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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Placebo and nocebo effects: an introduction to psychological and biological mechanisms.
Handb Exp Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Placebo and nocebo effects are essential components of medical practice and efficacy research, and can be regarded as a special case of context learning. A fundamental function of the central nervous system is to configure the way in which previous learned context becomes linked to corresponding responses. These responses could be either automatic procedures with little flexibility or highly adaptive procedures modified by associated contexts and consequences. Placebo and nocebo effects may represent a typical example of the combination of the two: conditioning effect, which is an inflexible, instinctual, and automatic response, and cognitive expectancy effect, which is a flexible adaptive response modified by prevailing conscious context. Given the fact that contextual learning originates in the brain, neuroimaging tools have been widely used to study placebo and nocebo effects. In addition, pretest resting state fMRI may be a valuable biomarker to predict placebo responses.
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[A cyclotide against influenza A H1N1 virus from Viola yedoensis].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Three cyclotides were isolated from the whole plant of Viola yedoensis in this study. The two, vary peptide E and cycloviolacin Y5, were previously reported, and a novel cycloviolacin VY1 was characterized according to the interpretation of MS/MS fragmentation of peptides which were produced from the reduced and alkylated parent peptide with the digestion of Endo Lys-C, trypsin and chymotrypsin, separately. The stability of remarkable resistance to proteolytic degradation by trypsin and chymotrypsin, and that of thermal denaturation was confirmed again. Besides, the IC50 value of cycloviolacin VYI against influenza A H1N1 virus was (2.27 +/- 0.20) microg x mL(-1). It is the first cyclotide reported with anti-influenza A H1N1 virus activity in vitro assay.
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[Association of glucose transporter 4 gene polymorphism with hypoxia caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and with related inflammatory factors].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and hypoxia caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as with related inflammatory factors.
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The endothelial protective effects of pioglitazone on insulin resistance in endothelial cells.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Insulin resistance plays an important role in vascular endothelial damage and atherosclerosis. Pioglitazone is an insulin-sensitizing agent and can reduce insulin resistance.
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Simultaneous fMRI-PET of the opioidergic pain system in human brain.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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MRI and PET provide complementary information for studying brain function. While the potential use of simultaneous MRI/PET for clinical diagnostic and disease staging has been demonstrated recently; the biological relevance of concurrent functional MRI-PET brain imaging to dissect neurochemically distinct components of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal has not yet been shown. We obtained sixteen fMRI-PET data sets from eight healthy volunteers. Each subject participated in randomized order in a pain scan and a control (nonpainful pressure) scan on the same day. Dynamic PET data were acquired with an opioid radioligand, [(11)C]diprenorphine, to detect endogenous opioid releases in response to pain. BOLD fMRI data were collected at the same time to capture hemodynamic responses. In this simultaneous human fMRI-PET imaging study, we show co-localized responses in thalamus and striatum related to pain processing, while modality specific brain networks were also found. Co-localized fMRI and PET signal changes in the thalamus were positively correlated suggesting that pain-induced changes in opioid neurotransmission contribute a significant component of the fMRI signal change in this region. Simultaneous fMRI-PET provides unique opportunities allowing us to relate specific neurochemical events to functional hemodynamic activation and to investigate the impacts of neurotransmission on neurovascular coupling of the human brain in vivo.
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Expectancy and Conditioning in Placebo Analgesia: Separate or Connected Processes?
Psychol Conscious (Am Psychol Assoc)
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Expectancy and conditioning are often tested as opposing explanations of placebo analgesia, most commonly by pitting the effects of a conditioning procedure against those of a verbally-induced expectation for pain reduction. However, conditioning procedures can also alter expectations, such that the effect of conditioning on pain might be mediated by expectancy. We assessed the effect of conditioning on expected pain and placebo-induced pain reduction. Participants were told that the treatment (real or sham acupuncture) would affect one side of the arm but not the other. Because a real acupuncture effect would not be specific to a randomly selected side of the arm, any difference in pain between the "treated" and the "untreated" side would be a placebo effect. There were no significant main effects or interactions associated with type of acupuncture (real versus sham). In both groups, conditioning decreased expected pain for "treated" location and also increased the placebo effect (i.e., the difference in pain report between "treated" and "untreated" locations). In addition, mediation analysis lent support to the hypothesis that the effects of conditioning on placebo analgesia may be mediated by expectancy, although the size of this indirect effect requires further study.
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cDNA cloning and expression analysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase from Ornithogalum saundersiae.
Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS, EC 2.5.1.10) catalyzes the consecutive head-to-tail condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to form farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), a key precursor of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, sterols, and farnesylated proteins. Here we report the molecular cloning and functional identification of a new full-length cDNA encoding FPPS from Ornithogalum saundersiae, a potential medicinal plant that produces a promising antitumour sterol glycoside, OSW-1. An 1327 bp long unigene with an open reading frame of 1044 bp was retrieved from the transcriptome sequencing of O. saundersiae. The full-length FPPS cDNA, designated OsaFPPS, was isolated from O. saundersiae with gene-specific primers. The resultant OsaFPPS encodes a 347-amino acids protein with a calculated molecular mass of 40,085.6 Da, and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.01. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that OsaFPPS belongs to the plant FPPS super-family. Expression of soluble OsaFPPS in E. coli was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis. Functional analysis of the purified OsaFPPS protein was carried out using IPP and DMAPP as substrates, and the product was unambiguously determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses.
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Preparation and hydrophobicity of biomorphic ZnO/carbon based on a lotus-leaf template.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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A lotus leaf was used as a template to fabricate superhydrophobic biomorphic ZnO on a carbon substrate (ZnO/C). First, a carbon substrate with the microstructure of a leaf surface was obtained by sintering a lotus leaf in argon. A biomorphic ZnO/C material was then obtained by immersing this carbon substrate into a Zn(NO3)2 solution and sintering. Finally, the hydrophobicity of the surfaces of the products thus obtained was investigated. This ZnO/C material exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity and low adhesion after it was modified with fluorine silane. The water contact angle of the resulting product was 162°, which exceeds that of the lotus leaf (157°) and is much higher than that of smooth carbon covered with the same fluorine silane (114°). Moreover, this surface displayed a stable superhydrophobic performance even after exposure to ambient air for several months.
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Lumazine peptides penilumamides B-D and the cyclic pentapeptide asperpeptide A from a gorgonian-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Three new lumazine peptides, penilumamides B-D (2-4), and one known analogue, penilumamide (1), together with a new cyclic pentapeptide, asperpeptide A (5), were isolated from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15. Among them, 2 was obtained from the feeding culture with l-methionine of this strain. All structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical derivatization. Compounds 1-4 are rare lumazine peptides, of which 1 and 3 are formed from 2 by oxidation of the l-methionine residue.
