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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED GAIT ASSESSMENT ALGORITHM USING THREE INERTIAL SENSORS AND ITS RELIABILITY.
Biomed Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop a sensor based gait assessment algorithm and investigate the concurrent test-retest (split-half) reliability and inter-instrument reliability of inertial measurement units (IMUs). Nine healthy young adults (age = 28±5 years) performed 10 walking trials at self-selected pace over a 15 m long walkway in the locomotion laboratory. Their accelerations and angular velocities were measured and an automated algorithm was built to extract gait parameters. For each walking trial, data was simultaneously collected using the IMU called Technology Enabled Medical Precision and Observation (TEMPO) and Qualisys infrared camera system with force plates, to determine its reliability. Test-retest reliability of the TEMPO system was measured by ICC (3,1) and inter-instrument (between camera system with force plate and TEMPO) reliability was measured by ICC(2,1). Test-retest reliability of the TEMPO system was excellent for foot swing angle, step length, and stride length (ICCs between 0.79 and 0.93), fair to good for required coefficient of friction (RCOF) and all the temporal gait parameters except right swing time (ICCs between 0.41 and 0.73), and poor for right swing time (ICC of 0.03). Left stance time was the only parameter that had high inter-instrument reliability (ICC of 0.87) and double support time and right stance time with fair reliability (ICCs of 0.47 and 0.55), whereas other parameters had poor reliability (ICCs between <0.001 and 0.25). The results of this study demonstrated that the automated gait assessment algorithm using the TEMPO system is highly reliable, yet it needs to be improved because of the low levels of agreement with the laboratory based gait analysis systems.
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Levonorgestrel decreased cilia beat frequency of human fallopian tubes and rat oviducts without changing the morphological structure.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Levonorgestrel, a derivative of progesterone, effectively protects women from unwanted pregnancy as an emergency contraceptive. Previous studies have not successfully determined the mechanism by which levonorgestrel acts. Here we analyzed cilia beat action and cilia morphology under levonorgestrel exposure in vitro and in vivo using both light and electron microscopy. There was a significant decrease in the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of human fallopian tubes between the mucosal explants bathed in 5 ?M levonorgestrel compared with those bathed in medium alone (P < 0.05). The CBF tended to decrease more in the ampulla relative to the isthmus but did not differ between the proliferative phase and secretory phase. In rat oviducts, levonorgestrel resulted in a similar reduction in the CBF (~10%) compared with the saline control group (P < 0.05). Histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated no changes in the percentage of ciliated cells or to the classic "9 + 2" structure of cilia by levonorgestrel treatment in either system. Thus levonorgestrel reduced the CBF without damaging cilia morphology. Decreases in the CBF may indicate a pathological role for levonorgestrel in the transportation of the ovum and zygote in the fallopian tube. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Interactions between colloidal particles in the presence of an ultra-highly charged amphiphilic polyelectrolyte.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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A novel amphiphilic polyelectrolyte denoted as PAGC8 and a traditional amphiphilic polyelectrolyte denoted as PASC8 were prepared. PAGC8 consisted of gemini type surfactant segment based on 1, 3-bis (N, N-dimethyl-N-octylammonium)-2-propylacrylate dibromide, while PASC8 incorporated acryloyloxyethyl-N, N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide as single chain surfactant units within its repeat unit structure. Turbidity, stability and zeta-potential measurements were performed in the presence of PAGC8 and PASC8, respectively, in order to evaluate their effectiveness in inducing solid/liquid separations. It was found that the maximum transmittance was observed before the zeta-potential values reached the isoelectric point, implying that not only charge neutralization but also charge-patch mechanism contributed to the separation process. Colloid probe atomic force microscopy technique was introduced to directly determine the interactions between surfaces in the presence of ultra-highly charged amphiphilic polyelectrolyte. Based on the AFM results, we have successfully interpreted the influence of the charge density of the polyelectrolytes on the phase stability. Electrostatic interaction played the dominant role in the flocculation processes, although both electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic effect provided contributions to the colloidal dispersions. The attractions upon surfaces approach in the case of PAGC8 were significantly larger than that of PASC8 due to the higher charge density. The strong peeling events upon retraction in the presence of PAGC8 implied that the hydrophobic effect was stronger than that of PASC8 which displayed the loose pulling events. A strong attraction was identi?ed at shorter separation distances for both systems. However, these interactions cannot be successfully described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloid stability, due to the participation of charge-patch and strong hydrophobic effect. In order to account for the additional interactions, an extended DLVO empirical model was proposed to explain the non-DLVO forces in the systems. A reasonable physical model was also proposed to further describe the interactions between surfaces in the two amphiphilic polyelectrolyte systems.
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Palladium-Catalyzed Aromatic C-H Bond Nitration Using Removable Directing Groups: Regiospecific Synthesis of Substituted o-Nitrophenols from Related Phenols.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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A general and regiospecific transformation of substituted phenols into the related o-nitrophenols has been achieved via a three-step process involving the palladium-catalyzed chelation-assisted ortho-C-H bond nitration as the key step. In the process, 2-pyridinyloxy groups act as removable directing groups for the palladium-catalyzed ortho-nitration of substituted 2-phenoxypridines, and they can be readily removed in the subsequent conversion of the resulting 2-(2-nitrophenoxy)pyridines into 2-nitrophenols.
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Synaptic and Cognitive Improvements by Inhibition of 2-AG Metabolism Are through Upregulation of MicroRNA-188-3p in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Abnormal accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) is the major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying aberrant A? formation in AD remain unclear. We showed previously that inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that metabolizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, robustly reduces A? by inhibiting ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme responsible for A? formation. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppression of BACE1 by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that expression of the noncoding small RNA miR-188-3p that targets BACE1 was significantly downregulated both in the brains of AD humans and APP transgenic (TG) mice, a mouse model of AD. The downregulated miR-188-3p expression was restored by MAGL inhibition. Overexpression of miR-188-3p in the hippocampus reduced BACE1, A?, and neuroinflammation and prevented deteriorations in hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, spatial learning, and memory in TG mice. 2-AG-induced suppression of BACE1 was prevented by miR-188-3p loss of function. Moreover, miR-188-3p expression was upregulated by 2-AG or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists and suppressed by PPAR? antagonism or NF-?B activation. Reducing A? and neuroinflammation by MAGL inhibition was occluded by PPAR? antagonism. In addition, BACE1 suppression by 2-AG and PPAR? activation was eliminated by knockdown of NF-?B. Our study provides a novel molecular mechanism underlying improved synaptic and cognitive function in TG mice by 2-AG signaling, which upregulates miR-188-3p expression through PPAR? and NF-?B signaling pathway, resulting in suppressions of BACE1 expression and A? formation.
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Ligand replacement induced chemiluminescence for selective detection of an organophosphorus pesticide using bifunctional Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like nanoparticles.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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A facile ligand replacement induced chemiluminescence method is developed for selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide parathion-methyl based on the use of bifunctional Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell-like nanoparticles to overcome the interference from coexisting substances in a real sample.
