JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A novel DNA-binding protein, PhaR, plays a central role in the regulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation and granule formation in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are synthesized and assembled as PHA granules that undergo well-regulated formation in many microorganisms. However, this regulation remains unclear in haloarchaea. In this study, we identified a PHA granule-associated regulator (PhaR) that negatively regulates the expression of both its own gene and the granule structural gene phaP in the same operon (phaRP) in Haloferax mediterranei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) assays demonstrated a significant interaction between the PhaR and the phaRP promoter in vivo. Scanning mutagenesis of the phaRP promoter revealed a specific cis-element as the possible binding position of the PhaR. The haloarchaeal homologs of the PhaR contain a novel conserved domain that belongs to a swapped-hairpin barrel fold family found in AbrB-like proteins. Amino acid substitution indicated that this AbrB-like domain is critical for the repression activity of PhaR. In addition, the phaRP promoter had a weaker activity in the PHA-negative strains, implying a function of the PHA granules in titration of the PhaR. Moreover, the H. mediterranei strain lacking phaR was deficient in PHA accumulation and produced granules with irregular shapes. Interestingly, the PhaR itself can promote PHA synthesis and granule formation in a PhaP-independent manner. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the haloarchaeal PhaR is a novel bi-functional protein, which plays the central role in the regulation of PHA accumulation and granule formation in H. mediterranei.
Related JoVE Video
[Comparative study on effect of osthole and genistein on peak bone mass in rats].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the ability of osthole (OST) and genistein (GEN) in enhancing bone peak bone mass of rats to prevent osteoporosis.
Related JoVE Video
Highly enantioselective Michael addition of 3-arylthio- and 3-alkylthiooxindoles to nitroolefins catalyzed by a simple cinchona alkaloid derived phosphoramide.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new cinchona alkaloid derived bifunctional tertiary amine-phosphoramide is identified as a highly enantioselective catalyst for Michael addition of both unprotected 3-arylthio- and 3-alkylthiooxindoles to nitroolefins. The phosphoramide moiety of plays an indispensable role in this reaction.
Related JoVE Video
Sinusoidal electromagnetic fields promote bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro.
Electromagn Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone metabolism have not yet been well defined. The present study investigated SEMF effects on bone formation and resorption in rat femur bone tissues in vitro. Cultured femur diaphyseal (cortical bone) and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were treated with 50?Hz 1.8?mT SEMFs 1.5?h per day for up to 12 days and treatment effects on bone formation and resorption markers and associated gene expression were examined. Treatment with SEMFs caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) activity in the femoral diaphyseal or metaphyseal tissues. SEMFs also significantly increased levels of mRNA expression of osterix (OSX), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and ALP in the bone tissues. SEMF treatment decreased glucose content and increased lactic acid contents in the culture conditioned medium. In addition, treatment with SEMFs decreased mRNA expression levels of bone resorption-related genes TRACP, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the cultured bone tissues. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that treatment with 1.8?mT SEMFs at 1.5?h per day promoted bone formation, increased metabolism and inhibited resorption in both metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone tissues in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Broadband absorption enhancement in elliptical silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Semiconducting nanowire arrays have emerged as a promising route toward achieving high efficiencies in solar cells. Here we propose a perpendicular elliptical silicon nanowire (PEE-SiNW) array for broadband light absorption in thin film silicon solar cells. Simulation results reveal that light absorption enhancement is originated from the split of the principal modes as well as the excitation of high order modes caused by the asymmetry of the elliptical nanowires and the enhanced mode coupling between adjacent elliptical nanowires attained by the appropriate arrangement of nanowires. An ultimate efficiency of 29.1% is achieved for the optimal PEE-SiNW array, which is 16.4% higher than that of the circular SiNW array with the same fill fraction.
Related JoVE Video
[Icariin promote maturation of osteoblasts in vitro by an estrogen-independent mechanism].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the estrogenic activity of icariin and genistein with estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Predicts Prognosis of Patients after Curative Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We developed a novel systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) based on lymphocyte, neutrophil, and platelet counts and explored its prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Related JoVE Video
[Correlation of computed tomography imaging and clinical prognosis of pleural mesothelioma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the value of computed tomography (CT) imaging in clinical diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of pleural mesothelioma.
Related JoVE Video
[Expression and methylation status of Foxp3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To gain insights into the role of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by performing a comparative analysis of Foxp3 mRNA expression and promoter methylation status in HCC and normal liver tissues.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial genome of Xenophysogobio nudicorpa (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Gobiobotinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Xenophysogobio nudicorpa is one member of the genus containing two species only, which is a specialized lineage of gobiobotine fishes. In this study, we provide the first mitochondrial genome of X. nudicorpa. The complete mitochondrial genome of X. nudicorpa is 16,616?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12 S and 16 S rRNA), 22 tRNA genes and a noncoding control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of X. nudicorpa is 30.5% A, 26.0% T, 16.8% C and 26.7% G, with a slight AT bias of 56.5%. The complete mitochondrial genome of X. nudicorpa would be useful for further studies on genetic diversity and molecular phylogenetic relationship of the subfamily Gobiobotinae.
Related JoVE Video
Neddylation pathway is up-regulated in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and serves as a potential therapeutic target.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Therapeutic intervention in neddylation pathway is an emerging area for cancer treatment. Herein, we evaluated the clinical relevance and therapeutic potential of targeting this pathway in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Immunohistochemistry of neddylation pathway components in a cohort of 322 cases showed that E1 (NAE1 and UBA3) and E2 (UBC12) enzymes, as well as global NEDD8 conjugation, were upregulated in over 2/3 of human ICC. Notably, NAE1 was identified as an independent prognosticator for postoperative recurrence (P=0.009) and a combination of NEDD8 and NAE1 provided a better power for predicting patient clinical outcomes. In vitro treatment with MLN4924, a small-molecule NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, led to a dose-dependent decrease of viability in both established and primary cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. Additionally, MLN4924 exhibited at least additive effect when combined with cisplatin. By blocking cullins neddylation, MLN4924 inactivated Cullin-Ring ligase (CRL) and caused the accumulation of CRL substrates that triggered cell cycle arrest, senescence or apoptosis. Meanwhile, MLN4924 was well-tolerated and significantly inhibited tumor growth in xenograft model of cholangiocarcinoma. Taken together, our findings indicated that upregulated neddylation pathway was involved in ICC progression and interference in this pathway could be a promising target for ICC therapy.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial genome of Garra imberba (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Garra).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The beardless sucking bard, Garra imberba, is an important economic freshwater fish with very limited yield. In this study, we successfully sequenced the first mitochondrial genome of G. imberba by PCR. The mitogenome is 16,600?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (D-loop). The overall base composition of the H-strand is 31.5% A, 26.7% T, 16.1% C, and 25.8% G, with a slight AT bias of 58.2%. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNAs (tRNA(Gln), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Ser), tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Pro)) and ND6 genes.
