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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multicolor imaging and the anticancer effect of a bifunctional silica nanosystem based on the complex of graphene quantum dots and hypocrellin A.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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An effective theranostic platform based on porous silica nanoparticles encapsulated with the complex of a photodynamic anticancer drug and graphene quantum dots (GQDs), with the bifunction of multicolor imaging and satisfactory photo-induced anticancer activity, was successfully designed and prepared for in vitro photodynamic therapy (PDT) of superficial cancer.
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Polypeptide-Functionalized NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) Nanoparticles: Red-Emission Biomarkers for High Quality Bioimaging Using a 915 nm Laser.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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We prepared poly-l-aspartic acid (PASP) functionalized NaYF4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP-PASP). These nanoparticles can give red upconversion emission under excitation at 915 nm, whose wavelength of emission and excitation is located in the optical window of biological tissue. Dynamic laser scatting and zeta potentials of UCNP-PASP were used to study their stabilities in different aqueous solution. To understand the mechanism of the red emission of UCNP-PASP, photoluminescence spectra of samples were recorded before and after modification with PASP, poly acrylic acid (PAA), and poly(ether imide) (PEI) ligands under excitation at 915 and 980 nm, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the UCNP-PASP was also examined on a A549 cell and KB cell by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Moreover, the PASP-functionalized UCNP was employed as a potential biomarker for in vitro and in vivo experiments of upconversion luminescence imaging.
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Inhibition of the Cancer Stem Cells-Like Properties by Arsenic Trioxide, Involved in the Attenuation of Endogenous Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signal.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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The elevation of cancer stem cells (CSCs)-like properties is involved in the initiation and progression of various human cancers. Current standard practices for treatment of cancers are less than satisfactory because of CSCs-mediated recurrence. For this reason, targeting the CSCs or the cancer cells with CSCs-like properties has become the new approach for the cancer treatments. In addition to treating leukemia, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) also suppresses other solid tumors. However, the roles of As2O3 in the regulation of CSCs-like properties remain largely uninvestigated. Here by using sphere formation assay, luciferase reporter assay, and some other molecular biology approaches, we found that As2O3 attenuated the CSCs-like properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Briefly, in HCC cells and mice xenograft models, As2O3 improved the expression of miR-491 by DNA-demethylation. MiR-491, which targeted the SMAD3-3'-UTR, decreased the expressions of SMAD3, and inhibited the CSCs-like properties in HCC cells. Knockdown of either miR-491 or SMAD3 attenuated the As2O3-induced inhibition of endogenous transforming growth factor beta signal and the CSCs-like properties. Further, in HCC patients, miR-491 is inversely correlated with the expressions of SMAD3, CD133, and the metastasis/recurrence outcome. By understanding a novel mechanism whereby As2O3 inhibits the CSCs-like properties in HCC, our study would help in the design of future strategies of developing As2O3 as a potential HCC chemopreventive agent when used alone or in combination with other current drugs.
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Desmocollin?2 affects the adhesive strength and cytoskeletal arrangement in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Desmocollin?2 (DSC2), a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the desmosomal cadherin family, has been found to be differentially expressed in several types of cancer and to be involved in tumor progression. The tumor metastasis suppressing property of DSC2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been described, however, its contribution to cell cohesion in ESCC remains to be elucidated. In the present study, using RNA interference (RNAi), the expression of DSC2 was silenced in SHEEC and KYSE510 cells. Hanging drop and fragmentation assays were performed to investigate the role of DSC2 in cell?cell adhesion. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy were used to analyze the expression and localization of cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal arrangement. The results demonstrated that DSC2 knock down by RNAi caused defects in cell?cell adhesion and a concomitant reduction in desmosomal protein expression and adherens junction molecule distribution. A decrease in the expression of DSC2 caused an increase in free ??catenin levels, thus promoting its recruitment to the adherens junction complex. In addition, the RNAi?mediated inhibition of DSC2 led to keratin intermediate filament retraction and filamentous?actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Taken together, these data support our previous findings and the proposal that DSC2 may be involved in the regulation of the invasive behavior of cells by a mechanism that controls cell?cell attachment and cytoskeleton rearrangement.
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Lamin A/C proteins in the spermatid acroplaxome are essential in mouse spermiogenesis.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Spermiogenesis is a complex process of terminal differentiation that is necessary to produce mature sperm. Using protein expression profiles of mouse and human testes generated from our previous studies, we chose to examine the actions of lamin A/C in the current investigation. Lamin A and lamin C are isoforms of the A-type lamins that are encoded by the LMNA gene. Our results showed that lamin A/C was expressed in the mouse testis throughout the different stages of spermatogenesis and in mature sperm. Lamin A/C was also expressed in mouse haploid germ cells and was found to be localized to the acroplaxome in spermiogenesis, from round spermatids until mature spermatozoa. The decreased expression of lamin A/C following injections of siRNA against Lmna caused a significant increase in caudal sperm head abnormalities when compared with negative controls. These abnormalities were characterized by increased fragmentation of the acrosome and abnormal vesicles, which failed to fuse to the developing acrosome. This fragmentation also caused significant alterations in nuclear elongation and acrosome formation. Furthermore, we found that lamin A/C interacted with the microtubule plus-end-tracking protein CLIP170. These results suggest that lamin A/C is critical for proper structural and functional development of the sperm acrosome and head shape.
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Modulation of platelet activation and thrombus formation using a pan-PI3K inhibitor S14161.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is critical in modulating platelet functions. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of S14161, a recently identified pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, on platelet activation and thrombus formation. Results showed that S14161 inhibited human platelet aggregation induced by collagen, thrombin, U46619, and ADP in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric studies showed that S14161 inhibited convulxin- or thrombin-induced P-selectin expression and fibrinogen binding of single platelet. S14161 also inhibited platelet spreading on fibrinogen and clot retraction, processes mediated by outside-in signaling. Using a microfluidic chamber we demonstrated that S14161 decreased platelet adhesion on collagen-coated surface by about 80%. Western blot showed that S14161 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt at both Ser473 and Thr308 sites, and GSK3? at Ser9 in response to collagen, thrombin, or U46619. Comparable studies showed that S14161 has a higher potential bioavailability than LY294002, a prototypical inhibitor of pan-class I PI3K. Finally, the effects of S14161 on thrombus formation in vivo were measured using a ferric chloride-induced carotid artery injury model in mice. The intraperitoneal injection of S14161 (2 mg/kg) to male C57BL/6 mice significantly extended the first occlusion time (5.05 ± 0.99 min, n = 9) compared to the vehicle controls (3.72 ± 0.95 min, n = 8) (P<0.05), but did not prolong the bleeding time (P>0.05). Taken together, our data showed that S14161 inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation without significant bleeding tendency and toxicity, and considering its potential higher bioavailability, it may be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the prevention of thrombotic disorders.