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Oxygen Tension Variation in Ischemic Gastrocnemius Muscle, Marrow, and different Hypoxic Conditions In Vitro.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Background Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) play an important role in ischemic limb angiogenesis. BMSCs cultured in vitro can be exposed to oxygen tension much higher than that experienced in vivo. This study assessed oxygen tension in bone marrow and ischemic muscle in vivo, and then identified an appropriate oxygen concentration for culturing BMSCs. Material and Methods Unilateral hind limb ischemia was surgically induced in 30 mice, and tissue oxygen tension in bilateral gastrocnemius muscles and femoral bone marrow was monitored in vivo using a micro-electrode at 24 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks after modeling. Media used for culturing normal marrow, muscle, and artery tissue were incubated with various oxygen concentrations, and O2 tension was continuously monitored. Oxygen tension in aortic arterial blood was monitored using a micro-electrode and blood gas analyzer, and the results were compared. Results Oxygen tension in ischemic gastrocnemius muscle reached a nadir at 1 week after ischemic modeling, when histological changes were most noticeable. Culture media incubated with 3%, 6%, and 14% oxygen (the normal oxygen levels of bone marrow, muscle, and arterial blood, respectively) required 9, 6, and 2 hours, respectively, to reach an equilibrated oxygen tension, and oxygen tension was elevated by 1.6-, 1.2-, and 0.4-fold, respectively, upon re-exposure of the media to air. Conclusions Physiological oxygen tension differs in different tissues. A 3% O2 concentration mimics the physiological O2 exposure experienced by BMSCs and represents the hypoxic concentration. Culture medium incubated under hypoxic conditions requires a prolonged period of time to regain equilibrated oxygen tension.
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17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Stroke.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone involved in the proper conformation of many proteins. HSP90 inhibitors (17-dimethyl aminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride [17-DMAG]) bind to and inactivate HSP90, suppressing some key signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory process. Since considerable evidence suggests that inflammation accounts for the progression of cerebral ischemic injury, we investigated whether 17-DMAG can modulate inflammatory responses in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were pretreated with 17-DMAG or vehicle for 7?d before being subjected to transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery and reperfusion. Mice were evaluated at 24?h after MCAO for neurological deficit scoring. Moreover, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 17-DMAG was investigated with a focus on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. 17-DMAG significantly reduced cerebral infarction and improved neurological outcome. 17-DMAG suppressed activation of microglia and decreased phosphorylation of inhibitory (I)?B and subsequent nuclear translocation of p65, which eventually downregulated expression of NF-?B-regulated genes. These results suggest that 17-DMAG has a promising therapeutic effect in ischemic stroke treatment through an anti-inflammatory mechanism.
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Microtubules stabilize cell polarity by localizing rear signals.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Microtubules are known to play an important role in cell polarity; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Using cells migrating persistently on micropatterned strips, we found that depolymerization of microtubules caused cells to change from persistent to oscillatory migration. Mathematical modeling in the context of a local-excitation-global-inhibition control mechanism indicated that this mechanism can account for microtubule-dependent oscillation, assuming that microtubules remove inhibitory signals from the front after a delayed generation. Experiments further supported model predictions that the period of oscillation positively correlates with cell length and that oscillation may be induced by inhibiting retrograde motors. We suggest that microtubules are required not for the generation but for the maintenance of cell polarity, by mediating the global distribution of inhibitory signals. Disassembly of microtubules induces cell oscillation by allowing inhibitory signals to accumulate at the front, which stops frontal protrusion and allows the polarity to reverse.
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Homochiral Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enantiopure Proline Units for the Catalytic Synthesis of ?-Lactams.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Two enantiopure organic ligands integrating flexible proline units and rigid isophthalate units have been rationally designed and employed for the construction of four homochiral porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), respectively. One pair of these MOFs is used as heterogeneous catalysts to construct ?-lactam derivatives by oxidative coupling reactions.
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Dipeptidyl peptidase IV reduces trophoblast invasion by inhibiting the activity of MMPs.
Int. J. Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Preeclampsia is a severe pregnancy complication in part due to insufficient implantation. This study aimed at elucidating the mechanism of action of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) in preeclampsia. Small activating RNAs (saRNA) were used to upregulate DPPIV expression in human trophoblast JAR cells. The DPPIV expression level was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot and its activity was measured by luminescent protease assay. MMP-9 activity was analyzed by zymography and cell invasion by matrigel invasion assay. DPPIV expression level and activity was significantly increased by saRNA in JAR cells. DDPIV specific inhibitor diprotin A inhibited its activity at both basal and activated levels. DPPIV did not regulate MMP-9 expression but did repress MMP-9 activity. The invading ability of JAR cells was reduced by saRNA but increased by diprotin A. DPPIV might be responsible for the shallow implantation of the placenta due to its inhibition of the invading ability of extravillous trophoblasts, causing preeclampsia at later stage of pregnancy.
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Design and application of pulse information acquisition and analysis system with dynamic recognition in traditional Chinese medicine.
Afr Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To design the pulse information which includes the parameter of pulse-position, pulse-number, pulse-shape and pulse-force acquisition and analysis system with function of dynamic recognition, and research the digitalization and visualization of some common cardiovascular mechanism of single pulse.
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Facile Control of the Charge Density and Photocatalytic Activity of an Anionic Indium Porphyrin Framework via in Situ Metalation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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An anionic indium porphyrin framework (UNLPF-10) consisting of rare Williams ?-tetrakaidecahedral cages was constructed using an octatopic ligand linked with 4-connected [In(COO)4](-) SBUs. Remarkably, the extent of indium metalation of porphyrin macrocycles in UNLPF-10 can be facilely tuned in situ depending on the M/L ratio during synthesis, resulting in a controllable framework charge density and photocatalytic activity toward the selective oxygenation of sulfides.
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Enhancement of Osteogenesis and Biodegradation Control by Brushite Coating on Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr Alloy for Mandibular Bone Repair.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To diminish incongruity between bone regeneration and biodegradation of implant magnesium alloy applied for mandibular bone repair, a brushite coating was deposited on a matrix of a Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (hereafter, denoted as JDBM) alloy to control the degradation rate of the implant and enhance osteogenesis of the mandible bone. Both in vitro and in vivo evaluations were carried out in the present work. Viability and adhesion assays of rabbit bone marrow mesenchyal stem cells (rBM-MSCs) were applied to determine the biocompatibility of a brushite-coated JDBM alloy. Osteogenic gene expression was characterized by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Brushite-coated JDBM screws were implanted into mandible bones of rabbits for 1, 4, and 7 months, respectively, using 316L stainless steel screws as a control group. In vivo biodegradation rate was determined by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography, and osteogenesis was observed and evaluated using Van Gieson's picric acid-fuchsin. Both the naked JDBM and brushite-coated JDBM samples revealed adequate biosafety and biocompatibility as bone repair substitutes. In vitro results showed that brushite-coated JDBM considerably induced osteogenic differentiation of rBM-MSCs. And in vivo experiments indicated that brushite-coated JDBM screws presented advantages in osteoconductivity and osteogenesis of mandible bone of rabbits. Degradation rate was suppressed at a lower level at the initial stage of implantation when new bone tissue formed. Brushite, which can enhance oeteogenesis and partly control the degradation rate of an implant, is an appropriate coating for JDBM alloys used for mandibular repair. The Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy with brushite coating possesses great potential for clinical applications for mandibular repair.