Related JoVE Video
Adsorption of hydrophobin on different self-assembled monolayers: the role of the hydrophobic dipole and the electric dipole.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this work, the adsorptions of hydrophobin (HFBI) on four different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) (i.e., CH3-SAM, OH-SAM, COOH-SAM, and NH2-SAM) were investigated by parallel tempering Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation results indicate that the orientation of HFBI adsorbed on neutral surfaces is dominated by a hydrophobic dipole. HFBI adsorbs on the hydrophobic CH3-SAM through its hydrophobic patch and adopts a nearly vertical hydrophobic dipole relative to the surface, while it is nearly horizontal when adsorbed on the hydrophilic OH-SAM. For charged SAM surfaces, HFBI adopts a nearly vertical electric dipole relative to the surface. HFBI has the narrowest orientation distribution on the CH3-SAM, and thus can form an ordered monolayer and reverse the wettability of the surface. For HFBI adsorption on charged SAMs, the adsorption strength weakens as the surface charge density increases. Compared with those on other SAMs, a larger area of the hydrophobic patch is exposed to the solution when HFBI adsorbs on the NH2-SAM. This leads to an increase of the hydrophobicity of the surface, which is consistent with the experimental results. The binding of HFBI to the CH3-SAM is mainly through hydrophobic interactions, while it is mediated through a hydration water layer near the surface for the OH-SAM. For the charged SAM surfaces, the adsorption is mainly induced by electrostatic interactions between the charged surfaces and the oppositely charged residues. The effect of a hydrophobic dipole on protein adsorption onto hydrophobic surfaces is similar to that of an electric dipole for charged surfaces. Therefore, the hydrophobic dipole may be applied to predict the probable orientations of protein adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between TLR4 and NF-?B p65 protein expressions and clinical radiosensitivity of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Pak J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the relationship between TLR4 and NF-?B p65 protein expressions in tumor tissues after radiotherapy and clinical radiosensitivity of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of volumetric load in an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm treating industrial saline wastewater.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mustard tuber wastewater is of high salinity ([Cl(-1)]?=?18?23?g?L(-1)), high organic content (chemical oxygen demand, COD?=?4000?±?100?L(-1)) and biodegradability (BOD5/COD???0.5). The anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) pre-treatment, an important step to meet national discharge standard, was applied to reduce much of the organics in mustard tuber wastewater. The experiment for the effect of the volumetric load on ASBBR treating mustard tuber wastewater was conducted at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and volumetric exchange ratios (?). The ASBBR operating at 50% biomass density, 30?°C, influent COD concentration of 4000?±?100?mg?L(-1) and pH value of 7.0?±?0.2, the effluent COD concentration increased from 0.22 to 4?kgCOD?m(-3)d(-1) when the volumetric load increased from 100 to 1520?mg?L(-1). The effluent COD concentration differed when adopted different HRT and ? under the same volumetric load. And given certain influent levels, a higher performance of ASBBR could be achieved at a lower value of HRT and ?. The optimal operational load could be determined by limiting the COD concentration under different discharge conditions, based on the results obtained in experiments.
Related JoVE Video
[Evaluation of nutrient level and its factors of breast milk in Shenzhen City].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the nutrient level for Fat and Nutrient Elements (Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe and Zn) in Breast Milk and its factors in Shenzhen, China. Eventually we can evaluate the nutrient study for local infants and provide a more reasonable basis for infants breast-feeding.
Related JoVE Video
Up-regulation of 14-3-3? expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and its clinical implications.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved molecules that are involved in many vital biologic processes and are associated with the progression of cancer. The role of 14-3-3?, a dimeric isoform of 14-3-3, in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) was investigated in this study. The expression of 14-3-3? in tumour samples from patients with ICC was examined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, and the correlation between its expression and various clinicopathological features was determined. Then, the capacity for invasion, migration and proliferation as well as the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers in ICC cells were assessed after 14-3-3? depletion. Finally, the prognostic significance of 14-3-3? in patients with ICC was further evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The expression of 14-3-3? was significantly higher in ICC tissues compared to peritumoural tissues. High expression of 14-3-3? positively correlated with lymphatic metastasis and tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. The inhibition of 14-3-3? expression was able to impair the invasion, migration and proliferation of ICC cells in vitro. The expression of 14-3-3? was significantly correlated with the expression of the EMT-related markers snail and E-cadherin in ICC samples. Moreover, the down-regulation of 14-3-3? also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in ICC cells. Clinically, patients with ICC with high 14-3-3? expression demonstrated a poor prognosis in terms of a short overall survival and a high recurrence rate of the disease. A multivariate analysis revealed that 14-3-3? overexpression was an independent prognostic indicator for patients with ICC. 14-3-3? may enhance the invasive and proliferative capacity of tumour cells and thus prompt the progression of ICC via the activation of ERK signalling and the induction of EMT. The overexpression of 14-3-3? may be used as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in patients with ICC.
Related JoVE Video
High fidelity quantum state transfer in electromechanical systems with intermediate coupling.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hybrid quantum systems usually consist of two or more subsystems, which may take the advantages of the different systems. Recently, the hybrid system consisting of circuit electromechanical subsystems have attracted great attention due to its advanced fabrication and scalable integrated photonic circuit techniques. Here, we propose a scheme for high fidelity quantum state transfer between a superconducting qubit and a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, which are coupled to a superconducting transmission-line resonator with coupling strength g1 and a nanomechanical resonator with coupling strength g2, respectively. Meanwhile, the two resonators are parametrically coupled with coupling strength J. The system dynamics, including the decoherence effects, is numerical investigated. It is found that both the small (J<{g1,g2}) and large (J>{g1,g2}) coupling regimes of this hybrid system can not support high fidelity quantum state transfer before significant technique advances. However, in the intermediate coupling regime (J ~ g1 ~ g2), in contrast to a conventional wisdom, high fidelity quantum information transfer can be implemented, providing a promising route towards high fidelity quantum state transfer in similar coupled resonators systems.
Related JoVE Video
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is Regulated by the IRE1?-XBP1 Branch of the Unfolded Protein Response and Counteracts Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Hepatic Steatosis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) and represents a critical mechanism that underlies metabolic dysfunctions. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone that is predominantly secreted by the liver, exerts a broad range of effects upon the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Although increased circulating levels of FGF21 have been documented in animal models and human subjects with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the functional interconnections between metabolic ER stress and FGF21 are incompletely understood. Here, we report that increased ER stress along with the simultaneous elevation of FGF21 expression were associated with the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease both in diet-induced obese mice and human patients. Intraperitoneal administration of the ER stressor tunicamycin in mice resulted in hepatic steatosis, accompanied by activation of the three canonical UPR branches and increased the expression of FGF21. Furthermore, the IRE1?-XBP1 pathway of the UPR could directly activate the transcriptional expression of Fgf21. Administration of recombinant FGF21 in mice alleviated tunicamycin-induced liver steatosis, in parallel with reduced eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that FGF21 is an integral physiological component of the cellular UPR program, which exerts beneficial feedback effects upon lipid metabolism through counteracting ER stress.
Related JoVE Video
Design low crosstalk ring-slot array structure for label-free multiplexed sensing.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We theoretically demonstrate a low crosstalk ring-slot array structure used for label-free multiplexed sensing. The proposed sensors array is based on an array of three ring-slot and input/output line defect coupling waveguides. Each ring-slot cavity has slightly different cavity spacing and different resonant frequency. Results obtained using two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) simulation indicate that the resonant frequencies of each sensor unit in response to the refractive index variations are independent. The refractive index sensitivity is 134 ~ 145.5 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and the Q factors more than 10(4) can be achieved. The calculated detect limit lower than 1.13 × 10(-4) RIU is obtained. In addition, an extremely small crosstalk lower than -25.8 dB is achieved among the array of three ring-slot cavities. The results demonstrate that this multiplexed sensor array is a promising platform for integrated optical devices and enables highly parallel label-free detection.