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Inhibition of TGF-?/SMAD3/NF-?B signaling by microRNA-491 is involved in arsenic trioxide-induced anti-angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Current standard practices for treatment of HCC are less than satisfactory because of metastasis and recurrence, which are primarily attributed to the angiogenesis. So, the anti-angiogenesis treatment has become the new approach for HCC therapy. In addition to treating leukemia, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) also suppresses other solid tumors, including HCC. However, the roles of As2O3 in the angiogenesis potential of HCC cells remain unclear. In our present study, As2O3 attenuated the angiogenic ability by the microRNA-491 (miR-491)-mediated inhibition of TGF-?/SMAD3/NF-?B signal pathway in MHCC97H and MHCC97L cells. Briefly, in these cells, As2O3 improved the expression of miR-491 via DNA-demethylation; miR-491, which targeted the SMAD3-3'-UTR, decreased the expression/function of SMAD3, leading to the inactivation of NF-?B/IL-6/STAT-3 signaling; knockdown of miR-491 abolished the As2O3-induced inhibitions of the TGF-?/SMAD3/NF-?B pathway, the VEGF secretion, and the angiogenesis. By understanding a novel mechanism whereby As2O3 inhibits the angiogenic potential in HCC cells, our study would help in the design of future strategies of developing As2O3 as a potential chemopreventive agent when used alone or in combination with other current anticancer drugs.
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Enhanced dual contrast agent, Co(2+)-doped NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+) nanorods, for near infrared-to-near infrared upconversion luminescence and magnetic resonance imaging.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Dual-modality imaging with magnetic resonance (MR) and upconversion luminescence (UCL) is a promising technique for molecular imaging in biomedical research. Multifunctional lanthanide-based nanoparticles have been widely investigated as agents for contrast enhanced MR and fluorescence imaging. However, the use of rare earth fluoride nanoparticles for dual-modality imaging of T2-weighted MR and UCL is rarely reported. We find that NaYF4:Yb(3+),Tm(3+),Co(2+) (MUC) nanorods can be applied as a high-performance dual contrast agent for both T2-weighted MR and UCL dual-modality imaging. After modification with 6-O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCC), MUC nanorods can be endocytosed by cells without showing signs of cytotoxicity. High-quality UCL images of living cells incubated with MUC-OCC nanorods were acquired on a near-infrared (NIR) confocal microscopy under the excitation at 980 nm. Moreover, MUC-OCC nanorods display high transverse (r2) relaxivities in vitro. The application of low-dose MUC-OCC nanorods for NIR-to-NIR UCL and MR dual-modality in vivo imaging was also carried out successfully. In addition, the toxicity of MUC-OCC nanorods was evaluated by MTT assay, serological tests and histological analysis of visceral organs.
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Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta/SMAD signal by MiR-155 is involved in arsenic trioxide-induced anti-angiogenesis in prostate cancer.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Prostate cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Current practices for treatment of prostate cancer are less than satisfactory because of metastasis and recurrence, which are primarily attributed to angiogenesis. Hence, anti-angiogenesis treatment is becoming a promising new approach for prostate cancer therapy. In addition to treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) suppresses other solid tumors, including prostate cancer. However, the effects of As2 O3 on angiogenesis in prostate cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, As2 O3 attenuated angiogenic ability through microRNA-155 (miR-155)-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?)/SMAD signal pathway in human prostate cancer PC-3 and LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo. Briefly, As2 O3 inhibited the activations/expressions of both TGF?-induced and endogenous SMAD2/3. Furthermore, As2 O3 improved the expression of miR-155 via DNA-demethylation. MiR-155, which targeted the SMAD2-3'UTR, decreased the expression and function of SMAD2. Knockdown of miR-155 abolished the As2 O3 -induced inhibitions of the TGF-?/SMAD2 signaling, the vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and angiogenesis. Through understanding a novel mechanism whereby As2 O3 inhibits angiogenic potential of prostate cancer cells, our study would help in the development of As2 O3 as a potential chemopreventive agent when used alone or in combination with other current anticancer drugs.
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Dopamine fluorescent sensors based on polypyrrole/graphene quantum dots core/shell hybrids.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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A facilely prepared fluorescent sensor was developed for dopamine (DA) detection with high sensitivity and selectivity based on polypyrrole/graphene quantum dots (PPy/GQDs) core/shell hybrids. The composites exhibit strong fluorescence emission, which is dramatically enhanced as high as three times than pristine GQDs. The prepared sensor allows a highly sensitive determination of DA by fluorescent intensity decreasing with the addition of DA and presents a good linearity in range of 5-8000nM with the detection limit of 10pM (S/N=3). Furthermore, the application of the proposed approach have been demonstrated in real samples and showed promise in diagnostic purposes.
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Removal of total cyanide in coking wastewater during a coagulation process: significance of organic polymers.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Whether a cationic organic polymer can remove more total cyanide (TCN) than a non-ionic organic polymer during the same flocculation system has not been reported previously. In this study, the effects of organic polymers with different charge density on the removal mechanisms of TCN in coking wastewater are investigated by polyferric sulfate (PFS) with a cationic organic polymer (PFS-C) or a non-ionic polymer (PFS-N). The coagulation experiments results show that residual concentrations of TCN (Fe(CN)6(3-)) after PFS-C flocculation (TCN < 0.2 mg/L) are much lower than that after PFS-N precipitation. This can be attributed to the different TCN removal mechanisms of the individual organic polymers. To investigate the roles of organic polymers, physical and structural characteristics of the flocs are analyzed by FT-IR, XPS, TEM and XRD. Owing to the presence of N+ in PFS-C, Fe(CN)6(3-) and negative flocs (Fe(CN)6(3-) adsorbed on ferric hydroxides) can be removed via charge neutralization and electrostatic patch flocculation by the cationic organic polymer. However, non-ionic N in PFS-N barely reacts with cyanides through sweeping or bridging, which indicates that the non-ionic polymer has little influence on TCN removal.
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Hemocompatibility and anti-biofouling property improvement of poly(ethylene terephthalate) via self-polymerization of dopamine and covalent graft of lysine.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we used self-polymerized dopamine to form a thin and surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) sheet, followed by covalently grafting lysine (Lys) to improve hemocompatibility and anti-biofouling property. The obtained surfaces were characterized by water contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The results of platelet adhesion and protein adsorption tests showed that Lys-immobilized PET was endowed with improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. Cell assay results showed that PET-g-Lys surface could greatly inhibit NIH 3T3 cell adhesion. These works provide a facile hemocompatible and anti-fouling surface for biomedical applications.
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Self-assembly of supramolecularly engineered polymers and their biomedical applications.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Noncovalent interactions provide a flexible method of engineering various chemical entities with tailored properties. Specific noncovalent interactions between functionalized small molecules, macromolecules or both of them bearing complementary binding sites can be used to engineer supramolecular complexes that display unique structure and properties of polymers, which can be defined as supramolecularly engineered polymers. Due to their dynamic tunable structures and interesting physical/chemical properties, supramolecularly engineered polymers have recently received more and more attention from both academia and industry. In this feature article, we summarize the recent progress in the self-assembly of supramolecularly engineered polymers as well as their biomedical applications. In view of different molecular building units, the supramolecularly engineered polymers can be classified into the following three major types: supramolecularly engineered polymers built by small molecules, supramolecularly engineered polymers built by small molecules and macromolecules, and supramolecularly engineered polymers built by macromolecules, which possess distinct morphologies, definite architectures and specific functions. Owing to the reversible nature of the noncovalent interactions, the supramolecularly engineered polymers have exhibited unique features or advantages in molecular self-assembly, for example, facile preparation and functionalization, controllable morphologies and structures, dynamic self-assembly processes, adjustable performance, and so on. Furthermore, the self-assembled supramolecular structures hold great potential as promising candidates in various biomedical fields, including bioimaging, drug delivery, gene transfection, protein delivery, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Such developments in the self-assembly of supramolecularly engineered polymers and their biomedical applications greatly promote the interdiscipline research among supramolecular chemistry, polymer materials, biomedicine, nano-science and technology.
