff base of benzimidazole.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Two novel copper(II) complexes with Schiff base of benzimidazole [Cu(L)Cl]2·CH3OH have been synthesized. HL(1) (N-(benzimidazol-2-ymethyl)-5-chlorosalicylideneimine, C15H11ClN3O) and HL(2) (N-(benzimidazol-2-ymethyl)-salicylideneimine, C15H12N3O) are ligands of complex (1) and complex (2), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, TGA and X-ray diffraction. Within the complexes, Cu(II) ions were four coordinated by two nitrogen atom of azomethine and imine, one phenolic oxygen atom from HL and one chloride atom. A distorted quadrilateral structure was formed. Complex (1) crystallized in the triclinic crystal system. Results showed that ?-? stacking effect occurred due to the existence of aromatic ring from Schiff base and hydrogen bonding between methanol and adjacent atoms. The DNA binding properties of the complexes were investigated by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that complexes bound to DNA via partial intercalation mode. The DNA binding constants Kb/(Lmol(-1)) were 1.81×10(4) (1), 1.37×10(4) (2), 6.27×10(3) (HL(1)) and 3.14×10(3) (HL(2)) at 298K. The title complexes could quench the emission intensities of EB-DNA system significantly. The results of agarose gel electrophoresis indicated complex (1) could cleave supercoiled DNA through the oxidative mechanism. The inhibition ratios revealed that complex (1) and HL(1) had strong antiproliferative activities against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) lines and human colorectal cancer cells (COLO205) lines in vitro. The antiproliferative activities of complex (1) against MCF-7 lines (IC50=16.9±1.5?molL(-1)) and against COLO205 lines (IC50=16.5±3.4?molL(-1)) is much stronger than that of HL(1), which had the potential to develop anti-cancer drug.
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Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Virtual chromoendoscopy (CE) is expected to enhance adenoma yield and reduce variation in performance between colonoscopists. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of narrow band imaging (NBI), flexible spectral imaging CE (FICE) and white light (WL) colonoscopy and their impact for less experienced endoscopists.
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Progressive dilation of the left atrium and ventricle after acute myocardial infarction is associated with high mortality.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of progressive dilation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) combined with heart failure (HF) and determine the prognostic significance and associated factors with a geometric change of an infarcted heart.
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Dual inhibition of MEK1/2 and EGFR synergistically induces caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in EGFR inhibitor-resistant lung cancer cells via BIM upregulation.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations activate the KRAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway in lung cancer cells. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as gefitinib induce apoptosis of cancer cells, but prolonged treatment is often associated with acquired resistance. Here, we identified a novel MEK1/2 inhibitor, CZ0775, and compared its cytotoxic effects to those of AZD6244 (selumetinib) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines harboring EGFR mutations. The lapatinib-sensitive HCC827 and PC9 and lapatinib-resistant H1650 and H1975 cell lines showed poor responses to CZ0775 and AZD6244 monotherapy with an IC50 > 10 ?M. By contrast, combination treatment with lapatinib and CZ0775 inhibited cell proliferation and produced a 2-fold higher number of annexin V-labeled cells than lapatinib alone in H1975 cells. Furthermore, combination treatment decreased phosphorylated extracellular signal related kinase (p-ERK) and survivin levels and upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM. siRNA-mediated BIM depletion reduced caspase-3 activity (~40%) in lapatinib and CZ0775 treated H1975 cells. An in vitro ERK activity assay showed that p-ERK levels were approximately a 3-fold lower in H1975 cells treated with CZ0775 and lapatinib combination than in cells treated with lapatinib alone. CZ0775 was more cytotoxic than AZD6244 when used in combination with lapatinib. Our results suggest that combination treatment with CZ0774 and EGFR inhibitors is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancers and its effect is mediated by the inhibition of ERK and the induction of BIM.
