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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A quantitative evaluation of abdominal aorta aneurysm by CT images.
Technol Health Care
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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An abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) is a disease that aortic vessel inflates abnormally. The aorta blows up continuously, which may lead to the rupture of the aorta. The mortality of rupturing the aorta is between 75 and 90% to properly treat this disease, we need to accurate measure about variation of AAA size. our team performed that AAA is reconstructed as three dimensional (3D) images by computer tomography (CT), and analyzed the elements of inflation through a geometric parameter measurement . Subjects (seven males) who undergo an AAA are enrolled for the analysis. The authors used CT images as a primary source, and obtained secondary CT images 12 months later.By means of these data, the authors constructed 3D images of AAA and performed examinations using a geometric analysis that calculates geometric parameter such as the tortuosity, diameter, saccular and so on based on volume, area of the segmented region of the CT slices that is set up by the centroids and 8 points around it. The result of the severity biomechanical factor shows increased AAA tortuosity ratio (4.9%), AAA diameter expansion ratio [cm/year] (6.8%), AAA total diameter ratio (4.7%), AAA saccular ratio (2.4%) than 12-month before. Through these results, We can plan to endovascular repair surgery to undergoing AAA patients and possible diagnosis estimation of AAA.
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Aristolochic acid I induces the ovarian toxicity by inhibition of Akt phosphorylation.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Aristolochic acids are natural products found in Chinese herbs of the Aristolochiaceae family. Aristolochic acid I (AAI) is a potent carcinogen and was found to be toxic in animal studies and clinical studies. Apoptosis is a rapid, selective process of physiological cell deletion that regulates the balance between cell proliferation and cell death in induced by various damages. However, the toxicity of AAI during ovarian maturation of mouse is unclear, and is the subject of the present investigation. We used Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO-K1) cells and mouse model with AAI-injection for 4 weeks, MTT assay for the assay of AA toxic in cells, ovary size and weight assay for the AA toxic in mouse ovary, western blot for apoptosis assay, TUNEL kit assay for apoptotic cell death assay, and immunohistochemistry stain for the locally expression of apoptotic protein in ovary tissue. We found that AAI significant inhibits the viability of CHO-K1 cells and strong induced the apoptotic cell death in CHO-K1 cells and mouse ovary tissues. In addition, we observed that AAI markedly increases the expression of pro-apoptotic protein including Bax, caspase-3, caspse-9, and Poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP). In opposition, anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and survivin were decreased by AAI-treatment. Furthermore, we observed that ovary size and weight were significant reduced, and number of ovulated oocyte was markedly suppressed in AAI-treated mouse. This study results suggested that that AAI strong induced the toxic damage during ovarian maturation by inhibition of Akt phosphorylation-mediated apoptosis.
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A Simple Method to Enhance Positive Bias Stress Stability of In-Ga-Zn-O Thin-Film Transistors Using Vertically Graded-Oxygen-Vacancy Active Layer.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We proposed a simple method to deposit vertically graded-oxygen-vacancy active layer (VGA) to enhance the positive bias stress (PBS) stability of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). We deposited a-IGZO films by sputtering (target composition; In2O3:Ga2O3:ZnO = 1:1:1 mol %) and the oxygen partial pressure was varied during deposition so that the front channel of the TFTs was fabricated with low oxygen partial pressure, and the back channel with high oxygen partial pressure. Using this method, we were able to control the oxygen vacancy concentration of the active layer so that it varied with depth. As a result, the turn-on voltage shift following a 10,000-s PBS of optimized VGA TFT was drastically improved from 12.0 to 5.6 V compared with a conventional a-IGZO TFT, without a significant decrease in the field effect mobility. These results came from the self-passivation effect and decrease in oxygen vacancy related trap sites of the VGA TFTs.
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Two new isoarylbenzofuran diglucosides from the root bark of Morus alba.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Two new arylbenzofuran diglucopyranosides, (2?R)-(-)-moracin-O-5',3?-?-d-diglucopyranoside (1) and (2?R)-(-)-moracin-P-5',2?-?-d-diglucopyranoside (2), along with known arylbenzofurans, moracin M 6-?-d-glucopyranoside (3), and an isomeric mixture of R-(-)-moracin O (4) and R-(-)-moracin P (5), were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba L. The structure of the compounds was elucidated based on mass spectrometry, infrared, 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data.
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Lifetime prevalence of and risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a korean community sample.
Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Our study evaluated the lifetime prevalence of and risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in Jeollabuk-do Province, Korea.
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CBX7 inhibits breast tumorigenicity through DKK-1-mediated suppression of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Polycomb protein chromobox homolog 7 (CBX7) is involved in several biologic processes including stem cell regulation and cancer development, but its roles in breast cancer remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CBX7 negatively regulates breast tumor initiation. CD44(+)/CD24(-)/ESA(+) breast stem-like cells showed diminished CBX7 expression. Furthermore, small hairpin RNA-mediated CBX7 knockdown in breast epithelial and cancer cells increased the CD44(+)/CD24(-)/ESA(+) cell population and reinforced in vitro self-renewal and in vivo tumor-initiating ability. Similarly, CBX7 overexpression repressed these effects. We also found that CBX7 inhibits the Wnt/?-catenin/T cell factor pathway by enhancing the expression of Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), a Wnt antagonist. In particular, CBX7 increased DKK-1 transcription by cooperating with p300 acetyltransferase and subsequently enhancing the histone acetylation of the DKK-1 promoter. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of DKK-1 in CBX7-overexpressing cells showed recovery of Wnt signaling and consequent rescue of the CD44(+)/CD24(-)/ESA(+) cell population. Taken together, these findings indicate that CBX7-mediated epigenetic induction of DKK-1 is crucial for the inhibition of breast tumorigenicity, suggesting that CBX7 could be a potential tumor suppressor in human breast cancer.-Kim, H. -Y., Park, J.-H., Won, H.-Y., Lee, J.-Y., Kong, G. CBX7 inhibits breast tumorigenicity through DKK-1-mediated suppression of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
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Melatonin attenuates neutrophil inflammation and mucus secretion in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases via the suppression of Erk-Sp1 signaling.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has substantially increased in recent decade. Cigarette smoke (CS) is the most important risk factor in the development of COPD. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on the development of COPD using a CS and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced COPD model and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-stimulated NCI-H292 cells, a human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell. On day 4, the mice were treated intranasally with LPS. The mice were exposed to CS for 1 h per day (8 cigarettes per day) from day 1 to day 7. Melatonin (10 or 20 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h before CS exposure. Melatonin markedly decreased the neutrophil count in the BALF, with reduction in the proinflammatory mediators and MUC5AC. Melatonin inhibited Erk phosphorylation and Sp1 expression induced by CS and LPS treatment. Additionally, melatonin decreased airway inflammation with a reduction in myeloperoxidase expression in lung tissue. In in vitro experiments, melatonin suppressed the elevated expression of proinflammatory mediators induced by CSC treatment. Melatonin reduced Erk phosphorylation and Sp1 expression in CSC-stimulated H292 cells. In addition, cotreatment of melatonin and Erk inhibitors significantly limited the proinflammatory mediators with greater reductions in Erk phosphorylation and Sp1 expression than that observed in H292 cells treated with Erk inhibitor alone. Taken together, melatonin effectively inhibited the neutrophil airway inflammation induced by CS and LPS treatment, which was closely related to downregulation of Erk phosphorylation. These findings suggest that melatonin has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of COPD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Presence of calreticulin mutations in JAK2-negative polycythemia vera.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Calreticulin (CALR) mutations have been reported in JAK2 and MPL-negative essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. In contrast, no CALR mutations have ever been reported in the context of Polycythemia Vera (PV). Here, we describe two JAK2(V617F)- JAK2(exon12)-negative PV patients who presented with a CALR mutation in peripheral granulocytes at the time of diagnosis. In both cases, the CALR mutation was a 52 bp deletion. Single erythroid colonies (BFU-E) from one patient were grown in vitro and genotyped: the same CALR del 52 bp mutation was noted in 31 of the 37 colonies examined; 30/31 BFU-E were heterozygous for CALR del 52 bp, and 1/31 BFU-E was homozygous for CALR del 52 bp. In summary, although unknown mutations leading to PV cannot be ruled out, our results suggest that CALR mutations can be associated with JAK2-negative PV.