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Functional Supramolecular Polymers for Biomedical Applications.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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As a novel class of dynamic and non-covalent polymers, supramolecular polymers not only display specific structural and physicochemical properties, but also have the ability to undergo reversible changes of structure, shape, and function in response to diverse external stimuli, making them promising candidates for widespread applications ranging from academic research to industrial fields. By an elegant combination of dynamic/reversible structures with exceptional functions, functional supramolecular polymers are attracting increasing attention in various fields. In particular, functional supramolecular polymers offer several unique advantages, including inherent degradable polymer backbones, smart responsiveness to various biological stimuli, and the ease for the incorporation of multiple biofunctionalities (e.g., targeting and bioactivity), thereby showing great potential for a wide range of applications in the biomedical field. In this Review, the trends and representative achievements in the design and synthesis of supramolecular polymers with specific functions are summarized, as well as their wide-ranging biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, protein delivery, bio-imaging and diagnosis, tissue engineering, and biomimetic chemistry. These achievements further inspire persistent efforts in an emerging interdisciplin-ary research area of supramolecular chemistry, polymer science, material science, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology.
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A chitosan-Au-hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles-based antifouling immunosensor for sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Analysts are always interested in finding new functional nanomaterials and devices with good properties for electrochemical sensor applications. In this paper, hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA NPs) were synthesized and combined with chitosan wrapped around Au nanoparticles (CS-Au NPs) to prepare a novel and sensitive electrochemical immunosensor by adsorption of carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) on the (HBPE-CA)/CS-Au NPs modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). Under the optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor displayed a good amperometric response to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Moreover, based on the antibiofouling properties, the immunosensor could be used for the direct detection of CEA in whole blood, and exhibited a wide detection range (1-10(7) fg mL(-1)), and a low detection limit of 0.251 fg mL(-1) (signal/noise = 3). Control experiments were also carried out by using ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), human immunoglobulin G (IgG), BSA and glucose in the absence of CEA. The good stability and repeatability of this immunosensor were also proven. Importantly, the results of the detection of clinical whole blood specimens with the proposed immunosensor showed good consistency with the data determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples. Furthermore, the developed immunosensor could provide a promising immunoassay strategy for clinical applications, since the values we measured in whole blood directly are likely closer to the real values.
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Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study.
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Active control of magnetoresistance of organic spin valves using ferroelectricity.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Organic spintronic devices have been appealing because of the long spin lifetime of the charge carriers in the organic materials and their low cost, flexibility and chemical diversity. In previous studies, the control of resistance of organic spin valves is generally achieved by the alignment of the magnetization directions of the two ferromagnetic electrodes, generating magnetoresistance. Here we employ a new knob to tune the resistance of organic spin valves by adding a thin ferroelectric interfacial layer between the ferromagnetic electrode and the organic spacer: the magnetoresistance of the spin valve depends strongly on the history of the bias voltage, which is correlated with the polarization of the ferroelectric layer; the magnetoresistance even changes sign when the electric polarization of the ferroelectric layer is reversed. These findings enable active control of resistance using both electric and magnetic fields, opening up possibility for multi-state organic spin valves.
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ZnPP reduces autophagy and induces apoptosis, thus aggravating liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in vitro.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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There is growing evidence indicating that autophagy plays a protective role in liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Heme oxygenase?1 (HO?1) can also prevent liver IR injury by limiting inflammation and inducing an anti?apoptotic response. Autophagy also plays a crucial role in liver IR injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of HO?1 in liver IR injury and the association between HO?1, autophagy and apoptotic pathways. IR simulation was performed using buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells, and HO?1 activity was either induced by hemin (HIR group) or inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) (ZIR group). In the HIR and ZIR group, the expression of HO?1 and autophagy-related genes [light chain 3?? (LC3??)] was assessed by RT-qPCR and the protein expression of caspases, autophagy-related genes and genes associated with apoptotic pathways (Bax) was detected by western blot anlaysis. The results of RT?PCR revealed the genetically decreased expression of HO?1 and autophagy-related genes in the ZIR group. Similar results were obtained by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. An ultrastructural analysis revealed a lower number of autophagosomes in the ZIR group; in the HIR group, the number of autophagosomes was increased. The expression of Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c was increased, while that of Bcl?2 was decreased following treatment of the cells with ZnPP prior to IR simulation; the oppostie occurred in the HIR group. Cleaved caspase?3, caspase?9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein were activated in the IR and ZIR groups. The disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was also observed in the ZIR group. In general, the downregulation of HO?1 reduced autophagy and activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
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Antitumor activity of cobrotoxin in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and following transplantation in nude mice.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate cobra neurotoxin (cobrotoxin) activity in A549 cell lines transplanted into nude mice, and to explore its molecular mechanism. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was used to detect the growth inhibition rate of cobrotoxin in human lung A549 adenocarcinoma cells and HFL1 lung fibroblasts. Cell colony formation assays were performed to determine the effect of cobrotoxin on A549 cell colony formation, and transmission electron microscopy was used to detect cobrotoxin autophagy. In addition, western blot analysis was performed to determine the effect of 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) activity on the inhibition of autophagy, SB203580 inhibition of the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and Beclin 1, LC3, p62, p38 and phosphorylated (p)-p38 protein expression. Nude mice were injected with human lung A549 cells, and intervention and control groups were compared with regard to tumor suppression. The MTT assay revealed that various concentrations of cobrotoxin inhibited growth of A549 cells, but not HFL1 cells. A549 cell colony formation decreased and autophagosome activity was significantly increased compared with the controls. Following 3-MA administration, SB203580 autophagosome activity decreased, and following cobrotoxin administration, Beclin 1, p-p38, and LC3-II protein expression significantly increased, whereas p62 expression significantly decreased. Following 3-MA inhibition of autophagy, Beclin 1, LC3-II and p62 expression increased. Furthermore, following SB203580 inhibition of the p38-MAPK pathway, Beclin 1, p-p38, LC3-II and p62 protein expression increased. Cobrotoxin exhibited inhibitory activity on the human lung cancer A549 cells transplanted into the nude mice, suppressing the tumor growth rate by 43.4% (cobrotoxin 40 ?g/kg group). However, following the addition of 3-MA (10 mmol/kg) and SB203580 (5 mg/kg), the suppression of the tumor growth rate decreased significantly. Cobrotoxin inhibits the growth of human lung cancer A549 cells in vitro and A549 cells transplanted into nude mice. Furthermore, the induction of autophagy may be associated with the activation of the p38-MAPK pathway.
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Interactions of CT DNA with hexagonal NaYF4 co-doped with Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) upconversion particles.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The interaction of UCPs with CT DNA are studied in detail by zeta potential, Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis, DNA melting determination and various spectroscopic techniques including Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that CT DNA can assemble on the surface of UCPs mainly by relative stronger hydrophobic force and electrostatic binding, and the predominant interaction site is the deoxyribosyl phosphate backbone of CT DNA. Moreover, after interacting with UCPs, the double helix structure of DNA is undamaged.