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[Idea and practice of ZHU Lian concerning acupuncture education].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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ZHU Lian is a deceased famous acupuncture and Moxibustion specialist, the first director and the founder of institute of Acupuncture-Moxibustion of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. This article discusses the thought and idea of education and teaching of acupuncture-moxibustion from the following three aspects: diversified education and training mode, teaching idea of new acupuncture-moxibustion with a lot of characteristics, and the founding of professional acupuncture-moxibustion college. All above have both distinct characteristics of the times and positively enlightening significance of reality.
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[A case of diagnosing and treating the remaining foreign body in nasal sinus and cranium via orbit].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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This paper mainly reports a case with the foreign body staying in nasal sinus and cranium via orbit. CT manifests the foreign body staying in ethmoid sinus and entering the bottom of cranium. After completing the relevant inspection, the patient unerwent right eye exenteration, endoscopic sinus surgery with general anesthesia in emergency to take out the foreign body in nasal sinus, and Cerebrospinal fluid leak repair surgery . Then the patient recovers well, futhermore, the symptom of cerebrospinal fluid leakage doesn't appear after five months follow-up.
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Experimental evaluation of radioiodinated sennoside B as a necrosis-avid tracer agent.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract Necrosis-avid agents are a class of compounds that selectively accumulate in the necrotic tissues after systemic administration, which can be used for in vivo necrosis imaging and targeted therapies. In order to search for a necrosis-avid tracer agent with improved drugability, we labelled iodine-131 on sennoside B (SB) as a naturally occurring median dianthrone compound. The necrosis targetability and clearance properties of (131)I-SB were evaluated in model rats with liver and muscle necrosis. On SPECT/CT images, a "hot spot" in the infarcted liver lobe and necrotic muscle was persistently observed at 24?h and 72?h post-injection (p.i.). Gamma counting of the tissues of interest revealed a radioactivity ratio of necrotic to viable liver at 4.6 and 3.4 and of necrotic to viable muscle at 7.0 and 8.8 at 24?h and 72?h p.i., respectively. The good match of autoradiographs and fluoromicroscopic images with corresponding histochemical staining suggested preferential uptake of (131)I-SB in necrotic tissue. Pharmacokinetic study revealed that (131)I-SB has an elimination half-life of 8.6?h. This study indicates that (131)I-SB shows not only prominent necrosis avidity but also favourable pharmacokinetics, which may serve as a potential necrosis-avid diagnostic agent for assessment of tissue viability.
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Resonantly pumped Q-switched Er:YAG ceramic laser at 1645 nm.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report on an acousto-optic Q-switched 1645 nm Er:YAG ceramic laser resonantly pumped by using an Er,Yb fiber laser at 1532 nm. Maximum continuous wave output powers of 2.1 W and 2.4 W were obtained for 10% and 20% transmission OCs under 10.5 W of incident pump power, respectively. In Q-switched mode, the laser produced pulses with ~3.7 mJ energy and 82 ns width at 200 Hz repetition rate for 20% transmission OC under 8.6 W of incident pump power, corresponding to a peak power of ~45 kW.
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Multi-order Stokes output based on intra-cavity KTiOAsO4 Raman crystal.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report efficient multi-Stokes Raman output of a KTiOAsO4 (KTA) crystal driven by a laser diode end-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The Raman outputs of two x-cut KTA crystals, one with a length of 20 mm and the other one of 25-mm, were experimentally compared. Under an incident pump power of 10.9 W, a maximum output power of 1.12 W with a pulse width of 7.6 ns and a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz were obtained. The conversion efficiency and slope efficiency with respect to the incident diode pump power were 10.3% and 15.2%, respectively. The laser output contains multiple Raman Stokes lines with different spectral strengths that varied with the pump power.
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Room temperature continuous-wave laser performance of LD pumped Er:Lu2O3 and Er:Y2O3 ceramic at 2.7 ?m.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We report the demonstration of continue wave operation of diode end-pumped Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3 ceramic lasers operating at 2.7 ?m at room temperature. The maximum output power of 320 mW and 611 mW was obtained from the Er:Y2O3 and Er:Lu2O3 ceramic lasers, with slope efficiency of 6.5% and 7.6%, respectively. Characteristics of Red-shift in lasing wavelength of the ceramic lasers was investigated and discussed. The study indicates that under 967 nm and 976 nm LD pumping, 15 at.% Er-doped Lu2O3 ceramic exhibit a better performance than that of Y2O3 at room temperature.
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Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a resonantly pumped polycrystalline ceramic Ho:LuAG laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We have reported continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operations of a polycrystalline ceramic Ho:LuAG laser in band pumped by a Tm:fiber laser at the wavelength of 1907 nm. By using an output coupler of 20% transmission, maximum continuous-wave output power of 2.87 W for 9.72 W of incident pump power was achieved, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 31.9%. Shortest pulse duration of 21.0 ns with peak power of 28.2 kW has been obtained at 500 Hz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) under 5.65 W of incident pump power.
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Increased functional connectivity strength of right inferior temporal gyrus in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Evidence of brain structural and functional alterations have been implicated in patients with somatization disorder (SD). However, little is known about brain functional connectivity in SD. In the present study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph theory were used to obtain a comprehensive view of whole-brain functional connectivity and to investigate the changes of voxel-wise functional networks in patients with SD.
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Induction of a specific CD8+ T-cell response to cancer/testis antigens by demethylating pre-treatment against osteosarcoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Conventional non-surgical therapeutic regimens against osteosarcoma are subject to chemoresistance and tumor relapse, and immunotherapy may be promising for this tumor. However, it's hard to find satisfactory epitopes for immunotherapy against osteosarcoma. Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs), such as MAGE-A family and NY-ESO-1, the potential antigens that almost exclusively express in tumor cells and immune-privileged sites, have been found expressed in osteosarcoma also. Nevertheless, the expression of CTAs is downregulated in many tumors, constraining the application of immunotherapy. In this article, we demonstrate that the expression of MAGE-A family and NY-ESO-1 in osteosarcoma cells can be upregulated following treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and consequently induces a CTA specific CD8+ T-cell response against osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo imaging was realized by using luciferase-transfected HOS cells and DiR labeled T-cells in severely combined immunodeficiency mouse models. Cytotoxic T cells specifically recognizing MAGE-A family and NY-ESO-1 clustered at the tumor site in mice pre-treated with DAC and resulted in tumor growth suppression, while it was not observed in mice without DAC pre-treatment. This study is important for more targeted therapeutic approaches and suggests that adoptive immunotherapy, combined with demethylating treatment, has the potential for non-surgical therapeutic strategy against osteosarcoma.
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Importance of the DNA "bond" in programmable nanoparticle crystallization.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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If a solution of DNA-coated nanoparticles is allowed to crystallize, the thermodynamic structure can be predicted by a set of structural design rules analogous to Pauling's rules for ionic crystallization. The details of the crystallization process, however, have proved more difficult to characterize as they depend on a complex interplay of many factors. Here, we report that this crystallization process is dictated by the individual DNA bonds and that the effect of changing structural or environmental conditions can be understood by considering the effect of these parameters on free oligonucleotides. Specifically, we observed the reorganization of nanoparticle superlattices using time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering in systems with different DNA sequences, salt concentrations, and densities of DNA linkers on the surface of the nanoparticles. The agreement between bulk crystallization and the behavior of free oligonucleotides may bear important consequences for constructing novel classes of crystals and incorporating new interparticle bonds in a rational manner.