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Exercise barriers in korean colorectal cancer patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To identify barriers to exercise in Korean colorectal cancer patients and survivors, and to analyze differences in exercise barriers by age, gender, treatment status, and physical activity level.
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Quantitative volumetric analysis of the optic radiation in the normal human brain using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To attain the volumetric information of the optic radiation in normal human brains, we performed diffusion tensor imaging examination in 13 healthy volunteers. Simultaneously, we used a brain normalization method to reduce individual brain variation and increase the accuracy of volumetric information analysis. In addition, tractography-based group mapping method was also used to investigate the probability and distribution of the optic radiation pathways. Our results showed that the measured optic radiation fiber tract volume was a range of about 0.16% and that the fractional anisotropy value was about 0.53. Moreover, the optic radiation probability fiber pathway that was determined with diffusion tensor tractography-based group mapping was able to detect the location relatively accurately. We believe that our methods and results are helpful in the study of optic radiation fiber tract information.
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A new flavonoid glycoside from the root bark of Morus alba L.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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A new guibourtinidol glycoside, (2R,3S)-guibourtinidol-3-O-?-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 ? 6)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), and three known compounds, quercetin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2), syringaresinol-4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3) and dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4,9'-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4), were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba L. through repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography for the n-BuOH fraction. The chemical structure of the compounds was elucidated based on MS, infrared, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 2-4 were also isolated for the first time from the root bark of M. alba L. in this study.
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Cross talk with hematopoietic cells regulates the endothelial progenitor cell differentiation of CD34 positive cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Despite the crucial role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vascular regeneration, the specific interactions between EPCs and hematopoietic cells remain unclear.
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Indacaterol inhibits tumor cell invasiveness and MMP-9 expression by suppressing IKK/NF-?B activation.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The ?2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is a G protein-coupled transmembrane receptor expressed in the human respiratory tract and widely recognized as a pharmacological target for treatments of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD). Although a number of ADRB2 agonists have been developed for use in asthma therapy, indacaterol is the only ultra-long-acting inhaled ?2-agonist (LABA) approved by the FDA for relieving the symptoms in COPD patients. The precise molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effect of indacaterol, however, remains unclear. Here, we show that ?-arrestin-2 mediates the internalization of ADRB2 following indacaterol treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that indacaterol significantly inhibits tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced NF-?B activity by reducing levels of both phosphorylated-IKK and -I?B?, thereby decreasing NF-?B nuclear translocation and the expression of MMP-9, an NF-?B target gene. Subsequently, we show that indacaterol significantly inhibits TNF-?/NF-?B-induced cell invasiveness and migration in a human cancer cell line. In conclusion, we propose that indacaterol may inhibit NF-?B activity in a ?-arrestin2-dependent manner, preventing further lung damage and improving lung function in COPD patients.
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Melatonin reduces airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced asthma.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory airway disease that is recognized as a major public health problem. In this study, we evaluated the effects of melatonin on allergic asthma using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and BEAS-2B cells. To induce allergic asthma, the mice were sensitized and airway-challenged with OVA. Melatonin was administered by intraperitoneal injection once per day at doses of 10 and 15mg/kg from days 21 to 23 after the initial OVA sensitization. We investigated the effects of melatonin on proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and expression in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. The administration of melatonin significantly decreased the number of inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E with reductions in interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Melatonin attenuated the airway inflammation and the mucus production in lung tissue and significantly suppressed elevated MMP-9 expression and activity induced by an OVA challenge. In TNF-?-stimulated BEAS-2B cells, treatment with melatonin significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and lowered the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that melatonin effectively suppressed allergic asthma induced by an OVA challenge. The results suggest a potential role for melatonin in treating asthma.
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Phase II gemcitabine and capecitabine combination therapy in recurrent or metastatic breast cancer patients pretreated with anthracycline and taxane.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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We conducted a phase II study evaluating safety and efficacy of combination gemcitabine and capecitabine therapy for metastatic breast cancer patients following anthracycline and taxane treatment in Korea.
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Cynandione A from Cynanchum wilfordii attenuates the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells via NF-?B inactivation.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Cynanchum wilfordii is one of most widely used medicinal plants in Oriental medicine for the treatment of various conditions. In the present study, we isolated cynandione A (CA) from an extract of Cynanchum wilfordii roots (CWE) and investigated the effects of CA on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. CWE and CA significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while they (CWE up to 500 µg/mL and CA up to 80 µM) did not exhibit cytotoxic activity. Results from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that CA significantly attenuated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1? in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, CA inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B-alpha (I?B-?) and translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) to the BV-2 cell nucleus, indicating that CWE and CA may have effective anti-inflammatory activities via NF-?B inactivation in stimulated microglial cells.