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Limited Clinical Utility of a Genetic Risk Score for the Prediction of Fracture Risk in Elderly Subjects.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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It is important to identify the patients at highest risk of fractures. A recent large-scale meta-analysis identified 63 autosomal SNPs associated with bone mineral density (BMD), of which 16 were also associated with fracture risk. Based on these findings two genetic risk scores (GRS63 and GRS16) were developed.
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Laparoscopy-assisted posterior low anterior resection of rectal cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection (LAR) of colorectal cancer, using a posterior surgical approach, is a difficult and controversial procedure to perform. We report successful operations on 13 patients with clear surgical margins and no serious complications.
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Combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy using graphene oxide as drug delivery system.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Previous research indicated that graphene oxide (GO) can be used to deliver photosensitive anticancer drug, Hypocrellin A (HA), in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the anticancer activity of HA was obviously decreased after been loaded on GO. To solve this problem, a chemotherapy drug, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), was co-loaded on the HA loaded GO (HA/SN-38/GO) as a multimodal carrier for the synergistic combination of PDT and chemotherapy for cancer. In vitro results showed that the combination therapy exhibited a synergistic antiproliferative effect compared with PDT and chemotherapy alone. Therefore, HA/SN-38/GO delivery system has the potential to offer dual therapies for the synergistic combination of PDT and chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer.
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The relationship between risk factors and prognostic factors in patients with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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We investigated the predictors and outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and make a preliminary inquiry into the relationship between the two.
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Gynecologic infections seen in ThinPrep cytological test in Wuhan, China.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of bacterial, Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in ThinPrep cytological test (TCT) performed on women of Wuhan, China. ThinPrep smears were screened by two independent experienced pathologists and reported from 2008 to 2010. A total of 46 866 ThinPrep smears were studied, and smears with inflammation were analyzed. Of the 44 162 enrolled patients, inflammation changes were observed in 21 935 (49.7%) and specific infections in 6884 (31.4%). The infections detected were as follows: bacteria, 5663 (82.3%); Candida, 825 (12.0%); Trichomonas, 273 (4.0%); and HPV, 148 (2.1%). Significant changes were found in the prevalence of bacteria and Candida among women who underwent TCT before and after 2010. ?(2) revealed an increasing proportion of specific infections found in smears after 2010 (P = 0.000). In conclusion, bacterial infection was the most detectable in the ThinPrep smears, followed by Candida and Trichomonas. The prevalence of infection identified by TCT was found to be similar in previous literature in China.
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Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Structural disruption of gut microbiota and associated inflammation are considered important etiological factors in high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS). Three candidate probiotic strains, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4270 (LC), L. rhamnosus I-3690 (LR) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis I-2494 (BA), were individually administered to HFD-fed mice (10(8)?cells?day(-1)) for 12 weeks. Each strain attenuated weight gain and macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissue and markedly improved glucose-insulin homeostasis and hepatic steatosis. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing of fecal bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the probiotic strains shifted the overall structure of the HFD-disrupted gut microbiota toward that of lean mice fed a normal (chow) diet. Redundancy analysis revealed that abundances of 83 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were altered by probiotics. Forty-nine altered OTUs were significantly correlated with one or more host MS parameters and were designated 'functionally relevant phylotypes'. Thirteen of the 15 functionally relevant OTUs that were negatively correlated with MS phenotypes were promoted, and 26 of the 34 functionally relevant OTUs that were positively correlated with MS were reduced by at least one of the probiotics, but each strain changed a distinct set of functionally relevant OTUs. LC and LR increased cecal acetate but did not affect circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; in contrast, BA did not increase acetate but significantly decreased adipose and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-? gene expression. These results suggest that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium differentially attenuate obesity comorbidities in part through strain-specific impacts on MS-associated phylotypes of gut microbiota in mice.
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Upregulation of the putative oncogene COTE1 contributes to human hepatocarcinogenesis through modulation of WWOX signaling.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Family with sequence similarity 189, also known as COTE1, has been found to be significantly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens and cell lines and is associated with tumor size and differentiation. Furthermore, COTE1 contributes to hepatocellular carcinogenesis. The overexpression of COTE1 enhanced in vitro cell viability and colony formation in soft agar, and in vivo tumorigenicity of HCC-derived Focus and Huh7 cells. In contrast, COTE1 knockdown via RNAi markedly suppressed these phenotypes in YY-8103 and WRL-68 HCC cell lines. Mechanistic analyses indicated that COTE1 physically associated with WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) and modulated WWOX tyrosine phosphorylation. The ectopic overexpression of COTE1 inhibited the WWOX-p53 signaling pathway by reducing the phosphorylation of WWOX at the Tyr33 residue in Focus cells. Conversely, COTE1 silencing activated tyrosine 33 phosphorylation of WWOX and induced WWOX-p53 mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in WRL-68 cells. In addition, COTE1 upregulation in Huh7 cells blocked the WWOX-cyclin D1 pathway via dephosphorylation of WWOX Tyr287, stimulating cell cycle progression whereas phosphorylation of Tyr287 of WWOX induced by COTE1 silencing resulted in activation of WWOX-cyclin D1 signaling, leading to cell cycle arrest in YY-8103 cells. Together, our findings suggest that the cytoplasmic protein COTE1 contributes to HCC tumorigenesis by regulating cell proliferation through the modulation of WWOX signaling.
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Buyang Huanwu decoction increases angiopoietin-1 expression and promotes angiogenesis and functional outcome after focal cerebral ischemia.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD), a traditional Chinese herbal prescription, has been widely used clinically to treat stroke in China for hundreds of years; however, the mechanisms of this drug for stroke treatment are still unclear. This study aims to observe the cerebral angiogenesis effects of BYHWD on chronic brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia in rats and to explore its possible mechanisms. The ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 90 min. BYHWD (12.5 and 25.0 g/(kg ? d), equivalent to the dry weight of the raw materials) was orally administered twice a day beginning 2 h after surgery. BYHWD significantly attenuated the neurological dysfunction, infarct volume, and brain atrophy after ischemia. There was a significant increase in the microvessel density, as assessed by immunofluorescence CD31, and a significant increase in angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) in the penumbra areas of the rats was shown by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. The results indicate that the neurorestorative effects of BYHWD are associated with angiogenesis and the enhancement of the expressions of Ang-1 on chronic brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia.
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Genome-wide interaction of genotype by erythrocyte n-3 fatty acids contributes to phenotypic variance of diabetes-related traits.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Little is known about the interplay between n-3 fatty acids and genetic variants for diabetes-related traits at the genome-wide level. The present study aimed to examine variance contributions of genotype by environment (GxE) interactions for different erythrocyte n-3 fatty acids and genetic variants for diabetes-related traits at the genome-wide level in a non-Hispanic white population living in the U.S.A. (n?=?820). A tool for Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) was used to estimate the genome-wide GxE variance contribution of four diabetes-related traits: HOMA-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma insulin, glucose and adiponectin. A GxE genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to further elucidate the GCTA results. Replication was conducted in the participants of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS) without diabetes (n?=?716).
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Prognostic significance of desmoglein 2 and desmoglein 3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Desmogleins (DSGs) are major members among the desmosomal cadherins critically involved in cell-cell adhesion and the maintenance of normal tissue architecture in epithelia. Reports exploring links of DSG family member expression with cancers are few and vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the ratio of DSG2 and DSG3 mRNA expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissue to normal tissue (T/N ratio) and evaluate correlations with clinical parameters.