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[Chemical constituents from barks of Nothopanax delavayi].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Eleven compounds were isolated and purified from the barks extract of Nothopanax delavayi and their structures were identified as serratagenic acid-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), serratagenic acid-3-0-alpha-L-arabi-nopyranosyl-28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), serratagenic acid (3), serratagenic acid-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), serratagenic acid-beta-O-beta-(2', 4'-O-diacetyl) -D-xylopyranosyl-28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopy-ranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->46)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (5), serratagenic acid-3-O-alpha-(4'-O-acetyl)-L-arabino pyrano-syl-28-0- [-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester(6), serratagenic acid-3-O-alpha-(2'-O-acetyl)-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-[-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester(7), serratagenic acid-3-0-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-28-O-[-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (8), protocatechuic acid (9), ethyl caffeate (10) and caffeic anhydride (11) by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Among them, compounds 3-4 and 9-11 were firstly isolated from the genus Nothopanax, and compounds 5-8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.
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Relay cooperation of K2S2O8 and O2 in oxytrifluoromethylation of alkenes using CF3SO2Na.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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A new radical oxytrifluoromethylation of alkenes via an aerobic Cvinyl-heteroatom bond oxygenation process is reported, in which O2 and a catalytic amount of K2S2O8 work in concert to activate CF3SO2Na. Mechanistic investigation disclosed that CF3SO2? could react with O2 to reinitiate radical chain process.
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Effects of shRNA-silenced livin and survivin on lung cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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To evaluate the effects of short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of livin and survivin on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 lung cancer cells.
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Cytotoxic and antiangiogenic paclitaxel solubilized and permeation-enhanced by natural product nanoparticles.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most potent intravenous chemotherapeutic agents to date, yet an oral formulation has been problematic because of its low solubility and permeability. Using the recently discovered solubilizing properties of rubusoside (RUB), we investigated the unique PTX-RUB formulation. PTX was solubilized by RUB in water to levels of 1.6-6.3?mg/ml at 10-40% weight/volume. These nanomicellar PTX-RUB complexes were dried to a powder, which was subsequently reconstituted in physiologic solutions. After 2.5?h, 85-99% of PTX-RUB remained soluble in gastric fluid, whereas 79-96% remained soluble in intestinal fluid. The solubilization of PTX was mechanized by the formation of water-soluble spherical nanomicelles between PTX and RUB, with an average diameter of 6.6?nm. Compared with Taxol, PTX-RUB nanoparticles were nearly four times more permeable in Caco-2 cell monocultures. In a side-by-side comparison with dimethyl sulfoxide-solubilized PTX, PTX-RUB maintained the same level of cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 4 to 20?nmol/l. In addition, tubule formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were inhibited at levels as low as 5?nmol/l. These chemical and biological properties demonstrated by the PTX-RUB nanoparticles may improve oral bioavailability and enable further pharmacokinetic, toxicologic, and efficacy investigations.
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[Analysis of aeroallergen spectrum in patients with allergic rhinitis in Nanchang area].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To determine the distribution of allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in Nanchang area and provide the clinical reference for management strategies with regional character.
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Alterations of Mineral Elements in Osteoblast During Differentiation Under Hypo, Moderate and High Static Magnetic Fields.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Static magnetic fields (SMFs) can enhance the ability of bone formation by osteoblast and is a potential physical therapy to bone disorders and the maintenance of bone health. But, the mechanism is not clear yet. Certain mineral elements including macro and trace elements are essential for normal bone metabolism. Deficiency of these elements can cause severe bone disorders including osteoporosis. However, there are few reports regarding the role of mineral elements in the regulation of bone formation under SMFs. In this study, hypomagnetic field (HyMF) of 500 nT, moderate SMF (MMF) of 0.2 T, and high SMF (HiMF) of 16 T were used to investigate the effects of SMFs on mineral element (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc) alteration of MC3T3-E1 cells during osteoblast mineralization. The results showed that osteoblasts in differentiation accumulated more mineral elements than non-differentiated cell cultures. Furthermore, HyMF reduced osteoblast differentiation but did not affect mineral elements levels compared with control of geomagnetic field. MMF decreased osteoblast differentiation with elevated iron content. HiMF enhanced osteoblast differentiation and increased all the mineral contents except copper. It is suggested that the altered potential of osteoblast differentiation under SMFs may partially due to the involvement of different mineral elements.
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The role of Sec3p in secretory vesicle targeting and exocyst complex assembly.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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During membrane trafficking, vesicular carriers are transported and tethered to their cognate acceptor compartments before soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE)-mediated membrane fusion. The exocyst complex was believed to target and tether post-Golgi secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. However, no definitive experimental evidence is available to support this notion. We developed an ectopic targeting assay in yeast in which each of the eight exocyst subunits was expressed on the surface of mitochondria. We find that most of the exocyst subunits were able to recruit the other members of the complex there, and mistargeting of the exocyst led to secretion defects in cells. On the other hand, only the ectopically located Sec3p subunit is capable of recruiting secretory vesicles to mitochondria. Our assay also suggests that both cytosolic diffusion and cytoskeleton-based transport mediate the recruitment of exocyst subunits and secretory vesicles during exocytosis. In addition, the Rab GTPase Sec4p and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sec2p regulate the assembly of the exocyst complex. Our study helps to establish the role of the exocyst subunits in tethering and allows the investigation of the mechanisms that regulate vesicle tethering during exocytosis.
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PD806: a novel oral vascular disrupting agent shows antitumor and antivascular effects in vitro and in vivo.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor and antivascular effects of PD806, a new oral prodrug of AVE8063 in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity of PD806 was determined against H22, Walker 256, A549, MCF-7, and BEL-7402 cells using MTT assays. Plasma pharmacokinetic analysis of AVE8063 generated in rats after a single oral administration of PD806 was carried out using the high-performance liquid chromatography method. H22 tumor-bearing mice models were used to show the antitumor activity. Antivascular responses were monitored by in vivo MRI and immunohistochemistry (CD31) in W256 tumor-bearing rats. A blood test and histopathology were performed to evaluate the toxicity of PD806. PD806 showed cytotoxicity against five types of tumor cell lines with the IC50 values in the micromolar concentration. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that PD806 converted into the active form, AVE8063, which showed a half-life of 5.24±0.70?h in rats. Daily oral administration of PD806 inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted H22 tumors in a dose-dependent manner. The tumor volume in the 300?mg/kg PD806 group was obviously smaller than that of the vehicle control group from day 6 onward (P<0.05), with inhibition rates of 62% on day 30. PD806 in the three-dose group significantly prolonged the survival of the H22 tumor-bearing mice (P<0.05). At 24?h after PD806 (150 and 200?mg/kg) was administered orally, tumor vascular shutdown was found on CE-T1WI with the presence of extended necrosis and tumor residue at the periphery. The enhancement ratio decreased significantly from 1.00±0.00 at baseline to 0.26±0.08 and 0.17±0.06, respectively (P<0.01). The necrosis ratio measured from CE-T1WI increased significantly from 34% in average at baseline to 52.96 and 60.30%, respectively (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining of tumor sections showed a marked reduction in CD31 staining vessels, with microvessel density reduced significantly to 8.71±1.76 and 3.33±1.04, respectively, compared with the vehicle control group (P<0.01). The results of hematology and histopathology showed that PD806 exerted no obvious toxicity during the treatment period. In conclusion, our results indicate that PD806 is an effective and safe vascular disrupting agent.