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Influence of nanosecond pulsed plasma on the non-enzymatic pathway for the generation of nitric oxide from L-arginine and the modification of graphite oxide to increase the solar cell efficiency.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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In this work, we demonstrated the action of nanosecond pulsed plasma (NPP) on the generation of nitric oxide (NO) from the non-enzymatic pathway and on the modification of graphite oxide (GO) sheets to increase polymer solar cells (PSCs) efficiency. NO is an important signal and an effector molecule in animals, which is generated from the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of L-arginine to NO and L-citrulline. Hence, L-arginine is an important biological precursor for NO formation. Therefore, we developed a new non-enzymatic pathway for the formation of NO and L-citrulline using NPP and characterized the pathway using NO detection kit, NMR, liquid chromatography/capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (LC/CE-MS) for both quantitative and qualitative bioanalysis. We then synthesized and modified the functional groups of GO using NPP, and it was characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), confocal Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, cathodoluminescence (CL) and work function using ?-FIB. Further, we also tested the power conversion efficiency of the PSCs devices with modified GO that is similar to the one obtained with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) as HTL. This work is perceived to have great implications for inexpensive and efficient methodology for NO generation and modification of GO, which are applicable in materials from nanomaterials to biomolecules.
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Estrogenic Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Modulate the Production of Inflammatory Mediators and Cell Viability of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that act as competitive inhibitors of estrogen in the endocrine system. By disrupting the endocrine system, EDCs can cause severe disabilities and diseases, including cancers and altered sexual development. Although the influence of these molecules in the endocrine system is evident, the effects of EDCs on the immune system as well as their cytotoxicity have been poorly examined. Therefore, we selected 21 EDCs that are commonly found in Korean ecosystems, such as surface waters and effluents, and studied their immunologic effects by comparing nitric oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (RAW cells), a macrophage cell line. Among the EDCs tested, fenitrothion (FTH) inhibited the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), resulting in reduced NO production, while treatment with andostenedione (AD), diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), estriol, or molinate decreased production of NO in an iNOS-independent fashion. In contrast, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) increased the production of NO in RAW cells. In addition, AD, DBP, or FTH inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 beta. Treatment with 17-?-ethynylestradiol, 17-?-estradiol, 4-n-butyl phenol, or alachlor induced apoptosis of RAW cells, while dicyclohexyl phthalate and B(a)P caused cell death in an apoptosis-independent manner. These data suggest that EDCs can influence the immune response to pathogens by modulating the functions of macrophages.
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Flavonoids from Machilus japonica stems and their inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (-)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3-6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively.
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The validities and efficiencies of korean ADHD rating scale and korean child behavior checklist for screening children with ADHD in the community.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of primary screening tools for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a community-based sample of children using the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and the Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS).
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Docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis is mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3-PUFAs) in cancer prevention has been demonstrated; however, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity of ?3-PUFAs are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the relationship between the anticancer action of a specific ?3-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the conventional mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 whose dysregulation has been implicated in human cancers.
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Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Significance of HER2 Expression in Gastric Cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Background: HER2 positivity is reported to be <20% in gastric cancer. Clinicopathological characteristics will be helpful to understand the biological features of HER2-positive gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 813 gastric cancer patients who underwent HER2 testing between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in this study. Results: Ninety-five (11.7%) patients had HER2-positive gastric cancer. Elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration [odds ratio (OR), 5.629; p < 0.001] and differentiated histology (OR, 3.717; p = 0.002) were significant predictive factors for HER2 positivity in localized disease. For recurrent or metastatic disease, elevated serum CEA concentration (OR, 2.545; p < 0.001), differentiated histology (OR, 3.299; p < 0.001), pulmonary metastasis (OR, 3.321; p = 0.001), and distant lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.286; p = 0.002) were significant predictive factors. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was shorter in HER2-positive patients than in others, especially in stage I or II disease (24.7 vs. 49.2 months; p < 0.001). Among HER2-negative patients with stage II diseases, patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had longer DFS than others (42.2 vs. 30.7 months; p = 0.025). Conclusions: Clinicopathological factors may be useful in predicting the HER2 positivity of gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the molecular basis of HER2-positive gastric cancer. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Flavonoid analysis of buckwheat sprouts.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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It is known that common buckwheat sprouts contain several flavonoids, including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, and quercetrin, whereas tartary buckwheat sprouts contain only rutin. In this study, we evaluated flavonoids present in buckwheat sprouts and identified a previously unreported flavonoid. Simultaneous detection by HPLC was used to separate rutin and a compound that was not separated in previous studies. We used a novel HPLC elution gradient method to successfully separate rutin and the previously unidentified compound, for which we performed structural analysis. The identification of six flavonoids by HPLC was confirmed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The newly identified compound, [M+H](+) =611.17, was identified by NMR as the rutin epimer quercetin-3-O-robinobioside. Unlike common buckwheat sprout, tartary buckwheat sprout contained rutin as a main flavonoid, whereas other flavonoids appeared only in trace amounts or were not detected. Quercetin-3-O-robinobioside was not detected in tartary buckwheat sprout.
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PTEN Deficiency as a Predictive Biomarker of Resistance to HER2-Targeted Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Background: To investigate the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy. Methods: We evaluated the predictive roles of PI3K, catalytic alpha (PIK3CA), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in HER2-based therapy (either trastuzumab or lapatinib). PTEN expression and PIK3CA mutation were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and pyrosequencing. Results: Forty-eight patients received trastuzumab (n = 39) or lapatinib (n = 9) combination chemotherapy. PTEN loss was found in 47.9% (n = 23), but no PIK3CA mutations were identified. Twenty-six (54.1%) patients responded to HER2-based therapy, without a significant difference between patients with PTEN loss and those without (52.2 vs. 56.0%). Among the patients with responsive disease, time to best response did not differ by PTEN status, but the duration of response was significantly shorter for patients with PTEN loss (median 4.2 vs. 6.1 months, p = 0.04). In addition, patients with PTEN loss had a significantly shorter progression-free survival time (median 4.9 vs. 7.3 months, p = 0.047). Conclusions: PTEN deficiency is an important predictive marker for early resistance to HER2 inhibitor treatment in gastric cancer patients. This finding may be useful for the development of drug combinations and identification of patients who need a modified treatment strategy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Clinical relevance of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as infection markers in renal impairment: a cross sectional study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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IntroductionAlthough the clinical application of procalcitonin (PCT) as an infection marker in patients with impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min) has been increasing recently, it is unclear whether PCT is more accurate than C-reactive protein (CRP). We investigated the clinical value of CRP and PCT based on renal function.MethodsFrom November 2008 to July 2011, a total of 493 patients who simultaneously underwent CRP and PCT tests were enrolled. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and characteristics of both markers were analyzed according to infection severity and renal function.ResultsIn patients with impaired renal function, the area under the ROC curve was 0.876 for CRP and 0.876 for PCT. In patients with infection, CRP levels differed depending on whether the infection was localized, septic, or severely septic, whereas PCT levels were higher in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. In patients without infection, CRP did not correlate with eGFR, while PCT was negatively correlated with eGFR.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that CRP is accurate for predicting infection in patients with impaired renal function. The study suggests that in spite of its higher cost, PCT is not superior to CRP as an infection marker in terms of diagnostic value.
