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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Morphological Proof of nerve regeneration after long-term defects of rat sciatic nerves.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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ABSTRACT Unsatisfactory efficacy of clinical cure for long-term delayed injuries and other disadvantages such as the low regeneration rate and speed of axotomized neurons and the questionable reinnervation ability of atrophic target organ lead to inaction to the long-term delayed injuries. Here we attempted to use autologous nerve to bridge a long-term delayed 10-mm defect in SD rats based on some previous positive messages of basic and clinical research. In this study, for experimental groups, the rat sciatic nerve had been transected leaving a 10-mm defect, which was maintained for 3 or 6 months before implantation with the autologous graft. The non-grafted animals served as negative control. Measuring with electrophysiological and histological techniques, we find: A number of long-term axotomized neurons survived and sustained certain degree of axonal regenerative capacity; A few denervated Schwann cells survived and retained their ability to provide trophic support and myelinate axons in at least 6 months; the chronically denervated muscle can partially be reinnervated by regenerated axons. But the quantity and the quality of the regenerated nerve fibers and the reinnervated muscle fibers were all poor. Thus these observations provide new positive morphological proof of nerve regeneration after long-term defects and further studies will be needed to increase the survival rate and the regenerative speed of long-term chronic axotomized neurons, enhance the support provided by denervated distal stumps and protect the target muscle.
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[Clinical implication of urinary protein markers in diabetic nephropathy and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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In clinic, some urinary protein makers can dynamically and noninvasively reflect the degree of renal tubular injury in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). These urinary biomarkers of tubular damage are broadly divided into two categories. One is newfound, including kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), neutrophil getatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and cystatin C (CysC); the other one is classical, including beta2 microglobulin (beta2-MG), retinal binding protein (RBP) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). It is reported that, the increases in urinary protein markers are not only closely related to the damage of tubular epithelial cells in DN patients, but also can be ameliorated by the treatment with Chinese herbal compound preparations or Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, although urinary proteomics are used in the protein separation and identification, the traditional associated detection of urinary protein markers is more practical in clinic. At present, it is possible that the associated detection of urinary biomarkers of glomerular and tubular damages may be a feasible measure to reveal the clinical significance of urinary protein markers in DN patients and the interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine.
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Sterhirsutins A and B, two new heterodimeric sesquiterpenes with a new skeleton from the culture of Stereum hirsutum collected in Tibet Plateau.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Two new heterodimeric sesquiterpenes, sterhirsutins A (1) and B (2), and two new sesquiterpenes, hirsutic acids D-E (3 and 4), were identified from the culture of Stereum hirsutum. The absolute configurations in 1 and 2 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1 and 2 are likely biosynthesized from a hirsutane-type sesquiterpene and ?-humulene by a hetero-Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Compounds 1-4 showed cytotoxicity against K562 and HCT116 cell lines.
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[Research on explosive temperature network monitoring system based on the linear frequency shift of spectrum].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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In order to obtain the different position temperature changes in the process of explosive casting accurate, stability and comprehensive, we designed the temperature monitoring system based on fiber Bragg grating spectral shift. Through the fiberoptic network, the system can monitor the different point temperature of melt-cast explosive real-time. According to the function of linear frequency shift of fiber Bragg grating wavelength with the grating of temperature, we get the temperature of different positions. Four channels share a broadband light source with a coupler. The Bragg wavelengths of the 5 gratings of each fiber are separated from each other. Using the gratings designed, spliced and packaged by our own, we can obtain temperature data through the demodulator. The temperature data was processed by the Origin to draw diagram time-temperature curve. The results show that the measured temperature data of the fiber Bragg grating can meet the requirements of experiment.
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A randomized phase II study of everolimus for advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Chinese patients.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Everolimus, an oral inhibitor of mammalian target of mTOR, has been recently shown to have antitumor effect in a phase III, double-blind, randomized trial (RADIANT-3) of 410 patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific efficacy and safety of everolimus in the Chinese patient with PNETs. In this randomized phase II study, the analysis on Chinese patients was performed comparing efficacy and safety between everolimus 10 mg/day orally (n = 44) and matching placebo (n = 35). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Adverse events were also examined. The median PFS was 15.47 months with everolimus [95 % confidence interval (CI) 10.52-26.37], as compared to 4.29 months with placebo (95 % CI 2.22-10.75), representing a 72 % reduction in the risk of progression or death (hazard ratio 0.27; 95 % CI 0.13-0.59; P < 0.001). Drug-associated adverse events (AEs) were mostly grade 1 or 2, observed in all 44 (100 %) patients receiving everolimus and in 29 (83 %) patients receiving placebo. The most common AEs (grade 1-4) associated with everolimus were rash (n = 38; 86 %), stomatitis (n = 30; 68 %), infections (n = 33; 75 %), epistaxis (n = 32; 73 %), pneumonitis (n = 27; 61 %) and anemia (n = 22; 50 %). Everolimus when compared with placebo is effectively in improving PFS in Chinese patients with PNETs.
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Characteristics of secondary inorganic aerosol and sulfate species in size-fractionated aerosol particles in Shanghai.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) are the dominant species in secondary inorganic aerosol, and are considered an important factor in regional haze formation. Size-fractionated aerosol particles for a whole year were collected to study the size distribution of SNA as well as their chemical species in Shanghai. SNA mainly accumulated in fine particles and the highest average ratio of SNA to particulate matter (PM) was observed to be 47% in the fine size fraction (0.49-0.95 ?m). Higher sulfur oxidation ratio and nitrogen oxidation ratio values were observed in PM of fine size less than 0.95 ?m. Ion balance calculations indicated that more secondary sulfate and nitrate would be generated in PM of fine size (0.49-0.95 ?m). Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of typical samples were analyzed. Results revealed that sulfur mainly existed as sulfate with a proportion (atomic basis) more than 73% in all size of PM and even higher at 90% in fine particles. Sulfate mainly existed as (NH4)2SO4 and gypsum in PM of Shanghai. Compared to non-haze days, a dramatic increase of (NH4)2SO4 content was found in fine particles on haze days only, which suggested the promoting impact of (NH4)2SO4 on haze formation. According to the result of air mass backward trajectory analysis, more (NH4)2SO4 would be generated during the periods of air mass stagnation. Based on XANES, analysis of sulfate species in size-fractionated aerosol particles can be an effective way to evaluate the impact of sulfate aerosols on regional haze formation.
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Efficient Intramolecular Energy Transfer between Two Fluorophores in a Bis-Branched [3]Rotaxane.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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A bis-branched [3]rotaxane, with two [2]rotaxane arms separated by an oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) (OPV) fluorophore, was designed and investigated. Each [2]rotaxane arm employed a difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dye-functionalized dibenzo[24]crown-8 macrocycle interlocked onto a dibenzylammonium in the rod part. The chemical structure of the [3]rotaxane was confirmed and characterized by (1) H and (13) C?NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution ESI mass spectrometry. The photophysical properties of [3]rotaxane and its reference systems were investigated through UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. An efficient energy-transfer process in [3]rotaxane occurred from the OPV donor to the BODIPY acceptor because of the large overlap between the absorption spectrum of the BODIPY moiety and the emission spectrum of the OPV fluorophore; this shows the important potential of this system for designing functional molecular systems.