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Aspirin Enhances Protective Effect of Fish Oil against Thrombosis and Injury-induced Vascular Remodeling.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) is commonly used to prevent ischemic events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), including those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), many patients fail to respond to ASA treatment. Dietary fish oil (FO),containing ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), has anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective properties, such as lowering cholesterol and modulating platelet activity. The objective of the present study is to investigate the potential additional effects of ASA and FO on platelet activity and vascular response to injury.
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Evaluation of Hypericin: Effect of Aggregation on Targeting Biodistribution.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Hypericin (Hy) has shown great promise as a necrosis-avid agent in cancer imaging and therapy. Given the highly hydrophobic and ?-conjugated planarity characteristics, Hy tends to form aggregates. To investigate the effect of aggregation on targeting biodistribution, nonaggregated formulation (Non-Ag), aggregated formulation with overconcentrated Hy in dimethyl sulfoxide (Ag-DMSO) solution, and aggregated formulation in water solution (Ag-water) were selected by fluorescence measurement. They were labeled with (131) I and evaluated for the necrosis affinity in rat model of reperfused hepatic infarction by gamma counting and autoradiography. The radioactivity ratio of necrotic liver/normal liver was 17.1, 7.9, and 6.4 for Non-Ag, Ag-DMSO, and Ag-water, respectively. The accumulation of two aggregated formulations (Ag-DMSO and Ag-water) in organs of mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) was 2.62 ± 0.22 and 3.96 ± 0.30 %ID/g in the lung, and 1.44 ± 0.29 and 1.51 ± 0.23 %ID/g in the spleen, respectively. The biodistribution detected by autoradiography showed the same trend as by gamma counting. In conclusion, the Non-Ag showed better targeting biodistribution and less accumulation in MPS organs than aggregated formulations of Hy. The two aggregated formulations showed significantly lower and higher accumulation in targeting organ and MPS organs, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.
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Therapeutic Results of Abdominoperineal Resection in the Prone Jackknife Position for T3-4 Low Rectal Cancers.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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To evaluate the therapeutic results of abdominoperineal resections in the prone jackknife position for T3-4 low rectal cancers.
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Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well as numerous similar background actions such as scratching head, cell phone use, eating, drinking and so on.
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Elevated levels of circulating histones indicate disease activity in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD).
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Abstract Background: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in children, characterized by acute viral infection accompanying acute inflammatory responses. Circulating histones are leading mediators of the inflammatory processes. This study aimed to elucidate whether circulating histones play a contributory role during HFMD.
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Bioelectricity-assisted partial degradation of linear polyacrylamide in a bioelectrochemical system.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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The wide application of water-soluble linear polyacrylamides (PAMs) can cause serious environmental pollution. Biological treatment of PAMs receives very limited efficiency due to their recalcitrance to the microbial degradation. Here, we show the bioelectrochemical system (BES) can be used as an effective strategy to improve the biodegradation efficiency of PAMs. A linear PAM with viscosity-average molecular weight of 5?×?10(6) was treated in the anodic chamber of BES reactor, and the change of PAM structure during the degradation process was investigated. The anodic bacteria in the BES demonstrated abilities to utilize the PAM as the sole carbon and nitrogen source to generate electricity. Both the anode-attached and planktonic bacteria contributed to the electricity generation, while the anode-attached community exhibited stronger electron transfer ability than the planktonic one. The closed-circuit and open-circuit operations of the BES reactor obtained chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 32.5 and 7.4 %, respectively, implying the generation of bioelectricity could enhance the biodegradation of PAM. Structure analysis suggested the carbon chain of PAM was partially degraded in the BES, producing polymeric products with lower molecular weight. The microbial cleavage of the carbon chain was proposed to start from the "head-to-head" linkages and end with the formation of ether bonds.
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Bone marrow transplantation concurrently reconstitutes donor liver and immune system across host species barrier in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Liver immunopathologic mechanisms during hepatotropic infection, malignant transformation, and autoimmunity are still unclear. Establishing a chimeric mouse with a reconstituted liver and immune system derived from a single donor across species is critical to study regional donor immune responses in recipient liver. Using a strain of mice deficient in tyrosine catabolic enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (fah-/-) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we reconstituted the donor's hepatocytes and immune cells across host species barrier. Syngeneic, allogeneic or even xenogeneic rat BMT rescued most recipient fah-/- mice against liver failure by donor BM-derived FAH+ hepatocytes. Importantly, immune system developed normally in chimeras, and the immune cells together with organ architecture were intact and functional. Thus, donor BM can across host species barrier and concurrently reconstitutes MHC-identical response between immune cells and hepatocytes, giving rise to a new simple and convenient small animal model to study donor's liver immune response in mice.
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Zeolitic metal-organic frameworks based on amino acid.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Two enantiomorphic metal-organic frameworks with zeotype SOD topology have been successfully synthesized from enantiopure L-alanine and D-alanine, respectively, which demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating MOFs that integrate the 4-connected zeotype topologies and homochiral nature by the employment of enantiopure amino acids.
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Possible Role of Raf-1 Kinase in the Development of Cerebral Vasospasm and Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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This study aims to clarify the potential role of Raf-1 kinase in cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Two experimental SAH models in rats, including cisterna magna double injection model for CVS study and prechiasmatic cistern single injection model for EBI study, were performed in this research. As a specific inhibitor of Raf-1, BAY 43-9006 was used in this study. In CVS study, time course study showed that the basilar artery exhibited vasospasm after SAH and became most severe at day 5, and the phosphorylation of Raf-1 had the same trends, while both vasospasm and the phosphorylation of Raf-1 induced by SAH were inhibited by BAY 43-9006 treatment. In addition, BAY 43-9006 treatment significantly reversed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the activation of NF-?B induced by SAH and decreased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of IL-6 and IL-1?. In EBI study, BAY 43-9006 treatment significantly suppressed the brain injury induced by SAH. Besides, BAY 43-9006 inhibited the phosphorylation of Raf-1 and ERK1/2; decreased the protein levels of COX-2, VEGF, and MMP-9; and reversed the activation of NF-?B induced by SAH. These results demonstrate that Raf-1 kinase contributes to CVS and EBI after SAH by enhancing the activation of the Raf-1/ERK1/2 and Raf-1/NF-?B signaling pathways, and that the inhibition of these pathways might offer new treatment strategies for CVS and EBI.