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Docosahexaenoic acid induces the degradation of HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins by activating the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Cell Death Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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The oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 proteins are essential for the onset and maintenance of HPV-associated malignancies. Here, we report that activation of the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), leads to proteasome-mediated degradation of E6/E7 viral proteins and the induction of apoptosis in HPV-infected cancer cells. The increases in UPS activity and degradation of E6/E7 oncoproteins were associated with DHA-induced overproduction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exogenous oxidative stress and pharmacological induction of mitochondrial ROS showed effects similar to those of DHA, and inhibition of ROS production abolished UPS activation, E6/E7 viral protein destabilization, and apoptosis. These findings identify a novel role for DHA in the regulation of UPS and viral proteins, and provide evidence for the use of DHA as a mechanistically unique anticancer agent for the chemoprevention and treatment of HPV-associated tumors.
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Acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules: a distinct clinical entity.
JAMA Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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We evaluated 13 distinct patients with multiple telangiectatic pigmented macules confined mostly to the upper arms to determine if the clinical and histopathological features of these cases might represent a specific clinical entity.
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Recessive C10orf2 mutations in a family with infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and myopathy.
Neurogenetics
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Recessive mutations in chromosome 10 open reading frame 2 (C10orf2) are relevant in infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA). In this study, we investigated the causative mutation in a Korean family with combined phenotypes of IOSCA, sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and myopathy. We investigated recessive mutations in a Korean family with two individuals affected by IOSCA. Causative mutations were investigated using whole exome sequencing. Electrophysiological analyses and muscle and nerve biopsies were performed, along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and lower extremities. Compound heterozygous mutations c.1460C>T and c.1485-1G>A in C10orf2 were identified as causative of IOSCA. Skeletal muscle showed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Both patients showed a period of normal development until 12-15 months, followed by ataxia, athetosis, hearing loss, and intellectual disability. Electrophysiological findings indicated motor and sensory polyneuropathies. Muscle biopsy revealed variations in the size and shape of myofibers with scattered, small, and angulated degenerating myofibers containing abnormal mitochondria; these observations are consistent with myopathy and may be the result of mtDNA deletions. Sural nerve biopsy revealed an axonal neuropathy. High-signal-intensity lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncles were correlated with clinical severity, and MRI of the lower legs was compatible with the hypothesis of length-dependent axonal degeneration. We identified novel compound heterozygous mutations of the C10orf2 gene as the cause of IOSCA with sensorimotor polyneuropathy and myopathy. Signs of motor neuropathy and myopathy were discovered for the first time in IOSCA patients with C10orf2 mutations. These results suggest that the clinical spectrum of IOSCA caused by C10orf2 mutations may be more variable than previously reported.
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Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.
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Diagnostic imaging utilization in cases of acute appendicitis: multi-center experience.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to measure imaging utilization rates and the negative appendectomy rate (NAR) in metropolitan Seoul, Korea. The study included 2321 adolescents and adults (? 15 yr; median [interquartile range] age, 37 [27-50] yr; 46.7% female) undergoing appendectomy in 2011 at eight tertiary and three secondary hospitals. Imaging utilization rate was 99.7% (95% confidence interval, 99.4%-99.9%). CT and ultrasonography utilization rates as an initial imaging modality were 93.1% (92.0%-94.1%), and 6.5% (5.6%-7.6%), respectively. The NAR in patients undergoing CT only, complementary ultrasonography following CT, ultrasonography only, and complementary CT following ultrasonography were 3.3% (2.6%-4.1%), 27% (14%-44%), 9% (4%-16%), and 8% (2%-20%), respectively. The use of ultrasonography instead of CT as the initial imaging modality was significantly associated with higher NAR (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.28 [1.22-4.27]; risk difference, 4.4 [0-8.8] percentage points), however, the population attributable risk was 0.3 [0-0.6] percentage points. We observed a very high CT utilization rate and a low NAR in metropolitan Seoul. Although the use of CT was significantly associated with the lower NAR, CT utilization rate already has reached the level that increase in CT utilization from the status quo would hardly decrease the NAR further.
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Lignan and flavonoids from the stems of Zea mays and their anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The stems of Zea mays L., otherwise known as cornstalks, were extracted with 80 % aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was successively partitioned with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol, and water. From the EtOAc fraction, a new lignan along with three known flavonoids, tricin (1), salcolin A (2), and salcolin B (3), were isolated. The chemical structure of the lignan was determined to be tetrahydro-4,6-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1H,3H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1-one (4) through spectroscopic data analyses including NMR, MS, and IR. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against NO production in Lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells and their protective activity in glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cells. The compounds 1, 2 and 4 showed anti-inflammatory effects with IC50 values of 2.63, 14.65, and 18.91 ?M, respectively, as well as neuroprotective effects with EC50 values of 25.14, 47.44, and >80 ?M, respectively.
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Cyberbullying, problematic internet use, and psychopathologic symptoms among Korean youth.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.
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DNA-base guanine as hydrogen getter and charge-trapping layer embedded in oxide dielectrics for inorganic and organic field-effect transistors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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DNA-base small molecules of guanine, cytosine, adenine, and thymine construct the DNA double helix structure with hydrogen bonding, and they possess such a variety of intrinsic benefits as natural plentitude, biodegradability, biofunctionality, low cost, and low toxicity. On the basis of these advantages, here, we report on unprecedented useful applications of guanine layer as hydrogen getter and charge trapping layer when it is embedded into a dielectric oxide of n-channel inorganic InGaZnO and p-channel organic heptazole field effect transistors (FETs). The embedded guanine layer much improved the gate stability of inorganic FETs gettering many hydrogen atoms in the gate dielectric layer of FET, and it also played as charge trapping layer to which the voltage pulse-driven charges might be injected from channel, resulting in a threshold voltage (Vth) shift of FETs. Such shift state is very ambient-stable and almost irrevocable even under a high electric-field at room temperature. So, Boolean logics are nicely demonstrated by using our FETs with the guanine-embedded dielectric. The original Vth is recovered only under high energy blue photons by opposite voltage pulse (charge-ejection), which indicates that our device is also applicable to nonvolatile photo memory.