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Osteoclast precursors in murine bone marrow express CD27 and are impeded in osteoclast development by CD70 on activated immune cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Osteoclasts (OCs) are bone-resorbing cells that are formed from hematopoietic precursors. OCs ordinarily maintain bone homeostasis, but they can also cause major pathology in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Under homeostatic conditions, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand on osteoblasts drives OC differentiation by interaction with its receptor RANK on OC precursors. During chronic immune activation, RANK ligand on activated immune cells likewise drives pathogenic OC differentiation. We here report that the related TNF family member CD70 and its receptor CD27 can also mediate cross-talk between immune cells and OC precursors. We identified CD27 on a rare population (0.3%) of B220(-)c-Kit(+)CD115(+)CD11b(low) cells in the mouse bone marrow (BM) that are highly enriched for osteoclastogenic potential. We dissected this population into CD27(high) common precursors of OC, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and CD27(low/neg) downstream precursors that could differentiate into OC and macrophages, but not DC. In a recombinant mouse model of chronic immune activation, sustained CD27/CD70 interactions caused an accumulation of OC precursors and a reduction in OC activity. These events were due to a CD27/CD70-dependent inhibition of OC differentiation from the OC precursors by BM-infiltrating, CD70(+)-activated immune cells. DC numbers in BM and spleen were increased, suggesting a skewing of the OC precursors toward DC differentiation. The impediment in OC differentiation culminated in a high trabecular bone mass pathology. Mice additionally presented anemia, leukopenia, and splenomegaly. Thus, under conditions of constitutive CD70 expression reflecting chronic immune activation, the CD27/CD70 system inhibits OC differentiation and favors DC differentiation.
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The usefulness of the sum of relative enhancement ratio in making a differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma from cirrhosis-related nodules.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the sum of relative enhancement ratio (sRER) in making a differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from benign cirrhosis-related nodules.
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Multicystic biliary hamartoma of the liver.
Korean J Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Multicystic biliary hamartoma (MCBH) is a very rare hamartomatous cystic nodule of the liver, which has recently been described as a new entity of a hepatic nodular lesion. We report a unique case of MCBH with a review of the literatures. A hepatic multicystic mass of segment 3 was detected in a 52-year-old male by abdominal computed tomography, and resection of this lesion was performed. Macroscopic examination revealed a 2.7×2.0 cm nodular mass with a multicystic honeycomb cut surface. Histologically, this lesion consisted of multiple dilated cystic ducts lined by biliary type epithelial cells, periductal glands and connective tissue, which included small amounts of hepatic parenchyma and blood vessels. Recognition of this unusual lesion is essential to avoid confusion with other cystic tumors of the liver, and to learn more about its natural history and response to treatment.
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Association between Maternal Preventive Care Utilization and Adolescent Vaccination: Its Not Just About Pap Testing.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To examine the association between maternal preventive care utilization and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake by their adolescent daughters.
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The effect of inflatable obstetric belts in nulliparous pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia during the second stage of labor.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of inflatable obstetric belts on uterine fundal pressure in the management of the second stage of labor.
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Multifunctional Co0.85 Se-Fe3 O4 Nanocomposites: Controlled Synthesis and Their Enhanced Performances for Efficient Hydrogenation of p-Nitrophenol and Adsorbents.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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A new kind of multifunctional Co0.85 Se-Fe3 O4 nanocomposites is synthesized by loading Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (NPs) with a size of about 5 nm on the surface of Co0.85 Se nanosheets under hydrothermal conditions without using any surfactant or structure-directing agents. The Co0.85 Se-Fe3 O4 nanocomposite exhibits remarkable catalytic performance for hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) at room temperature and good adsorption behavior for methylene blue trihydrate in water. This nanocomposite also shows a high specific surface area and magnetic separation capability for recyclable utilization. The enhanced performances both in catalysis and adsorption are better than either individual component of Co0.85 Se nanosheets or Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, demonstrating the possibility for designing new multifunctional nanocomposites with improved performances for catalysis, adsorbents, and other applications.
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FAM9C plays an anti-apoptotic role through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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The function of FAM9C encoding a testis-exclusively expressed and nuclear-localized protein remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of FAM9C in human hepatocellular carcinoma. We found that among three FAM9 family members, only FAM9C was frequently upregulated in HCC specimens compared with that in corresponding adjacent non-cancer liver tissues. FAM9C was located in the nucleus of HCC cells, as shown by both western blotting and immumofluorescence assays. Significantly, FAM9C overexpression promoted proliferation, clonogenicity in an anchorage-dependent manner, in vivo tumorigenicity of YY-8103, and Huh-7 cells. In contrast, FAM9C knockdown suppressed proliferation, anchorage-dependent colony formation and in vivo tumorigenicity of QGY-7703, and BEL-7404 cells. However, FAM9C had no significant effects on cell cycle progression when FAM9C was stably overexpressed in Huh-7 cells or knocked down in BEL-7404 cells. Most importantly, FAM9C regulated activation of Akt and UV-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. FAM9C overexpression increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt and anti-apoptotic ability of Huh-7 cells, whereas endogenous FAM9C knockdown reduced the phosphorylated levels of Akt and anti-apoptotic ability of BEL-7404 cells. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic function of FAM9C could be prevented when the PI3K-Akt pathway was in a loss-of-function caused by RNA interference against Akt or PI3K inhibitor LY294002 in HCC cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that FAM9C as a novel cancer testis gene plays an anti-apoptotic role in human hepatocellular carcinoma through activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and serves as a promising target for HCC therapy.