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Acupuncture modulates cortical thickness and functional connectivity in knee osteoarthritis patients.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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In this study, we investigated cortical thickness and functional connectivity across longitudinal acupuncture treatments in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Over a period of four weeks (six treatments), we collected resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans from 30 patients before their first, third and sixth treatments. Clinical outcome showed a significantly greater Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain score (improvement) with verum acupuncture compared to the sham acupuncture. Longitudinal cortical thickness analysis showed that the cortical thickness at left posterior medial prefrontal cortex (pMPFC) decreased significantly in the sham group across treatment sessions as compared with verum group. Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis using the left pMPFC as a seed showed that after longitudinal treatments, the rsFC between the left pMPFC and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), medial frontal pole (mFP) and periaquiduct grey (PAG) are significantly greater in the verum acupuncture group as compared with the sham group. Our results suggest that acupuncture may achieve its therapeutic effect on knee OA pain by preventing cortical thinning and decreases in functional connectivity in major pain related areas, therefore modulating pain in the descending pain modulatory pathway.
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PIN1 promoter polymorphism (-842 G>C) contributes to a decreased risk of cancer: Evidence from meta-analysis.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Peptidyl-prolylcis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (encoded by the PIN1 gene) regulates the conformation of proline-directed phosphorylation sites and is important in the etiology of cancer. Since the identification of a functional polymorphism of PIN1, (-842 G>C; rs2233678), in the PIN1 promoter region, numerous studies have evaluated the association between the PIN1 promoter polymorphism (-842 G>C) and cancer risk. However, the available results are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis of seven previous case-control studies was performed, which included 4,524 cases exhibiting different tumor types and 4,561 control subjects. The published literature was retrieved from PubMed and EMBASE. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrated that individuals carrying the variant C allele (G/C and C/C) were associated with a significantly decreased cancer risk (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.90 for GC vs. GG; OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.88 for GC/CC vs. GG). In further stratified analyses, a decreased cancer risk was observed in the following subgroups: Breast and lung cancer patients, Asian individuals, and in studies with a sample size >500. The results indicated that the PIN1 promoter polymorphism (-842 G>C; rs2233678) contributes to a decreased risk of cancer via attenuating the transcriptional activity.
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A highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cobalt(II) ions based on a tripodal amide ligand.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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A tripodal amide based ligand, tris-{(2-carbamoyl-5-carbomethoxy-pyridine)-2-ethyl}amine (H3L, 1), was synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Investigation of the cation recognition behavior showed that the ligand has selective colorimetric sensing properties for cobalt(II) ions by an obvious color change from colorless to yellow. To investigate the sensing mechanism of H3L for Co(2+) ions, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and single-crystal structural analysis were performed. The mixture of the ligand and cobalt(II) ions displayed selective colorimetric sensing properties for weak acid anions, such as CO3(2-), Ac(-), HCO3(-), SO3(2-), and PO4(3-). Detailed (1)H NMR experiments revealed that the basicity of the anions played an important role in the intensity of the interaction between the ligand and anions. The structures of compounds CoL (2), Co-Ac-HL (3), H4L-NO3 (4), and H4L-ClO4 (5) were also determined by single crystal diffraction studies.
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Anterolateral minithoracotomy versus median sternotomy for mitral valve disease: a meta-analysis.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Mitral valve disease tends to be treated with anterolateral minithoracotomy (ALMT) rather than median sternotomy (MS), as ALMT uses progressively smaller incisions to promote better cosmetic outcomes. This meta-analysis quantifies the effects of ALMT on surgical parameters and post-operative outcomes compared with MS.
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Endostar, a novel human recombinant endostatin, attenuates liver fibrosis in CCl4-induced mice.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Decreasing hepatic fibrosis remains one of the major therapeutic challenges in hepatology. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of Endostar on both CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice and a hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line. Two main models were studied: (i) a liver fibrosis model was induced in BALB/c mice using CCl4 by intraperitoneal injection for six weeks. Six animal groups were studied: group 1: normal animals; group 2: CCl4-induced liver fibrosis; group 3: CCl4?+?Endostar 20?mg/kg/d, six weeks; group 4: CCl4?+?Endostar 10?mg/kg/d, six weeks; group 5: CCl4?+?Endostar 20?mg/kg/d, four weeks; group 6: CCl4?+?Endostar 10?mg/kg/d, four weeks corresponded to different Endostar doses and duration of administration. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by histopathological staining and liver hydroxyproline content. Expressions of collagen type I, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), TGF-?1 and VEGFR were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ii) A liver cell model. HSC-T6 cells were cultured with or without Endostar for 12?h or 24?h. Expressions of collagen type I, ?-SMA, and TGF-?1 were measured by real-time PCR. Collagen I and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) contents in cell supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As compared to the group without Endostar, liver fibrosis scores and hydroxyproline content were decreased in both Endostar groups (P?
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Effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot randomized study.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance, increased risk of type II diabetes, and cardiovascular pathology. Recently, investigators hypothesized that decreased vagus nerve activity may be the underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome including obesity, elevated glucose levels, and high blood pressure.
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[Association of interleukin-1? genetic polymorphisms with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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To investigate the association between interleukin(IL)-1? genetic polymorphisms and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS).
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Nucleoside derivatives from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Four nucleoside derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus versicolor derived from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic method of NMR and MS analysis. All isolated metabolites were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, antibacterial activity and lethality towards brine shrimp Artemia salina. Compounds 1/2 exhibited selective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis with an MIC value of 12.5 ?M. It should be noted that 1 and 2, whose structures were listed in SciFinder Scholar, had no associated reference. This is the first report about their isolation, structure elucidation and biological activities.
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Functional network architecture predicts psychologically mediated analgesia related to treatment in chronic knee pain patients.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Placebo analgesia is an indicator of how efficiently the brain translates psychological signals conveyed by a treatment procedure into pain relief. It has been demonstrated that functional connectivity between distributed brain regions predicts placebo analgesia in chronic back pain patients. Greater network efficiency in baseline brain networks may allow better information transfer and facilitate adaptive physiological responses to psychological aspects of treatment. Here, we theorized that topological network alignments in resting state scans predict psychologically conditioned analgesic responses to acupuncture treatment in chronic knee osteoarthritis pain patients (n = 45). Analgesia was induced by building positive expectations toward acupuncture treatment with verbal suggestion and heat pain conditioning on a test site of the arm. This procedure induced significantly more analgesia after sham or real acupuncture on the test site than in a control site. The psychologically conditioned analgesia was invariant to sham versus real treatment. Efficiency of information transfer within local networks calculated with graph-theoretic measures (local efficiency and clustering coefficients) significantly predicted conditioned analgesia. Clustering coefficients in regions associated with memory, motivation, and pain modulation were closely involved in predicting analgesia. Moreover, women showed higher clustering coefficients and marginally greater pain reduction than men. Overall, analgesic response to placebo cues can be predicted from a priori resting state data by observing local network topology. Such low-cost synchronizations may represent preparatory resources that facilitate subsequent performance of brain circuits in responding to adaptive environmental cues. This suggests a potential utility of network measures in predicting placebo response for clinical use.