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Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy affects the indications for lateral pelvic node dissection in mid/low rectal cancer with clinically suspected lateral node involvement: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Although lateral pelvic node dissection (LPND) is recommended for rectal cancer with clinically metastatic lateral pelvic lymph nodes (LPNs), LPNs may respond to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Our aim was to determine the optimal indication for LPND after nCRT for mid/low rectal cancer.
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Optimal local searching for fast and robust textureless 3D object tracking in highly cluttered backgrounds.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Edge-based tracking is a fast and plausible approach for textureless 3D object tracking, but its robustness is still very challenging in highly cluttered backgrounds due to numerous local minima. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel method for fast and robust textureless 3D object tracking in highly cluttered backgrounds. The proposed method is based on optimal local searching of 3D-2D correspondences between a known 3D object model and 2D scene edges in an image with heavy background clutter. In our searching scheme, searching regions are partitioned into three levels (interior, contour, and exterior) with respect to the previous object region, and confident searching directions are determined by evaluating candidates of correspondences on their region levels; thus, the correspondences are searched among likely candidates in only the confident directions instead of searching through all candidates. To ensure the confident searching direction, we also adopt the region appearance, which is efficiently modeled on a newly defined local space (called a searching bundle). Experimental results and performance evaluations demonstrate that our method fully supports fast and robust textureless 3D object tracking even in highly cluttered backgrounds.
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Clinical course of segmental vitiligo: a retrospective study of eighty-seven patients.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Vitiligo is an acquired disorder characterized by a progressive loss of melanocytes, which is difficult to manage and has an unknown prognosis. The subtype of segmental vitiligo (SV) has been established but it has not been adequately characterized.
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The impact of an exercise therapy on psychosocial health of children with benign epilepsy: a pilot study.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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The purposes of the current study were to test the feasibility of exercise therapy for children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) and to collect pilot data about the impact of exercise therapy on neurocognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes.
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Flavonoids from Lindera glauca Blume as low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitors.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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In order to identify antioxidant flavonoids from Lindera glauca Blume, we performed phytochemical analysis of L. glauca Blume heartwood and isolated eight flavonoids - lindeglaucol (1), lindeglaucone (2), cilicicone B (3), tamarixetin 3-O-?-L-rhamnoside (4), procyanidin A2 (5), cinnamtannin B1 (6), cinnamtannin D1 (7), and procyanidin A1 (8) - through repeated column chromatography over silica gel (SiO?), octadecyl silica gel (ODS) and Sephadex LH-20. The chemical structures of compounds 1-8 were elucidated from spectroscopic data (NMR, IR and MS). The low-density lipoprotein oxidation inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. Compounds 5-8 exhibited high inhibition activity, comparable to the positive control butyl hydroxyl toluene. Compounds 2 and 3 were slightly less active, while 1 and 4 expressed low activity.
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Does diabetes mellitus influence standardized uptake values of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in colorectal cancer?
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Hyperglycemia is associated with decreased 2-(18)[F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumors assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). In this retrospective study we investigated a comparison of standardized uptake values (SUVs) in patients with primary colorectal cancers who either had diabetes mellitus (DM) or were otherwise healthy.
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PMA synergistically enhances apicularen A-induced cytotoxicity by disrupting microtubule networks in HeLa cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Combination therapy is key to improving cancer treatment efficacy. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a well-known PKC activator, increases the cytotoxicity of several anticancer drugs. Apicularen A induces cytotoxicity in tumor cells through disrupting microtubule networks by tubulin down-regulation. In this study, we examined whether PMA increases apicularen A-induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells.
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Hepatocellular carcinoma specific graded prognostic assessment can predict outcomes for patients with brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Stratifying patients with brain metastasis (BM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by prognostic factors can be useful when making treatment decisions. Nevertheless, a diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) for HCC has not been well established. We retrospectively reviewed the data from 118 HCC patients newly diagnosed with BM at the Yonsei University Health System between 1985 and 2011. After univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors, those shown to significantly affect survival were used to develop a HCC-specific GPA (HCC-GPA) index. The median overall survival after BM in all patients was 6.1 weeks (95% confidence interval 4.8-7.4 weeks). Using the prognostic factors identified via multivariate analysis, we developed a HCC-GPA index, including number of brain metastases (single: 0.5, multiple: 0 points), alpha-feto protein (<400 ng/mL: 0.5, ?400 ng/mL: 0 points), and Child-Pugh-Score (A: 3, B: 2, C: 0 points). There were no survival differences for age, sex, performance status, and time interval from initial diagnosis to development of BM. Median survival times from BM were discriminable when applying the HCC-GPA scoring system: 1.7, 3.2, 7.9, and 27.0 weeks for HCC-GPA scores of 0-1.0 (N = 16), 1.5-2.5 (N = 32), 3.0-3.5 (N = 49), and 4.0 (N = 21), respectively (P < 0.001). Although the prognoses of patients with BM from HCC are dismal, the newly developed HCC-GPA index can be used to discriminate the expected prognoses thereof. Moreover, the index may hold value as a tool for selecting patients who may be good candidates for active local treatment.
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Melatonin inhibits MUC5AC production via suppression of MAPK signaling in human airway epithelial cells.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Mucus acts as a primary defense system in the airway against various stimuli. However, excess mucus production causes a reduction in lung function via limitation of the airflow in the airway of patients suffering from asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we evaluated the effects of melatonin on the production of MUC5AC, a major constituent of the mucin that is secreted from the airway, using epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated NCI-H292 cells, a human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line, and an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma murine model. Melatonin treatment significantly reduced the mRNA and protein levels of MUC5AC and reduced interleukin (IL)-6 production in EGF-stimulated H292 cells. Melatonin markedly decreased the phosphorylation of MAPKs, including ERK1/2, JNK, and p-38, induced by EGF stimulation. These findings were consistent with the results using MAPK inhibitors. Particularly, co-treatment with melatonin and a MAPK inhibitor more effectively suppressed MAPK phosphorylation than treatment with a MAPK inhibitor alone, which resulted in a reduction in MUC5AC expression. In the asthma murine model, melatonin-treated mice exhibited a marked reduction in MUC5AC expression in the airway compared with the OVA-induced mice. These reductions were accompanied by reductions in proinflammatory cytokine production and inflammatory cell infiltration. Collectively, these findings indicate that melatonin effectively inhibits MUC5AC expression. These effects may be closely associated with the inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, our study suggests that melatonin could represent a potential therapeutic for chronic airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD.
