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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Flexible Alkaline Rechargeable Ni/Fe Battery Based on Graphene Foam/Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Film.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The development of portable and wearable electronics has promoted increasing demand for high-performance power sources with high energy/power density, low cost, lightweight, as well as ultrathin and flexible features. Here, a new type of flexible Ni/Fe cell is designed and fabricated by employing Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and porous Fe2O3 nanorods grown on lightweight and graphene foam (GF)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid films as electrodes. The assembled f-Ni/Fe cells are able to deliver high energy/power densities (100.7 Wh/kg at 287 W/kg and 70.9 Wh/kg at 1.4 kW/kg, based on the total mass of active materials) and outstanding cycling stabilities (retention 89.1% after 1,000 charge/discharge cycles). Benefiting from the use of ultralight and thin GF/CNTs hybrid films as current collectors, our f-Ni/Fe cell can exhibit a volumetric energy density of 16.6 Wh/l (based on the total volume of full cell), which is comparable to that of thin film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors. Moreover, the f-Ni/Fe cells can retain the electrochemical performance with repeated bendings. These features endow our f-Ni/Fe cells a promising candidate for next generation energy storage systems.
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Mid-infrared Polaritonic Coupling between Boron Nitride Nanotubes and Graphene.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Boron nitride (BN) is considered to be a promising substrate for graphene-based devices in part because its large band gap can serve to insulate graphene in layered heterostructures. At mid-infrared frequencies, graphene supports surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whereas hexagonal-BN (h-BN) is found to support surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs). We report on the observation of infrared polaritonic coupling between graphene SPPs and boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) SPhPs. Infrared scattering type scanning near-field optical microscopy is used to obtain spatial distribution of the two types of polaritons at the nanoscale. The observation suggests that those polaritons interact at the nanoscale in a one-dimensional/two-dimensional (1D/2D) geometry, exchanging energy in a nonplanar configuration at the nanoscale. Control of the polaritonic interaction is achieved by adjustment of the graphene Fermi level through voltage gating. Our observation suggests that boron nitride nanotubes and graphene can interact at mid-infrared frequencies and coherently exchange their energies at the nanoscale through the overlap of mutual electric near field of surface phonon polaritons and surface plasmon polaritons. Such interaction enables the design of nano-optical devices based on BNNT-graphene polaritonics in the mid-infrared range.
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Thermodynamic bounds and general properties of optimal efficiency and power in linear responses.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We study the optimal exergy efficiency and power for thermodynamic systems with an Onsager-type "current-force" relationship describing the linear response to external influences. We derive, in analytic forms, the maximum efficiency and optimal efficiency for maximum power for a thermodynamic machine described by a N×N symmetric Onsager matrix with arbitrary integer N. The figure of merit is expressed in terms of the largest eigenvalue of the "coupling matrix" which is solely determined by the Onsager matrix. Some simple but general relationships between the power and efficiency at the conditions for (i) maximum efficiency and (ii) optimal efficiency for maximum power are obtained. We show how the second law of thermodynamics bounds the optimal efficiency and the Onsager matrix and relate those bounds together. The maximum power theorem (Jacobi's Law) is generalized to all thermodynamic machines with a symmetric Onsager matrix in the linear-response regime. We also discuss systems with an asymmetric Onsager matrix (such as systems under magnetic field) for a particular situation and we show that the reversible limit of efficiency can be reached at finite output power. Cooperative effects are found to improve the figure of merit significantly in systems with multiply cross-correlated responses. Application to example systems demonstrates that the theory is helpful in guiding the search for high performance materials and structures in energy researches.
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Detection of MicroRNA-21 Expression as a Potential Screening Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer: a Meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death and cancer-related incidence worldwide. The potential of microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a biomarker for CRC detection has been studied in several studies. However, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to systematically assess the diagnostic value of miR-21 for CRC.