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The structural basis of ATP as an allosteric modulator.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is generally regarded as a substrate for energy currency and protein modification. Recent findings uncovered the allosteric function of ATP in cellular signal transduction but little is understood about this critical behavior of ATP. Through extensive analysis of ATP in solution and proteins, we found that the free ATP can exist in the compact and extended conformations in solution, and the two different conformational characteristics may be responsible for ATP to exert distinct biological functions: ATP molecules adopt both compact and extended conformations in the allosteric binding sites but conserve extended conformations in the substrate binding sites. Nudged elastic band simulations unveiled the distinct dynamic processes of ATP binding to the corresponding allosteric and substrate binding sites of uridine monophosphate kinase, and suggested that in solution ATP preferentially binds to the substrate binding sites of proteins. When the ATP molecules occupy the allosteric binding sites, the allosteric trigger from ATP to fuel allosteric communication between allosteric and functional sites is stemmed mainly from the triphosphate part of ATP, with a small number from the adenine part of ATP. Taken together, our results provide overall understanding of ATP allosteric functions responsible for regulation in biological systems.
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Molecular characterization of the cathepsin B of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Cathepsin B is an enzymatic protein belonging to the peptidase C1 family. It is involved in diverse physiological and pathological functions that include immune response. In this study, we identified and characterized a cathepsin B homolog (SmCatB) from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). SmCatB is composed of 330 amino acid residues and possesses typical domain architecture of cathepsin B, which contains a propeptide region and a cysteine protease domain, and the latter processes four conserved residues (Q101, C107, H277, and N297) in the active site. SmCatB shares 80.6-87.6 % overall sequence identities with the cathepsin B of a number of teleost. SmCatB expression was detected in a wide range of tissues and upregulated by bacterial infection in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant SmCatB (rSmCatB-WT) purified from Escherichia coli exhibited apparent protease activity, which was optimal at 50 °C and pH 5.5. Compared to rSmCatB-WT, the mutant proteins rSmCatB-C107S, rSmCatB-H277A, and rSmCatB-N297A, which bear C107S, H277A, and N297A mutations, respectively, were significantly reduced in protease activity, with the highest reduction observed with rSmCatB-N297A. These results indicate that SmCatB is a bioactive protease that depends on the conserved structural features and that SmCatB is involved in pathogen-induced immune response.
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Abnormal Causal Connectivity by Structural Deficits in First-Episode, Drug-Naive Schizophrenia at Rest.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Anatomical deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) alterations in prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuit have been implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. However, the effect of structural deficits in schizophrenia on causal connectivity of this circuit remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine the causal connectivity biased by structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 49 first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis. The causal connectivity of the integrated prefrontal-thalamic (limbic)-cerebellar (sensorimotor) circuit was partly affected by structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia as follows: (1) unilateral prefrontal-sensorimotor connectivity abnormalities (increased driving effect from the left medial prefrontal cortex [MPFC] to the sensorimotor regions); (2) bilateral limbic-sensorimotor connectivity abnormalities (increased driving effect from the right anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] to the sensorimotor regions and decreased feedback from the sensorimotor regions to the right ACC); and (3) bilateral increased and decreased causal connectivities among the sensorimotor regions. Some correlations between the gray matter volume of the seeds, along with their causal effects and clinical variables (duration of untreated psychosis and symptom severity), were also observed in the patients. The findings indicated the partial effects of structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia on the prefrontal-thalamic (limbic)-cerebellar (sensorimotor) circuit. Schizophrenia may reinforce the driving connectivities from the left MPFC or right ACC to the sensorimotor regions and may disrupt bilateral causal connectivities among the sensorimotor regions.
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Size-selective crystallization of homochiral camphorate metal-organic frameworks for lanthanide separation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Lanthanides (Ln) are a group of important elements usually found in nature as mixtures. Their separation is essential for technological applications but is made challenging by their subtly different properties. Here we report that crystallization of homochiral camphorate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is highly sensitive to ionic radii of lanthanides and can be used to selectively crystallize a lanthanide element into predesigned MOFs. Two series of camphorate MOFs were synthesized with acetate (Type 1 with early lanthanides La-Dy) or formate (Type 2 with late lanthanides Tb-Lu and Y) as the auxiliary ligand, respectively. The Ln coordination environment in each type exhibits selectivity for Ln(3+) of different sizes, which could form the basis for a new cost-effective method for Ln separation.
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A new approach towards zeolitic tetrazolate-imidazolate frameworks (ZTIFs) with uncoordinated N-heteroatom sites for high CO2 uptake.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Successful development of a new synthetic approach towards zeolitic tetrazolate-imidazolate frameworks (ZTIFs) via combining tetrazolates into the zinc-imidazolate frameworks leads to new ZTIF materials (ZTIF-1 and ZTIF-2) with zeolite-type topologies and uncoordinated N-heteroatom sites, which exhibit high CO2 uptake capacity.
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Relative position finite-time coordinated tracking control of spacecraft formation without velocity measurements.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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This paper investigates finite-time relative position coordinated tracking problem by output feedback for spacecraft formation flying without velocity measurement. By employing homogeneous system theory, a finite-time relative position coordinated tracking controller by state feedback is firstly developed, where the desired time-varying trajectory given in advance can be tracked by the formation. Then, to address the problem of lack of velocity measurements, a finite-time output feedback controller is proposed by involving a novel filter to recover unknown velocity information in a finite time. Rigorous proof shows that the proposed control law ensures global stability and guarantees the position of spacecraft formation to track a time-varying reference in finite time. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller.
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Hormesis Effects of Amoxicillin on Growth and Cellular Biosynthesis of Microcystis aeruginosa at Different Nitrogen Levels.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Coexisting antibiotic contaminants have potential to regulate cyanobacterial bloom, and the regulation is likely affected by nitrogen supply. A typical cyanobaterium Microcystis aeruginosa was cultured with 0.05-50 mg L(-1) of nitrogen and exposed to 100-600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin for 7 days. Algal growth was not significantly (p?>?0.05) affected by amoxicillin at the lowest nitrogen level of 0.05 mg L(-1), stimulated by 600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin at a moderate nitrogen level of 0.5 mg L(-1) and enhanced by 100-600 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin at higher nitrogen levels of 5-50 mg L(-1). Amoxicillin affected chlorophyll-a, psbA gene, and rbcL gene in a similar manner as algal growth, suggesting a regulation of algal growth via the photosynthesis system. At each nitrogen level, synthesis of protein and polysaccharides as well as production and release of microcystins (MCs) increased in response to environmental stress caused by amoxicillin. Expression of ntcA and mcyB showed a positive correlation with the total content of MCs under exposure to amoxicillin at nitrogen levels of 0.05-50 mg L(-1). Nitrogen and amoxicillin significantly (p?
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Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of glaucocalyxin A derivatives as potential anticancer agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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A series of Mannich base type derivatives of Glaucocalyxin A (GLA) were designed and prepared. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against six tumor cell lines (SMMC-7721, B16, SGC-7901, A549, KB, HL-60). Most compounds exhibited potent antiproliferative effects with low micromolar IC50 values. Compound 1 with para methyl benzyl amine moiety and compound 16 with cyclohexylamine moiety displayed the highest inhibition efficacy. Significantly, the cytotoxicity of compound 1 was much lower than GLA against the normal human liver cell (HL-7702). The in vitro stability assay revealed that transformation of GLA to Mannich base type derivatives improved the compound stability in rat plasma. Finally, decomposition product analysis supported that compound 1 could act as a prodrug and release GLA in the intracellular environment.