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The role of autophagy induced by pemetrexed in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Autophagy is known as an important regulatory mediator for cell survival or death and its important role in cancer. Pemetrexed (PTX) has been used in chemotherapy for lung cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully clarified. To investigate the role of autophagy induced by PTX in A549 cells, we performed MTT assay, acridine orange staining, western blotting, Annexin V/PI by using the 3-MA autophagy inhibitor. PTX induced autophagy after 48 h treatment in A549 cells. Furthermore, PTX showed acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and expressed LC3-II in A549 cells. The induction of autophagy by PTX was inhibited by 3-MA which was confirmed by reduced AVOs. When the autophagy was inhibited, Annexin V was increased. In addition, PARP cleavage was increased as shown by western blotting. Taken together, PTX induced autophagy in A549 cells and these cellular events possibly cause the apoptotic and/or necrotic cell death of A549 cells.
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Critical factors to achieve low voltage- and capacitance-based organic field-effect transistors.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Hydrophobic organo-compatible but low-capacitance dielectrics (10.5 nFcm(-2) ), polystyrene-grafted SiO2 could induce surface-mediated large crystal grains of face-to-face stacked triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene (TES-ADT), producing more efficient charge-carrier transport, in comparison to ?m-sized pentacene crystals containing a face-to-edge packing. Low-voltage operating TES-ADT OFETs showed good device performance (?FET ? 1.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , Vth ? 0.5 V, SS ? 0.2 V), as well as excellent device reliability.
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Biosynthesis of glucosyl glycerol, a compatible solute, using intermolecular transglycosylation activity of amylosucrase from Methylobacillus flagellatus KT.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A putative ?-amylase gene (accession number, CP000284) of Methylobacillus flagellatus KT ATCC51484 was cloned in Escherichia coli, and its gene product was expressed and characterized. The purified recombinant enzyme (MFAS) displayed a typical amylosucrase (ASase) activity by the demonstration of multiple activities of hydrolysis, isomerization, and polymerization although it was designated as an ?-amylase. The optimal reaction temperature and pH for the sucrose hydrolysis activity of MFAS were determined to be 45 °C and pH 8.5, respectively. MFAS has relatively high thermostable characteristics compared with other ASases, as demonstrated by a half-life of 19.3 min at 50 °C. MFAS also showed polymerization activity using sucrose as a sole substrate. Glycerol was transglycosylated by the intermolecular transglycosylation activity of MFAS. Two major products were observed by thin-layer chromatography and isolated by paper chromatography and recycling HPLC. Using (1)H and (13)C NMR, their chemical structures were determined to be (2S)-1-O-?-D-glucosyl-glycerol or (2R)-1-O-?-D-glucosyl-glycerol and 2-O-?-D-glucosyl-glycerol, in which a glucose molecule is linked to glycerol via an ?-glycosidic linkage.
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Predictors of suicidal ideation in a community sample: roles of anger, self-esteem, and depression.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationships of anger, self-esteem, and depression with suicidal ideation. A survey was conducted in a wide range of community areas across Jeollabuk-do Province, Korea. A total of 2964 subjects (mean age=44.4yr) participated in this study. Hierarchical regression was used to investigate predictors of suicidal ideation in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics, depression, self-esteem, and anger. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that anger and self-esteem were significantly associated with suicidal ideation regardless of age and after controlling for depression. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of anger on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among females than males in adolescents, but not in other age groups. Additionally, there were some differences in sociodemographic predictors of suicidal ideation among age groups. Predictors included gender and family harmony in adolescents, marital status and family harmony in middle-aged individuals, and economic status and family harmony in elderly individuals. Our results revealed that anger and self-esteem play important roles in suicidal ideation beyond the effect of depression. Development and implementation of preventive strategies, including management of anger and self-esteem, could possibly reduce suicidal ideation and subsequent suicide attempts.
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Sentinel node mapping of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit thigh with CT lymphography using ethiodized oil.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) lymphography using ethiodized oil for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh.
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Clinical and prognostic implications of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements in never-smokers with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) rearrangement in never-smokers with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma.
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Microporous Organic Network Hollow Spheres: Useful Templates for Nanoparticulate Co3O4 Hollow Oxidation Catalysts.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Hollow microporous organic networks (H-MONs) were prepared by a template method using silica spheres. The shell thickness was delicately controlled by changing the synthetic conditions. The H-MONs were used as a template for the synthesis of nanoparticulate Co3O4 hollows which showed excellent catalytic performance in H2O2 oxidation.
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Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Mastixia arborea C.B. Clarke as to Mouse Macrophage and Paw Edema.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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The biological activity of Mastixia arborea (MA) relates to inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of a methanol extract of MA extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells and carrageenan-induced mice paw edema. The MA extract significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vitro expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was suppressed by the extract. The extract attenuated acute inflammatory responses in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema. A mechanism study indicated that translocation of the NF-?B (p65) subunit into the nucleus and phosphorylation of ERK and JNK were inhibited by the extract. These results indicate that the extract is an effective suppressor of the inflammatory response, blocking the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK and the translocation of NF-?B in macrophages, thereby producing an anti-inflammatory effect in vivo.
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Staphylococcus aureus Colonization in Acute and Chronic Skin Lesions of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis.
Ann Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Staphylococcus aureus (SA) has peculiar abilities to colonize the skin in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients.
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Quality of reporting noninferiority/similarity in research studies of diagnostic imaging.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose To evaluate the quality of reporting noninferiority/similarity in research studies of diagnostic imaging. Materials and Methods All 661 original research articles published in Radiology and European Radiology in 2012 were hand searched to find original studies of diagnostic imaging that included a claim of noninferiority/similarity as a study conclusion. A separate MEDLINE search was performed to identify original studies of diagnostic imaging designed as noninferiority studies, defined as studies at least embodying noninferiority margin, published in English between April 2007 and December 2012. Thirty-eight articles in the first category and 30 in the second category reporting a total of 31 noninferiority studies were finally collected after screening for eligibility. The quality of the reported analytic methodology was evaluated largely according to the extended Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, or CONSORT, statement to cover noninferiority studies. In the 31 designated noninferiority studies, the authors evaluated the following key areas of compliance required for proper reporting: noninferiority margin defined and justification provided, sample size calculated according to noninferiority methodology, and use of proper statistical analysis. Results Of the 38 studies concluding noninferiority/similarity, one study (3%) used proper analytic method. Twenty-nine of the 38 studies (76%), 28 of which also omitted sample size estimation, claimed noninferiority/similarity for P ? .05 from conventional two-sided superiority testing. Of the 31 designated noninferiority studies, seven (23%) fulfilled the requirements for proper reporting. Justification for noninferiority margin was provided in 15 of the 31 studies (48%). Proper sample size estimation was done in 14 of the 31 studies (45%). Conclusion The quality of reporting noninferiority/similarity in recently published research studies of diagnostic imaging was deficient. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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Neolignans from the fruits of Magnolia obovata and their inhibition effect on NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Three new neolignans, named 9-methoxyobovatol (6), magnobovatol (7), and 2-hydroxyobovaaldehyde (9), along with six known ones, magnolol (1), honokiol (2), isomagnolol (3), obovatol (4), obovatal (5), and obovaaldehyde (8), were isolated from the fruits of Magnolia obovata using silica gel and ODS column chromatography. From the results of spectroscopic data including EIMS, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT, and 2D-NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC), the chemical structures were determined. All isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibition activity on nitric oxide production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, and compounds 1-4, 6, 7, and 9 showed significant activity with IC50 values of 15.8 ± 0.3, 3.3 ± 1.2, 14.1 ± 0.9, 6.2 ± 1.2, 14.8 ± 2.3, 14.2 ± 1.2, and 14.8 ± 3.2 µM, respectively, without any visible toxic effect.