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Optimization of reaction conditions by RSM and structure characterization of sulfated locust bean gum.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Sulfated derivatives of galactomannan from locust bean gum (LBG) with the degree of substitution (DS) of 0.34-1.07 were synthesized using chlorosulfonic acid/pyridine (CSA/Py) method. Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the reaction conditions. Results of FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that SO3H groups were widely present in sulfated LBG (SLBG). (13)C NMR result revealed that sulfation had occurred and C-6 substitution was predominant in SLBG. All sulfated samples showed a decrease in Mw and more broad molar mass distribution in size exclusion chromatography combined with laser light scattering (SEC-LLS) analysis. Results of MW - [Formula: see text] showed a decrease in fractal dimension (df) value. Laser light scattering results also showed a conformation transition from a compact chain conformation of branched clusters to a random coil conformation of SLBG. Compared to LBG and SLBG with low DS and molecular weight, SLBG2 exhibited an internal structure of random coil with a DS of 1.07. DS and molecular weight had great influence on its conformation in aqueous solution. Our results confirmed that the degradation of polysaccharide and SO3H groups improved significantly the stiffness of the chains due to the electrostatic effect.
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Synthesis and characterization of phosphorylated galactomannan: the effect of DS on solution conformation and antioxidant activities.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Phosphorylated derivatives of galactomannan from guar gum (GG) with the degree of substitution (DS) of 0.35-0.52 were synthesized using POCl3/pyridine. FT-IR, (13)C NMR and XPS results revealed that phosphorylation had occurred and C-6 substitution was predominant in phosphorylated guar gum (PGG). PGG showed an increase in Mw and more broad molar mass distribution in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis. Higher reaction temperature (above 60 °C) resulted in a higher MW value in PGG. It might be due to the cross-linking of polysaccharide chains by POCl3 via di-ester which was also supported by monosaccharide composition result. Results of M(W) - (S(2))(z)(1/2) showed a decrease in fractal dimension (df) values. DS had greater influence on its conformation in aqueous solution. The introduction of -PO3H2 groups improved significantly the stiffness of the chains due to the electrostatic effect. Furthermore, antioxidant experiments revealed that high DS could enhance the scavenging activities of radicals of PGG in vitro.
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Contributions of fat mass and fat distribution to hip bone strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women.
J. Bone Miner. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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The fat and bone connection is complicated, and the effect of adipose tissue on hip bone strength remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relative contribution of body fat accumulation and fat distribution to the determination of proximal femur strength in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. This cross-sectional study enrolled 528 healthy postmenopausal women without medication history or known diseases. Total lean mass (LM), appendicular LM (ALM), percentage of lean mass (PLM), total fat mass (FM), appendicular FM (AFM), percentage of body fat (PBF), android and gynoid fat amount, android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AOI), bone mineral density (BMD), and proximal femur geometry were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip structure analysis was used to compute some variables as geometric strength-related parameters by analyzing the images of the hip generated from DXA scans. Correlation analyses among anthropometrics, variables of body composition and bone mass, and geometric indices of hip bone strength were performed with stepwise linear regression analyses as well as Pearson's correlation analysis. In univariate analysis, there were significantly inverse correlations between age, years since menopause (YSM), hip BMD, and hip geometric parameters. Bone data were positively related to height, body weight, LM, ALM, FM, AFM, and PBF but negatively related to AOI and amount of android fat (all P < 0.05). AFM and AOI were significantly related to most anthropometric parameters. AFM was positively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AFM was negatively associated with age and YSM. AOI was negatively associated with height, body weight, and BMI. AOI positively associated with age and YSM. LM, ALM, and FM had a positive relationship with anthropometric parameters (P < 0.05 for all). PLM had a negative relationship with those parameters. The correlation between LM, ALM, FM, PLM, ALM, age, and YSM was not significant. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the hip bone strength was observed to have a consistent and unchanged positive association with AFM and a negative association with AOI, whereas its association with other variables of body composition was not significant after adjusting for age, years since menopause, height, body weight, and BMI. AFM may be a positively protective effect for hip bone strength while AOI, rather than android fat, shows a strong negative association with hip bone strength after making an adjustment for confounders (age, YSM, height, body weight, and BMI) in healthy postmenopausal Chinese women. Rational weight control and AOI reduction during menopause may have vital clinical significance in decreasing postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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Alterations of the human gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Liver cirrhosis occurs as a consequence of many chronic liver diseases that are prevalent worldwide. Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. We build a reference gene set for the cohort containing 2.69 million genes, 36.1% of which are novel. Quantitative metagenomics reveals 75,245 genes that differ in abundance between the patients and healthy individuals (false discovery rate < 0.0001) and can be grouped into 66 clusters representing cognate bacterial species; 28 are enriched in patients and 38 in control individuals. Most (54%) of the patient-enriched, taxonomically assigned species are of buccal origin, suggesting an invasion of the gut from the mouth in liver cirrhosis. Biomarkers specific to liver cirrhosis at gene and function levels are revealed by a comparison with those for type 2 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. On the basis of only 15 biomarkers, a highly accurate patient discrimination index is created and validated on an independent cohort. Thus microbiota-targeted biomarkers may be a powerful tool for diagnosis of different diseases.
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Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands.
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Comparative expression profiles of microRNA in left and right atrial appendages from patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease exhibiting sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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The atrial fibrillation (AF) associated microRNAs (miRNAs) were found in the right atrium (RA) and left atrium (LA) from patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD). However, most studies only focus on the RA; and the potential differences of AF-associated miRNAs between the RA and LA are still unknown. The aim of this study was to perform miRNA expression profiles analysis to compare the potential differences of AF-associated miRNAs in the right atrial appendages (RAA) and left atrial appendages (LAA) from RMVD patients.
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Phylogenetic-based nomenclatural proposals for Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales) with new combinations in Tolypocladium.
IMA Fungus
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Ophiocordycipitaceae is a diverse family comprising ecologically, economically, medicinally, and culturally important fungi. The family was recognized due to the polyphyly of the genus Cordyceps and the broad diversity of the mostly arthropod-pathogenic lineages of Hypocreales. The other two cordyceps-like families, Cordycipitaceae and Clavicipitaceae, will be revised taxonomically elsewhere. Historically, many species were placed in Cordyceps, but other genera have been described in this family as well, including several based on anamorphic features. Currently there are 24 generic names in use across both asexual and sexual life stages for species of Ophiocordycipitaceae. To reflect changes in Art. 59 in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), we propose to protect and to suppress names within Ophiocordycipitaceae, and to present taxonomic revisions in the genus Tolypocladium, based on rigorous and extensively sampled molecular phylogenetic analyses. When approaching this task, we considered the principles of priority, monophyly, minimizing taxonomic revisions, and the practical utility of these fungi within the wider biological research community.
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Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on the expression of endogenous matrix metalloproteinase 9 in rat lung tissue.
Undersea Hyperb Med
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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To observe MMP9 expression in rat lungs under different degrees of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) exposure and to observe the relationship of tissue damage and apoptosis rate in the lung tissue.
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A glucan isolated from flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. inhibits aggregation and neurotoxicity of A?42.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Inhibition of A? aggregation and attenuation of its cytotoxicity are considered to valuable therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, a glucan named as LJW0F2 was purified from flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using monosaccharides composition analysis, methylation analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, this polysaccharide was elucidated to be an ?-D-(1?4)-glucan with an ?-(1?4) linked branch attached to the C-6 position. Its inhibitory effect on A?42 aggregation was measured by fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavine T (ThT) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We showed that polysaccharide LJW0F2 could inhibit A?42 aggregation in a dose-dependent-manner. Besides, LJW0F2 could attenuate the cytotoxicity induced by A?42 aggregation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report that the exogenous plant-derived polysaccharide might block A?42 aggregation directly and reduce its toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.
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Suppression of cell membrane permeability by suramin: involvement of its inhibitory actions on connexin 43 hemichannels.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Suramin is a clinically prescribed drug for treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, cancer and infection. It is also a well-known pharmacological antagonist of P2 purinoceptors. Despite its clinical use and use in research, the biological actions of this molecule are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of suramin on membrane channels, as exemplified by its actions on non-junctional connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels, pore-forming ?-haemolysin and channels involved in ATP release under hypotonic conditions.