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Trefoil factor 3 promotes metastatic seeding and predicts poor survival outcome of patients with mammary carcinoma.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Recurrence or early metastasis remains the predominant cause of mortality in patients with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) mammary carcinoma (MC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initial progression of ER+?MC to metastasis remains poorly understood. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is an estrogen-responsive oncogene in MC. Herein, we provide evidence for a functional role of TFF3 in metastatic progression of ER+?MC.
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Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (p < 0.001). A total of 48.75% of patients with bacterial meningitis received antibiotic >24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.
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Gene ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses of genes related to age-related macular degeneration.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Identifying disease genes is one of the most important topics in biomedicine and may facilitate studies on the mechanisms underlying disease. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a serious eye disease; it typically affects older adults and results in a loss of vision due to retina damage. In this study, we attempt to develop an effective method for distinguishing AMD-related genes. Gene ontology and KEGG enrichment analyses of known AMD-related genes were performed, and a classification system was established. In detail, each gene was encoded into a vector by extracting enrichment scores of the gene set, including it and its direct neighbors in STRING, and gene ontology terms or KEGG pathways. Then certain feature-selection methods, including minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection, were adopted to extract key features for the classification system. As a result, 720 GO terms and 11 KEGG pathways were deemed the most important factors for predicting AMD-related genes.
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Decreased default-mode network homogeneity in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients at rest.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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The dysconnectivity hypothesis proposes that abnormal resting state connectivity within the default-mode network (DMN) plays a key role in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about alterations of the network homogeneity (NH) of the DMN in unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Unaffected siblings have unique advantages as subjects of neuroimaging studies independent of the clinical and treatment issues that complicate studies of the patients themselves. In the present study, we investigated NH of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia. Participants comprised 46 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls who underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Automated NH and group independent component analysis (ICA) approaches were used to analyze the data. Compared with healthy controls, the unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients showed decreased DMN homogeneity in the left precuneus. No significantly increased DMN homogeneity was found in the sibling group relative to the control group. Our results suggest that there is decreased NH of the DMN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and indicate that the alternative perspective of examining the DMN NH in patients? siblings may improve understanding of the nature of schizophrenia.
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Cardioprotective effects of oxymatrine on isoproterenol-induced heart failure via regulation of DDAH/ADMA metabolism pathway in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The present study was designed to investigate whether oxymatrine could attenuate isoproterenol-induced heart failure via regulation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) metabolism in rats. Heart failure model was established by once daily subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (5mg/kg/d) to rats for 7 days. Simultaneously, oral administration of oxymatrine (25, 50 and 100mg/kg/d, respectively) was started from day 1 to day 7, or with vehicle as corresponding controls. After continuous preventive administration of oxymatrine for 7 days, significant isoproterenol-induced heart failure characterized by hypertrophy and dysfunction of left ventricular, and elevation of brain natruretic peptide (BNP, a heart failure biomarker) and cardiac troponin I (cTn-I, a cardiac injury biomarker) was observed. Preventive oxymatrine significantly ameliorated the cardiac hypertrophy, improved the left ventricular dysfunction and reduced the increased BNP and cTn-I in serum of isoproterenol-treated rats. And obvious changes with decrease of systolic blood pressure and increase of heart rate were present in isoproterenol group and normalized by oxymatrine. Besides, prevention with oxymatrine significantly up-regulated the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) expression, which was followed by decreased serum ADMA, but it had no effect on protein arginine methyltransferase1 (PRMT1) expression that is up-regulated in isoproterenol-induced heart failure rats. These results manifested that preventive oxymatrine could ameliorate the hypertrophy and dysfunction of left ventricle of rats with heart failure, which is attributed to modulation of DDAH/ADMA metabolism pathway by oxymatrine.
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A retrospective review of patients with urothelial cancer in 3,370 recipients after renal transplantation: a single-center experience.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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To summarize the diagnosis, surgical intervention and postoperative management of patients with urothelial cancer (UC) after renal transplants (RTx).
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Nerve-Guided Laparoscopic Total Mesorectal Excision for Distal Rectal Cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Urogenital dysfunctions are well-recognized problems after rectal cancer surgery and are often due to autonomic nerve damage. Although following holy planes during total mesorectal excision (TME) reduces the possibility of damage to the autonomic nerve fibers, these could still be affected in some critical areas.1 (,) 2 To improve the quality of surgery and prevent nerve damage, accurate intraoperative anatomical orientation of autonomic nerve is essential.3 Thanks to advancement of the high-definition laparoscopic technology, even the finest nerve fibers deep in the pelvic cavity can be identified through illumination and magnification.4 We aim to present a surgical technique of using the autonomic nerves as landmarks to guide laparoscopic TME for distal rectal cancer, with the purpose of preventing autonomic nerve damage to the largest extent.
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A reciprocal cross design to map the genetic architecture of complex traits in apomictic plants.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Many higher plants of economic and biological importance undergo apomixis in which the maternal tissue of the ovule forms a seed, without experiencing meiosis and fertilization. This feature of apomixis has made it difficult to perform linkage mapping which relies on meiotic recombination. Here, we describe a computational model for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex traits in apomictic plants. The model is founded on the mixture model-based likelihood in which maternal genotypes are dissolved into two possible components generated by meiotic and apomictic processes, respectively. The EM algorithm was implemented to discern meiotic and apomictic genotypes and, therefore, allow the marker-QTL linkage relationship to be estimated. By capitalizing on reciprocal crosses, the model is renovated to estimate and test imprinting effects of QTLs, providing a better gateway to characterize the genetic architecture of complex traits. The model was validated through computer simulation and further demonstrated for its usefulness by analyzing a real data for an apomictic woody plant. The model has for the first time provided a unique tool for genetic mapping in apomictic plants.
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Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) deficiency decreases latency of tumorigenesis and increases metastasis in a murine genetic model of prostate cancer.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) has been shown to act as a metastasis suppressor gene in multiple models of cancer. Loss of RKIP expression promotes invasion and metastasis in cell transplantation animal models. However, it is unknown if RKIP expression can impact the progression of cancer in an autochthonous model of cancer. The goal of this study was to determine if loss of RKIP expression in a genetic mouse model of prostate cancer (PCa) impacts metastasis.
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Laser gyro temperature compensation using modified RBFNN.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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To overcome the effect of temperature on laser gyro zero bias and to stabilize the laser gyro output, this study proposes a modified radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) based on a Kohonen network and an orthogonal least squares (OLS) algorithm. The modified method, which combines the pattern classification capability of the Kohonen network and the optimal choice capacity of OLS, avoids the random selection of RBFNN centers and improves the compensation accuracy of the RBFNN. It can quickly and accurately identify the effect of temperature on laser gyro zero bias. A number of comparable identification and compensation tests on a variety of temperature-changing situations are completed using the multiple linear regression (MLR), RBFNN and modified RBFNN methods. The test results based on several sets of gyro output in constant and changing temperature conditions demonstrate that the proposed method is able to overcome the effect of randomly selected RBFNN centers. The running time of the method is about 60 s shorter than that of traditional RBFNN under the same test conditions, which suggests that the calculations are reduced. Meanwhile, the compensated gyro output accuracy using the modified method is about 7.0 × 10-4 °/h; comparatively, the traditional RBFNN is about 9.0 × 10-4 °/h and the MLR is about 1.4 × 10-3 °/h.