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Histone methyltransferase SETDB1 is required for prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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SETDB1 has been established as an oncogene in a number of human carcinomas. The present study was to evaluate the expression of SETDB1 in prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and cells and to preliminarily investigate the role of SETDB1 in prostate tumorigenesis in vitro. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to detect the expression of SETDB1 in PCa tissues, adjacent normal tissues, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissues, PCa cell lines and normal prostate epithelial cells. The results suggested that SETDB1 was upregulated in human PCa tissues compared with normal tissues at the mRNA and protein levels. The role of SETDB1 in proliferation was analyzed with cell counting kit-8, colony-forming efficiency and flow cytometry assays. The results indicated that downregulation of SETDB1 by siRNA inhibited PCa cell growth, and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. The PCa cell migration and invasion decreased by silcencing SETDB1 which were assessed by using in vitro scratch and transwell invasion assay respectively. Our data suggested that SETDB1 is overexpressed in human PCa. Silencing SETDB1 inhibited PCa cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
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Thin-layer polymer wrapped enzymes encapsulated in hierarchically mesoporous silica with high activity and enhanced stability.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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A novel soft-hard cooperative approach was developed to synthesize bioactive mesoporous composite by pre-wrapping Penicillin G amidase with poly(acrylaimde) nanogel skin and subsequently incorporating such Penicillin G amidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica. The as-received bioactive mesoporous composite exhibited comparable activity and extraordinarily high stability in comparison with native Penicillin G amidase and could be used repetitively in the water-medium hydrolysis of penicillin G potassium salt. Furthermore, this strategy could be extended to the synthesis of multifunctional bioactive mesoporous composite by simultaneously introducing glucose oxidase nanocapsules and horseradish peroxidase nanocapsules into hierarchically mesoporous silica, which demonstrated a synergic effect in one-pot tandem oxidation reaction. Improvements in the catalytic performances were attributed to the combinational unique structure from soft polymer skin and hard inorganic mesoporous silica shell, which cooperatively helped enzyme molecules to retain their appropriate geometry and simultaneously decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass transfer limitation under heterogeneous conditions.
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Down-regulated ?-catenin expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness in esophageal cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To evaluate the significance of ?-catenin in clinical pathology, cellular function and signaling mechanism in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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The role of miR-200a in vasculogenic mimicry and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) indicates that aggressive cancer cells can form de novo vascular networks and provide a perfusion pathway for rapidly growing tumors. MiR-200a has been reported significantly deregulated in ovarian cancer. However, miR-200a regulation of VM and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer remain not elucidated.
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A multi-spectroscopic approach to investigate the interaction of prodigiosin with ct-DNA.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The interaction between prodigiosin (PG) and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated firstly by using UV-Visible (UV-Vis), fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies and viscosity measurement in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 6.8). The experimental results indicated that PG intercalated into the DNA helix. Upon addition of ct-DNA, PG showed hypochromic effect and slight redshift in the absorption spectra, and the melting temperature of ct-DNA was increased by from 58 to 64°C. Furthermore, FT-IR spectrum and CD spectra also suggested that the partial bases of ct-DNA react with prodigiosin. The fluorescence quenching mechanism was studied using ethidium bromide as a DNA probe, The binding constants of PG with ct-DNA in the presence of EB are 4.46×10(4) and 2.32×10(4)M(-1) at 298 and 310K, respectively, and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ?G, ?H, ?S at various temperatures were obtained.
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Electrochemical immunosensor based on hyperbranched structure for carcinoembryonic antigen detection.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Sensitive determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is very important in clinical research and diagnosis. Herein we report the design and synthesis of a new kind of immunosensor based on the benefits of hyperbranched structure. The hyperbranched polyester was grafted to the surface of indium tin oxides glass (ITO) electrode, and the grafting processes were characterized by attentuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After CEA and horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody-conjugated AuNPs (HRP-Ab2-AuNPs) bioconjugates were immobilized on the surface of the hyperbranched structure-modified electrode, the optimized conditions of the above electrode were investigated. Moreover, the analytical performance of the proposed immunosensor showed a high sensitivity, a linear range from 0.01 to 80ng/mL with a low detection limit of 2.36pg/mL, and good selectivity for CEA. The designed immunoassay system holds great potential for ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensing of other analytes.
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Hemocompatibility improvement of poly(ethylene terephthalate) via self-polymerization of dopamine and covalent graft of zwitterions.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) has been widely adopted as a scaffold biomaterial, but further hemocompatibility improvement is still needed for wide biomedical applications. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we propose to use self-polymerized dopamine to form a surface-adherent polydopamine layer onto PET sheet, followed by Michael addition with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMDA) to build tertiary amine, and final zwitterions(sulfobetaine and carboxybetaine) construction through ring-opening reaction. Physicochemical properties of substrates were demonstrated by water contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hemocompatibility was evaluated by platelet adhesion, hemolytic, and protein adsorption. The results showed that the zwitterions immobilized PET endowed with improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion as well as nonhemolytic. The zwitterions with desirable hemocompatibility can be readily tailored to catheter for various biomedical applications.
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Altered expression and localization of desmoglein 3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Desmoglein 3 (DSG3), a transmembrane cadherin of the desmosomal cell-cell adhesion structure, plays vital roles in the maintenance of normal epithelial tissue architecture. Reports implicating a role for DSG3 expression in cancer are few and contradictory. In this study, immunohistochemical staining was employed to investigate DSG3 expression and subcellular localization in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and to correlate changes with clinical characteristics. Results indicate that in normal squamous cell epithelia, strong DSG3 immunoreactivity was observed in the Stratum spinosum, and localization occurred only at the cell membrane. In ESCC, DSG3 immunoreactivity displayed an abnormal cytoplasmic localization that was correlated with cell differentiation (P=0.018). Most strikingly, in 74.1% of the tumors, DSG3 expression was up-regulated and correlated with regional lymph node metastasis (P=0.036). Moreover, in patients without lymph node metastasis, cytoplasmic localization of DSG3 correlated with poor prognosis (P=0.044). These results suggest that DSG3 is involved in the development of ESCC and imply that DSG3 overexpression is likely to be an essential contributor to the aggressive features of esophageal cancer.
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Cigarette smoke-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition is mediated by Rac1 activation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the major pathophysiological process in lung fibrosis observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for developing EMT, yet the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Rac1 in cigarette smoke (CS) induced EMT.
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Zwitterionic hyperbranched polyester functionalized cardiovascular stent and its biocompatibility.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Zwitterionic hyperbranched polyester (HBPE) synthesized on bare metal stents (BMS) surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. The modified BMS obtained was tested for its blood compatibility. The blood compatibility studies were including, platelet adhesion tests, hemolysis assay, morphological changes in RBCs, coagulation tests, PRT assay, complement activation, platelet activation, and the cytotoxicity was also investigated. The modified BMS surface does not cause platelets adherent, red blood cell disruption, hemolysis and does not induce complement and platelets activation. All results indicated that the modified BMS was blood compatible and no cytotoxicity. It has the potential use for biomedical applications.