Related JoVE Video
18-Electron rule inspired Zintl-like ions composed of all transition metals.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zintl phase compounds constitute a unique class of compounds composed of metal cations and covalently bonded multiply charged cluster anions. Potential applications of these materials in solution chemistry and thermoelectric materials have given rise to renewed interest in the search for new Zintl ions. Up to now these ions have been mostly composed of group 13, 14, and 15 post-transition metal elements and no Zintl ions composed of all transition metal elements are known. Using gradient corrected density functional theory we show that the 18-electron rule can be applied to design a new class of Zintl-like ions composed of all transition metal atoms. We demonstrate this possibility by using Ti@Au12(2-) and Ni@Au6(2-) di-anions as examples of Zintl-like ions. Predictive capability of our approach is demonstrated by showing that FeH6(4-) in an already synthesized complex metal hydride, Mg2FeH6, is a Zintl-like ion, satisfying the 18-electron rule. We also show that novel Zintl phase compounds can be formed by using all transition metal Zintl-like ions as building blocks. For example, a two-dimensional periodic structure of Na2[Ti@Au12] is semiconducting and nonmagnetic while a one-dimensional periodic structure of Mg[Ti@Au12] is metallic and ferromagnetic. Our results open the door to the design and synthesis of a new class of Zintl-like ions and compounds with potential for applications.
Related JoVE Video
Elastic properties of chemical-vapor-deposited monolayer MoS2, WS2, and their bilayer heterostructures.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elastic properties of materials are an important factor in their integration in applications. Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer semiconductors are proposed as key components in industrial-scale flexible devices and building blocks of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures. However, their mechanical and elastic properties have not been fully characterized. Here we report high 2D elastic moduli of CVD monolayer MoS2 and WS2 (?170 N/m), which is very close to the value of exfoliated MoS2 monolayers and almost half the value of the strongest material, graphene. The 2D moduli of their bilayer heterostructures are lower than the sum of 2D modulus of each layer but comparable to the corresponding bilayer homostructure, implying similar interactions between the hetero monolayers as between homo monolayers. These results not only provide deep insight into understanding interlayer interactions in 2D van der Waals structures but also potentially allow engineering of their elastic properties as desired.
Related JoVE Video
Oncomodulin/truncated protamine-mediated Nogo-66 receptor small interference RNA delivery promotes axon regeneration in retinal ganglion cells.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The optic nerve often suffers regenerative failure after injury, leading to serious visual impairment such as glaucoma. The main inhibitory factors, including Nogo-A, oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein, and myelin-associated glycoprotein, exert their inhibitory effects on axonal growth through the same receptor, the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). Oncomodulin (OM), a calcium-binding protein with a molecular weight of an ?12 kDa, which is secreted from activated macrophages, has been demonstrated to have high and specific affinity for retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and promote greater axonal regeneration than other known polypeptide growth factors. Protamine has been reported to effectively deliver small interference RNA (siRNA) into cells. Accordingly, a fusion protein of OM and truncated protamine (tp) may be used as a vehicle for the delivery of NgR siRNA into RGC for gene therapy. To test this hypothesis, we constructed OM and tp fusion protein (OM/tp) expression vectors. Using the indirect immunofluorescence labeling method, OM/tp fusion proteins were found to have a high affinity for RGC. The gel shift assay showed that the OM/tp fusion proteins retained the capacity to bind to DNA. Using OM/tp fusion proteins as a delivery tool, the siRNA of NgR was effectively transfected into cells and significantly down-regulated NgR expression levels. More importantly, OM/tp-NgR siRNA dramatically promoted axonal growth of RGC compared with the application of OM/tp recombinant protein or NgR siRNA alone in vitro. In addition, OM/tp-NgR siRNA highly elevated intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and inhibited activation of the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA). Taken together, our data demonstrated that the recombinant OM/tp fusion proteins retained the functions of both OM and tp, and that OM/tp-NgR siRNA might potentially be used for the treatment of optic nerve injury.
Related JoVE Video
Gastroesophageal reflux and carcinoma of larynx or pharynx: a meta-analysis.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The meta-analysis supported the proposition that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was associated with laryngeal cancer, particularly in the hospital-based control group and diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or esophageal pH monitoring. However, no significant association was found between GERD and pharyngeal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
One center's experiences of 101 cases of kidney transplants from cardiac death donors.
Exp Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2011, a pilot program of organ donation after cardiac death was begun at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, where we hosted one of the largest donation after cardiac death organ transplant programs in the country. We report our initial single-center experiences of kidney transplant from donation after cardiac deaths.
Related JoVE Video
Association of polymorphisms in stress-related TNF? and NPY genes with the metabolic syndrome in Han and Hui ethnic groups.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of complicated disorders caused by the interactive influencing factors of heredity and environment, which predisposes to many cnacers. RESULTS from epidemic research indicate that stress is tightly related to the pathogenesis of MS and neoplasia. This paper aims to investigate the association between psychological stress and MS with respect to the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) genes in the Han and Hui ethnic groups.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of sulfur uptake assimilation-related genes in response to cadmium, bensulfuron-methyl and their co-contamination in rice roots.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The responses of sulfur (S) uptake assimilation-related genes' expression in roots of two rice cultivars to cadmium (Cd), bensulfuron-methyl (BSM) and their co-contamination (Cd+BSM) were investigated by gene-chip microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) technology. Treatments of Cd and Cd+BSM induced expression of sulfate transporter and permease genes, and promoted sulfate uptake in rice roots. Cd+BSM could alleviate Cd toxicity to cv. Fengmeizhan seedlings, probably due to Cd+BSM promoting greater S absorption by seedlings. Cd and Cd+BSM induced expression of sulfate assimilation-related genes, and thus activated the sulfur assimilation pathway. Cd and Cd+BSM induced expression of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes, and induced expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), glutathione synthase (GS) and S-containing antioxidation enzyme genes, which detoxified Cd(2+). It is suggested that (to cope with the toxicity of Cd, BSM and their co-contamination) the S uptake and assimilation pathway was activated in rice roots by increased expression of related genes, thus enhancing the supply of organic S for synthesis of Cd or BSM resistance-related substances.
Related JoVE Video
Asymmetric Triple Relay Catalysis: Enantioselective Synthesis of Spirocyclic Indolines through a One-Pot Process Featuring an Asymmetric 6? Electrocyclization.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A rare example of a one-pot process that involves asymmetric triple relay catalysis is reported. The key step is an asymmetric [1,5] electrocyclic reaction of functionalized ketimines. The substrates for this process were obtained in situ in a two-step process that involved the hydrogenation of nitroarenes with a Pd/C catalyst to yield aryl amines and their subsequent coupling with isatin derivatives in a Brønsted acid catalyzed ketimine formation reaction. The electrocyclization was catalyzed by a bifunctional chiral Brønsted base/hydrogen bond donor catalyst. The one-pot process gave the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivity.
Related JoVE Video
Start-up and bacterial communities of single-stage nitrogen removal using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) for treatment of high strength ammonia wastewater.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, a lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was used to start up the single-stage nitrogen removal system using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) process seeding from surplus activated sludge. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was firstly 0.075 kg N m(-3) d(-1) and then gradually increased to 0.60 kg N m(-3) d(-1). A maximal total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 0.54 kg N m(-3) d(-1) was achieved by the SNAP process after 132 days operation with NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiency of 99.4% and 90.5%, respectively. This reactor may have applications for the SNAP process treating high strength ammonia wastewater. And dewatered surplus activated sludge was recommended as the seed sludge for engineering applications. The dominant bacterial strains were Xanthomonas campestris, Nitrosomonas europaea and Ignavibacterium album, corresponding to the percentage of 24%, 22% and 20%, respectively, based on the 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing of the SNAP sludge.