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Is selective antegrade cerebral perfusion superior to retrograde cerebral perfusion for brain protection during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest? Metabolic evidence from microdialysis.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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This study aimed to investigate whether selective antegrade cerebral perfusion or retrograde cerebral perfusion is a better technique for brain protection in deep hypothermic circulatory arrest by obtaining metabolic evidence from microdialysis.
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Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion attenuating the TLR4/NF-?B pathway during deep hypothermia circulatory arrest in a pig model.
Cardiology
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The alteration of the Toll-like receptor/nuclear factor-kappa B (TLR4/NF-?B) signaling pathway during deep hypothermia circulatory arrest (DHCA) has not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of the TLR4/NF-?B pathway cytokine in cerebral injury resulting from DHCA as well as the effect of selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) on TLR4/NF-?B pathway expression.
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Purinergic control of AMPK activation by ATP released through connexin 43 hemichannels - pivotal roles in hemichannel-mediated cell injury.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Connexin hemichannels regulate many cell functions. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Hemichannel opening causes loss of ATP, we therefore speculated a potential role for AMPK in the biological actions of hemichannels. Activation of hemichannels by removal of extracellular Ca(2+) led to an efflux of ATP and a weak activation of AMPK. Unexpectedly, dysfunction of hemichannels markedly potentiated AMPK activation, which was reproduced by promotion of extracellular ATP degradation or inhibition of P2 purinoceptors but counteracted by exogenous ATP. Further analysis revealed that ATP induced a purinoceptor-dependent activation of Akt and mTOR. Suppression of Akt or mTOR augmented AMPK activation, whereas activation of Akt by transfection of cells with myristoylated Akt, a constitutively active form of Akt, abolished AMPK activation. In a pathological model of hemichannel opening triggered by Cd(2+), disclosure of hemichannels similarly enhanced AMPK activity, which protected cells from Cd(2+)-induced cell injury through suppression of mTOR. In summary, our data point to a channel-mediated mechanism for the regulation of AMPK through a purinergic signaling pathway. Furthermore, we define AMPK as a pivotal molecule that underlies the regulatory effects of hemichannels on cell survival.
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Simultaneous determination of eight flavonoids in propolis using chemometrics-assisted high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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A fast analytical strategy of second-order calibration method based on the alternating trilinear decomposition algorithm (ATLD)-assisted high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was established for the simultaneous determination of eight flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, apigenin, galangin and chrysin) in propolis capsules samples. The chromatographic separation was implemented on a Wondasil™ C18 column (250mm×4.6mm, 5?m) within 13min with a binary mobile phase composed of water with 1% formic acid and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0mLmin(-1) after flavonoids were only extracted with methanol by ultrasound extraction for 15min. The baseline problem was overcome by considering background drift as additional compositions or factors as well as the target analytes, and ATLD was employed to handle the overlapping peaks from analytes of interest or from analytes and co-eluting matrix compounds. The linearity was good with the correlation coefficients no less than 0.9947; the limit of detections (LODs) within the range of 3.39-33.05ngmL(-1) were low enough; the accuracy was confirmed by the recoveries ranged from 91.9% to 110.2% and the root-mean-square-error of predictions (RMSEPs) less than 1.1?g/mL. The results indicated that the chromatographic method with the aid of ATLD is efficient, sensitive and cost-effective and can realize the resolution and accurate quantification of flavonoids even in the presence of interferences, thus providing an alternative method for accurate quantification of analytes especially when the complete separation is not easily accomplished. The method was successfully applied to propolis capsules samples and the satisfactory results were obtained.
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Atrial fibrillation alters the microRNA expression profiles of the left atria of patients with mitral stenosis.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Structural changes of the left and right atria associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) in mitral stenosis (MS) patients are well known, and alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of the right atria have also been investigated. However, miRNA changes in the left atria still require delineation. This study evaluated alterations in miRNA expression profiles of left atrial tissues from MS patients with AF relative to those with normal sinus rhythm (NSR).
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Genome sequencing and genomic characterization of a tigecycline-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain isolated from the bile samples of a cholangiocarcinoma patient.
Gut Pathog
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The relationship between Klebsiella pneumoniae and nosocomial and community-acquired infections is well known, and K. pneumoniae resistance to most antibiotics is increasing worldwide. In contrast, tigecycline remains active against many bacterial strains, and serves as a last resort for treating multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. That tigecycline nonsusceptibility among K. pneumoniae isolates has been reported worldwide is worrying. However, the mechanisms of tigecycline resistance in K. pneumoniae are less well known. We report the genome sequence and genomic characterization of tigecycline-resistant K. pneumoniae strain 5422 isolated from the bile samples of a patient with cholangiocarcinoma.
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Clarification of the concept of Ganoderma orbiforme with high morphological plasticity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ganoderma has been considered a very difficult genus among the polypores to classify and is currently in a state of taxonomic chaos. In a study of Ganoderma collections including numerous type specimens, we found that six species namely G. cupreum, G. densizonatum, G. limushanense, G. mastoporum, G. orbiforme, G. subtornatum, and records of G. fornicatum from Mainland China and Taiwan are very similar to one another in basidiocarp texture, pilear cuticle structure, context color, pore color and basidiospore characteristics. Further, we sequenced the nrDNA ITS region (ITS1 and ITS2) and partial mtDNA SSU region of the studied materials, and performed phylogenetic analyses based on these sequence data. The nrDNA ITS sequence analysis results show that the eight nrDNA ITS sequences derived from this study have single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ITS1 and/or ITS2 at inter- and intra-individual levels. In the nrDNA ITS phylogenetic trees, all the sequences from this study are grouped together with those of G. cupreum and G. mastoporum retrieved from GenBank to form a distinct clade. The mtDNA SSU sequence analysis results reveal that the five mtDNA SSU sequences derived from this study are clustered together with those of G. cupreum retrieved from GenBank and also form a distinct clade in the mtDNA SSU phylogenetic trees. Based on morphological and molecular data, we conclude that the studied taxa are conspecific. Among the names assigned to this species, G. fornicatum given to Asian collections has nomenclatural priority over the others. However, the type of G. fornicatum from Brazil is probably lost and a modern description based on the type lacks. The identification of the Asian collections to G. fornicatum therefore cannot be confirmed. To the best of our knowledge, G. orbiforme is the earliest valid name for use.
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AMPK Attenuates Adriamycin-induced Oxidative Podocyte Injury through Thioredoxin-mediated Suppression of ASK1-P38 Signaling Pathway.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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Oxidative stress-induced podocyte injury is one of the major mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of glomerulosclerosis. AMPK, a serine/threonine kinase that senses intracellular energy status and maintains energy homeostasis, is reported to have anti-oxidative effects. However, little is known about its application and mechanism. In this study, we investigated whether and how AMPK affected oxidative podocyte injury induced by adriamycin (ADR). Exposure of podocytes to ADR resulted in cell injury, which was preceded by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and P38 activation. Prevention of oxidative stress with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine and glutathione or inhibition of P38 with SB203580 attenuated cell injury. Activation of AMPK with three structurally different AMPK activators also protected podocytes from ADR-elicited cell injury. This effect was associated with strong suppression of oxidative stress-sensitive kinase ASK1 and P38 without obvious influence on ROS level. Further analyses revealed that AMPK promoted thioredoxin (Trx) binding to ASK1. Consistently, AMPK potently suppressed the expression of TXNIP, a negative regulator of Trx, whereas it significantly enhanced the activity of Trx reductases that convert oxidized Trx to reduced form. In further support of a key role of Trx, downregulation or inhibition of Trx exaggerated, whereas downregulation of TXNIP attenuated the cell injury. These results indicate that AMPK prevents oxidative cell injury through Trx-mediated suppression of ASK1-P38 signaling pathway. Our findings thus provide novel mechanistic insights into the antioxidative actions of AMPK. AMPK could be developed as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of oxidative cell injury.