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Ultrasensitive dopamine sensor based on novel molecularly imprinted polypyrrole coated carbon nanotubes.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A novel electrochemical sensor using the molecularly imprinted (MIP) oxygen-containing polypyrrole (PPy) decorated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite was proposed for in vivo detection of dopamine (DA). The prepared sensor exhibits a remarkable sensitivity of (16.18?A/?M) with a linear range of 5.0×10(-11)-5.0×10(-6)M and limit of detection as low as 1.0×10(-11)M in the detection of DA, which might be due to the plenty cavities for binding DA through ?-? stacking between aromatic rings and hydrogen bonds between amino groups of DA and oxygen-containing groups of the novel PPy.
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Comparison and investigation of bovine hemoglobin binding to dihydroartemisinin and 9-hydroxy-dihydroartemisinin: spectroscopic characterization.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The UV-vis absorption, steady state/time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy are used to investigate the interaction mechanisms of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and 9-hydroxy-dihydroartemisinin (9-OH DHA), respectively. The UV-vis studies present that DHA and 9-OH DHA can disturb the structure of bovine hemoglobin (BHb). Steady state/time resolved and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy reveal that the binding constant of DHA with BHb is bigger than 9-OH DHA. CD spectra indicate DHA and 9-OH DHA can change the conformation of BHb. The comparison results suggest that the binding of BHb with DHA is more stable and stronger than 9-OH DHA.
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Remote ischemic preconditioning protects against liver ischemia-reperfusion injury via heme oxygenase-1-induced autophagy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Growing evidence has linked autophagy to a protective role of preconditioning in liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is essential in limiting inflammation and preventing the apoptotic response to IR. We previously demonstrated that HO-1 is up-regulated in liver graft after remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). The aim of this study was to confirm that RIPC protects against IR via HO-1-mediated autophagy.
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Trehalose maintains vitality of mouse epididymal epithelial cells and mediates gene transfer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the present study, trehalose was utilized to improve primary culture of mouse epididymal epithelial cells in vitro, and to enhance naked DNA delivery in epididymis in vivo. During the six-day culture, the proliferation activity of the cells in the medium with addition of trehalose was higher than that of those cells cultured in absence of trehalose (p<0.01). To determine the optimal concentration for cell proliferation, a series of trehalose concentrations (0, 60, 120, 180 mM) were tested, and the result indicated that the cell in the medium with 120 mM trehalose showed the highest proliferation potential. The epididymis epithelial cells were cultured in the medium containing 120 mM trehalose upon 16th passage, and they continued expressing markers of epididymal epithelial cell, such as rE-RABP, AR and ER-beta. Our study also indicated that trehalose concentrations of 120-240 mM, especially 180 mM, could effectively enhance DNA delivery into the mouse epididymis epithelial cell in vitro. Moreover, trehalose could induce in vivo expression of exogenous DNA in epididymal epithelial cells and help to internalize plasmid into sperm,which did not influence motility of sperm when the mixture of trehalose (180 mM) and DNA was injected into epididymal lumen through efferent tubule. This study suggested that trehalose, as an effective and safer reagent, could be employed potentially to maintain vitality of mouse epididymal epithelial cells during long-term culture in vitro and to mediate in vitro and in vivo gene transfer.
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Fabrication of nonbiofouling metal stent and in vitro studies on its hemocompatibility.
J Biomater Appl
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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In recent years, there has been increasing interest for the surface modification of biomaterials in order to improve their surface properties. The bare metal stents surface based on 3-dimethyl(methacryloyloxyethyl)ammonium propane sulfonate polymers has shown an excellent antifouling and blood compatibility by using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Surface structure, morphology, wettability, and element content were characterized by scanning electronic microscope, static water contact angles measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, respectively. The results showed zwitterionic brushes were successfully fabricated on bare metal stents. The blood compatibility of bare metal stents before and after modification was evaluated by platelet adhesion tests, hemolysis assay, morphological changes of red blood cells, coagulation time tests, plasma recalcification time assay, complement activation, and platelet activation at molecular level. Moreover, the cytotoxicity was also to be characterized. All assays showed after the modification with zwitterionic brush the metal stents displayed a property of excellent blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity.
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Novel GO-COO-?-CD/CA inclusion: its blood compatibility, antibacterial property and drug delivery.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Abstract GO-COO-?-CD/CA inclusion (carboxylated graphene-?-cyclodextrin/chlorhexidine acetate) was fabricated with a graphene-based drug carrier. The reaction time and ratio of carrier to drug were optimized by X-ray diffraction spectra to ensure the complete wrapping of CA. Hemolysis test and recalcification test demonstrated that the inclusion possessed good blood compatibility due to the inherent biocompatibility of ?-CD molecules in the carrier. The inclusion displayed excellent inhibition effect on both gram negative bacteria of Escherichia coli and gram positive bacteria of Staphylococcus Aureus, while showing no cytotoxicity. More importantly, the drug efficiency was greatly improved with CA dosage as less as one-third of the pure drug due to the synergistic effect of the drug and carrier. Dynamic simulation implies that the delivery profile of CA from the inclusion is in accordance with the first-order dynamic equation, i.e. ln(1-Mt/M)?=?-kt.
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Changes in prevalence and clinical characteristics of cervical cancer in the Peoples Republic of China: a study of 10,012 cases from a nationwide working group.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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About one-third of the worlds total annual new cervical cancer cases are found in the Peoples Republic of China. We investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of cervical cancer cases in the Peoples Republic of China over the past decade.
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[The un-healing cause of its management after operation of thoracolumbar tuberculosis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To analyze the un-healing cause and management after operation of thoracolumbar tuberculosis.
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A persistent metal-insulator transition at the surface of an oxygen-deficient, epitaxial manganite film.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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The oxygen stoichiometry has a large influence on the physical and chemical properties of complex oxides. Most of the functionality in e.g. catalysis and electrochemistry depends in particular on control of the oxygen stoichiometry. In order to understand the fundamental properties of intrinsic surfaces of oxygen-deficient complex oxides, we report on in situ temperature dependent scanning tunnelling spectroscopy experiments on pristine oxygen deficient, epitaxial manganite films. Although these films are insulating in subsequent ex situ in-plane electronic transport experiments at all temperatures, in situ scanning tunnelling spectroscopic data reveal that the surface of these films exhibits a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at 120 K, coincident with the onset of ferromagnetic ordering of small clusters in the bulk of the oxygen-deficient film. The surprising proximity of the surface MIT transition temperature of nonstoichiometric films with that of the fully oxygenated bulk suggests that the electronic properties in the surface region are not significantly affected by oxygen deficiency in the bulk. This carries important implications for the understanding and functional design of complex oxides and their interfaces with specific electronic properties in catalysis, oxide electronics and electrochemistry.
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Morphology of nervous lesion in the spinal cord and bladder of fetal rats with myelomeningocele at different gestational age.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To analyze the development and innervation of bladder smooth muscle and lesions of the spinal cord in fetal rats with meningomyelocele (MMC) at different gestational ages and to investigate interactions between spinal cord lesions and bladder.