Related JoVE Video
Repeated doses of intravenous tranexamic acid are effective and safe at reducing perioperative blood loss in total knee arthroplasty.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibrin sealant (FS) and tranexamic acid (TXA) have been used in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to minimize perioperative blood loss. The efficacy of FS has been debated, and few studies have looked into the effects of FS and TXA on perioperative coagulability. The current study retrospectively reviewed 100 cases of unilateral primary TKA. Twenty-five cases served as blank controls, FS was used without TXA in 23, TXA was used without FS in 20, and both FS and TXA (FS + TXA) were used in 32. FS was sprayed before wound closure whereas 1 g of TXA was intravenously administered before incision and 1 g was administered 15 min before tourniquet release. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels and thromboelastography (TEG) parameters were assessed pre-operatively and on day 1, 4, and 9 post-operatively. Blood transfusions were noted and the incidence of symptomatic DVT/PE was determined. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in the TXA and FS + TXA groups compared to the control and FS groups on day 1, 4, and 9 post-operatively. Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the control group were similar to those in the FS group and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the TXA group were similar to those in the FS + TXA group. TEG parameters (R, K, ?, MA, and CI) remained within normal ranges. Mean CI was less than +3 in all four groups, suggesting that hypercoagulation was not promoted. One patient in the FS group received an allogeneic transfusion. Incidence of symptomatic DVT/PE was not noted. Intravenous TXA significantly reduced perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing a TKA but FS did not. Administration of FS in addition to TXA was not superior to TXA alone. FS and/or TXA did not increase the risk of hypercoagulation according to TEG parameters. Intravenous administration of 1 g of TXA pre-operatively and administration of 1 g before tourniquet release is an effective and safe method of reducing blood loss in TKA.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of EZH2 expression is associated with the proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of SW620 colorectal cancer cells in vitro.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epigenetic changes have been recently recognized as important in human cancers. Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 gene (EZH2) has been shown the overexpression in various human cancers, consistent with a straightforward role of EZH2 as an oncogene, but its function in carcinogenesis is partly contradictory. The role of EZH2 in development of human colorectal cancer (CRC) has not yet been clarified. In the present study, elevated expression of EZH2 is observed in CRC tissues by immunohistochemical staining, compared with the paired nontumor tissues. The expression of EZH2 in CRC cell lines is consistent with the trend in cancer tissues using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We show that EZH2 expression levels are significantly correlated with tumor-lymph node-metastasis stage and lymph node metastasis in CRC patients. EZH2 level of transcription and protein is inhibited by small interfering RNA (siRNA). More importantly, EZH2-siRNA inhibits the proliferation and migration of SW620 cells while promoting their apoptosis, and inducing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of SW620 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that elevated EZH2 level might contribute to the development of CRC. A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms and the relevance of EZH2 in the progression of CRC will help to identify a novel strategy for potential target in CRC therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance of EpCAM mRNA-positive circulating tumor cells in hepatocellular carcinoma by an optimized negative enrichment and qRT-PCR-based platform.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to construct a novel platform for the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to investigate the clinical significance of epithelial cell adhesion molecule mRNA-positive (EpCAM(mRNA+)) CTCs using this platform.
Related JoVE Video
[Thymoglobulin efficiently expands cytokine-induced killer cells in a clinical-grade culture protocol].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the effect of thymoglobulin (TG) on proliferation, immune cell phenotype and cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in a clinical-grade culture protocol.
Related JoVE Video
Modulation of rotation-induced lift force for cell filtration in a low aspect ratio microchannel.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cell filtration is a critical step in sample preparation in many bioapplications. Herein, we report on a simple, filter-free, microfluidic platform based on hydrodynamic inertial migration. Our approach builds on the concept of two-stage inertial migration which permits precise prediction of microparticle position within the microchannel. Our design manipulates equilibrium positions of larger microparticles by modulating rotation-induced lift force in a low aspect ratio microchannel. Here, we demonstrate filtration of microparticles with extreme efficiency (>99%). Using multiple prostate cell lines (LNCaP and human prostate epithelial tumor cells), we show filtration from spiked blood, with 3-fold concentration and >83% viability. Results of a proliferation assay show normal cell division and suggest no negative effects on intrinsic properties. Considering the planar low-aspect-ratio structure and predictable focusing, we envision promising applications and easy integration with existing lab-on-a-chip systems.
Related JoVE Video
Acute and chronic toxic effects of Pb²? on polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis: morphological changes and responses of the antioxidant system.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Perinereis aibuhitensis was used to assess adverse biological effects caused by acute and chronic Pb²? exposure in artificial seawater under controlled laboratory conditions. In 96-hr acute toxicity experiments, the morphological changes showed a positive time/dose-dependent tendency, and the 96-hr LC?? value of Pb²? was 686.41 mg/L. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the content of total soluble protein (TSP), were investigated on days 1, 4, 7 and 10 after Pb²? exposure under chronic toxicity testing. Results showed that the activation of the antioxidant system in P. aibuhitensis depended on the Pb²? concentration and the duration of exposure time. Specifically, POD and SOD activities were induced on the first day of the exposure and decreased to the control level on day 10 after exposure. Therefore, these two indexes could be used to indicate oxidative stress associated with P. aibuhitensis exposure to Pb²?.
Related JoVE Video
Effect on metabolic enzymes and thyroid receptors induced by BDE-47 by activation the pregnane X receptor in HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
2,2',4,4'-Tetra-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), an important congener among polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds, has been predominantly in environmental samples and human tissue. Thyroid disruption is the most sensitive endpoint effect among a number of health effects of exposure to BDE-47 in animals and humans. However, the detailed underlying mechanisms in humans are not well understood. In the present study, human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-overexpressing HepG2 cell model and a dual-luciferase reporter assay system were constructed to investigate the role of hPXR in BDE-47-induced alterations of expression of metabolic enzymes and TR in vitro. The results showed that hPXR was significantly activated by BDE-47, and expression levels of both mRNA and protein of the thyroid receptor (TR) isoforms TR?1 and TR?1 were decreased in hPXR-overexpressing HepG2 cells after BDE-47 treatment. However, the increased expression of hepatic microsomal phase I enzyme CYP3A4 and phase II enzymes, UGT1A3 and SULT2A1 were also found. Taken together, the results indicated that BDE-47 was a strong hPXR activator, activation of hPXR played an important role in BDE-47-induced down-regulation of TR, and up-regulations of CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and SULT2A1 participated in the process, which may provide more toxicological evidence on mechanisms of disruption of thyroid hormone induced by BDE-47.