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The prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation in heart failure with a preserved and reduced left ventricular function: insights from a meta-analysis.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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The prognostic significance of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with heart failure remains inconclusive.
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Association between the Hypomethylation of Osteopontin and Integrin ?3 Promoters and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype Switching in Great Saphenous Varicose Veins.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Lower extremity varicose veins are a common condition in vascular surgery and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intima is a significant pathological feature of varicosity. However, the pathogenesis of varicose veins is not fully understood. Osteopontin (OPN) could promote the migration and adhesion of VSMCs through the cell surface receptor integrin ?3 and the cooperation of OPN and integrin ?3 is involved in many vascular diseases. However, the role of OPN and integrin ?3 in varicosity remains unclear. In the current study, we found that the methylation levels in the promoter regions of OPN and integrin ?3 genes in the VSMCs of varicose veins are reduced and the protein expression of OPN and integrin ?3 are increased, compared with normal veins. Furthermore, it was observed that VSMCs in the neointima of varicose veins were transformed into the synthetic phenotype. Collectively, hypomethylation of the promoter regions for OPN and integrin ?3 genes may increase the expression of these genes in varicosity, which is closely related to VSMC phenotype switching. Hypomethylation of the promoter regions for OPN and integrin ?3 genes may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of varicosity.
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A Novel Atherothrombotic Model of Ischemic Stroke Induced by Injection of Collagen into the Cerebral Vasculature.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Most ischemic strokes in humans are caused by ruptured arterial atheroma, which activate platelets and produce thrombi that occlude cerebral vessels.
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Propofol exerts anti-hepatocellular carcinoma by microvesicle-mediated transfer of miR-142-3p from macrophage to cancer cells.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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We previously confirmed that propofol directly inhibited the viability, proliferation, and invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the anti-HCC effects of propofol.
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Regulation of T cell proliferation by JMJD6 and PDGF-BB during chronic hepatitis B infection.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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T cell functional exhaustion during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may contribute to the failed viral clearance; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is a potential regulator of T cell proliferation during chronic HBV infection. The expression of JMJD6 was reduced in T lymphocytes in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, and this reduction in JMJD6 expression was associated with impaired T cell proliferation. Moreover, silencing JMJD6 expression in primary human T cells impaired T cell proliferation. We found that JMJD6 promotes T cell proliferation by suppressing the mRNA expression of CDKN3. Furthermore, we have identified platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as a regulator of JMJD6 expression. PDGF-BB downregulates JMJD6 expression and inhibits the proliferation of human primary T cells. Importantly, the expression levels of JMJD6 and PDGF-BB in lymphocytes from CHB patients were correlated with the degree of liver damage and the outcome of chronic HBV infection treatment. Our results demonstrate that PDGF-BB and JMJD6 regulate T cell function during chronic HBV infection and may provide insights for the treatment strategies for CHB patients.
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Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass through pretreatment with plasma electrolysis.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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A comprehensive research on plasma electrolysis as pretreatment method for water hyacinth (WH) was performed based on lignin content, crystalline structure, surface property, and enzymatic hydrolysis. A large number of active particles, such as HO and H2O2, generated by plasma electrolysis could decompose the lignin of the biomass samples and reduce the crystalline index. An efficient pretreatment process made use of WH pretreated at a load of 48 wt% (0.15-0.18 mm) in FeCl3 solution for 30 min at 450 V. After the pretreatment, the sugar yield of WH was increased by 126.5% as compared with unpretreated samples.
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Protein structure prediction provides comparable performance to crystallographic structures in docking-based virtual screening.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Structure based virtual screening has largely been limited to protein targets for which either an experimental structure is available or a strongly homologous template exists so that a high-resolution model can be constructed. The performance of state of the art protein structure predictions in virtual screening in systems where only weakly homologous templates are available is largely untested. Using the challenging DUD database of structural decoys, we show here that even using templates with only weak sequence homology (<30% sequence identity) structural models can be constructed by I-TASSER which achieve comparable enrichment rates to using the experimental bound crystal structure in the majority of the cases studied. For 65% of the targets, the I-TASSER models, which are constructed essentially in the apo conformations, reached 70% of the virtual screening performance of using the holo-crystal structures. A correlation was observed between the success of I-TASSER in modeling the global fold and local structures in the binding pockets of the proteins versus the relative success in virtual screening. The virtual screening performance can be further improved by the recognition of chemical features of the ligand compounds. These results suggest that the combination of structure-based docking and advanced protein structure modeling methods should be a valuable approach to the large-scale drug screening and discovery studies, especially for the proteins lacking crystallographic structures.
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HdhCTL1 is a novel C-type lectin of abalone Haliotis discus hannai that agglutinates Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate recognition proteins, which play important roles in the innate immunity of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized a C-type lectin (named HdhCTL1) from Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. HdhCTL1 is composed of 176 amino acid residues and shares low (23.9%) identity with the known CTL of abalone. HdhCTL1 possesses a putative signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) typical of CTLs. The CRD of HdhCTL1 contains four disulfide bond-forming cysteine residues that are highly conserved in CTLs. HdhCTL1 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues and expressed abundantly in the digestive gland. Experimental infection with the bacterial pathogen Vibrio anguillarum significantly upregulated HdhCTL1 expression in a time-dependent manner. Recombinant HdhCTL1 (rHdhCTL1) purified from Escherichia coli was able to agglutinate Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The agglutinating ability of rHdhCTL1 was abolished in the presence of mannose. These results suggest that HdhCTL1 is a novel CTL which is likely to be involved in host defense against bacterial infection.
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Programmed cell death 2 protein induces gastric cancer cell growth arrest at the early S phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Programmed cell death 2 (PDCD2) is a highly conserved nuclear protein, and aberrant PDCD2 expression alters cell apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate PDCD2 expression in gastric cancer. Tissue specimens from 34 gastric cancer patients were collected for analysis of PDCD2 expression using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and qRT-PCR. Gastric cancer cell lines (a p53-mutated MKN28 line and a wild-type p53 MKN45 line) were used to assess the effects of PDCD2 overexpression. p53-/- nude mice were used to investigate the effect of PDCD2 on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin carcinogenesis. The data showed that PDCD2 expression was reduced in gastric cancer tissue specimens, and loss of PDCD2 expression was associated with the poor survival of patients. PDCD2 expression induced gastric cancer cell growth arrest at the early S phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis. The antitumor effects of PDCD2 expression were dependent on p53 expression in gastric cancer cells. Moreover, PDCD2 expression inhibited activity of the ATM/Chk1/2/p53 signaling pathway. In addition, PDCD2 expression suppressed UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in p53+/+ nude mice, but not in p53-/- mice. The data from the present study demonstrated that loss of PDCD2 expression could contribute to gastric cancer development and progression and that PDCD2-induced gastric cancer cell growth arrest at the early S phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis are p53-dependent.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.