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Probenecid Protects Against Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury by Inhibiting HMGB1 Release and Attenuating AQP4 Expression in Mice.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Stroke results in inflammation, brain edema, and neuronal death. However, effective neuroprotectants are not available. Recent studies have shown that high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a proinflammatory cytokine, contributes to ischemic brain injury. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, is considered to play a pivotal role in ischemia-induced brain edema. More recently, studies have shown that pannexin 1 channels are involved in cerebral ischemic injury and the cellular inflammatory response. Here, we examined whether the pannexin 1 channel inhibitor probenecid could reduce focal ischemic brain injury by inhibiting cerebral inflammation and edema. Transient focal ischemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h. Infarct volume, neurological score and cerebral water content were evaluated 48 h after MCAO. Immunostaining, western blot analysis and ELISA were used to assess the effects of probenecid on the cellular inflammatory response, HMGB1 release and AQP4 expression. Administration of probenecid reduced infarct size, decreased cerebral water content, inhibited neuronal death, and reduced inflammation in the brain 48 h after stroke. In addition, HMGB1 release from neurons was significantly diminished and serum HMGB1 levels were substantially reduced following probenecid treatment. Moreover, AQP4 protein expression was downregulated in the cortical penumbra following post-stroke treatment with probenecid. These results suggest that probenecid, a powerful pannexin 1 channel inhibitor, protects against ischemic brain injury by inhibiting cerebral inflammation and edema.
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Electrophoretic-like gating used to control metal-insulator transitions in electronically phase separated manganite wires.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Electronically phase separated manganite wires are found to exhibit controllable metal-insulator transitions under local electric fields. The switching characteristics are shown to be fully reversible, polarity independent, and highly resistant to thermal breakdown caused by repeated cycling. It is further demonstrated that multiple discrete resistive states can be accessed in a single wire. The results conform to a phenomenological model in which the inherent nanoscale insulating and metallic domains are rearranged through electrophoretic-like processes to open and close percolation channels.
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[Role of autophagy on cobrotoxin induced cell death of A549].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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It has been proven that cobrotoxin has anti-tumor effect while its role in lung cancer is rarely studied. The aim of this study is to assay the anti-tumor effect of cobrotoxin in cell line A549, and also to explore its possible mechanism related to autophagy and P38-MARK pathway.
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The abundance of fecal Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in relation to obesity and gender in Chinese adults.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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The influence of gender and obesity on the abundance of human colonic Feacalibacterium prausnitzii is currently unclear. We collected fecal samples from 54 obese and 54 sex- and age-matched normal-weight Chinese adults and quantified the fecal F. prausnitzii as percentage of 16S rRNA gene copies of F. prausnitzii accounting to that of total gut bacteria with quantitative PCR. The fecal F. prausnitzii amount was not significantly different between obese and lean subjects. Men possessed significantly lower level of fecal F. prausnitzii than women, and the significant and positive correlation of fecal F. prausnitzii quantity with fasting glucose level was observed in men, not in women. Our results suggest that the gender effect, in addition to other factors including the geographic location, ethnicity, diet and gut transit times of study subjects, has to be considered when studying the relationship between gut F. prausnitzii and diseases.
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Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of Ga(3+)-hypocrellin A with myoglobin.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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In this article, the interaction mechanism of Ga(3+)-hypocrellin A (Ga(3+)-HA) with myoglobin (Mb) is studied in detail through various spectroscopic technologies. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra demonstrate the interaction process. The Stern-Volmer plot and the time-resolved fluorescence study suggest the fluorescence quenching mechanism of Mb by Ga(3+)-HA is a static quenching procedure, and the electronic transfer forces play a major role in binding Ga(3+)-HA to Mb. Furthermore, synchronous fluorescence studies and circular dichroism (CD) spectra reveal that the conformation of Mb is changed after its conjugation with Ga(3+)-HA.
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Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes.
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Long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 is a new potential therapeutic target for castration resistant prostate cancer.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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To understand the role of MALAT-1 in prostate cancer we evaluated its expression in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines. We also studied the therapeutic effects of MALAT-1 silencing on castration resistant prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
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DACT2 is a candidate tumor suppressor and prognostic marker in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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In animals ranging from fish to mice, the function of DACT2 as a negative regulator of the TGF-?/Nodal signal pathway is conserved in evolution, indicating that it might play an important role in human cancer. In this study, we showed that tumors with higher DACT2 protein level were correlated with better differentiation and better survival rate in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Restored expression of DACT2 significantly inhibited growth, migration, and invasion of ESCC cells in vitro, and reduced tumorigenicity in vivo. Furthermore, when DACT2 expression was restored, the activity of TGF-?/SMAD2/3 was suppressed via both proteasome and lysosomal degradation pathways, leading to F-actin rearrangement that might depend on the involvement of cofilin and ezrin-redixin-moesin (ERM) proteins. Taken together, we propose here that DACT2 serves as a prognostic marker that reduces tumor cell malignancy by suppressing TGF-? signaling and promotes actin rearrangement in ESCC.
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Preparation of water-soluble hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles with sulfonic acid functional groups and their micelles behavior, anticoagulant effect and cytotoxicity.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Biocompatibility of nanoparticles has been attracting great interest in the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, the aliphatic water-soluble hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles with sulfonic acid functional groups (HBPE-SO3 NPs) were synthesized and characterized. They are amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles with hydrophobic hyperbranched polyester (HBPE) core and hydrophilic sulfonic acid terminal groups. Based on our observations, we believe there are two forms of HBPE-SO3 NPs in water under different conditions: unimolecular micelles and large multimolecular micelles. The biocompatibility and anticoagulant effect of the HBPE-SO3 NPs were investigated using coagulation tests, hemolysis assay, morphological changes of red blood cells (RBCs), complement and platelet activation detection, and cytotoxicity (MTT). The results confirmed that the sulfonic acid terminal groups can substantially enhance the anticoagulant property of HBPE, and the HBPE-SO3 NPs have the potential to be used in nanomedicine due to their good bioproperties.
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Gold nanoparticles coated polystyrene/reduced graphite oxide microspheres with improved dispersibility and electrical conductivity for dopamine detection.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Gold nanoparticles coated polystyrene/reduced graphite oxide (AuNPs@PS/RGO) microspheres have been successfully prepared via a facile process, and the decorative gold nanoparticles could prevent the aggregation of RGO by electrostatic repulsive interaction, and lead to high dispersibility of the composite. The prepared composite has a highly increased conductivity of 129Sm(-1) due to the unique electrical properties of citrate reduced gold nanoparticles. Being employed as an electrochemical sensor for detection of dopamine, the modified electrode exhibits remarkable sensitivity (3.44?A/?M) and lower detection limit (5nM), with linear response in a range of 0.05-20?M. Moreover, valid response to dopamine obtained in present work also indicates the prospective performances of AuNPs@PS/RGO microspheres to other biological molecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes.
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Establishment of a Chinese bladder cancer cell line (T921) with high metastatic activity.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is prone to metastasis without a standard organ preference. The current cell lines used to study bladder cancer have primarily been derived from individuals in Western populations, and no human bladder cancer cell line has been established from the Chinese population. A bladder cancer cell line was derived from a female Chinese patient with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, and these cells were then xenografted into the bladders of three nude mice. Five weeks later, these mice were killed to observe local invasion and distant metastasis. The metastatic tumors were also removed and analyzed to assess the metastatic mechanism. This bladder cancer cell line, named T921, was successfully established, as evidenced by karyotype and immunohistochemistry analyses. Multi-organ metastases were observed in all three of the nude mice 5 wk after the orthotopic transfer of the cell line. In addition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes were involved in the tumor metastases. The T921 bladder cancer cell line was successfully established, and EMT was observed to play a role in bladder cancer metastasis.