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Encapsulation of nanoscale metal oxides into an ultra-thin Ni matrix for superior Li-ion batteries: a versatile strategy.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Li-ion batteries' (LIBs) performance proves to be highly correlated with ionic and electrical transport kinetics in electrodes. Although continual progress has been achieved in rational design of ideal electrode systems, their energy density, cyclic endurance and productivity are still far from perfect for practical use. Herein we propose an interesting, facile and versatile strategy to encapsulate various nanoscale metal oxides (covering both nanopowders and nanostructured arrays) into an ultrathin Ni matrix (metal oxide@Ni) for superior LIBs. Evolutions of such metal oxide@Ni hybrids (taking MnO@Ni and CoO@Ni as models) are thoroughly studied by monitoring their whole fabrication process. Putting "armors" on nanoscale metal oxides is thought helpful for the promotion of the LIB performance since the outer Ni matrix provides both mechanical protection against huge volume changes and effective routes for electron transfer. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, all metal oxide@Ni hybrid electrodes exhibit drastic improvements in the capacity retention (e.g. ?452% capacity rise for the MnO@Ni case while ?551% for CoO@Ni NWs), long-term cyclic stability and rate capabilities. This designed strategy can be further extended to make other advanced oxide@metal hybrids, not only for LIBs but also for other potential fields.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of David's myotis, Myotis davidii (Myotis, Vespertilionidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of David's myotis, Myotis davidii. The genome is found to be 17,531?bp in length and has a base composition of A (33.8%), G (13.2%), C (23.2%), and T (29.8%). Similar to other bats, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. All protein-coding genes start with an ATG codon except for ND2, ND3 and ND5, which initiate with ATT or ATA instead, and terminate with the typical stop codon (TAA/TAG) or a single T (T-) or an unexpected codon of AGA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and population genetic studies in M. davidii.
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P450-Mediated O-Demethylated Metabolite Is Responsible for Rat Hepatobiliary Toxicity of Pyridyltriazine-Containing PI3K Inhibitors.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The dysregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent pathways is implicated in several human cancers making it an attractive target for small molecule PI3K inhibitors. A series of potent pyridyltriazine-containing inhibitors of class Ia PI3Ks were synthesized and a subset of compounds was evaluated in exploratory repeat-dose rat toxicology studies. Daily oral dosing of compound 1: in Sprague Dawley rats for four consecutive days was associated with hepatobiliary toxicity that included biliary epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy, periductular edema, biliary stasis, and acute peribiliary inflammatory infiltrates. These histological changes were associated with clinical pathology changes that included increased serum liver enzymes, total bile acids, and bilirubin. The predominant clearance pathway of 1: was shown in vitro and in a bile-duct cannulated rat (14)C-ADME study to be P450-mediated oxidative metabolism. An O-demethylated pyridine metabolite, M3: , was identified as a candidate proximal metabolite that caused the hepatotoxicity. Co-administration of the pan-P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole with 1: to rats significantly reduced the formation of M3: and prevented liver toxicity, whereas direct administration of M3: reproduced the toxicity. Structural changes were introduced to 1: to make the methoxypyridine ring less susceptible to P450 oxidation (compound 2: ), and addition of a methyl group to the benzylic carbon (compound 3: ) improved the pharmacokinetic profile. These changes culminated in the successful design of a clinical candidate 3: (AMG 511) that was devoid of liver toxicity in a 14-day rat toxicity study. Herein, we describe how a metabolism-based structure-activity relationship analysis allowed for the successful identification of a PI3K inhibitor devoid of off-target toxicity.
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One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Surface polaritons, which are electromagnetic waves coupled to material charge oscillations, have enabled applications in concentrating, guiding and harvesting optical energy below the diffraction limit. Surface plasmon polaritons involve oscillations of electrons and are accessible in noble metals at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, whereas surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) rely on phonon resonances in polar materials, and are active in the mid-infrared. Noble metal surface plasmon polaritons have limited applications in the mid-infrared. SPhPs at flat interfaces normally possess long polariton wavelengths and provide modest field confinement/enhancement. Here we demonstrate propagating SPhPs in a one-dimensional material consisting of a boron nitride nanotube at mid-infrared wavelengths. The observed SPhP exhibits high field confinement and enhancement, and a very high effective index (neff~70). We show that the modal and propagation length characteristics of the SPhPs may be controlled through the nanotube size and the supporting substrates, enabling mid-infrared applications.
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Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich tea plant, Camellia oleifera, reveals candidate genes related to lipid metabolism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Rapidly driven by the need for developing sustainable sources of nutritionally important fatty acids and the rising concerns about environmental impacts after using fossil oil, oil-plants have received increasing awareness nowadays. As an important oil-rich plant in China, Camellia oleifera has played a vital role in providing nutritional applications, biofuel productions and chemical feedstocks. However, the lack of C. oleifera genome sequences and little genetic information have largely hampered the urgent needs for efficient utilization of the abundant germplasms towards modern breeding efforts of this woody oil-plant.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of insect-eating brandt's bat, Myotis brandtii (Myotis, Vespertilionidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Abstract In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of brandt's bat, Myotis brandtii. The genome is found to be 17,470?bp in length and has a base composition of A (33.1%), G (13.6%), C (24.6%), and T (28.6%). Similar to other bats, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the eight tRNA and ND6 genes. All protein-coding genes start with an ATG codon except for ND2, ND3 and ND5, which initiate with ATC or ATA instead, and terminate with the typical stop codon (TAA/TAG) or a single T (T-?-) or an unexpected codon of AGA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and population genetic studies in M. brandtii.