Related JoVE Video
CC Chemokine Receptor like 1 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor by Impairing CCR7-related Chemotaxis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atypical chemokine receptors (ACRs) have been discovered to participate in the regulation of tumor behavior. Here, we reported a tumor suppressive role of a novel ACR member, CC chemokine receptor like 1 (CCRL1), in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Both mRNA and protein expressions of CCRL1 correlated with malignant phenotype of HCC cells and were significantly down-regulated in tumor tissue compared with paired normal liver tissue. In both the initial and validation cohorts (n?=?240 and 384, respectively), CCRL1 deficiency was associated with advanced tumor stage and was an independent index for worse survival and increased recurrence. Furthermore, knockdown or forced expression of CCRL1 revealed that CCRL1 suppressed the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo, with depressed levels of CCL19 and CCL21. By sequestrating CCL19 and CCL21, CCRL1 reduced their binding to CCR7 and consequently mitigated the detrimental impact of CCR7, including Akt/GSK-3? pathway activation and nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin in tumor cells. Clinically, the prognostic value of the CCR7 expression in HCC depended on the expression level of CCRL1, suggesting that CCRL1 may serve as an upstream switch for the CCR7 signaling cascade. Together, our findings suggest that CCRL1 impairs chemotactic events that associated with CCR7 in progression and metastasis of HCC. Our results also show a potential interplay between typical and atypical chemokine receptors in human cancer.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-302c inhibits tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing the endothelial-mesenchymal transition of endothelial cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endothelial cells (ECs) are critical for angiogenesis, and microRNA plays important roles in this process. In this study, we investigated the function and mechanism of miR-302c in the process of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in ECs. When miR-302c was overexpressed in HUVECs, the motility of the HUVECs was weakened; the expression levels of EndMT markers were also changed: vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin was up-regulated, whereas ?-catenin, FSP1, and ?-SMA were down-regulated. Further in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the growth of HCC was inhibited when co-cultured or co-injected with HUVECs overexpressing miR-302c. On the contrary, when miR-302c was suppressed in HUVECs, the opposite results were observed. Reporter assays showed that miR-302c inhibited metadherin (MTDH) expression through directly binding to its 3'UTR. In addition, compared to ECs isolated from normal liver tissues of HCC patients, ECs isolated from tumor tissues expressed markedly low levels of miR-302c but high levels of MTDH. These results suggest that EC-specific miR-302c suppresses tumor growth in HCC through MTDH-mediated inhibition of EndMT. MTDH and miR-302c might provide a new strategy for anti-angiogenic therapy in HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Potential risk factors of re-intervention after endovascular repair for type B aortic dissections.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives: To assess the potential risk factors of re-intervention after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR). Background: TEVAR has been chosen as a less invasive alternative for Type B aortic dissections (TBADs); however, the potential risk factors of re-intervention remain unclear. Methods: A total of 252 TBADs patients initially treated with TEVAR between September 1998 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The indications for the initial TEVAR were 32 aorta enlargement (24 chronic), 71 malperfusion, 46 rupture (32 chronic), 67 refractory pain (54 chronic) and 44 refractory hypertension (38 chronic). The patients were stratified into single-intervention group and multi-intervention group. Results: The mean age was 54.1 years with 81.7% of male. We found the time from symptom onset to TEVAR was longer in multi-intervention group (17 vs. 112.5 days, P=0.006). Higher proportions of chronic dissection and smoking occurred in multi-intervention group (53.9% vs. 79.2% and 43.9% vs. 70.8%, P=0.018 and 0.012, respectively). The differences of oversizing, operation time, contrast medium dose, and blood loss between the groups were significant (13.8 ± 2.4% vs. 16.4 ± 2.9%, 92.5 vs. 196 minutes, 110 vs. 210 ml, 100 vs. 300 ml; P<0.001, <0.001, =0.002, and =0.003, respectively). The mortality within 30 days was 2.4% and the rates of stoke, paraplegia and retrograde dissection were 3.6%, 5.6% and 0.8%, respectively. The most common reasons of re-intervention were endoleaks, new dissections and incomplete thrombosis of the false lumen. Conclusions: we concluded that chronic phase, smoking and too big oversizing were potential risk factors of re-intervention. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis, structure, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence of siloles that contain planar fluorescent chromophores.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Herein, a new series of siloles that were 2,5-substituted with planar fluorescent chromophores (PFCs), including fluorene, fluoranthene, naphthalene, pyrene, and anthracene, were synthesized and characterized. These compounds showed weak emission in the solution state, owing to active intramolecular rotation (IMR), but the synergistic effect from electronic coupling between the PFC and the silole ring compensated for the emission quenching by the IMR process to some extent, thereby affording higher emission efficiencies than those of 2,3,4,5-tetraphenylsiloles in solution. These new siloles showed enhanced emission efficiencies in the aggregated state. The electroluminescence (EL) color and efficiency of new siloles were sensitive towards the PFC. Siloles containing naphthalene moieties showed green EL emission, whilst those containing anthracene moieties showed orange EL emission. The siloles containing pyrene moieties exhibited yellow EL emission at 546?nm, with a peak luminance of 49000?cd?cm(-2) and a high current efficiency of 9.1?cd?A(-1).
Related JoVE Video
Highly efficient "on water" catalyst-free nucleophilic addition reactions using difluoroenoxysilanes: dramatic fluorine effects.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A remarkable fluorine effect on "on water" reactions is reported. The C?F???H?O interactions between suitably fluorinated nucleophiles and the hydrogen-bond network at the phase boundary of oil droplets enable the formation of a unique microstructure to facilitate on water catalyst-free reactions, which are difficult to realize using nonfluorinated substrates. Accordingly, a highly efficient on water, catalyst-free reaction of difluoroenoxysilanes with aldehydes, activated ketones, and isatylidene malononitriles was developed, thus leading to the highly efficient synthesis of a variety of ?,?-difluoro-?-hydroxy ketones and quaternary oxindoles.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical characteristics, outcome, and risk factors for early and late intrahepatic recurrence of female patients after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There have been progressive increases in both the incidence and death rates of female patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our objective was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors influencing the recurrence and survival of female patients with HCC.
Related JoVE Video
microRNA?99a inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation ability, migration and invasion by targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in prostate cancer.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
microRNA?99a (miR?99a) was reported to be among the most frequently downregulated miRNAs in numerous types of human cancers, including prostate, bladder, hepatocellular and ovarian carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, squamous cell lung carcinoma as well as childhood adrenocortical tumors. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of miRNA?99a on cell proliferation, colony formation ability, migration and invasion in prostate cancer. Following transfection with miRNA?99a, cell viability, colony formation, cell migration and cell invasion assays were performed on prostate cancer cell lines, as well as western blot analysis and luciferase assays. miRNA?99a inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation ability, migration and invasion in DU145 and PC?3 cells, therefore indicating that miRNA?99a may have a tumor suppressive role in prostate cancer. In addition, the present study provided the first evidence that the mechanism of action of miRNA?99a may proceed by directly targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in prostate cancer. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that miRNA?99a may have potential use as a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
High Levels of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen are Associated with Poorer Survival and Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Low Hepatitis B Viral Loads.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recurrence is a disastrous outcome in patients with hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have undergone curative resection, and little is known about whether high levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) increase the risk of HCC recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Ubiquitylation of autophagy receptor Optineurin by HACE1 activates selective autophagy for tumor suppression.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In selective autophagy, receptors are central for cargo selection and delivery. However, it remains yet unclear whether and how multiple autophagy receptors might form complex and function concertedly to control autophagy. Optineurin (OPTN), implicated genetically in glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was a recently identified autophagy receptor. Here we report that tumor-suppressor HACE1, a ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitylates OPTN and promotes its interaction with p62/SQSTM1 to form the autophagy receptor complex, thus accelerating autophagic flux. Interestingly, the Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains that HACE1 conjugates onto OPTN might predominantly target OPTN for autophagic degradation. By demonstrating that the HACE1-OPTN axis synergistically suppresses growth and tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells, our findings may open an avenue for developing autophagy-targeted therapeutic intervention into cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Mental health is the most important factor influencing quality of life in elderly left behind when families migrate out of rural China.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
to investigate the quality of life and the associated factors on left behind elderly in rural China.