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Managing resident-to-resident elder mistreatment in nursing homes: the SEARCH approach.
J Contin Educ Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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This article describes an educational program to inform nursing and care staff of the management of resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) in nursing homes, using the SEARCH (Support, Evaluate, Act, Report, Care plan, and Help to avoid) approach. Although relatively little research has been conducted on this form of abuse, there is mounting interest in R-REM because such aggression has been found to be extensive and can have both physical and psychological consequences for residents and staff. The goal of the SEARCH approach is to support staff in the identification and recognition of R-REM as well as to suggest recommendations for management. The educational program and the SEARCH approach are described. Three case studies from the research project are presented, illustrating how nurses and care staff can use the SEARCH approach to manage R-REM in nursing homes. Resident and staff safety and well-being can be enhanced by the use of the evidence-based SEARCH approach.
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Placebo analgesia and reward processing: integrating genetics, personality, and intrinsic brain activity.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Our expectations about an event can strongly shape our subjective evaluation and actual experience of events. This ability, applied to the modulation of pain, has the potential to affect therapeutic analgesia substantially and constitutes a foundation for non-pharmacological pain relief. A typical example of such modulation is the placebo effect. Studies indicate that placebo may be regarded as a reward, and brain activity in the reward system is involved in this modulation process. In the present study, we combined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures, genotype at a functional COMT polymorphism (Val158Met), and personality measures in a model to predict the magnitude of placebo conditioning effect indicated by subjective pain rating reduction to calibrated noxious stimuli. We found that the regional homogeneity (ReHo), an index of local neural coherence, in the ventral striatum, was significantly associated with conditioning effects on pain rating changes. We also found that the number of Met alleles at the COMT polymorphism was linearly correlated to the suppression of pain. In a fitted regression model, we found the ReHo in the ventral striatum, COMT genotype, and Openness scores accounted for 59% of the variance in the change in pain ratings. The model was further tested using a separate data set from the same study. Our findings demonstrate the potential of combining resting-state connectivity, genetic information, and personality to predict placebo effect.
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Results of the northern Manhattan diabetes community outreach project: a randomized trial studying a community health worker intervention to improve diabetes care in Hispanic adults.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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OBJECTIVE The Northern Manhattan Diabetes Community Outreach Project evaluated whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35-70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ?8% (?64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in northern Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.
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Construction of a food-grade cell surface display system for Lactobacillus casei.
Microbiol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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In this study, a food-grade cell surface display host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei was constructed. The food-grade host L. casei Q-5 was a lactose-deficient derivative of L. casei ATCC 334 obtained by plasmid elimination. The food-grade cell surface display vector was constructed based on safe DNA elements from lactic acid bacteria containing the following: pSH71 replicon from Lactococcus lactis, lactose metabolism genes from L. casei ATCC 334 as complementation markers, and surface layer protein gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for cell surface display. The feasibility of the new host/vector system was verified by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on L. casei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis using anti-GFP antibody confirmed that GFP was anchored on the surface of the recombinant cells. The stability of recombinant L. casei cells in artificial gastrointestinal conditions was verified, which is beneficial for oral vaccination applications. These results indicate that the food-grade host/vector system can be an excellent antigen delivery vehicle in oral vaccine construction.
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Cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein C4 serves a critical role in erythroid differentiation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The expression of an mRNA is strongly impacted by its 3' poly(A) tail and associated poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs). Vertebrates encode six PABP isoforms that vary in abundance, distribution, developmental control, and subcellular localization. Here we demonstrate that the minor PABP isoform PABPC4 is expressed in erythroid cells and impacts the steady-state expression of a subset of erythroid mRNAs. Motif analyses reveal a high-value AU-rich motif in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of PABPC4-impacted mRNAs. This motif enhances the association of PABPC4 with mRNAs containing critically shortened poly(A) tails. This association may serve to protect a subset of mRNAs from accelerated decay. Finally, we demonstrate that selective depletion of PABPC4 in an erythroblast cell line inhibits terminal erythroid maturation with corresponding alterations in the erythroid gene expression. These observations lead us to conclude that PABPC4 plays an essential role in posttranscriptional control of a major developmental pathway.
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Design of a randomised acupuncture trial on functional neck/shoulder stiffness with two placebo controls.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Functional neck/shoulder stiffness is one of the most well-known indications for acupuncture treatment in Japan. There is little evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for functional neck/shoulder stiffness. Research using two different placebos may allow an efficient method to tease apart the components of real acupuncture from various kinds of 'non-specific' effects such as ritual with touch or ritual alone. Herein, we describe a protocol of an ongoing, single-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial which aims to assess whether, in functional neck/shoulder stiffness, acupuncture treatment with skin piercing has a specific effect over two types of placebo: skin-touching plus ritual or ritual alone.
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The c.429_452 duplication of the ARX gene: a unique developmental-model of limb kinetic apraxia.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The c.429_452dup24 of the ARX gene is a rare genetic anomaly, leading to X-Linked Intellectual Disability without brain malformation. While in certain cases c.429_452dup24 has been associated with specific clinical patterns such as Partington syndrome, the consequence of this mutation has been also often classified as "non-specific Intellectual Disability". The present work aims at a more precise description of the clinical features linked to the c.429_452dup24 mutation.
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Molecular cloning and yeast expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from Ornithogalum saundersiae baker.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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OSW-1, isolated from the bulbs of Ornithogalum saundersiae Baker, is a steroidal saponin endowed with considerable antitumor properties. Biosynthesis of the 4-methoxybenzoyl group on the disaccharide moiety of OSW-1 is known to take place biochemically via the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, but molecular biological characterization of the related genes has been insufficient. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11), catalyzing the hydroxylation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid, plays a key role in the ability of phenylpropanoid metabolism to channel carbon to produce the 4-methoxybenzoyl group on the disaccharide moiety of OSW-1. Molecular isolation and functional characterization of the C4H genes, therefore, is an important step for pathway characterization of 4-methoxybenzoyl group biosynthesis. In this study, a gene coding for C4H, designated as OsaC4H, was isolated according to the transcriptome sequencing results of Ornithogalum saundersiae. The full-length OsaC4H cDNA is 1,608-bp long, with a 1,518-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 505 amino acids, a 55-bp 5' non-coding region and a 35-bp 3'-untranslated region. OsaC4H was functionally characterized by expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and shown to catalyze the oxidation of trans-cinnamic acid to p-coumaric acid, which was identified by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), HPLC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The identification of the OsaC4H gene was expected to open the way to clarification of the biosynthetic pathway of OSW-1.