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Knockdown of Aurora-B inhibits osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration via modulating PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Increasing evidences reveal that Aurora-B may be involved in metastasis of malignant tumor. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Aurora-B on invasion and migration of OS cells and the activity of PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway in vitro. The expression of Aurora-B and p-Akt (Ser473) proteins was detected by immunohistochemistry in OS tissues from 24 patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, and the relationship between Aurora-B and p-Akt was investigated. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between Aurora-B and p-Akt protein expression. Furthermore, we down-regulated the expression of Aurora-B through a recombinant lentivirus (Lv-shAURKB). Migration and invasion of cells were investigated by wound healing and transwell invasion assays. Results showed that silencing Aurora-B inhibited cell migratory and invasive ability of OS cells in vitro. Finally, knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses the activity of PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway in OS cells. Our results indicated that knockdown of Aurora-B suppresses OS cells migratory and invasive ability via modulating the "PI3K/Akt/NF-?B" signaling pathway in vitro. The Aurora-B blocker may be a new therapeutic strategy in OS management.
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Protein profiling the differences between diabetic and normal mouse cumulus cells.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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As the number of young people suffering from diabetes increases worldwide, the impact of this disease on human reproduction urgently needs to be addressed. Here we compared the proteomes of cumulus cells of super-ovulated cumulus-oocyte complexes from diabetic and normal mice. We identified 57 up-regulated and 74 down-regulated proteins in diabetic cumulus cells; among these groups were proteins associated with cell cycle, cellular communication, epigenetic regulation, protein localization, and chromatin organization - all in accordance with type I diabetes. The poor-quality follicles derived from diabetic mice were further enforced by the presence of glycoproteins that are specifically expressed by the oocyte or oviductal epithelial cells in the cumulus-cell samples. In conclusion, the proteomic differences between diabetic and normal cumulus cells provide targets for improving the reproduction health of type I diabetic patients. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Time-dependent density functional theory for ion diffusion in electrochemical systems.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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We introduce a generic form of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to describe ion diffusion in electrochemical systems to account for steric effects and electrostatic correlations neglected in the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations. An efficient numerical algorithm is proposed to analyze the charging kinetics of electric double layers in model electrochemical systems that consist of spherical ions in a dielectric continuum confined between two planar electrodes. By comparing the theoretical predictions from TDDFT and conventional electrokinetic methods for constant-voltage charging of the model electrochemical cells, we demonstrate that thermodynamic non-ideality plays a pivotal role in electrodiffusion even at relatively low electrolyte concentrations, and this effect cannot be captured by the lattice-gas model for the excluded volume effects. In particular, TDDFT predicts 'wave-like' variation of the ionic density profiles that has not been identified in previous investigations. At conditions where there are no significant correlations between electric double layers from opposite electrodes, the charging kinetics follows an exponential behavior with a linear dependence of the relaxation time on the cell thickness in excellent agreement with the equivalent circuit model. However, the conventional electrokinetic model breaks down when the electrodes are at small separation, in particular for systems with low ionic strength or high charging voltage. We also find that ionic screening retards the charging kinetics at low salt concentrations, but has the opposite effect at large salt concentrations.
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Hyperthermia inhibited the migration of tongue squamous cell carcinoma through TWIST2.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Hyperthermia has been shown promising in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); however, the mechanism underlying hyperthermia reducing tumor metastasis is poorly elucidated. TWIST2, an important transcription factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays a critical role in the tumor progression and metastasis. The role of TWIST2 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its association with hyperthermia still have not been reported.
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Ginger extract diminishes chronic fructose consumption-induced kidney injury through suppression of renal overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of development and progression of chronic kidney disease. Renal inflammation is well known to play an important role in the initiation and progression of tubulointerstitial injury of the kidneys. Ginger, one of the most commonly used spices and medicinal plants, has been demonstrated to improve diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. However, the efficacy of ginger on the metabolic syndrome-associated kidney injury remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impact of ginger on fructose consumption-induced adverse effects in the kidneys.
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[Treating primary dysmenorrhea by lingtong capsule: a randomized double-blind clinical observation].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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To observe the clinical effect of Lingtong Capsule (LC) in treating primary dysmenorrheal (PD).
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Attention dysfunction of postoperative patients with glioma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Attention dysfunction has been observed among many kinds of nervous system diseases, including glioma. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between glioma localization, malignancy, postoperative recovery time and attention deficit.