Related JoVE Video
KCNJ11 E23K variant is associated with the therapeutic effect of sulphonylureas in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the E23K variant of the potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11) gene on gliclazide modified release (MR) treatment in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 108 diabetic patients with no history of antidiabetic medication was treated with gliclazide MR for 16 weeks and underwent follow up at Weeks 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16. All patients were genotyped for KCNJ11 E23K (rs5219). At baseline, patients with the KK genotype had higher blood glucose and lower serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration than patients with the EE and EK genotypes (P < 0.05 for all). During treatment, individuals with the KK genotype had lower fasting glucose levels and were more likely to attain the target fasting glucose level (Plog rank  = 0.028) than E allele carriers. Patients with the KK genotype had larger augmentations in changes (?) in acute insulin response (P = 0.049) and ? body mass index (P = 0.003). Moreover, patients with the EK genotype had a lower variance in changes in fasting insulin levels (P = 0.049) and homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function (P = 0.021) than those with the KK genotype. The findings of the present study suggest that the KCNJ11 E23K variant is associated with a greater effect of sulphonylurea treatment in newly diagnosed Chinese patients with T2DM.
Related JoVE Video
Low concentrations of trichosanthin induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via c?Jun N?terminal protein kinase/mitogen?activated protein kinase activation.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trichosanthin (TCS) is a type I ribosome?-inactivating protein, which inhibits cell viability in human epithelial type 2 (HEp?2) and AMC?HN?8 human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells. Although TCS is a potential chemotherapeutic agent, its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. In the present study, HEp?2 and AMC?HN?8 cells were treated with different concentrations of TCS combined with or without cisplatin. After 5 days of successive treatment, different experimental groups were detected using a cell counting kit?8 and the collected supernatants were analyzed using a lactate dehydrogenase kit. Flow cytometric assays were performed to detect apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the HEp?2 and AMC?HN?8 cells, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the levels of p27, p21WAF and western blot analysis was performed to detect changes in c?Jun N?terminal protein kinase (JNK)/phosphorylated (phospho)?JNK, p38/phospho?p38, extracellular signal?regulated kinase (ERK)/phospho?ERK, caspase?3 and caspase?9 in the HEp?2 and AMC?HN?8 cancer cells. TCS significantly inhibited the cell viability of the HEp?2 and AMC?HN?8 cells, independently of necrosis. TCS induced apoptosis and increased the percentage of HEp?2 and AMC?HN?8 cells in the S?phase of the cell cycle. In addition, the JNK/mitogen?activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was activated by TCS in the HEp?2 and AMC?HN?8 cells. Low concentrations of TCS also induced apoptosis and S?phase cell cycle arrest in the HEp?2 and AMC?HN?8 cells. The antitumor effects of TCS may be associated with JNK/MAPK activation.
Related JoVE Video
Cadmium accumulation, sub-cellular distribution and chemical forms in rice seedling in the presence of sulfur.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Changes in cadmium (Cd) accumulation, distribution, and chemical form in rice seedling in the joint presence of different concentrations of sulfur (S) remain almost unknown. Therefore, the indoor experiments were performed to determine the accumulation, sub-cellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd under three S levels in rice seedling for the first time. The result showed that Cd accumulation in rice roots was more than in shoots. Sub-cellular distribution of Cd in rice roots and shoots indicated that the largest proportion of Cd accumulated in cell walls and soluble fractions. As S supply increased, the proportion of Cd in cell walls reduced, while it increased in the soluble fractions. The majority of Cd existed in inorganic form, and then gradually changed to organic forms that included pectates and proteins with increased S supply. The results showed that S supply significantly influenced Cd accumulation, distribution, and chemical forms, suggesting that S might provide the material for the synthesis of sulfhydryl protein and thereby affect Cd stress on plants. These observations provided a basic understanding of potential ecotoxicological effects of joint Cd and S exposure in the environment.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-199a inhibits the ability of proliferation and migration by regulating CD44-Ezrin signaling in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), the second most common form of human cancer, is an epithelial skin tumor, which can result in metastasis with lethal consequences accounting for about 20% of all skin cancer-related deaths. The metastasis is the main reason for cSCC-related deaths with an overall 5-year survival rate < 30% in cases that spread systemically. The role of miRNAs has been involved in SCC of different origins. Recent data have revealed that the expression of miRNA-199a was changed in many human cancers. In this study, we found that miR-199a was significantly decreased in cSCC tissues, which had an inverse relationship with CD44. MiR-199a specifically regulated the expression of CD44 at mRNA and protein levels, and the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin in cSCC cells. Moreover, the suppressive role of miR-199a in cell migration in cSCC cells was also associated with the activity of MMP2 and MMP9. Taken together, our data indicated that increased expression of endogenous mature miR-199a might prevent the growth and migration of human cSCC via decreasing the expression of CD44 and regulating the interaction between CD44 and Ezrin, which may provide a potentially important therapeutic target for human cSCC.
Related JoVE Video
RANKL promotes migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via NF-?B-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metastasis accounts for the most deaths in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) is associated with cancer metastasis, while its role in HCC remains largely unknown.
Related JoVE Video
The interfaces of lanthanum oxide-based subnanometer EOT gate dielectrics.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
When pushing the gate dielectric thickness of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices down to the subnanometer scale, the most challenging issue is the interface. The interfacial transition layers between the high-k dielectric/Si and between the high-k dielectric/gate metal become the critical constraints for the smallest achievable film thickness. This work presents a detailed study on the interface bonding structures of the tungsten/lanthanum oxide/silicon (W/La2O3/Si) MOS structure. We found that both W/La2O3 and La2O3/Si are thermally unstable. Thermal annealing can lead to W oxidation and the forming of a complex oxide layer at the W/La2O3 interface. For the La2O3/Si interface, thermal annealing leads to a thick low-k silicate layer. These interface layers do not only cause significant device performance degradation, but also impose a limit on the thinnest equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) to be achievable which may be well above the requirements of our future technology nodes.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the trend and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes among high-risk adults in Shanghai from 2002 to 2012.
Related JoVE Video
Regularization design in penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection in 3D PET.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Detecting cancerous lesions is a major clinical application in emission tomography. In previous work, we have studied penalized maximum-likelihood (PML) image reconstruction for the detection task and proposed a method to design a shift-invariant quadratic penalty function to maximize detectability of a lesion at a known location in a two dimensional image. Here we extend the regularization design to maximize detectability of lesions at unknown locations in fully 3D PET. We used a multiview channelized Hotelling observer (mvCHO) to assess the lesion detectability in 3D images to mimic the condition where a human observer examines three orthogonal views of a 3D image for lesion detection. We derived simplified theoretical expressions that allow fast prediction of the detectability of a 3D lesion. The theoretical results were used to design the regularization in PML reconstruction to improve lesion detectability. We conducted computer-based Monte Carlo simulations to compare the optimized penalty with the conventional penalty for detecting lesions of various sizes. Only true coincidence events were simulated. Lesion detectability was also assessed by two human observers, whose performances agree well with that of the mvCHO. Both the numerical observer and human observer results showed a statistically significant improvement in lesion detection by using the proposed penalty function compared to using the conventional penalty function.