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Lack of association between the PIN1 promoter -667T>C (rs2233679) polymorphism and cancer risk: Evidence from meta-analysis.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Peptidyl-prolylcis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) is a critical catalyst involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. The PIN1 promoter -667T>C (rs2233679) polymorphism plays a role in cancer risk. The association between PIN1 (-667T>C) polymorphism and cancer risk has been previously investigated. However, the available results are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis of seven published case-control studies including 4,524 cases with different tumor types and 4,561 controls was performed. Published literature from PubMed and EMBASE was retrieved. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association. Overall, the results did not suggest any associations between the PIN1 promoter (-667T>C) polymorphism and cancer susceptibility (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 0.91-1.18 for CC vs. TT; OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.09 for TC vs. TT; OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.91-1.10 for TC/CC vs. TT; OR=1.07, 95% CI: 0.97-1.18 for CC vs. TC/TT). Further stratified analysis by cancer type, ethnicity and sample size did not reveal any significant associations in the genetic models. The results of the present study demonstrate that the PIN1 promoter (-667T>C; rs2233679) polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility.
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YC-1 enhances the anti-tumor activity of sorafenib through inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Traditional systemic chemotherapy does not provide survival benefits in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Molecular targeted therapy shows promise for HCC treatment, however, the duration of effectiveness for targeted therapies is finite and combination therapies offer the potential for improved effectiveness.
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Solvothermal synthesis of four polyoxometalate-based coordination polymers including diverse Ag(I)···? interactions.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Four 3D POM-based silver coordination polymers, namely, [Ag17(ptz)11(PW12O40)2]n (1), [Ag17(ptz)11(PMo12O40)2]n (2), [Ag12(ptz)6(CN)2(SiW12O40)]n (3), and [Ag19(ptz)8(H2ptz)(H3ptz)(AgP5W30O110)·7H2O]n (4), have been obtained by solvothermal reaction of AgNO3 and 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (Hptz) ligand in the presence of four types of polyoxometalates. Structural analysis shows that four types of Ag(I)···? interactions, m-?(1), m/p-?(2), o/m-?(2), and o/m/p-?(3), were observed in compounds 1-4, depending on the polyoxometalates used. The in situ generated CN(-) ion in compound 3 shows unprecedented mixed ? and ? bonding modes, similar to the C2(2-) ion in well-studied silver acetylides. For 4, the Na(+) ion in the Preyssler heteropolyoxoanion, [NaP5W30O110](14-), was exchanged by Ag(I) under solvothermal conditions, generating a novel [AgP5W30O110](14-) anion. In addition, the photoluminescence behavior of 1-4 was also investigated.
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Disrupted functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray in chronic low back pain.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic low back pain is a common neurological disorder. The periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a key role in the descending modulation of pain. In this study, we investigated brain resting state PAG functional connectivity (FC) differences between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in low pain or high pain condition and matched healthy controls (HCs). PAG seed based functional connectivity (FC) analysis of the functional MR imaging data was performed to investigate the difference among the connectivity maps in the cLBP in the low or high pain condition and HC groups as well as within the cLBP at differing endogenous back pain intensities. Results showed that FC between the PAG and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) increased in cLBP patients compared to matched controls. In addition, we also found significant negative correlations between pain ratings and PAG-vmPFC/rACC FC in cLBP patients after pain-inducing maneuver. The duration of cLBP was negatively correlated with PAG-insula and PAG-amygdala FC before pain-inducing maneuver in the patient group. These findings are in line with the impairments of the descending pain modulation reported in patients with cLBP. Our results provide evidence showing that cLBP patients have abnormal FC in PAG centered pain modulation network during rest.
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Well-loved music robustly relieves pain: a randomized, controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Music has pain-relieving effects, but its mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to verify previously studied analgesic components and further elucidate the underpinnings of music analgesia. Using a well-characterized conditioning-enhanced placebo model, we examined whether boosting expectations would enhance or interfere with analgesia from strongly preferred music. A two-session experiment was performed with 48 healthy, pain experiment-naïve participants. In a first cohort, 36 were randomized into 3 treatment groups, including music enhanced with positive expectancy, non-musical sound enhanced with positive expectancy, and no expectancy enhancement. A separate replication cohort of 12 participants received only expectancy-enhanced music following the main experiment to verify the results of expectancy-manipulation on music. Primary outcome measures included the change in subjective pain ratings to calibrated experimental noxious heat stimuli, as well as changes in treatment expectations. Without conditioning, expectations were strongly in favor of music compared to non-musical sound. While measured expectations were enhanced by conditioning, this failed to affect either music or sound analgesia significantly. Strongly preferred music on its own was as pain relieving as conditioning-enhanced strongly preferred music, and more analgesic than enhanced sound. Our results demonstrate the pain-relieving power of personal music even over enhanced expectations.
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Changes of functional connectivity in the left frontoparietal network following aphasic stroke.
Front Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Language is an essential higher cognitive function supported by large-scale brain networks. In this study, we investigated functional connectivity changes in the left frontoparietal network (LFPN), a language-cognition related brain network in aphasic patients. We enrolled 13 aphasic patients who had undergone a stroke in the left hemisphere and age-, gender-, educational level-matched controls and analyzed the data by integrating independent component analysis (ICA) with a network connectivity analysis method. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and clinical evaluation of language function were assessed at two stages: 1 and 2 months after stroke onset. We found reduced functional connectivity between the LFPN and the right middle frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right inferior frontal cortex in aphasic patients as compared to controls. Correlation analysis showed that stronger functional connectivity between the LFPN and the right middle frontal cortex and medial frontal cortex coincided with more preserved language comprehension ability after stroke. Network connectivity analysis showed reduced LFPN connectivity as indicated by the mean network connectivity index of key regions in the LFPN of aphasic patients. The decreased LFPN connectivity in stroke patients was significantly associated with the impairment of language function in their comprehension ability. We also found significant association between recovery of comprehension ability and the mean changes in intrinsic LFPN connectivity. Our findings suggest that brain lesions may influence language comprehension by altering functional connectivity between regions and that the patterns of abnormal functional connectivity may contribute to the recovery of language deficits.
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VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarian cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1 empty vector, pcDNA3.1-VEGF111b or pcDNA3.1-VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth.