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Tert-butylhydroquinone protects the spinal cord against inflammatory response produced by spinal cord injury.
Ann. Clin. Lab. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown in our previous studies to play an important role in protection against spinal cord injury (SCI) induced inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to test whether tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect the spinal cord against SCI-induced inflammatory damage. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to laminectomy at T8-T9 and compression with a vascular clip. Three groups were analyzed: a sham group, a SCI group, and a SCI+rhEPO group (n=16 per group). We measured Nrf2 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) binding activities by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). We also measured the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); we also measured hindlimb locomotion function by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating, spinal cord edema by wet/dry weight method, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. The results showed that the induction of the Nrf2 activity by tBHQ markedly decreased NF-?B activation and inflammatory cytokines production in the injured spinal cord. Administration of tBHQ also significantly attenuated SCI induced hindlimb locomotion deficits, spinal cord edema, and apoptosis. To conclude, pre-treatment with tBHQ could attenuate the spinal cord inflammatory response after SCI.
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Overexpression of microRNA-125b sensitizes human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil through inhibition of glycolysis by targeting hexokinase II.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is widely used in the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma. However, despite impressive initial clinical responses, the majority of patients eventually develop resistance to 5-FU. The microRNA (miR)-125 family has been implicated in a variety of carcinomas as either a tumor suppressor or promoter. In the present study, the role of miR-125b in acquired 5-FU resistance in multiple human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines was investigated using transfection of miR-125b. Compared with 5-FU?sensitive cells, 5?FU?resistant cells exhibited reduced expression levels of miR?125b. Furthermore, transfection of pre?miR-125b into liver cancer cells resulted in sensitization of 5-FU?resistant cells to 5-FU. In addition, the glucose uptake and lactate production in 5-FU?resistant liver cancer cells were demonstrated to be significantly increased compared with 5?FU?sensitive cells (P<0.05), indicating that targeting glycolytic pathways may overcome chemoresistance in human liver cancer cells. Notably, miR-125 was found to downregulate glucose metabolism by directly targeting hexokinase II. Since drug resistance is a common phenotype of malignant cancer cells, the finding that miR-125b expression levels are negatively correlated with 5-FU resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells is consistent with the reported functions of miR-125b. In conclusion, the present study identified miR-125b as a tumor suppressor-like microRNA, which exhibits great potential as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Protective effects of erythropoietin in traumatic spinal cord injury by inducing the Nrf2 signaling pathway activation.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Erythropoietin has demonstrated neuroprotective effects against traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The signaling pathway of an antioxidant transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), has been shown to play an important role in protecting SCI-induced secondary spinal cord damage. This study was undertaken to explore the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway and secondary spinal cord damage in rats after SCI.
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C-kit induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and contributes to salivary adenoid cystic cancer progression.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with salivary adenoid cystic cancer (ACC) progression and metastasis. Here, we report that ectopic overexpression of c-kit in ACC cell lines is sufficient for acquisition of mesenchymal traits, enhanced cell invasion, along with stem cell properties defined by the presence of a CD133+/CD44+ cell subpopulation. c-kit positively regulated expression of known EMT inducers, also activating TGF-? to contribute to EMT. c-kit itself was induced by TGF-? in ACC cell lines and required for TGF-?-induced EMT. Xenograft experiments showed that c-kit cooperated with oncogenic Ras to promote tumorigenesis in vivo. Finally, in human specimens of ACC, we found that c-kit was abnormally overexpressed and correlated with the prognosis of ACC. Our findings define an important function for c-kit in ACC progression by orchestrating EMT, and they implicate this gene product as a marker of poor prognosis in this disease.
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Role of ZIC1 methylation in hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans, and its prognosis is generally poor even after surgery. The zinc finger of the cerebellum (ZIC1) gene is a novel tumor suppressor gene that plays a crucial role in vertebrate development. Altered expression of ZIC1 is observed in various types of human cancers. The aims of the present study were to investigate the methylation status of ZIC1 in HCC and evaluate its clinical implication. The methylation status of ZIC1 was analyzed in 132 pairs of HCC and corresponding noncancerous tissues by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (MSP). The expression of ZIC1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in HCC tissues was examined by real-time PCR. Methylation frequency of ZIC1 in HCC was significantly higher than that in the corresponding noncancerous tissues (P?
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Nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene: multifunctional electrode materials for high-performance li-ion batteries and oxygen reduction reaction.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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N and S codoping of graphene is realized by a novel approach: covalent functionalization of graphene oxide using 2-aminothiophenol as a source of both N and S followed by thermal treatment. The resulting N- and S-codoped graphene has potential applications in high-performance lithium-ion batteries and as a metal-free catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.