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[Myocardial expression of Spry1 and MAPK proteins of viral myocarditis].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To discuss the myocardial expression of Spry1 and MAPK proteins of viral myocarditis (VMC), to reveal its mechanism of sudden death, and to provide guides for forensic identification of sudden cardiac death.
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[Regulative mechanism of renal inflammatory-related p38MAPK signaling pathway in diabetic nephropathy and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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It is reported, in the process of diabetic nephropathy (DN), inflammatory-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway has a close relationship with renal injury. On the one hand,many factors in the upstream including hyperglycemia, abnormal hemodynamics, oxidative stress, and pro-inflammatory cytokines could activate p38MAPK signaling pathway. On the other hand,the activated p38MAPK signaling pathway could lead to renal damage via activating inflammatory cells, inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators, and intervening cytokines production. CHM could intervene p38MAPK signaling pathway through multi-ways, including inhibiting inflammatory cytokines expression, regulating phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) expression, and reducing fibrogenic factors expression.
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[Temporal-spatial difference of ecotoxicity and heavy metals pollution in Shima catchment, Dongguan].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Shima River, a tributary of Dongjiang River, located in Dongguan City of Guangdong Province, has been seriously polluted in the last 30 years. Water samples were collected from the river and the aquifer and the soil samples were collected as well in the wet (June) and dry (February) season to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of water quality in terms of heavy metal concentrations and inhibition rate of the luminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri, LUMIStox 300). Heavy metal concentrations and inhibition rate in river water were found decreasing from the upstream to the downstream, with metal concentrations exceeding the national surface water quality standard (Class I) for all samples and a highest inhibition of 38.34% (equivalent to moderate toxic) at R1 in the dry season. Significant difference (P < 0.01 or P < 0.001) in the wet and dry season was identified in both metal concentrations and inhibition rate, except at R11, which showed a inhibition rate of 15.56%, higher than those in all other samples in the wet season. Inhibition rate at GW4, GW5 and GW6 showed significant difference (P < 0.01 or P < 0.001) in the two periods, and the highest inhibition rate (15.88%) at GW6 in the dry season was considered as low in toxicity. The positive correlations (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) between heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Mn and Ni) and inhibition rate were identified with correlation coefficients of 0.452, 0.567, 0.726 and 0.475, respectively. Heavy metal pollution of soil (Cu, Ni and Zn) near the river was due to the interaction between the river and the groundwater. Cd was heavily accumulated in the soil, while elevated concentrations of Fe and Mn were found in the river and the groundwater was heavily polluted by Ni.
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[Efficacy and safety of low-frequency rotary magnetic fields in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant tumors].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of low-frequency rotary magnetic fields in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant tumors.
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Bacterial effector activates jasmonate signaling by directly targeting JAZ transcriptional repressors.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Gram-negative bacterial pathogens deliver a variety of virulence proteins through the type III secretion system (T3SS) directly into the host cytoplasm. These type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) play an essential role in bacterial infection, mainly by targeting host immunity. However, the molecular basis of their functionalities remains largely enigmatic. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae T3SE HopZ1a, a member of the widely distributed YopJ effector family, directly interacts with jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins through the conserved Jas domain in plant hosts. JAZs are transcription repressors of jasmonate (JA)-responsive genes and major components of the jasmonate receptor complex. Upon interaction, JAZs can be acetylated by HopZ1a through a putative acetyltransferase activity. Importantly, P. syringae producing the wild-type, but not a catalytic mutant of HopZ1a, promotes the degradation of HopZ1-interacting JAZs and activates JA signaling during bacterial infection. Furthermore, HopZ1a could partially rescue the virulence defect of a P. syringae mutant that lacks the production of coronatine, a JA-mimicking phytotoxin produced by a few P. syringae strains. These results highlight a novel example by which a bacterial effector directly manipulates the core regulators of phytohormone signaling to facilitate infection. The targeting of JAZ repressors by both coronatine toxin and HopZ1 effector suggests that the JA receptor complex is potentially a major hub of host targets for bacterial pathogens.
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Regioselective synthesis of sulfated guar gum: Comparative studies of structure and antioxidant activities.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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We reported here a new synthesis of C-2 and C-3 sulfated guar gum (SRSGG) with low degree of substitution (DSS) of 0.58, employing triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as a protected precursor. The yield and DSTr (calculated from the weight of triphenylmethanol) of triphenylmethylated GG (GGTr) was 165.6% and 0.71, respectively. In addition, low ratio (1:4) of chlorosulfuric acid to pyridine (1:4) was chosen in sulfation reaction since the protecting group was slightly sensitive to acid. Results of FT-IR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy indicated that C-2 and C-3 substitution was predominant but not fully sulfated in SRSGG. Size-exclusion chromatograph combined with multi-angle laser photometer (SEC-LLS) showed a decrease in molecular weight in the reaction. This might be due to the degradation in sulfation and deprotection process. Finally, we investigated the effect of structure features on the antioxidant activities in vitro. Vitro antioxidant experiments revealed that the regioselective sulfation at C-2 and C-3 and low molecular weight afforded strong antioxidant activities showing a much higher scavenging abilities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical than that by the known C-6-sulfated derivative. The antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides were not a function of a single factor but a combination of molecular weight, DSS and substitution positions.
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[Size distribution of carbonaceous particulate matter in atmosphere of Shanghai, China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Using STAPLEX pumping system with a six-stage cascade impactor (size range: <0.49 microm, 0.49-0.95 microm, 0.95-1.5 microm, 1.5-3.0 microm, 3.0-7.2 microm, > 7.2 microm), the atmospheric particulate samples at suburb (Jiading District) and urban (Xuhui District) sites in Shanghai, China were collected from May 2010 to May 2011. The organic carbon (OC) and the element carbon (EC) of those samples were analyzed by a DRI Model 2001 thermal/optical carbon analyzer with the reflectance (TOR) method. The size distributions of OC and EC in atmospheric particles both showed bimodal distributions at Jiading and Xuhui, with the peaks at size range of < 0.49 microm. Meanwhile, the average annual concentrations of OC and EC in PM3.0 were 16.35 microg x m(-3) and 2.22 microg x m(-3) at Jiading, 11.85 microg x m(-3) and 1.91 microg x m(-3) at Xuhui, respectively. The higher concentrations of particulate matters together with their carbonaceous species at the suburb site indicated that the particulate and carbonaceous aerosol pollution was more serious at suburb than at urban in Shanghai. Compared with Xuhui, the OC shared a higher homology with EC at < 1.5 microm sizes at Jiading, which suggested that OC was mostly derived from combustion sources at urban site in Shanghai. Furthermore, the OC/EC mass ratios at various particulate sizes and those ratios of different sources were discussed. The result suggested that more vehicle emission and more road dust were present at Xuhui District. Moreover, the second organic carbon (SOC) were estimated using EC as a tracer of primary organic carbon, the SOC mass concentration in PM3.0 was 6.76 microg x m(-3) and had a proportion of 69% of OC in Shanghai, which also showed a bimodal distribution with peaks at size of 0. 49-0.95 microm and 3.0-7.2 microm, respectively.