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Diagnostic accuracy of narrow band imaging for predicting colon polyp histology can be affected by polyp characteristics.
Hepatogastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Narrow band imaging (NBI) is an optical endoscopic technique for predicting polyp histology during colonoscopy. However, it has not been elucidated the impact of polyp characteristics on the diagnostic capabilities of NBI. We aimed to evaluate which polyp characteristics can influence the diagnostic accuracy of NBI for discriminating neoplastic from non-neoplastic colorectal polyps.
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Hedgehog signaling alters reliance on EGF receptor signaling and mediates anti-EGFR therapeutic resistance in head and neck cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The EGF receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab is the only targeted therapy approved for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) but is only effective in a minority of patients. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated as a drug resistance mechanism in multiple cancers, and the EGFR and Hedgehog pathways (HhP) are relevant to this process, but the interplay between the two pathways has not been defined in HNSCC. Here, we show that HNSCC cells that were naturally sensitive to EGFR inhibition over time developed increased expression of the HhP transcription factor GLI1 as they became resistant after long-term EGFR inhibitor exposure. This robustly correlated with an increase in vimentin expression. Conversely, the HhP negatively regulated an EGFR-dependent, EMT-like state in HNSCC cells, and pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of HhP signaling pushed cells further into an EGFR-dependent phenotype, increasing expression of ZEB1 and VIM. In vivo treatment with cetuximab resulted in tumor shrinkage in four of six HNSCC patient-derived xenografts; however, they eventually regrew. Cetuximab in combination with the HhP inhibitor IPI-926 eliminated tumors in two cases and significantly delayed regrowth in the other two cases. Expression of EMT genes TWIST and ZEB2 was increased in sensitive xenografts, suggesting a possible resistant mesenchymal population. In summary, we report that EGFR-dependent HNSCC cells can undergo both EGFR-dependent and -independent EMT and HhP signaling is a regulator in both processes. Cetuximab plus IPI-926 forces tumor cells into an EGFR-dependent state, delaying or completely blocking tumor recurrence.
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New bone formation between bare titanium surface and hydroxyapatite coating by the aerosol deposition technique in the nasal mucosal penetration model.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare new bone formation with titanium (Ti) surface and hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium surface in mucosal perforation model.
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Genetic variation in ESR2 and estrogen receptor-beta expression in lung tumors.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To investigate the association between inherited variation in the estrogen receptor beta (ER?) gene (ESR2) and ER? lung tumor expression, a phenotype that possibly affects survival differently in men and women.
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Defined lipid analogues induce transient channels to facilitate drug-membrane traversal and circumvent cancer therapy resistance.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Design and efficacy of bioactive drugs is restricted by their (in)ability to traverse cellular membranes. Therapy resistance, a major cause of ineffective cancer treatment, is frequently due to suboptimal intracellular accumulation of the drug. We report a molecular mechanism that promotes trans-membrane movement of a stereotypical, widely used anti-cancer agent to counteract resistance. Well-defined lipid analogues adapt to the amphiphilic drug doxorubicin, when co-inserted into the cell membrane, and assemble a transient channel that rapidly facilitates the translocation of the drug onto the intracellular membrane leaflet. Molecular dynamic simulations unveiled the structure and dynamics of membrane channel assembly. We demonstrate that this principle successfully addresses multi-drug resistance of genetically engineered mouse breast cancer models. Our results illuminate the role of the plasma membrane in restricting the efficacy of established therapies and drug resistance - and provide a mechanism to overcome ineffectiveness of existing and candidate drugs.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.