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Therapeutic strategies for well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma of the peritoneum.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma is an uncommon subtype of mesothelioma with a frequently indolent course, although it occasionally manifests in a more aggressive form. To establish a treatment strategy for this rare disease, we report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 15 patients with well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma.
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Autophagy induction by low-dose cisplatin: The role of p53 in autophagy.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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The majority of chemotherapy treatments for lung cancer use cisplatin; however, its use is limited as it has several side-effects. Autophagy (or type II cell death) is an important mechanism by which programmed cell death occurs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-dose cisplatin treatment induces autophagy in lung cancer cells. We also examined whether autophagy inhibition results in p53-mediated apoptosis. NCI-H460 (wild-type p53) and NCI-H1299 (null-type p53) cells were treated with 5 or 20 µM cisplatin for 12, 24 or 48 h. An MTT assay was performed to measure the cell viability following cisplatin treatment. To detect cisplatin-induced autophagy, cell morphology (autophagic vacuole) and LC3 localization were examined. The outcome of autophagy inhibition was determined using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) to detect Annexin V (+), propidium iodide (PI) (-) and acridine orange (+) cells by FACS analysis. To determine whether cisplatin induced autophagy, we examined the role of p53 as a cell survival regulator in autophagy. Low-doses of cisplatin (5 µM) induced cell death and this was augmented by 3-MA in both cell lines. Autophagic vacuoles and cytoplasmic LC3 formation was more evident in H460 cells than in H1299 cells. The induction of autophagy by low-dose cisplatin was increased by 2-fold in H460 compared to H1299 cells. However, the tests for apoptosis showed no difference between the 2 cell lines. Following 3-MA pretreatment, cisplatin-induced autophagy was found to be markedly reduced (a 3-fold reduction) in wild-type p53 compared to null-type p53 cells. However, cisplatin-induced apoptosis increased in wild-type p53 compared to null-type p53 cells. Autophagy induction and apoptotic shift after autophagy inhibition may be mediated by p53 activation in lung cancer cells treated with low-dose cisplatin.
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Phenolic components from Rhus parviflora fruits and their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Nine phenolic compounds, phloracetophenone-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (1), p-hydroxybenzoic acid-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), leonuriside A (3), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (4), cis-p-coumaric acid-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (5), trans-p-coumaric acid-4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (6), trans-p-coumaric acid-9-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (7), (-)-shikimic acid (8) and (-)-methyl shikimate (9), were isolated for the first time from the fruits of Rhus parviflora. Compounds 1, 3-6 and 8 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 9.24 ± 1.20, 21.37 ± 2.02, 23.07 ± 1.58, 9.86 ± 0.98, 19.05 ± 1.66 and 11.3 ± 1.54 ?M, respectively. The results indicated possible use of compounds for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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Optimal Local Searching for Fast and Robust Textureless 3D Object Tracking in Highly Cluttered Backgrounds.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Edge-based tracking is a fast and plausible approach for textureless 3D object tracking, but its robustness is still very challenging in highly cluttered backgrounds due to numerous local minima. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel method for fast and robust textureless 3D object tracking in highly cluttered backgrounds. The proposed method is based on optimal local searching of 3D-2D correspondences between a known 3D object model and 2D scene edges in an image with heavy background clutter. In our searching scheme, searching regions are partitioned into three levels (interior, contour, and exterior) with respect to the previous object region, and confident searching directions are determined by evaluating candidates of correspondences on their region levels; thus, the correspondences are searched among likely candidates in only the confident directions instead of searching through all candidates. To ensure the confident searching direction, we also adopt the region appearance, which is efficiently modeled on a newly defined local space (called a searching bundle). Experimental results and performance evaluations demonstrate that our method fully supports fast and robust textureless 3D object tracking even in highly cluttered backgrounds.
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Smoking among individuals with schizophrenia in Korea: gender differences.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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This study examined gender differences in smoking and quitting among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Korea. In addition, the study investigated differences in caffeine use by gender and smoking status.
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SET binding factor 1 (SBF1) mutation causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B3.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To identify the genetic cause of an autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B (CMT4B) family.
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Low-mass-ion discriminant equation: A new concept for colorectal cancer screening.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Blood metabolites can be detected as low-mass ions (LMIs) by mass spectrometry (MS). These LMIs may reflect the pathological changes in metabolism that occur as part of a disease state, such as cancer. We constructed a LMI discriminant equation (LOME) to investigate whether systematic LMI profiling might be applied to cancer screening. LMI information including m/z and mass peak intensity was obtained by five independent MALDI-MS analyses, using 1,127 sera collected from healthy individuals and cancer patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BRC), gastric cancer (GC) and other types of cancer. Using a two-stage principal component analysis to determine weighting factors for individual LMIs and a two-stage LMI selection procedure, we selected a total of 104 and 23 major LMIs by the LOME algorithms for separating CRC from control and rest of cancer samples, respectively. CRC LOME demonstrated excellent discriminating power in a validation set (sensitivity/specificity: 93.21%/96.47%). Furthermore, in a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) of available validation samples, the discriminating power of CRC LOME was much stronger (sensitivity/specificity: 94.79%/97.96%) than that of the FOBT (sensitivity/specificity: 50.00%/100.0%), which is the standard CRC screening tool. The robust discriminating power of the LOME scheme was reconfirmed in screens for BRC (sensitivity/specificity: 92.45%/96.57%) and GC (sensitivity/specificity: 93.18%/98.85%). Our study demonstrates that LOMEs might be powerful noninvasive diagnostic tools with high sensitivity/specificity in cancer screening. The use of LOMEs could potentially enable screening for multiple diseases (including different types of cancer) from a single sampling of LMI information.