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[Terahertz-band study on surface enhanced Raman scattering of nanoparticle].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Study on surface-enhanced Raman scattering in the terahertz-band proved in that the terahertz-band Raman enhancement also exists. By studing principles of electromagnetic enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering, using the finite difference time-domain method, the electromagnetic enhancement of surface enhanced Raman scattering of nano-particles irradiated by terahertz-wave was simulated, and the enhancement effect of terahertz waves was analyzed. Simulation experiments show that using finite-difference time-domain method could obtain effectively accurate simulation result of nano-particle scattering, proving that for terahertz waves, surface-enhanced effects on the surface of the nano-particle also exist. The results for surface enhanced Raman scattering extended from the visible and infrared to terahertz-band, and provide a basis for application of the combination of surface-enhanced Raman scattering and terahertz-wave.
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[Effects of moxibustion on expression of hypothalamic POMC mRNA and PDYN mRNA in rats with rheumatoid arthritis].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To explore the central mechanism of moxibustion on analgesic effect.
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Phaeolschidins A-E, five hispidin derivatives with antioxidant activity from the fruiting body of Phaeolus schweinitzii collected in the Tibetan Plateau.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Five new hispidin derivatives, phaeolschidins A-E (1-5), as well as two known natural products, pinillidine (6) and hispidin (7), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Phaeolus schweinitzii collected in the Tibetan Plateau. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Phaeolschidins A-D (1-4) are new bishispidins. Phaeolschidin E (5) is a new class of hispidin derivative in which one pyrrolidin-2-one moiety was linked to C-3 of hispidin. The antioxidant activity of 1-7 was evaluated using three methods: the DPPH scavenging assay, the total antioxidant capacity assay, and the lipid peroxidation assay. Hispidin showed the strongest antioxidant activity of all tested compounds. This is the first report of secondary metabolites from the fungus P. schweinitzii.
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[Research on detecting explosive content of 2, 4-dimitroanisole based on THz spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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In order to detect the content of a new kind of insensitive melting-cast explosive (DNAN), the system detected the THz characteristics wavelength of DNAN, and solved the content of DNAN by the Bill-Lambert law. Time coherent THz spectroscopy detection system was designed, in which the master system controlled stepper motor to get the micro-scanning of the photoelectric detector. The system parameters were calculated and derived for solving the content of DNAN, and THz characteristic spectrum of DNAN was obtained. Experiment used three methods to detect explosives samples with different content of DNAN, and the results show that the accuracy of this system is close to that of MINI-Z terahertz spectrometer currently broadly applied in THz spectroscopy detection equipment at home and abroad. On this basis, the optimization algorithm of characteristic absorption peak was designed, and by the origin software simulation analysis, it shows that the algorithm can further improve accuracy and stability of the detection system.
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Surgical treatment of a ventricular aneurysm in a patient with essential thrombocythemia complicated by acute myocardial infarction: A case report.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a chronic clonal myeloproliferative disorder, which is often complicated by arterial or venous thrombosis and idiopathic bleeding diathesis. The present study reports a female patient with ET complicated by acute myocardial infarction, leading to ventricular aneurysm following interventional therapy for 3 years and a subsequent in-stent restenosis. Following careful examination, a ventricular aneurysm resection and coronary artery bypass graft were carried out. During this case, the monitoring and controlling of the platelet count, pre- and post-operatively, was extremely important for successful surgery.
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Simultaneous determination of phenolic antioxidants in edible vegetable oils by HPLC-FLD assisted with second-order calibration based on ATLD algorithm.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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A novel strategy that combines the chemometrics method with high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven phenolic antioxidants in six kinds of oil samples. After a simple dilution step, oil samples can be directly injected into the detecting system and the data were measured in a short time with a chromatographic system operating in the gradient elution mode. Since the chromatographic and spectral peaks among interesting analytes and interferences were heavily overlapped, second-order calibration method based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm which fully exploiting the second-order advantage was adopted. Successful resolution was obtained in the presence of different matrix interferences in different oil samples, and the developed approach allows the quantification of the antioxidants at levels found in edible vegetable oils, without the necessity of applying either preconcentration or extraction steps, moreover, a column washing is also not required. Meanwhile, the effectiveness and reproducibility of the proposed method were also validated by some statistical parameters like root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP), limits of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD). Then the proposed method was compared with several commonly selected methods in sample preparation, elution time and LOD.
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[Molecular mechanisms of renal extracellular matrix degradation and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The reduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in kidney is taken as the morphological features and pathological base in renal injury in chronic kidney disease (CKD). ECM degradation is controlled by the catabolic enzyme systems in glomerulus and renal interstitium, in which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role. The expression and activity of MMPs are regulated by the classical pathway, such as the genic transcription, the activation of zymogen, and the specific inhibitor. The previous studies showed that, Uremic Clearance granule, as a representation, and other prescriptions of Chinese herbal medicine, as well as some extracts from Chinese herbal medicine could intervene the pathway of ECM degradation through promoting the degradation of ECM components, affecting the expression of catabolic enzymes, regulating the genetic transcription of MMPs, and inhibiting the relative signaling transduction of MMPs.
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[Numerical simulation on HHG spectra of two-electron H3(+) model].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The authors present a one-dimensional calculation model of H3(+), and the time-dependent wavefunction was obtained by the symmetric split-operator method. The authors investigated the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) properties of H3(+) model exposed to 800 nm-wavelength ultrashort laser pulse. The effect of electron interaction on the HHG spectra is less profound than at the cut-off frequency. We also calculated the HHG spectra for different internuclear separation values close to realistic one. Most of the calculated cutoff frequencies are beyond the three-step models prediction, and a preliminary scenario is suggested.
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Reconstruction after complete avulsion of the nipple caused by a human bite using an amputated tissue graft in situ.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Abstract Integrated avulsion of the nipple by human bite is not common. We treated a patient whose left nipple had been completely avulsed by modifing the nipple as a free skin graft and reconstructing a pillar-like fascia flap as the core to reshape the configuration of the nipple.
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The cloning, characterization, and functional analysis of a gene encoding an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in triterpene biosynthesis in the Lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).
Int J Med Mushrooms
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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An isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) gene, GlIDI, was isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, which produces triterpenes through the mevalonate pathway. The open reading frame of GlIDI encodes a 252 amino acid polypeptide with a theoretical molecular mass of 28.71 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.36. GlIDI is highly homologous to other fungal IDIs and contains conserved active residues and nudix motifs shared by the IDI protein family. The color complementation assay indicated that GlIDI can accelerate the accumulation of ?-carotene and confirmed that the cloned complementary DNA encoded a functional GlIDI protein. Gene expression analysis showed that the GlIDI transcription level was relatively low in the mycelia and reached a relatively high level in the mushroom primordia. In addition, its expression level could be up-regulated by 254 µM methyl jasmonate. Our results suggest that this enzyme may play an important role in triterpene biosynthesis.
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Magnetic separation of heavy metal ions and evaluation based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: copper(II) ions as a case study.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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A new approach was developed for the magnetic separation of copper(II) ions with easy operation and high efficiency. p-Mercaptobenzoic acid served as the modified tag of Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles both for the chelation ligand and Raman reporter. Through the chelation between the copper(II) ions and carboxyl groups on the gold shell, the Fe2O3@Au nanoparticles aggregated to form networks that were enriched and separated from the solution by a magnet. A significant decrease in the concentration of copper(II) ions in the supernatant solution was observed. An extremely sensitive method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was employed to detect free copper(II) ions that remained after the magnetic separation, and thus to evaluate the separation efficiency. The results indicated the intensities of the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy bands from p-mercaptobenzoic acid were dependent on the concentration of copper(II) ions, and the concentration was decreased by several orders of magnitude after the magnetic separation. The present protocol effectively decreased the total amount of heavy metal ions in the solution. This approach opens a potential application in the magnetic separation and highly sensitive detection of heavy metal ions.