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[The clinical characteristics of patients with vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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To explore the clinical features of patients with vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD).
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Symmetry-protected surface state on Mo(1?1?2).
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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We report the experimental identification of a symmetry-protected surface state on Mo(1?1?2). The utilization of photon-energy- and polarization-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy clearly demonstrates that this true surface state preserves its two-dimensional character despite the fact that it resides within the projection of the bulk bands along the ??-?X line of the surface Brillouin zone. This surface state on Mo(1?1?2) exists due to the forbidden hybridization between the bulk and the surface states, each of which possesses different state symmetries within the crystal. The experimental identification of such a surface state possibly opens up pathways towards controlled manipulation between true surface states and the surface resonances (i.e. between two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional states) by breaking the symmetry of the crystal surface.
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3D carbon/cobalt-nickel mixed-oxide hybrid nanostructured arrays for asymmetric supercapacitors.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The electrochemical performance of supercapacitors relies not only on the exploitation of high-capacity active materials, but also on the rational design of superior electrode architectures. Herein, a novel supercapacitor electrode comprising 3D hierarchical mixed-oxide nanostructured arrays (NAs) of C/CoNi3 O4 is reported. The network-like C/CoNi3 O4 NAs exhibit a relatively high specific surface area; it is fabricated from ultra-robust Co-Ni hydroxide carbonate precursors through glucose-coating and calcination processes. Thanks to their interconnected three-dimensionally arrayed architecture and mesoporous nature, the C/CoNi3 O4 NA electrode exhibits a large specific capacitance of 1299 F/g and a superior rate performance, demonstrating 78% capacity retention even when the discharge current jumps by 100 times. An optimized asymmetric supercapacitor with the C/CoNi3 O4 NAs as the positive electrode is fabricated. This asymmetric supercapacitor can reversibly cycle at a high potential of 1.8 V, showing excellent cycling durability and also enabling a remarkable power density of ?13 kW/kg with a high energy density of ?19.2 W·h/kg. Two such supercapacitors linked in series can simultaneously power four distinct light-emitting diode indicators; they can also drive the motor of remote-controlled model planes. This work not only presents the potential of C/CoNi3 O4 NAs in thin-film supercapacitor applications, but it also demonstrates the superiority of electrodes with such a 3D hierarchical architecture.
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Curcumin modulates TLR4/NF-?B inflammatory signaling pathway following traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.
J Spinal Cord Med
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Background Curcumin, a polyphenolic compound extracted from the plant turmeric, has protective effects on spinal cord injury (SCI) through attenuation of inflammatory response. This study was designed to detect whether curcumin modulates toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) inflammatory signaling pathway in the injured rat spinal cord following SCI. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to laminectomy at T8-T9 and compression with a vascular clip. There were three groups: (a) sham group; (b) SCI group; and (g) SCI + curcumin group. We measured TLR4 gene and protein expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis; NF-?B activity by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hindlimb locomotion function by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating, spinal cord edema by wet/dry weight method, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis. Results The results showed that SCI induced the up-regulation of TLR4, NF-?B, and inflammatory cytokines in the injured rat spinal cord. Treatment with curcumin following SCI markedly down-regulated the levels of these agents related to the TLR4/NF-?B inflammatory signaling pathway. Administration of curcumin also significantly ameliorated SCI induced hind limb locomotion deficits, spinal cord edema, and apoptosis. Conclusions Post-SCI curcumin administration attenuates the TLR4/NF-?B inflammatory signaling pathway in the injured spinal cord, and this may be a mechanism whereby curcumin improves the outcome following SCI.
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Suppression of retinal neovascularization by small interfering RNA targeting PGC-1?.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) is a key coordinator of gene programs in metabolism and energy homeostasis in mammals. The aim of this study was to determine whether PGC-1? is involved in the transcriptional regulation of retinal neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The expression of PGC-1? in the retina of mice with OIR was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Mice with OIR were administered small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting PGC-1? by intravitreal injection, and the effects of PGC-1? siRNA were confirmed by fluorescein angiography and quantification of pre-retinal neovascular nuclei in the retinal sections. PGC-1? was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein level under hypoxic conditions. Retinal neovascularization was inhibited by PGC-1? siRNA. Furthermore, PGC-1? mRNA and protein levels were also reduced by PGC-1? siRNA, which were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The downregulation of PGC-1? expression resulted in the reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the mice. In conclusion, siRNA targeting PGC-1? inhibits retinal neovascularization by downregulating the expression of PGC-1? and VEGF in the murine retina. Therefore, PGC-1? represents a potential therapeutic target for ischemia-induced retinal diseases and other ocular neovascular diseases.