Related JoVE Video
Dissection of the transcriptional regulator GlpR, the promoter elements, and the post-transcriptional processing involved in the fructose-induced activation of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system in Haloferax mediterranei.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Among all known archaeal strains, the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) for fructose utilization is primarily used by haloarchaea that thrive in hypersaline environments, whereas the molecular details of the regulation of the archaeal PTS under fructose induction remain unclear. In this study, we present a comprehensive examination of the regulatory mechanism of the fructose-PTS (HFX_1559-HFX_1563) in the haloarchaeon Haloferax mediterranei. With gene knockout-complementation, microarray analysis and ChIP-qPCR, we revealed that GlpR (HFX_1565) is the indispensable activator, which specifically binds to the PTS promoter (PPTS) during fructose induction. Further promoter scanning mutation indicated that three sites located at the upstream of the H. mediterranei PPTS, which are conserved in most haloarchaeal PPTS, are found to be involved in this induction. Interestingly, two PTS transcripts (named T8 and T17) with different 5 UTR lengths were observed, and the promoter or 5 UTR swap experiments indicated that the shorter 5 UTR was most likely generated from the longer one. Notably, the translation efficiency of the transcript with this shorter 5 UTR was significantly higher, and the ratio of T8 (with the shorter 5 UTR) to T17 increased during fructose induction, implying that a post-transcriptional mechanism is also involved in PTS activation. With these insights into the molecular regulation of the haloarchaeal PTS, we have proposed a working model of haloarchaea in response to environmental fructose.
Related JoVE Video
Significance of MDM2-309 Polymorphisms and Induced Corresponding Plasma MDM2 Levels in Susceptibility to Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and tumor prevention. Murine double-minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein plays a pivotal role in regulating p53, and the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 309T/G SNP in the promoter region of Mdm2 has been shown to be associated with increased risk of cancer. We investigated the association between Mdm2-309 promoter polymorphism, plasma MDM2 levels, and risk of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). In this case-control study, 146 patients with LSCC, 61 patients with vocal leukoplakia, and 212 healthy controls were genotyped for the Mdm2-309 T/G gene using pyrosequencing. Plasma MDM2 levels were also analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients with LSCC had a significantly lower frequency of GT at Mdm2-309 (odds ratio [OR]=0.50, p=0.02) than controls. The proportion of GT heterozygotes in advanced stage cases were less than that in the initial stage patients (OR: 0.36 vs. 0.63; p=0.007 and 0.16). The same result was found between cases with and without lymph node metastases (OR: 0.45 vs. 0.52; p=0.075 and 0.04). Moreover, the plasma Mdm2 concentrations of LSCC patients (343.36±14.8?pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in controls (255.76±8.2?pg/mL; p<0.01) and vocal leukoplakia patients (301.42±8.6?pg/mL; p<0.05). Patients in advanced stages and with lymph node metastasis had higher plasma MDM2 levels, while the GT genotypes (308.06±18.9?pg/mL; p=0.037) had lower MDM2 plasma levels than the TT genotypes (369.00±25.2?pg/mL). The Mdm2 SNP309 G allele is implicated as an important LSCC and a vocal leukoplakia protective factor in the Chinese Han Population, and the proportion of GT genotype was lower in advanced LSCC patients and lymph node metastasis patients. Moreover, Mdm2-309 GT genotype patients had a lower plasma MDM2 level than the TT genotypes.
Related JoVE Video
CXCL5 contributes to tumour metastasis and recurrence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by recruiting infiltrative intratumoural neutrophils.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CXCL5 is a member of the CXC-type chemokine family that may play a role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. This study investigates the biological function and clinical significance of CXCL5 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). We demonstrated that CXCL5 was overexpressed in ICC cell lines and tumour samples compared with paired normal tissues. CXCL5 had a direct chemoattractant effect on neutrophils in vitro through PI3K-Akt and ERK1/2 signalling pathways. In animal studies, CXCL5 promoted tumour growth and metastasis without altering in vitro proliferative and invasive ability of ICC cells, and this effect was mediated by the recruitment of intratumoural infiltrative neutrophils by tumour-derived CXCL5. Immunohistochemical analysis of ICC samples showed that overexpression of CXCL5 correlated strongly with intratumoural neutrophil infiltration, shorter overall survival, and high tumour recurrence. Multivariate analysis revealed that CXCL5 overexpression alone, or combined with the presence of intratumoural neutrophils, was an independent prognostic indicator for ICC. In conclusion, our data showed that CXCL5 promotes ICC growth and metastasis by recruiting intratumoural neutrophils. CXCL5 alone or combined with intratumoural neutrophils is a novel prognostic predictor for ICC patients and a potential therapeutic target.
Related JoVE Video
Carrier induced magnetic coupling transitions in phthalocyanine-based organometallic sheet.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A two-dimensional sheet with long range ferromagnetic (FM) order has been hotly pursued currently. The recent success in synthesizing polymerized Fe-phthalocyanine (poly-FePc) porous sheets paves a possible way to achieve this goal. However, the poly-FePc and its analog poly-CrPc structure are intrinsically antiferromagnetic (AFM). Using first principles combined with Monte-Carlo simulations, we study systematically the carrier-induced magnetic coupling transitions in poly-CrPc and poly-FePc sheets. We show that electron doping can induce stable FM states with Curie temperatures of 130-140 K, while hole doping will enhance the stability of the AFM states. Such changes in magnetic couplings depend on the balance of AFM superexchange and FM p-d exchange.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced size-dependent trapping of particles using microvortices.
Microfluid Nanofluidics
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inertial microfluidics has been attracting considerable interest for size-based separation of particles and cells. The inertial forces can be manipulated by expanding the microchannel geometry, leading to formation of microvortices which selectively isolate and trap particles or cells from a mixture. In this work, we aim to enhance our understanding of particle trapping in such microvortices by developing a model of selective particle trapping. Design and operational parameters including flow conditions, size of the trapping region, and target particle concentration are explored to elucidate their influence on trapping behavior. Our results show that the size dependence of trapping is characterized by a threshold Reynolds number, which governs the selective entry of particles into microvortices from the main flow. We show that concentration enhancement on the order of 100,000× and isolation of targets at concentrations in the 1/mL is possible. Ultimately, the insights gained from our systematic investigation suggest optimization solutions that enhance device performance (efficiency, size selectivity, and yield) and are applicable to selective isolation and trapping of large rare cells as well as other applications.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of osthole on bone metabolism in rat femoral tissues in vitro].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of osthole on bone metabolism in rat femoral tissues in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of icariin and genistein on peak bone mass in rats].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effects of icariin(ICA)and genistein(GEN)on rats bone peak mass and thus screen for a drug that can more effectively prevent osteoporosis.
Related JoVE Video
[Relationships between settlement morphology transition and residents commuting energy consumption].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Settlement morphology transition is triggered by rapid urbanization and urban expansion, but its relationships with residents commuting energy consumption remains ambiguous. It is of significance to understand the controlling mechanisms of sustainable public management policies on the energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the process of urban settlement morphology transition. Taking the Xiamen City of East China as a case, and by using the integrated land use and transportation modeling system TRANUS, a scenario analysis was made to study the effects of urban settlement morphology transition on the urban spatial distribution of population, jobs, and land use, and on the residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gasses emission under different scenarios. The results showed that under the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the energy consumption of the residents at the morning peak travel time was 54.35 tce, and the CO2 emission was 119.12 t. As compared with those under BAU scenario, both the energy consumption and the CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology (TSM) scenario increased by 12%, and, with the implementation of the appropriate policies such as land use, transportation, and economy, the energy consumption and CO2 emission under the Transition of Settlement Morphology with Policies (TSMP) scenario reduced by 7%, indicating that urban public management policies could effectively control the growth of residents commuting energy consumption and greenhouse gases emission during the period of urban settlement morphology transition.