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Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies on magnetic Fe3O4@AuAg alloy core-shell nanoparticles.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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A facile approach has been developed to fabricate multifunctional Fe3O4@AuAg alloy core-shell nanoparticles, owning the magnetism of the core and the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activities of the alloy shell. By changing the amount of HAuCl4 and AgNO3, Fe3O4@AuAg alloy nanoparticles with different component ratios of Au and Ag were successfully prepared. The surface plasmon resonance of the composition was linearly tuned in a wide range by varying the molar fraction of Ag and Au, suggesting the formation of AuAg alloy shell. SERS and magnetic enrichment effects were investigated by using thiophenol (TP) as the probe molecule. The SERS intensity was strongly dependent on the molar ratios of Au and Ag and the excitation line. Enrichment for the molecules with low concentration and on line SERS monitoring experiments were performed through combining the magnetism of the core and the SERS effect of the alloy shell. The results revealed that the magnetic enrichment efficiency was dramatically increased due to the strong magnetism of Fe3O4 core. In addition, the Fe3O4@AuAg nanoparticles were also used in the microfluidic chip to continuously detect different flowing solution in the channel. The detection time and amount of analyte were successfully decreased.
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Negative feedback control of jasmonate signaling by an alternative splice variant of JAZ10.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) activates gene expression by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation of jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressor proteins. A key feature of all JAZ proteins is the highly conserved Jas motif, which mediates both JAZ degradation and JAZ binding to the transcription factor MYC2. Rapid expression of JAZ genes in response to JA is thought to attenuate JA responses, but little is known about the mechanisms by which newly synthesized JAZ proteins exert repression in the presence of the hormone. Here, we show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that desensitization to JA is mediated by an alternative splice variant (JAZ10.4) of JAZ10 that lacks the Jas motif. Unbiased protein-protein interaction screens identified three related basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4) and the corepressor NINJA as JAZ10.4-binding partners. We show that the amino-terminal region of JAZ10.4 contains a cryptic MYC2-binding site that resembles the Jas motif and that the ZIM motif of JAZ10.4 functions as a transferable repressor domain whose activity is associated with the recruitment of NINJA. Functional studies showed that the expression of JAZ10.4 from the native JAZ10 promoter complemented the JA-hypersensitive phenotype of a jaz10 mutant. Moreover, treatment of these complemented lines with JA resulted in the rapid accumulation of JAZ10.4 protein. Our results provide an explanation for how the unique domain architecture of JAZ10.4 links transcription factors to a corepressor complex and suggest how JA-induced transcription and alternative splicing of JAZ10 premessenger RNA creates a regulatory circuit to attenuate JA responses.
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Pseudomonas syringae infection assays in Arabidopsis.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC30000 (Pst DC3000) infection of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely used to elucidate many of the general principles underlying the plant immune response and bacterial pathogenesis. Study of Pst DC3000 virulence factors has also proven useful in the discovery and elucidation of fundamental mechanisms in plant biology. In particular, Pst DC3000 produces a phytotoxin, coronatine, that is a remarkable molecular mimic of the active form of the plant hormone jasmonate. Here we illustrate several common methods used for Pst DC3000-based assays, including preparation of Pst DC3000 inocula, inoculation of soil-grown Arabidopsis plants, and subsequent bacterial quantification in planta. We also describe how Pst DC3000 infection can be applied to study gene expression and protein degradation associated with jasmonate signaling.
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Evaluation of nutritional and physical stress conditions during vegetative growth on conidial production and germination in Ophiocordyceps sinensis.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The influence of nutritional and physical stress on sporulation, conidial germination and vegetative biomass of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the most important medicinal fungi in China and now globally, was evaluated using a two-stage culture method. All the treatments, except nutrient deprivation, enhanced conidial production and vegetative biomass to some extent. However, conidia produced under stress showed decreased germination in comparison with those continuously cultured on the enriched potato dextrose agar (PDA; as the control). Among 10 treatments tested, the physical stress of frozen-shock produced the largest number of conidia, 7.5 times higher than that of the control, followed by heat-shock treatment. These results demonstrate that the fungus has strong physiological adaptations to environmental stress that may have evolved because it is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. This report will be relevant to the study of the pathogenicity and artificial cultivation of this endangered fungus.
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Analysis of a novel cathepsin B circulating antigen and its response to drug treatment in Trichinella-infected mice.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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In this paper, we cloned a novel full-length cDNA that encodes a Trichinella spiralis cathepsin B-like protease gene (TsCPB) using 3-RACE PCR. The recombinant mature TsCPB protein (rTsCPB) was then expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified with Ni-affinity chromatography. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that TsCPB was expressed across all development stages of the parasite but had the highest expression level during the adult stage. Furthermore, rTsCPB was detected in Trichinella excretory-secretory products with anti-rTsCPB rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Interestingly, rTsCPB was strongly recognized by the T. spiralis-infected sera in Western blotting, implying that TsCPB protein appeared in the peripheral blood of Trichinella-infected mice as circulating antigens (CAg). We then analyzed the dynamic levels of TsCPB CAg and its antibodies in T. spiralis-infected sera by using an improved double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect ELISA, respectively. The results showed that TsCPB CAg can be detected much earlier compared to antibody detection in Trichinella-infected mice. In addition, we monitored the effects of albendazole drug therapy (a dosage of 370 mg/kg body weight, twice a day) on T. spiralis-infected mice by detecting the levels of TsCPB CAg and its antibody in the sera of drug-treated mice. The results showed that the levels of CAg dramatically decreased after successful drug treatment, while the antibody level remained unchanged. Overall, the novel Trichinella antigen TsCPB could be a promising novel circulating antigen molecule for the detection of Trichinella infection and for monitoring the efficacy of drug treatment of trichinellosis.
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Eviprostat activates cAMP signaling pathway and suppresses bladder smooth muscle cell proliferation.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Eviprostat is a popular phytotherapeutic agent for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). At present, the signaling mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are still poorly understood. Given that cAMP has been reported to suppress cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy in various pathological situations, we asked whether the effect of Eviprostat could be ascribed to the activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. In the study, exposure of cAMP response element (CRE)-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) (CRE-SEAP)-reporter cells to Eviprostat elevated SEAP secretion, which was associated with an increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), as well as enhanced expression of CRE-regulated protein connexin43, indicating an activation of the cAMP signaling pathway. Consistent with these observations, Eviprostat-induced expression of Cx43 was abolished in the presence of adenylyl cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 or PKA inhibitor H89, whereas it was mimicked by adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin. Further analysis demonstrated that Eviprostat significantly potentiated the effect of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, but not that of PDE4 inhibitor, on CRE activation. Moreover, Eviprostat suppressed PDGF-induced activation of ERK and Akt and inhibited cell proliferation and hillock formation in both mesangial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. Collectively, activation of the cAMP signaling pathway could be an important mechanism by which Eviprostat exerts its therapeutic effects for LUTS.
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Non-concerted ITS evolution in fungi, as revealed from the important medicinal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) has been widely used as a molecular marker in phylogenetic studies and has been selected as a DNA barcode for fungi. It is generally believed that nrDNA conforms to concerted evolution in most eukaryotes; however, intraindividual-intraspecific polymorphisms of this region were reported in various organisms, suggesting a non-concerted evolutionary process. In Ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the most valuable medicinal fungi, a remarkable variation of the ITS region has been revealed. Some highly divergent sequences were thought to represent cryptic species, different species or genotypes in previous studies. To clarify the unusual ITS polymorphisms observed in O. sinensis, specific primers were designed to amplify ITS paralogs from pure cultures of both single-ascospore and tissue isolates in this study. All of the available ITS sequences, including those generated by this group and those in GenBank, were analyzed. Several AT-biased ITS paralogs were classified as pseudogenes based on their nucleotide compositions, secondary structures and minimum free energies of their 5.8S rRNAs, substitution rates, phylogenetic positions and gene expression analyses. Furthermore, ITS pseudogenes were amplified with specific primers from 10 of the 28 strains tested, including eight single-ascospore and two tissue isolates. Divergent ITS paralogs were proved to coexist in individual genomes, suggesting a non-concerted mechanism of evolution in the ITS region of O. sinensis. The hypotheses that divergent ITS paralogs represent cryptic or other species or different genotypes were thus rejected.