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Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Amiota taurusata species group within the Chinese species, with descriptions of two new species.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The relationships among six species of the Amiota taurusata Takada, Beppu, & Toda (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species group were investigated based on DNA sequence data of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 ( ND2) gene, using three species of the genus Amiota as outgroups. A mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I ( COI), can be used to discriminate between species of the taurusata group. Two new species are described from South China: A. protuberantis Shao et Chen, sp. nov. and A. shennongi Shao et Chen, sp. nov. A key to all the species of the taurusata group based on morphological characters is provided.
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Effect of GP73 silencing on proliferation and apoptosis in hepatocellular cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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To investigate the roles of Golgi protein (GP) 73 in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis.
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Brace treatment versus observation alone for scoliosis associated with Chiari I malformation following posterior fossa decompression: a cohort study of 54 patients.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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To be deemed effective in preventing curve progression, brace treatment should show alteration of the expected natural history. Most of the reported studies on the effect of bracing on the evolution of Chiari malformation-associated scoliosis (CMS) following posterior fossa decompression (PFD) were small series with inconclusive results. The goal of this study was to investigate whether post-PFD brace treatment for CMS produces better outcomes than observation alone.
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Structural investigation and immunological activity of a heteropolysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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A heteropolysaccharide was isolated from the brown alga, Sargassum fusiforme. The heteropolysaccharide was estimated to have a molecular weight of 11kDa and showed [?]D(20) -62.2420 (c 0.05, H2O). SFPS65-B comprised galactose, glucose, mannose, fucose, and galacturonic acid at a ratio of 3.04:1:1.15:2.82:6.51. Its structural features were investigated using composition analysis, methylation analysis, IR, NMR spectroscopy, and ESI-Q-TOF MS spectroscopy. Results showed that SFPS65-B contained the backbone of ?4)-?-GalAp-(1?4)-?-Hexp-(1?4)-?-GalAp-(1?4)-?-Fucp-(1?4)-?-GalAp-(1?. The sulfated unit and terminal fucose residues were attached onto the backbone through the O-2 of some galactose residues. Results also showed that SFPS65-B had a good effect on thymus and spleen indices at a dose of 100mg/kg upon immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.
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Prognostic value of apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele in patients with traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Current scientific evidence suggests that the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 (APOE4) allele may be associated with a good prognosis for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aims to obtain a more precise estimation of the association between APOE4 allele and prognosis of TBI patients.
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A contact-corrected density functional theory for electrolytes at an interface.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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We present a contact-corrected density functional theory for ionic distributions at an interface that not only accounts for the steric effects and electrostatic correlations often ignored by conventional electrochemical methods but also conforms to the exact statistical-mechanical sum rule for the contact ionic densities. The theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with the simulation results for both the interfacial structure and electrochemical properties over a wide variety of electric double layer systems including those containing asymmetric electrolytes with multivalent ions.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii (Chrysemys, Emydidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Abstract In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii. The genome is found to be 16,875?bp in length and has a base composition of A (34.4%), G (13.0%), C (26.0%), and T (26.6%). Similar to other turtles, it contains a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-loop). Most of the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the eight tRNA and ND6 genes. All protein-coding genes start with an ATN codon except for COX1 and ND4, which initiate with GTG instead, and terminate with the typical stop codon (TAA/TAG) or a single T (T-) or an unexpected codon of AGG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence provided here would be useful for further phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetic studies in C. p. bellii.
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Hepatitis B virus X protein disrupts the balance of the expression of circadian rhythm genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The human circadian rhythm is controlled by at least eight circadian clock genes and disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with cancer development. The present study aims to elucidate the association between the expression of circadian clock genes and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and also to reveal whether the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is the major regulator that contributes to the disturbance of circadian clock gene expression. The mRNA levels of circadian clock genes in 30 HCC and the paired peritumoral tissues were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). A stable HBx-expressing cell line, Bel-7404-HBx, was established through transfection of HBx plasmids. The mRNA level of circadian clock genes was also detected by RT-qPCR in these cells. Compared with the paired peritumoral tissues, the mRNA levels of the Per1, Per2, Per3 and Cry2 genes in HCC tissue were significantly lower (P<0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the expression levels of CLOCK, BMAL1, Cry1 and casein kinase 1? (CK1?; P>0.05). Compared with Bel-7404 cells, the mRNA levels of the CLOCK, Per1 and Per2 genes in Bel-7404-HBx cells were significantly increased, while the mRNA levels of the BMAL1, Per3, Cry1, Cry2 and CKI? genes were decreased (P<0.05). Thus, the present study identified that disturbance of the expression of circadian clock genes is common in HCC. HBx disrupts the expression of circadian clock genes and may, therefore, induce the development of HCC.