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Structural and optical investigation of GaInP quantum dots according to the growth thickness for the 700 nm light emitters.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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We investigate Ga0.33In0.67P quantum dot structures appropriate for special lighting applications in terms of structural and optical behaviors. The Ga0.33In0.67P materials form from 2-dimentional to 3-dimensional dots as the nominal growth thickness increases from 0.5 nm to 6.0 nm, indicating a Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. As the ambient temperature is increased to 300 K, the PL spectrum of the B-type dots is annihilated quickly because the large dot size induces a defect-related nonradiative recombination process. In contrast, the PL spectrum of the A-type dots is well maintained to 300 K. These data indicate that the Ga0.33In0.67P material is appropriate for an active layer of 700 nm light emitters.
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Comparison of the efficacy of 4- and 8-week lansoprazole treatment for ESD-induced gastric ulcers: a randomized, prospective, controlled study.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely used to treat gastric neoplasms, there is no consensus for the optimal treatment for ESD-induced ulcers. We compared efficacy between 4 and 8 weeks of lansoprazole treatment for iatrogenic gastric ulcers that developed after ESD.
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Low levels of physical activity are associated with increased metabolic syndrome risk factors in korean adults.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Low levels of physical activity (PA) are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.
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Compound heterozygous mutations of TYMP as underlying causes of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE).
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), an autosomal recessive multiorgan disease, frequently associated with mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP) gene. TYMP encodes thymidine phosphorylase (TP), which has an essential role in the nucleotide salvage pathway for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. This study reports an MNGIE patient with novel compound heterozygous missense mutations (Thr151Pro and Leu270Pro) in TYMP. Each mutation was inherited from one parent. Neither mutation was found in the controls and the mutation sites were well conserved between different species. Neither large deletion nor causative point mutations were found in the mtDNA. The patient presented with MNGIE symptoms, including gastrointestinal discomfort, external ophthalmoplegia, pigmentary retinopathy and demyelinating type diffuse sensory motor polyneuropathy. The patient demonstrated an early-onset but mild phenotype, with 9.6% TP activity; therefore, patients with these compound heterozygous mutations may exhibit a mild phenotype with a variable onset age according to TP activity level.
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Potential neuroprotective flavonoid-based inhibitors of CDK5/p25 from Rhus parviflora.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Rhus parviflora (Anacardiaceae) is an indigenous medicinal shrub found in South Asia with flavonoid rich edible fruit. This study examined flavonoid derivatives of R. parviflora fruit with CDK5/p25 inhibition activity. Evaluation by in vitro assay and docking simulations for CDK5/p25 revealed that the aurones, sulfuretin (1) and aureusidin (2), the aurone glycoside, aureusidin-6-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3) and hovetrichoside C (4), the flavonoid glycoside, quercetin-3-O-?-D-galactopyranoside (5), and the biflavonoid, cupressuflavone (6), had the potential to inhibit CDK5/p25, which could be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers disease. Compound2 showed the significant in vitro inhibition capacity (IC50 value of 4.81 ?M) as well as binding affinity with docking energy of -8.73 (kcal/mol) for active sites CYS83 and GLN130 of CDK5/p25 enzyme in comparison to reference compound R-roscovitine.
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The Correlation between Dynamic Balance Measures and Stance Sub-phase COP Displacement Time in Older Adults during Obstacle Crossing.
J Phys Ther Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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[Purpose] This study examined the relationship between the center of pressure (COP) displacement time during the stance subphases and dynamic balance ability when elderly cross obstacles 0, 10, and 40?cm in height. [Subjects] Fifteen older adults were enrolled in this study (?65?years of age). [Methods] An F-Scan System was used to measure the COP displacement time when subjects crossed obstacles 0, 10, and 40?cm in height, and the Dynamic Gait Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Four Square Step Test were used to measure dynamic balance ability. [Results] The Dynamic Gait Index, Berg Balance Scale, and Four Square Step Test were correlated with each other. Dynamic balance tests were correlated with the COP displacement time during the stance phase. At obstacle heights of 10 and 40?cm during loading response and at all heights during pre-swing, there were correlations with dynamic balance ability. However, dynamic balance ability did not affect the COP displacement time during mid-stance and terminal stance. [Conclusion] People with a lower dynamic balance ability show a larger COP displacement time during loading response and pre-swing. Therefore, dynamic balance ability can be predicted by measuring the COP displacement time.
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Apicularen A acetate induces cell death via AIF translocation and disrupts the microtubule network by down-regulating tubulin in HM7 human colon cancer cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Apicularen A is a novel antitumor agent and strongly induces death in tumor cells. In this study, we synthesized apicularen A acetate, an acetyl derivative of apicularen A, and investigated its antitumor effect and mechanism in HM7 colon cancer cells. Apicularen A acetate induced apoptotic cell death and caspase-3 activation; however, the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk could not prevent this cell death. Apicularen A acetate induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria. In addition, apicularen A acetate significantly decreased tubulin mRNA and protein levels and induced disruption of microtubule networks. Taken together, these results indicate that the mechanism of apicularen A acetate involves caspase-independent apoptotic cell death and disruption of microtubule architecture.
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The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA induces simultaneous apoptosis and autophagy via mitochondrial ROS-mediated Akt-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer cells expressing mutant p53.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces autophagy-associated apoptotic cell death in wild-type p53 cancer cells via regulation of p53. The present study investigated the effects of DHA on PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines harboring mutant p53. Results show that, in addition to apoptosis, DHA increased the expression levels of lipidated form LC3B and potently stimulated the autophagic flux, suggesting that DHA induces both autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells expressing mutant p53. DHA led to the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), as shown by the mitochondrial ROS-specific probe mitoSOX. Similarly, pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) markedly inhibited both the autophagy and the apoptosis triggered by DHA, indicating that mitochondrial ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of DHA in mutant p53 cells. Further, DHA reduced the levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-mTOR in a concentration-dependent manner, while NAC almost completely blocked that effect. Collectively, these findings present a novel mechanism of ROS-regulated apoptosis and autophagy that involves Akt-mTOR signaling in prostate cancer cells with mutant p53 exposed to DHA.
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The effectiveness of early treatment in segmental vitiligo: retrospective study according to disease duration.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Segmental vitiligo (SV) is usually characterized by a unilateral-dermatomal distribution, earlier onset and rapid progression followed by stabilization. The response to phototherapy in patients with SV is limited. We evaluated the treatment response in 39 cases of SV according to disease duration. Ten cases (50.0%) of Group 1 (duration ? 5 months) and five cases (26.3%) of Group 2 (duration > 5 months) showed more than 50% repigmentation. Contrary to previous reports, patients in our study responded well to medical treatments like oral steroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors and phototherapy when treated early after onset. The results suggest that early treatment is important.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.