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An antigenic recombinant serine protease from Trichinella spiralis induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a Trichinella serine protease gene (TspSP-1.3) from GenBank. The recombinant TspSP-1.3 protein (rTspSP-1.3) was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified with Ni-affinity chromatography. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that TspSP-1.3 was expressed at significantly higher levels in muscle larvae and adult worms than in newborn larvae. TspSP-1.3 was detected in excretory-secretory proteins of Trichinella spiralis with western blotting. Immunization with the rTspSP-1.3 antigen induced humoral immune responses, which manifested as elevated specific anti-rTspSP-1.3 IgG and IgE antibodies and a mixed Th1/Th2 response. To determine whether purified rTspSP-1.3 had good antigenicity and could be a vaccine candidate for the control of T. spiralis infection, we immunized BALB/c mice with rTspSP-1.3 and subsequently challenged the mice with T. spiralis larvae. The results showed that mice vaccinated with rTspSP-1.3 exhibited an average reduction in the muscle larvae burden of 39 % relative to the control group. These results suggest that TspSP-1.3 could be a novel vaccine candidate for controlling Trichinella infection.
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The altered expression profile of microRNAs in cardiopulmonary bypass canine models and the effects of mir-499 on myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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MicroRNAs were enrolled in various cardiovascular disease especially ischemic heart diseases, but the microRNA changes during myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury underwent cardiopulmonary bypass are still unknown. This study screens the microRNA differences in CPB canines and evaluates the relationship of microRNAs with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.
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Selenylation modification can enhance antioxidant activity of Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharide.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Potentilla anserina L. polysaccharide had been selenizingly modified by nitric acid-selenious acid method with microwave-assistant. The optimal reaction parameters on selenylation modification were time 116 min, temperature 63°C, microwave power 190 W and the actual value of selenium content was 2690.1±7.2 ?g/g. The scavenging ability of DPPH, OH and superoxide radicals, the metal chelating ability and reducing power in vitro were compared by antioxidant assay taking the non-modified PAP as a control. The results showed that selenylation modification could significantly enhance the antioxidant activity of SePAP and SePAP could be used as a potential antioxidant.
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Isolation of the MAT1-1 mating type idiomorph and evidence for selfing in the Chinese medicinal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis.
Fungal Biol
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China. Research on the mating system and sexual development is vitally important to this endangered species. Previous efforts devoted to investigate the mating type (MAT) locus of O. sinensis, however, resulted in an incomplete understanding. In this study, the MAT1-1 locus of O. sinensis was investigated. The conserved ?-box and HMG-box regions of the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-1-3 genes, respectively, and a conserved region of the DNA lyase gene were successfully amplified using degenerate PCR. A combination of TAIL-PCR and long-range PCR were used to connect these genes and obtain the sequence of the MAT1-1 locus. Screening of 22 single spore isolates by PCR demonstrated that both the MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes cooccurred within the same isolate. Additionally, both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 are expressed in vegetative mycelia, providing evidence that O. sinensis is likely capable of selfing. DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining of ascospores and hyphae showed that a majority of hyphal compartments are binucleate, suggesting that O. sinensis may be pseudohomothallic. Analyses of sequence diversity showed lower levels of genetic diversity in MAT1-1-1 compared to MAT1-2-1, indicating the possibility that different selective pressures act on the two MAT idiomorphs. The MAT1-1-1 sequences of O. sinensis and Tolypocladium inflatum cluster as a monophyletic group consistent with phylogenetic classification of Ophiocordycipitaceae. Comparison of the structure of the MAT1-1 locus across hypocrealean taxa showed that O. sinensis contains all three mating type genes (MAT1-1-1, MAT1-1-2, and MAT1-1-3) and supported previous observations that of the four families in Hypocreales, MAT1-1-3 has undergone a lineage specific loss only in some members of the Cordycipitaceae.
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1,8-Naphthalimide-Cu(??) ensemble based turn-on fluorescent probe for the detection of thiols in organic aqueous media.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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A 1,8-naphthalimide-Cu(II) ensemble was rationally designed and synthesized as a new turn-on fluorescent probe utilizing the chemosensing ensemble method for detections of thiols (Cys, Hcy and GSH) with high selectivity over other ?-amino acids at pH 7.4 in organic aqueous media (EtOH/HEPES, v/v=9:1). The recognition mechanism was attributed to the remove Cu(II) from the 1,8-naphthalimide-Cu(II) ensemble by thiols and the release of flurescence of ligand 1. Remarkable fluorescence enhancements were therefore observed in the sensing process of thiols by the 1,8-naphthalimide-Cu(II) ensemble. Furthermore, the 1,8-naphthalimide-Cu(II) ensemble was successfully applied to the fluorescence imaging of thiols in CHO cells with high sensitivity and selectivity.
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Connexin43 hemichannel-mediated regulation of connexin43.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Many signaling molecules and pathways that regulate gap junctions (GJs) protein expression and function are, in fact, also controlled by GJs. We, therefore, speculated an existence of the GJ channel-mediated self-regulation of GJs. Using a cell culture model in which nonjunctional connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels were activated by cadmium (Cd(2+)), we tested this hypothesis.
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Quantitative determination of butylated hydroxyanisole and n-propyl gallate in cosmetics using three-dimensional fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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This work presents a novel approach for simultaneous determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl gallate (PG) in a very interfering environment by combining the sensitivity of molecular fluorescence and the selectivity of the second-order calibration method. The excitation-emission fluorescence matrix data are processed by applying the second-order calibration method based on the self-weighted alternating normalized residue fitting (SWANRF) algorithm. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.2-1.3 ng/ml for BHA and 2.2-2.9 ng/ml for PG. The recoveries from spiked cosmetics samples are in the ranges 95.7-103.9% for BHA and 95.9-105.7% for PG. The proposed method avoids preconcentration and elution procedures, so it considerably decreases the analytical time and the experimental expenses. Because the instrument involved in the measurement is nonsophisticated, the experiments could be carried out in routine laboratories. Then it is compared with the HPLC method in dosage of cosmetics and organic reagents, runtime, cost per analysis and LOD.
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Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on polymer photonic crystal fibers with metal nanolayers.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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A large-mode-area polymer photonic crystal fiber made of polymethyl methacrylate with the cladding having only one layer of air holes near the edge of the fiber is designed and proposed to be used in surface plasmon resonance sensors. In such sensor, a nanoscale metal film and analyte can be deposited on the outer side of the fiber instead of coating or filling in the holes of the conventional PCF, which make the real time detection with high sensitivity easily to realize. Moreover, it is relatively stable to changes of the amount and the diameter of air holes, which is very beneficial for sensor fabrication and sensing applications. Numerical simulation results show that under the conditions of the similar spectral and intensity sensitivity of 8.3 × 10(-5)-9.4 × 10(-5) RIU, the confinement loss can be increased dramatically.
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Angular transmittance analysis of a novel thermotropic material.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This paper uses inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method and Monte Carlo method for the simulation of the spectral angular transmittance of a novel kind of thermotropic material at different temperatures. The results show that the collimated light takes the major part at the beginning of the switching process and the scattered light is negligible. However, the scattered light increased to high above 80% of the total transmitted light with the largest angle distribution of scattered light about 30 degrees as temperature elevated.