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Meditations impact on default mode network and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment: A pilot study.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Those with high baseline stress levels are more likely to develop mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimers Disease (AD). While meditation may reduce stress and alter the hippocampus and default mode network (DMN), little is known about its impact in these populations. Our objective was to conduct a "proof of concept" trial to determine whether Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) would improve DMN connectivity and reduce hippocampal atrophy among adults with MCI. 14 adults with MCI were randomized to MBSR vs. usual care and underwent resting state fMRI at baseline and follow-up. Seed based functional connectivity was applied using posterior cingulate cortex as seed. Brain morphometry analyses were performed using FreeSurfer. The results showed that after the intervention, MBSR participants had increased functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and bilateral medial prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus compared to controls. In addition, MBSR participants had trends of less bilateral hippocampal volume atrophy than control participants. These preliminary results indicate that in adults with MCI, MBSR may have a positive impact on the regions of the brain most related to MCI and AD. Further research with larger sample sizes and longer-follow-up are needed to further investigate the results from this pilot study.
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Construction and potential application of controlled autolytic systems for Lactobacillus casei in cheese manufacture.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The rapid release of intracellular enzymes into the curd by the autolysis of lactic acid bacteria starters is universally recognized as a critical biological process to accelerate cheese ripening. Lactobacillus casei is typically the dominant nonstarter lactic acid bacterium in the ripening cheese. In this study, two controlled autolytic systems were established in L. casei BL23, based on the exploitation of the autolysins sourced from Lactococcus lactis (AcmA) and Enterococcus faecalis (AtlA). The lysis abilities of the systems were demonstrated both in broth and a model cheese, in which a fivefold increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity was detected in the curd with sufficient viable starter cells being maintained, indicating that they could lead to the timely release of intracellular enzymes.
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Origin of fundus hyperautofluorescent spots and their role in retinal degeneration in a mouse model of Goldmann-Favre syndrome.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Goldmann-Favre syndrome, also known as enhanced S-cone syndrome, is an inherited retinal degeneration disease in which a gain of photoreceptor cell types results in retinal dysplasia and degeneration. Although microglia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, the fundamental role of these cells in this disease is unknown. In the current study, sequential analyses suggest that microglia are recruited and appear after outer nuclear layer folding. By crossing rd7 mice (a model for hereditary retinal degeneration owing to Nr2e3 mutation) with mice carrying the macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (Mafia) transgene, we generated double-mutant mice and studied the role of the resident retinal microglia. Microglial cells in these double-mutant mice express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and a suicide gene that can trigger Fas-mediated apoptosis via systemic treatment with AP20187 (FK506 dimerizer). We demonstrated that more than 80% of the EGFP+ cells in retinas from rd7/rd7;Tg/Tg mice express Iba-1 (a microglial marker), and resident microglia are still present in the retina because AP20187 does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Hence, only circulating bone marrow (BM)-derived microglia are depleted. Depletion of circulating BM-derived microglia accelerates retinal degeneration in rd7 mice. An increased number of autofluorescent (AF) spots is a consequence of resident microglia proliferation, which in turn establishes an inflammatory cytokine milieu via the upregulation of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF? expression. This inflammation is likely to accelerate retinal degeneration. This study not only identifies inflammation as a crucial step in the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration, but also highlights the involvement of specific cytokine genes that could serve as future treatment targets in retinal degenerations.
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Tuberculosis bronchopleural fistula treated with atrial septal defect occluder.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is an uncommon and potentially fatal complication of lobectomy or pneumonectomy, particularly in tuberculosis patients. It is associated with high mortality and its treatment remains a challenge. The development of plugging technology has led to the emergence of less invasive endobronchial methods for treating BPF. We describe the successful treatment of a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patient with BPF using an occlusion device originally designed for transcatheter closure of an atrial septal defect. Follow-up over 10 months revealed maintenance of the repair without any recurrence. This novel technique can be effective for treating a tuberculosis patient with postoperative BPF.
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Insufficient radiofrequency ablation promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through Akt and ERK signaling pathways.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Residual tumor progression after insufficient radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recently reported. However, whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a key process that drives cancer metastasis, is involved in the tumor progression after insufficient RFA is not well understood.
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Impairment of vascular endothelial function following reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To investigate vascular endothelial impairment as a result of reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Overlapping structural and functional brain changes in patients with long-term exposure to fibromyalgia pain.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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There is vast evidence to support the presence of brain aberrations in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), and it is possible that central plasticity is critical for the transition from acute to chronic pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between brain structure and function in patients with FM.
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[Construction and preliminary applications of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae detection plasmid using for screening promoter elements].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Synthetic biology of natural products is the design and construction of new biological systems by transferring a metabolic pathway of interest products into a chassis. Large-scale production of natural products is achieved by coordinate expression of multiple genes involved in genetic pathway of desired products. Promoters are cis-elements and play important roles in the balance of the metabolic pathways controlled by multiple genes by regulating gene expression. A detection plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed based on DsRed-Monomer gene encoding for a red fluorescent protein. This plasmid was used for screening the efficient promoters applying for multiple gene-controlled pathways. First of all, eight pairs of primers specific to DsRed-Monomer gene were synthesized. The rapid cloning of DsRed-Monomer gene was performed based on step-by-step extension of a short region of the gene through a series of PCR reactions. All cloned sequences were confirmed by DNA sequencing. A vector named pEASYDs-M containing full-length DsRed-Monomer gene was constructed and was used as the template for the construction of S. cerevisiae expression vector named for pYeDP60-Ds-M. pYeDP60-Ds-M was then transformed into S. cerevisiae for heterologous expression of DsRed-Monomer gene. SDS-PAGE, Western blot and fluorescence microscopy results showed that the recombinant DsRed-Monomer protein was expressed successfully in S. cerevisiae. The well-characterized DsRed-Monomer gene was then cloned into a yeast expression vector pGBT9 to obtain a promoter detection plasmid pGBT9Red. For determination efficacy of pGBT9Red, six promoters (including four inducible promoters and two constitutive promoters) were cloned by PCR from the S. cerevisiae genome, and cloned into pGBT9Red by placing upstream of DsRed-Monomer gene, separately. The fluorescence microscopy results indicated that the six promoters (GAL1, GAL2, GAL7, GAL10, TEF2 and PGK1) can regulate the expression of DsRed-Monomer gene. The successful construction of pGBT9Red lays the foundation for further analysis of promoter activity and screening of promoter element libraries.
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[Research progresses in synthetic biology of artemisinin].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Abstract: The first-line drug artemisinin is widely used against malaria. Commercially available artemisinin is extracted from plants. However, the lack of sufficient raw material, artemisinin and the cost associated with the drugs manufacture have limited the supply of ACT to most malaria sufferers in the Developing World. As such, it is important to develop a low cost, fine to environment and high-quality method to supply sufficient and reliable quantities of artemisinin in the future. The field of synthetic biology, which utilizes cell factories to manipulate microbial metabolism to enhance the production of artemisinin and its intermediates, has a particularly strong impact by providing new platforms for chemical production. After a brief introduction of the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway, the present review focuses on the introduction of artemisinin biosynthetic genes, such as the genes encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene monooxygenase, NADPH: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, artemisinic aldehyde delta 11(13) reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The review also addresses general considerations for potential contributions of synthetic biology to artemisinin production, with an emphasis on factors influencing interest compounds production in chassis cells.