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HIF-?/MIF and NF-?B/IL-6 axes contribute to the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in hypoxic microenvironment of HNSCC.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?)- and HIF-2?-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1? and HIF-2? in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1?/2? KD enhanced nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-?B and HIF-1?/HIF-2? had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1?/2? or NF-?B. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-?/MIF and NF-?B/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC.
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Dual gene transfer of bFGF and PDGF in a single plasmid for the treatment of myocardial infarction.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) have been shown to be involved in a spectrum of cellular processes. In a previous study, we constructed a novel multigenic vector that contained two separate transcription units, each consisting of a strong promoter and an efficient polyadenylation signal. The two promoters were chosen for their ability to work simultaneously. Dual gene transfer of bFGF and PDGF in a single plasmid resulted in a significant increase in collateral blood vessel formation in a rabbit model of hind limb ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of this dual gene transfer strategy in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). AMI was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The animals were randomly divided into four groups and treated with the following therapeutic strategies: Empty plasmid (control), plasmid encoding bFGF (PL-bFGF), plasmid encoding PDGF (PL-PDGF) or plasmid encoding bFGF and PDGF (PL-F-P). Echocardiography and histological examinations were performed 28 days subsequent to gene transfer. Dual gene therapy with bFGF and PDGF resulted in a significant angiogenic effect accompanied by vessel maturation, along with a significant reduction in infarct size and improvement in cardiac function. In a rat model of AMI, single plasmid-mediated dual gene therapy with bFGF and PDGF decreased infarct size and improved cardiac function due to the formation of functionally and morphologically mature vasculature. These results are relevant to the ongoing clinical trials involving the use of single plasmid-mediated angiogenic factors for the treatment of myocardial ischemic disease.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown in our previous studies to play an important role in protection against spinal cord injury (SCI) induced inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to test whether curcumin, a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect the spinal cord against SCI-induced inflammatory damage.
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Associations between interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms and sepsis risk: a meta-analysis.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Previous epidemiological studies have presented conflicting evidence regarding associations between interleukin-1 (IL-1) polymorphisms and sepsis susceptibility. We have performed a meta-analysis to evaluate possible associations between IL-1 polymorphisms and sepsis risk.
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Characteristic fragmentation behavior of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines using electrospray ionization multistage tandem mass spectrometry incorporating deuterium labeling.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) mainly include 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) and N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) that are formed from tobacco alkaloids during the curing process and contained in tobacco and tobacco smoke. They are linked with carcinogenesis. Analytical methods for quality control of products and determination of their metabolites are therefore of great importance.
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Curcumin inhibits the increase of labile zinc and the expression of inflammatory cytokines after traumatic spinal cord injury in rats.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the effects of curcumin on the levels of spinal cord labile zinc (Zn) and inflammatory cytokines in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).
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Effects of postmortem interval on mouse ovary oocyte survival and maturation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To study the time- and temperature-dependent survival of ovarian oocytes collected from postmortem carcass, ICR mice were killed and placed for different periods (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) at different temperatures (25°C, 4°C and 37°C). After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV) oocyte number, oocyte meiotic maturation percentage, mitochondrial distribution and intracellular glutathione (GSH) level were evaluated. The results showed no surviving oocytes could be collected by 2h, 6h, and 12 h after carcass preservation at 37°C, 25°C and 4°C, respectively. The number of collected GV oocytes in the ovary deceased as the preservation time lasted at the same temperature. Meanwhile at the same point in time, the ratio of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body emission (PBE) gradually reduced as preservation temperature increased. In addition, the percentage of abnormal mitochondrial distribution in the preserved oocytes was obviously higher than that in the control oocytes, while GSH level was not altered in collected oocytes. Unexpectedly, neither chromosome arrangement nor spindle organization was affected as long as the oocytes from preserved carcasses could complete maturation. These data are helpful for proper use of ovary oocytes from postmortem carcass of valuable individuals.
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Primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the male breast: a rare case report with review of the literature.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this case study and review, we present a case of a primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC) of the male breast. Primary SCNC of the breast is a rare tumor with less than 30 cases reported in the literature. Most cases are found in women. Another exceptional point is that human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her-2) immunoreactivity was positive in our recent case, which differed to previous reports detailing SCNC in women. We have no evidence to demonstrate the differences between treatment and prognoses for males and females, because we do not have sufficient cases to undertake an evidence-based investigation. We provide this rare case history; review the literature on SCNC of the breast; and discuss detailed information regarding epidemiology, histogenesis, clinical and histologic diagnosis criteria, surgical and adjuvant treatment, and prognosis.