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Hypoxia-inducible microRNA-210 augments the metastatic potential of tumor cells by targeting vacuole membrane protein 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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As the "master" microRNA that is induced by hypoxia, miR-210 is involved in multiple processes in the hypoxia pathway. However, whether miR-210 mediates hypoxia-induced tumor cell metastasis still remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that miR-210 is frequently up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and promotes the migration and invasion of HCC cells. Furthermore, miR-210 can be induced by hypoxia in HCC cells and mediates hypoxia-induced HCC cell metastasis. We identify vacuole membrane protein 1 (VMP1) as the direct and functional downstream target of miR-210; in addition, we show that its expression is negatively correlated with the expression of miR-210 in HCC. Intriguingly, VMP1 is reduced by hypoxia, and down-regulation of VMP1 by miR-210 mediates hypoxia-induced HCC cell metastasis. Conclusion: These findings extend our understanding of the function of miR-210 in the hypoxia pathway, and this newly identified hypoxia/miR-210/VMP1 pathway should facilitate the development of novel therapeutics against hypoxic tumor cells.
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Development of microsatellite markers for Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ophiocordycipitaceae) using an ISSR-TAIL-PCR method.
Am. J. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2011
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Microsatellite primers were developed for Ophiocordyceps sinensis, an endangered medicinal fungus endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure.
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Surgical technique for aortic regurgitation attributable to Behcets disease: modified aortic valve replacement with reinforcement of the aortic wall.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Aortic regurgitation is a severe cardiovascular complication of Behcets disease, resulting in high mortality rates within the Asian population. Standard surgical interventions have resulted in poor results in the long term. We herein report on a modified aortic valve replacement technique coupled with reinforcement of the aortic wall. During this procedure, Teflon felts and continuous mattress stitches were used to reinforce the aortic wall in order to prevent prosthetic valve detachment and formation of an aortic pseudoaneurysm. Postoperative examinations revealed that this procedure had satisfactory mid-term results.
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[Preparation of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles and its application in separation and spectral detection].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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Magnetic nanoparticles as well as core-shell magnetic nanocomposites are of great interest for researchers due to their potential applications in lots of areas. In the present review, the authors summarized several universal synthetic methods of nanocomposites and their specific properties. In the following, the authors focused on the applications of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in separation and spectral detection, along with the introduction of some work in the authors lab. At last, the questions remaining in magnetic nanoparticles and the application perspectives of magnetic nanocomposites were discussed.
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A critical role of STAYGREEN/Mendels I locus in controlling disease symptom development during Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato infection of Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Production of disease symptoms represents the final phase of infectious diseases and is a main cause of crop loss and/or marketability. However, little is known about the molecular basis of disease symptom development. In this study, a genetic screening was conducted to identify Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants that are impaired specifically in the development of disease symptoms (leaf chlorosis and/or necrosis) after infection with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) DC3000. An ethyl methanesulfonate-induced Arabidopsis mutant (no chlorosis1 [noc1]) was identified. In wild-type plants, the abundance of chlorophylls decreased markedly after Pst DC3000 infection, whereas the total amount of chlorophylls remained relatively unchanged in the noc1 mutant. Interestingly, noc1 mutant plants also exhibited reduced disease symptoms in response to the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. Genetic and molecular analyses showed that the nuclear gene STAYGREEN (SGR; or Mendels I locus) is mutated (resulting in the aspartic acid to tyrosine substitution at amino acid position 88) in noc1 plants. Transforming wild-type SGR cDNA into the noc1 mutant rescued the chlorosis phenotype in response to Pst DC3000 infection. The SGR transcript was highly induced by Pst DC3000, A. brassicicola, or coronatine (COR), a bacterial phytotoxin that promotes chlorosis. The induction of SGR expression by COR is dependent on COI1, a principal component of the jasmonate receptor complex. These results suggest that pathogen/COR-induced expression of SGR is a critical step underlying the development of plant disease chlorosis.
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Reciprocal regulation between proinflammatory cytokine-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and connexin43 in bladder smooth muscle cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Gap junctions (GJs) play an important role in the control of bladder contractile response and in the regulation of various immune inflammatory processes. Here, we investigated the possible interaction between inflammation and GJs in bladder smooth muscle cells (BSMCs). Stimulation of BSMCs with IL1? and TNF? increased connexin43 (Cx43) expression and function, which was associated with increased phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. Inhibition of PKA with H89 or down-regulation of CREB with specific siRNAs largely abolished the Cx43-elevating effect. Further analysis revealed that IL1?/TNF? induced NF?B-dependent inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression. Inhibition of iNOS with G-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester abrogated and an exogenous NO donor mimicked the effect of the cytokines on Cx43. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS into mice also induced bladder Cx43 expression, which was largely blocked by an iNOS inhibitor. Finally, the elevated Cx43 was found to negatively regulate iNOS expression. Dysfunction of GJs with various blockers or down-regulation of Cx43 with siRNA significantly potentiated the expression of iNOS. Fibroblasts from Cx43 knock-out (Cx43(-/-)) mice also displayed a significantly higher response to the cytokine-induced iNOS expression than cells from Cx43 wild-type (Cx43(+/+)) littermates. Collectively, our study revealed a previously unrecognized reciprocal regulation loop between cytokine-induced NO and GJs. Our findings may provide an important molecular mechanism for the symptoms of bladder infection. In addition, it may further our understanding of the roles of GJs in inflammatory diseases.
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High efficiency 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser in-band pumped at 914 nm.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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A high-efficiency 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 laser in-band pumped at 914 nm is demonstrated for the first time. Using an all-solid-state Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 914 nm as pump source, 0.86 W output was obtained with 1.82 W absorbed pump power. Corresponding slope efficiency of 65.4% was the highest of Nd:YVO4 lasers operating at 1342 nm to the best of our knowledge. Effects of crystals doping concentration and temperature on laser power and conversion efficiency were also investigated.
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[Experimental study of recording and analysing electrophysiological signals from corticospinal tract in rats].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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To explore the recording method of the electrophysiological signals in corticospinal tract (CST) of adult rats by plugging microelectrodes and analyze the characteristics of these signals. These could provide some valuable and basic neural electrophysiological information for further research of recovering and refunctioning after spinal cord injury.
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[Mechanisms and effects of chinese herbal medicine delaying progression of chronic renal failure].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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In this review,firstly,it has been discussed the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine ameliorating glomerulosclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis during the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF) by improving glomerular hemodynamics turbulence, podocyte injury, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta over-expression, hyperlipidemia, macrophage infiltration, tubular epithelial myofibroblast transdifferentiation, and nephrotoxicity of proteinuria. Secondly,it has been reported the clinical effects of Chinese herbal medicine improving renal function and some clinical complications in the patients with progressive CRF through various treatments including oral administration or coloclysis of Chinese herbal medicine, oral administration combined with coloclysis of Chinese herbal medicine, and colonic dialysis combined with coloclysis of Chinese herbal medicine. Finally,it has been reviewed the beneficial influences of Chinese herbal medicine on metabolic dysequilibrium of calcium and phosphonium, microinflammatory state, and uremic toxins in patients with uremia.
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Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Ophiocordyceps sinensis (? Cordyceps sinensis) is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. The fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. Since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. In the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with Ophiocordyceps sinensis is briefly reviewed and an extensive literature survey is presented. Ninety-one insect names, spanning 13 genera, related to host insects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis are investigated. The relationships between the reported insect species and Ophiocordyceps sinensis are analyzed. Fifty-seven of these are considered as recognizable potential host species of the fungus distributed throughout the Tibetan Plateau, whilst eight are considered as indeterminate hosts and 26 as non-hosts. Among the names of recognizable potential host insects, three are invalid (nomen nudum) and require further study. This work provides basic information for management of the insect resources and for the conservation and sustainable use of Ophiocordyceps sinensis.
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