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[The advance in synthetic biology: towards a microbe-derived paclitaxel intermediates].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The synthetic biology matures to promote the heterologous biosynthesis of the well-known drug paclitaxel that is one of the most important and active chemotherapeutic agents for the first-line clinical treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the construction and regulation of the biosynthetic pathway of paclitaxel intermediates in both Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, the review also features the early efforts to design and overproduce taxadiene and the bottleneck of scale fermentation for producing the intermediates.
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Tunneling endoscopic muscularis dissection for subepithelial tumors originating from the muscularis propria of the esophagus and gastric cardia.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Endoscopic resection of esophageal or cardial subepithelial tumors (SETs) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) is rarely done due to the high risk of perforation, fistula formation, and secondary infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preliminary clinical feasibility and safety of tunneling endoscopic muscularis dissection (tEMD) for resection of SETs located in the esophagus and gastric cardia
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Stroke by carotid artery complete occlusion in kawasaki disease: case report and review of literature.
Pediatr. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Kawasaki disease is an acute and time-limited systemic vasculitis primarily affecting young children.
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Transduction of photoreceptors with equine infectious anemia virus lentiviral vectors: safety and biodistribution of StarGen for Stargardt disease.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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StarGen is an equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-based lentiviral vector that expresses the photoreceptor-specific adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter (ABCA4) protein that is mutated in Stargardt disease (STGD1), a juvenile macular dystrophy. EIAV vectors are able to efficiently transduce rod and cone photoreceptors in addition to retinal pigment epithelium in the adult macaque and rabbit retina following subretinal delivery. The safety and biodistribution of StarGen following subretinal delivery in macaques and rabbits was assessed.
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A longitudinal study of the reliability of acupuncture deqi sensations in knee osteoarthritis.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Deqi is one of the core concepts in acupuncture theory and encompasses a range of sensations. In this study, we used the MGH Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) to measure and assess the reliability of the sensations evoked by acupuncture needle stimulation in a longitudinal clinical trial on knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used as the clinical outcome. Thirty OA patients were randomized into one of three groups (high dose, low dose, and sham acupuncture) for 4?weeks. We found that, compared with sham acupuncture, real acupuncture (combining high and low doses) produced significant improvement in knee pain (P = .025) and function in sport (P = .049). Intraclass correlation analysis showed that patients reliably rated 11 of the 12 acupuncture sensations listed on the MASS and that heaviness was rated most consistently. Overall perceived sensation (MASS Index) (P = .014), ratings of soreness (P = .002), and aching (P = .002) differed significantly across acupuncture groups. Compared to sham acupuncture, real acupuncture reliably evoked stronger deqi sensations and led to better clinical outcomes when measured in a chronic pain population. Our findings highlight the MASS as a useful tool for measuring deqi in acupuncture research.
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Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on auricular points.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha.
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S1 is associated with chronic low back pain: a functional and structural MRI study.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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A fundamental characteristic of neural circuits is the capacity for plasticity in response to experience. Neural plasticity is associated with the development of chronic pain disorders. In this study, we investigated 1) brain resting state functional connectivity (FC) differences between patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) and matched healthy controls (HC); 2) FC differences within the cLBP patients as they experienced different levels of endogenous low back pain evoked by exercise maneuvers, and 3) morphometric differences between cLBP patients and matched HC. We found the dynamic character of FC in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in cLBP patients, i.e., S1 FC decreased when the patients experienced low intensity LBP as compared with matched healthy controls, and FC at S1 increased when cLBP patients experienced high intensity LBP as compared with the low intensity condition. In addition, we also found increased cortical thickness in the bilateral S1 somatotopically associated with the lower back in cLBP patients as compared to healthy controls. Our results provide evidence of structural plasticity co-localized with areas exhibiting FC changes in S1 in cLBP patients.
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Improved membrane protein expression in Lactococcus lactis by fusion to Mistic.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Difficulty overexpressing (eukaryotic) membrane proteins is generally considered as the major impediment in their structural and functional research. Lactococcus lactis possesses many properties ideal for membrane protein expression. In order to investigate membrane protein expression in L. lactis, we created a novel expression system by introducing Mistic, a short peptide previously identified in Bacillus subtilis, into L. lactis. The potential of this system was demonstrated in the overexpression of a eukaryotic membrane protein (pkjDes4) and a prokaryotic membrane protein (pkjLi), a newly isolated linoleate isomerase from Lactobacillus acidophilus. The expression levels reached up to 4.4?% and 45.2?% for pkjDes4 and pkjLi, respectively, which represented an exceptionally robust ability to overproduce membrane proteins. Moreover, the expressed pkjLi was functional, with its catalysing nature characterized for the first time in this species. Up to 0.852 mg ml(-1) conjugated linoleic acid was obtained during the linoleic acid conversion catalysed by the recombinant lactococcal strains. In summary, we established a membrane protein expression system in L. lactis and examined its functionality. Our results demonstrate that the Mistic chaperoning strategy can be efficiently applied to L. lactis hosts and show its extraordinary capacity to facilitate the high-yield production of intractable membrane proteins.
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Social impact analysis of the effects of a telemedicine intervention to improve diabetes outcomes in an ethnically diverse, medically underserved population: findings from the IDEATel Study.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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We examined the social impact of the telemedicine intervention effects in lower- and higher-socioeconomic status (SES) participants in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel) study.
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Placebo acupuncture devices: considerations for acupuncture research.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Determining an appropriate control for use in acupuncture research remains one of the largest methodological challenges acupuncture researchers face. In general, acupuncture controls fall under one of two categories: (1) sham acupuncture, in which the skin is punctured with real acupuncture needles either fully at nonacupoint locations or shallowly at acupoint locations or both and (2) placebo acupuncture, which utilizes nonpenetrating acupuncture devices. In this study, we will focus on non-penetrating placebo acupuncture devices (blunted-needle and nonneedle devices) that are currently available in acupuncture research. We will describe each device and discuss each devices validation and application in previous studies. In addition, we will outline the advantages and disadvantages of these devices and highlight how the differences among placebo devices can be used to isolate distinct components of acupuncture treatment and investigate their effects. We would like to emphasize that there is no single placebo device that can serve as the best control for all acupuncture studies; the choice of an acupuncture control should be determined by the specific aim of the study.