Related JoVE Video
[One case of big nasopharynx granulation caused by postnasal packing].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In April of this year, one patient was under left posterior nostril packing treatment with gauze balls as his left nostril bleeding. 3 days later the balls were removed. Soon after, he had foreign body sensation in his throat and the discomfort was increasingly severe. Under electronic laryngoscopy a big neoplasm like nasopharynx granulation was discovered and therefore resected when he was in general anesthesia. Under light microscope, it was found out that the neoplasm had fibrogenesis, angiogenesis, infiltration and interstitial osteoporosis edema. In pathological diagnosis, it was nasopharyngeal inflammatory granulation tissue.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on confinement effect of phonon like modes for mesoscopic aggregation structure of glasses phases in the imitating magmatic rocks by Raman spectra].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present paper, the mesoscopic aggregation structure parameters and the phonon confinement effect like modes of these glass phases in the imitating ultrabasic rock (MU), imitating basic rock (MB), imitating intermediate rock (MI) & imitating acidic rock (MA) were detected by means of phonon dispersion theory, quatume chemical calculation (ab initio)and LWRS, RS analysis technology. The phonon dispersion curves like modes of the MU, MB, MI and MA have were established. It was obtained that as fast as the mesoscopic aggregation size was increasing, the low frequency changes of the phonics phonon like modes transverse wave (TA) & longitudinal wave (LA) were red shifted, the medium & high frequency changes of the optics phonon like modes transverse wave (TO) & longitudinal wave (LO) were blue shifted, the width at half maximum of Raman spectra peak (FWHM) was decreasing and the change bound of the aggregation size was increasing. These conclusions not only enriched the theory of phonon dispersion like modes in the low dimension silicates and its melts, but also exploited new field of Raman spectroscopic study of mesoscopic structure in magmatic rocks. It provides important information for deliberating crystallization, evolution and ore-forming rule of natural magma.
Related JoVE Video
Bioinspired graphene nanopores with voltage-tunable ion selectivity for na(+) and k(+).
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biological protein channels have many remarkable properties such as gating, high permeability, and selectivity, which have motivated researchers to mimic their functions for practical applications. Herein, using molecular dynamics simulations, we design bioinspired nanopores in graphene sheets that can discriminate between Na(+) and K(+), two ions with very similar properties. The simulation results show that, under transmembrane voltage bias, a nanopore containing four carbonyl groups to mimic the selectivity filter of the KcsA K(+) channel preferentially conducts K(+) over Na(+). A nanopore functionalized by four negatively charged carboxylate groups to mimic the selectivity filter of the NavAb Na(+) channel selectively binds Na(+) but transports K(+) over Na(+). Surprisingly, the ion selectivity of the smaller diameter pore containing three carboxylate groups can be tuned by changing the magnitude of the applied voltage bias. Under lower voltage bias, it transports ions in a single-file manner and exhibits Na(+) selectivity, dictated by the knock-on ion conduction and selective blockage by Na(+). Under higher voltage bias, the nanopore is K(+)-selective, as the blockage by Na(+) is destabilized and the stronger affinity for carboxylate groups slows the passage of Na(+) compared with K(+). The computational design of biomimetic ion-selective nanopores helps to understand the mechanisms of selectivity in biological ion channels and may also lead to a wide range of potential applications such as sensitive ion sensors, nanofiltration membranes for Na(+)/K(+) separation, and voltage-tunable nanofluidic devices.
Related JoVE Video
Autophagy inhibition suppresses pulmonary metastasis of HCC in mice via impairing anoikis resistance and colonization of HCC cells.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metastasis is one of the main causes of poor prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which has been linked to cell-death resistance. Autophagy is an important survival mechanism under conditions of cell stress. We hypothesized that autophagy may play a role in HCC metastasis due to its prosurvival effect. Highly metastatic HCC cell lines with stable autophagy inhibition were established via lentivirus-mediated silencing of BECN1 and ATG5 genes. Mouse models of pulmonary metastasis were then developed using the cells with or without autophagy inhibition. The analysis of lung metastasis by histopathological examination and small animal imaging showed that autophagy inhibition significantly decreased the incidence of pulmonary metastases in vivo. Further invasion, migration, detachment, lung colonization, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) assays indicated that autophagy inhibition did not affect cell invasiveness, migration or EMT but attenuated the anoikis-resistance and lung colonization of HCC cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying showed that the autophagy-inhibition-mediated anoikis-resistance attenuation was associated with the regulation of apoptotic signaling. As autophagy inhibition was shown to be able to suppress HCC metastasis, an autophagy-based HCC tissue-specific target therapy system (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA) was constructed. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that the system was able to efficiently inhibit autophagy of HCC cells and tissue in a tissue-specific manner. Further in vivo metastasis assay showed that intratumoral administration of the system could significantly suppress lung metastasis. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy may be involved in HCC metastasis through facilitating anoikis resistance and lung colonization of HCC cells. Autophagy-based HCC tissue-specific target therapy may be a new strategy for the management of HCC metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration.
Related JoVE Video
One-pot tandem approach to spirocyclic oxindoles featuring adjacent spiro-stereocenters.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
All in a sequence: An organocatalyzed Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH)/bromination/[3+2] annulation sequence for highly stereoselective syntheses of bis(spirooxindole)s featuring adjacent spiro-stereocenters is described. The key step is an unprecedented catalytic asymmetric [3+2] annulation of isatin-derived MBH adducts, containing a tetrasubstituted alkene moiety, with isatins.
Related JoVE Video
Advanced oxidation protein products accelerate bone deterioration in aged rats.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are novel markers of oxidation-mediated protein damage, and accumulation of AOPPs is involved in many pathophysiological conditions. Our previous studies demonstrated that the serum level of AOPPs negatively correlated with the age-related change in bone mineral density (BMD) in rats and that AOPPs inhibited rat osteoblast-like cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. However, whether AOPPs are involved in senile osteoporosis is still largely unknown. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that accumulation of AOPPs might accelerate bone deterioration in aged rats. Seventy 18-month-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized to intravenous injection of vehicle, native rat serum albumin (RSA), AOPPs-modified RSA (AOPPs-RSA) with or without oral administration of apocynin (a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor), or apocynin alone. After treatment for 8weeks or 16weeks, seven rats in each group were sacrificed. Bone and blood samples were harvested for BMD measurement, micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging, and biochemical analysis of circulating bone biomarkers. Compared to RSA- or vehicle-treated rats, AOPPs-RSA-treated animals displayed significantly decreased total vertebral BMD and deteriorated microstructure in both the tibias and the lumbar vertebral bodies, which were associated with down-regulated plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration and up-regulated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b concentration. These AOPPs-induced perturbations in aged rats could be prevented by the oral administration of apocynin. However, no significant differences in BMD were detected in the femurs or the biomechanical parameters tested between the different treatment groups. These data suggest that accumulation of AOPPs accelerates bone deterioration in aged rats, likely via the activation of NADPH oxidase. This study provides new information toward understanding the pathogenic basis of senile osteoporosis and may provide targets for intervention.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.