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A gut microbiota-targeted dietary intervention for amelioration of chronic inflammation underlying metabolic syndrome.
FEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics (WTP diet) was designed to meet human nutritional needs as well as balance the gut microbiota. Ninety-three of 123 central obese volunteers (BMI ? 28 kg m(-2) ) completed a self-controlled clinical trial consisting of 9-week intervention on WTP diet followed by a 14-week maintenance period. The average weight loss reached 5.79 ± 4.64 kg (6.62 ± 4.94%), in addition to improvement in insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Pyrosequencing of fecal samples showed that phylotypes related to endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens of Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae were reduced significantly, while those related to gut barrier-protecting bacteria of Bifidobacteriaceae increased. Gut permeability, measured as lactulose/mannitol ratio, was decreased compared with the baseline. Plasma endotoxin load as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein was also significantly reduced, with concomitant decrease in tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and an increase in adiponectin. These results suggest that modulation of the gut microbiota via dietary intervention may enhance the intestinal barrier integrity, reduce circulating antigen load, and ultimately ameliorate the inflammation and metabolic phenotypes.
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Biocompatible phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles for sensitive detection of hypoxanthine in real samples.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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A novel hypoxanthine biosensor fabricated by immobilizing the xanthine oxidase (XOD) onto the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica (SiO2-P) film on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was designed and constructed in this work. A biomimetic platform was designed with the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO2-P NPs) synthesized by the method of reverse microemulsion and electrostatic binding. In such a platform, XOD was selected as model protein to fabricate hypoxanthine biosensor based on SiO2-P NPs. The nanocomposite was characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Based on the advantageous functions of SiO2-P NPs, the entrapped XOD could preserve its bioactivity and exhibited an excellent electrochemical behavior with a formal potential of -0.37 V in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH=7). Response studies to hypoxanthine were carried out using current-time response curve. The biosensor exhibited a wide linear response ranging from 1.00×10(-6) to 2.61×10(-4) M. The detection limit of 2.33×10(-7) M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was lower than that most reported previously. In addition, the electrode modified with XOD/(SiO2-P NPs) film also had a strong anti-interference ability in the presence of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA). The assay results of hypoxanthine in fish samples were in a good agreement with the reference values.
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Association between FAS A670G polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Previous studies published to evaluate the association between FAS A670G polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer provided conflicting findings. A meta-analysis of published case-control studies was performed to get a comprehensive evidence for the possible association. We searched in PubMed and Wanfang databases for eligible studies published before February 10, 2013. The odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was used to evaluate the association. Ten studies with a total of 4,904 participants were finally included into the meta-analysis. Overall, there was no obvious association between FAS A670G polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer under all four genetic models (G versus A: OR?=?0.97, 95 % CI 0.84-1.11, P?=?0.64; GG versus AA: OR?=?0.92, 95 % CI 0.69-1.24, P?=?0.60; GG/AG versus AA: OR?=?0.99, 95 % CI 0.77-1.26, P?=?0.92; GG versus AA/AG: OR?=?0.92; 95 % CI 0.68-1.25, P?=?0.59). Subgroup analyses by ethnicity further showed that there was no association between FAS A670G polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer in both Caucasians and Asians. There was no risk of publication bias. In summary, the meta-analysis suggests that there is no association between FAS A670G polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer in both Caucasians and Asians.
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Dissociation of vasospasm-related morbidity and outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with clazosentan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Clazosentan therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been found to be effective in reducing the incidence of vasospasm in randomized controlled trials. However, while vasospasm-related morbidity, including delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs) and delayed cerebral infarctions, was consistently decreased, statistical significance was not demonstrated and outcomes were not affected by clazosentan treatment. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine whether clazosentan treatment after aneurysmal SAH significantly reduced the incidence of DINDs and delayed cerebral infarctions and improved outcomes.
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Fabrication and bioproperties of raspberry-type hybrid nanoparticles of Au-thioethyl pendant ligand@chitosan.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Synthesis of nanoparticles with desired size/morphology has enormous importance, especially in the compelling field of nanotechnology. In this case, a novel kind of raspberry-type hybrid nanoparticles was prepared by hybridization of chitosan (CS) with thioethyl pendant ligand (TPL) modified Au nanoparticles (Au-TPL@CS NPs). Such method was based on ionic gelation using sodium tripolyphosphate as a counterion. The blood compatibility of Au-TPL@CS NPs was characterized by coagulation tests, plasma recalcification time, hemolysis assay, morphological changes of red blood cells (RBCs) and complement activation in vitro. The results showed that Au-TPL@CS NPs exhibited good blood compatibility. The possible underlying mechanism was also present. Finally, the direct electron transfer reactivity of the Hemoglobin/Au-TPL@CS NPs/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/glassy carbon electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry measurements. The biosensor exhibited a good electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of H2O2. Such new type of Au-TPL@CS NPs provides a promising platform of biological system for early illness detection and treatment in future.
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Contralateral acute subdural hematoma following traumatic acute subdural hematoma evacuation.
Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Contralateral acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) occurring after removal of traumatic ASDH is a rare, but nearly devastating postoperative complication. We treated a 26-year-old male who developed a contralateral ASDH shortly after craniectomy for evacuation of a traumatic ASDH. Burr-hole craniotomy was performed before decompressive craniectomy, and the bleeding source was a cortex artery within the frontal lobe contusion. Despite supportive therapy with barbiturate and mild hypothermia he expired 3 days later of brain death. Literature review suggests that the old are more susceptible to contralateral ASDH following evacuation of traumatic ASDH. Contralateral ASDH following evacuation of traumatic ASDH is a rare but potentially lethal complication, so neurosurgeons should try to detect such contralateral hematoma formation and prevent clinical deterioration.
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Synthesis and one-pot tethering of hydroxyl-capped phosphorylcholine onto cellulose membrane for improving hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Tethering of biomimetic phosphorylcholine derivative onto the surface of biomedical devices is an effective method for improving hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property. Herein, series of novel hydroxyl-capped phosphorylcholines (HOPC) with different carbon spacer lengths were first synthesized and characterized with element analysis (EA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Then, HOPC (n=5, 2a) was one-pot tethered onto cellulose membrane with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) as a coupling agent. The existence of phosphorylcholine was demonstrated by water contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The hemocompatibility and antibiofouling property were evaluated by hemolytic test, platelet adhesion, protein adsorption, and Escherichia coli adhesion test. The results showed that cellulose membranes tethered with HOPC exhibited excellent hemocompatibility featured by low platelet adhesion and ?brinogen adsorption as well as antibiofouling property with bacterial adhesion resistance.
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In situ polymerization of highly dispersed polypyrrole on reduced graphite oxide for dopamine detection.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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A composite consisting of reduced graphite oxide and highly dispersed polypyrrole nanospheres was synthesized by a straightforward technique, by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The novel polypyrrole nanospheres can prevent the aggregation of reduced graphite oxide sheets by electrostatic repulsive interaction, and enhance their electrochemical properties in the nano-molar measurement of dopamine in biological systems with a linear range of 1-8000 nM and a detection limit as low as 0.3 nM.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.