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A1120, a nonretinoid RBP4 antagonist, inhibits formation of cytotoxic bisretinoids in the animal model of enhanced retinal lipofuscinogenesis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Excessive accumulation of lipofuscin is associated with pathogenesis of atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt disease. Pharmacologic inhibition of the retinol-induced interaction of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) with transthyretin (TTR) in the serum may decrease the uptake of serum retinol to the retina and reduce formation of lipofuscin bisretinoids. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo properties of the new nonretinoid RBP4 antagonist, A1120.
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The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension (COACH) trial: design and methodology of a group-based lifestyle intervention for hypertensive minority older adults.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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The disproportionately high prevalence of hypertension and its associated mortality and morbidity in minority older adults is a major public health concern in the United States. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on blood pressure reduction, these approaches remain largely untested among minority elders in community-based settings. The Counseling Older Adults to Control Hypertension trial is a two-arm randomized controlled trial of 250 African-American and Latino seniors, 60 years and older with uncontrolled hypertension, who attend senior centers. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the effect of a therapeutic lifestyle intervention delivered via group classes and individual motivational interviewing sessions versus health education, on blood pressure reduction. The primary outcome is change in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to 12 months. The secondary outcomes are blood pressure control at 12 months; changes in levels of physical activity; body mass index; and number of daily servings of fruits and vegetables from baseline to 12 months. The intervention group will receive 12 weekly group classes followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions. The health education group will receive an individual counseling session on healthy lifestyle changes and standard hypertension education materials. Findings from this study will provide needed information on the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions delivered in senior centers. Such information is crucial in order to develop implementation strategies for translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions to senior centers, where many minority elders spend their time, making the centers a salient point of dissemination.
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Inserting needles into the body: a meta-analysis of brain activity associated with acupuncture needle stimulation.
J Pain
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is defined as the insertion of needles into the body at specific points (ie, acupoints). Advances in functional neuroimaging have made it possible to study brain responses to acupuncture; however, previous studies have mainly concentrated on acupoint specificity. We wanted to focus on the functional brain responses that occur because of needle insertion into the body. An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was carried out to investigate common characteristics of brain responses to acupuncture needle stimulation compared to tactile stimulation. A total of 28 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which consisted of 51 acupuncture and 10 tactile stimulation experiments, were selected for the meta-analysis. Following acupuncture needle stimulation, activation in the sensorimotor cortical network, including the insula, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, and deactivation in the limbic-paralimbic neocortical network, including the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and parahippocampus, were detected and assessed. Following control tactile stimulation, weaker patterns of brain responses were detected in areas similar to those stated above. The activation and deactivation patterns following acupuncture stimulation suggest that the hemodynamic responses in the brain simultaneously reflect the sensory, cognitive, and affective dimensions of pain.
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Construction and application of a food-grade expression system for Lactococcus lactis.
Mol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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A food-grade host/vector expression system for Lactococcus lactis was constructed using alanine racemase gene (alr) as the complementation marker. We obtained an alanine racemase auxotrophic mutant L. lactis NZ9000?alr by double-crossover recombination using temperature-sensitive integration plasmid pG(+)host9 and a food-grade vector pALR with entirely lactococcal DNA elements, including lactococcal replicon, nisin-inducible promoter PnisA and the alr gene from Lactobacillus casei BL23 as a complementation marker. By using the new food-grade host/vector system, the green fluorescent protein and capsid protein of porcine circovirus type II were successfully overexpressed under the nisin induction. These results indicate that this food-grade host/vector expression system has application potential as an excellent antigen delivery vehicle, and is also suitable for the use in the manufacture of ingredients for the food industry.
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Semiconductor@metal-organic framework core-shell heterostructures: a case of ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorods with selective photoelectrochemical response.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and related material classes are attracting considerable attention for their applications in gas storage/separation as well as catalysis. In contrast, research concerning potential uses in electronic devices (such as sensors) is in its infancy, which might be due to a great challenge in the fabrication of MOFs and semiconductor composites with well-designed structures. In this paper, we proposed a simple self-template strategy to fabricate metal oxide semiconductor@MOF core-shell heterostructures, and successfully obtained freestanding ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorods as well as vertically standing arrays (including nanorod arrays and nanotube arrays). In this synthetic process, ZnO nanorods not only act as the template but also provide Zn(2+) ions for the formation of ZIF-8. In addition, we have demonstrated that solvent composition and reaction temperature are two crucial factors for successfully fabricating well-defined ZnO@ZIF-8 heterostructures. As we expect, the as-prepared ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod arrays display distinct photoelectrochemical response to hole scavengers with different molecule sizes (e.g., H(2)O(2) and ascorbic acid) owing to the limitation of the aperture of the ZIF-8 shell. Excitingly, such ZnO@ZIF-8 nanorod arrays were successfully applied to the detection of H(2)O(2) in the presence of serous buffer solution. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that the semiconductor@MOFs heterostructure potentially has promising applications in many electronic devices including sensors.
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An in-vitro animal experiment on metal implants thermal effect on radiofrequency ablation.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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To explore metal implants thermal effect on radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and ascertain distance-thermal relationship between the metal implants and radiofrequency (RF) electrode.
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Functional analysis and randomization of the nisin-inducible promoter for tuning gene expression in Lactococcus lactis.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Three putative promoter regions were identified preceding the nisZ gene in Lactococcus lactis HSM-22. To investigate their function in the control of nisZ biosynthesis, green fluorescence protein (GFP) was adopted as probe to determine activities of the three promoters. The results showed that PnisZ-0 containing two sets of the -35 and -10 regions exhibited the same maximum activity as promoter PnisZ-2 containing the putative promoter region near the start codon. However, the GFP expression level directed by PnisZ-0 was twofold higher than that found with PnisZ-2 under low-dose nisin, indicating that promoter PnisZ-1 distant from the start codon could be important in response to the inducer nisin. Then, Pnis-2 was randomized to develop functional promoters through the degenerate oligonucleotide approach in L. lactis. 35 inducible promoters and 14 constitutive promoters were obtained, covering 3-5 logs of expression levels in small increments of activity. Sequence analysis revealed that base changes in both consensus sequence and spacing sequence resulted in remarkable decrease of promoter activity, while the sequence outside -35 and -10 regions would influence the promoter function radically. The functional promoters were evaluated for the efficiency and stability to control ?-galactosidase (Gal) expression in L. lactis. High correlation was obtained between the Gal activity and promoter strength, suggesting that promoters developed here have the potential for fine tuning gene expression in L. lactis.
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MicroRNA-26a inhibits angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGFA through the PIK3C2?/Akt/HIF-1? pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate angiogenesis by down-regulating the expression of pro-angiogenic or anti-angiogenic factors. The aims of this study were to investigate whether miR-26a inhibited angiogenesis by down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its clinical relevance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Are all placebo effects equal? Placebo pills, sham acupuncture, cue conditioning and their association.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol), sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subjects pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for "placebo responders." However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non-specific effects of acupuncture may contribute to the analgesic effect observed in genuine acupuncture analgesia.
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[Analysis on morbidity factor of bilateral intertrochanteric fractures].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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To study the morbidity factors of bilateral intertrochanteric fractures by analyzing medical records, so as to provide evidences for preventing the multiple intertrochanteric fractures.
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[Advances in functional studies of nonstructural proteins and development of antiviral agents for enterovirus 71].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major etiological agents for the hand, foot, and month disease (HFMD) and is causing frequent, widespread occurrence in the mainland of China. The single positive-stranded RNA genome of EV71 is translated into a single polyprotein which is autocleavaged into structural and nonstructural proteins. The functions of many nonstructural proteins characterized in the life cycle of virus are potential targets for blocking viral replication. This article reviews the studies of the structures and functions of nonstructural proteins of EV71 and the anti-enterovirus 71 drugs targeting on these nonstructural proteins.
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A practice-based trial of blood pressure control in African Americans (TLC-Clinic): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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Poorly controlled hypertension (HTN) remains one of the most significant public health problems in the United States, in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Despite compelling evidence supporting the beneficial effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) for blood pressure (BP) reduction, the effectiveness of these approaches in primary care practices remains untested, especially among African Americans, who share a disproportionately greater burden of HTN-related outcomes.
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A rapid approach to high-resolution fluorescence imaging in semi-thick brain slices.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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A fundamental goal to both basic and clinical neuroscience is to better understand the identities, molecular makeup, and patterns of connectivity that are characteristic to neurons in both normal and diseased brain. Towards this, a great deal of effort has been placed on building high-resolution neuroanatomical maps(1-3). With the expansion of molecular genetics and advances in light microscopy has come the ability to query not only neuronal morphologies, but also the molecular and cellular makeup of individual neurons and their associated networks(4). Major advances in the ability to mark and manipulate neurons through transgenic and gene targeting technologies in the rodent now allow investigators to program neuronal subsets at will(5-6). Arguably, one of the most influential contributions to contemporary neuroscience has been the discovery and cloning of genes encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) in marine invertebrates(7-8), alongside their subsequent engineering to yield an ever-expanding toolbox of vital reporters(9). Exploiting cell type-specific promoter activity to drive targeted FP expression in discrete neuronal populations now affords neuroanatomical investigation with genetic precision. Engineering FP expression in neurons has vastly improved our understanding of brain structure and function. However, imaging individual neurons and their associated networks in deep brain tissues, or in three dimensions, has remained a challenge. Due to high lipid content, nervous tissue is rather opaque and exhibits auto fluorescence. These inherent biophysical properties make it difficult to visualize and image fluorescently labelled neurons at high resolution using standard epifluorescent or confocal microscopy beyond depths of tens of microns. To circumvent this challenge investigators often employ serial thin-section imaging and reconstruction methods(10), or 2-photon laser scanning microscopy(11). Current drawbacks to these approaches are the associated labor-intensive tissue preparation, or cost-prohibitive instrumentation respectively. Here, we present a relatively rapid and simple method to visualize fluorescently labelled cells in fixed semi-thick mouse brain slices by optical clearing and imaging. In the attached protocol we describe the methods of: 1) fixing brain tissue in situ via intracardial perfusion, 2) dissection and removal of whole brain, 3) stationary brain embedding in agarose, 4) precision semi-thick slice preparation using new vibratome instrumentation, 5) clearing brain tissue through a glycerol gradient, and 6) mounting on glass slides for light microscopy and z-stack reconstruction (Figure 1). For preparing brain slices we implemented a relatively new piece of instrumentation called the Compresstome VF-200 (http://www.precisionary.com/products_vf200.html). This instrument is a semi-automated microtome equipped with a motorized advance and blade vibration system with features similar in function to other vibratomes. Unlike other vibratomes, the tissue to be sliced is mounted in an agarose plug within a stainless steel cylinder. The tissue is extruded at desired thicknesses from the cylinder, and cut by the forward advancing vibrating blade. The agarose plug/cylinder system allows for reproducible tissue mounting, alignment, and precision cutting. In our hands, the Compresstome yields high quality tissue slices for electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and direct fixed-tissue mounting and imaging. Combined with optical clearing, here we demonstrate the preparation of semi-thick fixed brain slices for high-resolution fluorescent imaging.
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Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine.
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Neural correlates of chronic low back pain measured by arterial spin labeling.
Anesthesiology
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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The varying nature of chronic pain (CP) is difficult to correlate to neural activity using typical functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Arterial spin labeling is a perfusion-based imaging technique allowing the absolute quantification of regional cerebral blood flow, which is a surrogate measure of neuronal activity.
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Sex similarities and differences in pain-related periaqueductal gray connectivity.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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This study investigated sex similarities and differences in pain-related functional connectivity in 60 healthy subjects. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological interaction analysis to investigate how exposure to low vs high experimental pain modulates the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). We found no sex differences in pain thresholds, and in both men and women, the PAG was more functionally connected with the somatosensory cortex, the supplemental motor area, cerebellum, and thalamus during high pain, consistent with anatomic predictions. Twenty-six men displayed a pain-induced increase in PAG functional connectivity with the amygdala caudate and putamen that was not observed in women. In an extensive literature search, we found that female animals have been largely overlooked when the connections between the PAG and the amygdala have been described, and that women are systematically understudied with regard to endogenous pain inhibition. Our results emphasize the importance of including both male and female subjects when studying basic mechanisms of pain processing, and point toward a possible sex difference in endogenous pain inhibition.
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Biosafety evaluation of bacteriophages for treatment of diarrhea due to intestinal pathogen Escherichia coli 3-2 infection of chickens.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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Intestinal Escherichia coli caused diarrhea in chicken makes serious damage directly to the chicken culture industry. Bacteriophage therapy is able to control the diarrhea in chickens effectively. In this study, the biosafety of bacteriophages was evaluated for treating intestinal pathogenic E. coli, which induced diarrhea in chickens. Ten bacteriophages were isolated from feces of chickens with diarrhea using the ill-chicken intestinal pathogenic E. coli 3-2 as target organism. Three bacteriophages propagated on E. coli 3-2 with relative big and clear plaques were selected and used together for toxicity experiment and evaluating the effect of therapy on chicken weight gain. In 3 weeks of trial, no mice given with or without mixed bacteriophages died, and the weight of mice of the experimental group did not show significant difference to the control group after 3 weeks infection. Besides remarkable decreasing the death rate of chickens with diarrhea, treatment of mixed bacteriophages also promoted the weight gain and saved the diet consumption as the utilize rate of diet increased 11% compared with the control group. These observations indicated that a mixture of three bacteriophages would be biosafe for rapid and effective preventing pathogenic E. coli infections.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.