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Epidemiological analysis of trauma patients following the Lushan earthquake.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A 7.0-magnitude earthquake hit Lushan County in China's Sichuan province on April 20, 2013, resulting in 196 deaths and 11,470 injured. This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of the injuries and the treatment of the seismic victims.
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Gastrointestinal tract metastasis from tubulolobular carcinoma of the breast: a case report and review of the literature.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Metastasis of breast cancer into the gastrointestinal tract happens rarely. The diagnosis of this kind of disease is difficult because of the nonspecific symptoms and the long interval between primary manifestations and recurrence. Awareness of this condition may lead to an accurate diagnosis and an earlier initiation of systemic treatment, thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. In this paper, we report a rare case of a patient with tubulolobular carcinoma metastases to the colon, presenting with abdominal pain, discomfort, and weight loss. The patient underwent radical mastectomy and received postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Ten years later, she presented with gastrointestinal tract symptoms. Surgery combined with systemic treatment was chosen for the colon lesion. Immunohistochemical staining suggested a breast origin. The patient was still living 24 months after the diagnosis of the metastasis. This is the fourth case report in our literature review.
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The Correlation of Expression Levels of HIF-1? and HIF-2? in Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Capsular Invasion, Portal Vein Tumor Thrombi and Patients Clinical Outcome.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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The roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and hypoxia-inducible factor-2? in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma have not been fully elucidated. Here, we aim to uncover the relationship between the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and hypoxia-inducible factor-2? in tumor tissues.
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[Expression and significance of thrombonspondin-1 in oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2013
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To examine the expression and function of thrombonspondin-1 (TSP-1) in oxygeninduced retinopathy in new-born mice, and to investigate its role in retinal neovascularization.
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Determination of rosiglitazone and 5-hydroxy rosiglitazone in rat plasma using LC-HRMS by direct and indirect quantitative analysis: a new approach for metabolite quantification.
Bioanalysis
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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With recent advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation, HRMS is of increasing interest for quantitative bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity, rapid acquisition of full scan data, and advanced software for metabolite identification. In particular, there is strong interest in use of HRMS for simultaneous quantification of parent drug and metabolites without authentic metabolite standard materials.
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Diffusion-controlled evolution of core-shell nanowire arrays into integrated hybrid nanotube arrays for Li-ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Controlled integration of multiple semiconducting oxides into each single unit of ordered nanotube arrays is highly desired in scientific research for the realization of more attractive applications. We herein report a diffusion-controlled solid-solid route to evolve simplex Co(CO3)0.5(OH)0.11H2O@TiO2 core-shell nanowire arrays (NWs) into CoO-CoTiO3 integrated hybrid nanotube arrays (NTs) with preserved morphology. During the evolution procedure, the decomposition of Co(CO3)0.5(OH)0.11H2O NWs into chains of CoCO3 nanoparticles initiates the diffusion process and promotes the interfacial solid-solid diffusion reaction even at a low temperature of 450 °C. The resulting CoO-CoTiO3 NTs possess well-defined sealed tubular geometries and a special "inner-outer" hybrid nature, which is suitable for application in Li-ion batteries (LIBs). As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the functions of such hybrid NTs in LIBs, CoO-CoTiO3 NTs are directly tested as LIB anodes, exhibiting both a high capacity (~600 mA h g(-1) still remaining after 250 continuous cycles) and a much better cycling performance (no capacity fading within 250 total cycles) than CoO NWs. Our work presents not only a diffusion route for the formation of integrated hybrid NTs but also a new concept that can be employed as a general strategy to fabricate other oxide-based hybrid NTs for energy storage devices.
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Morphological character of cervical spine for anterior transpedicular screw fixation.
Indian J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Anterior cervical interbody grafts/cages combined with a plate were frequently used in multilevel discectomies/corpectomies. In order to avoid additional posterior stabilization in patients who undergo anterior reconstructive surgery, an anterior cervical transpedicular screw fixation, which offers higher stability is desirable. We investigated in this study the anatomical (morphologic) characters for cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation.
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Low concentrations of corticosterone exert stimulatory effects on macrophage function in a manner dependent on glucocorticoid receptors.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) have both stimulatory and suppressive effects on immune cells depending on the concentration. However, the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effects of GCs remain elusive. Rat peritoneal macrophages were treated with different concentrations of corticosterone (0, 30?nM, 150?nM, and 3? ? M). To inhibit the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity, macrophages were preincubated with the GR antagonist RU486 (mifepristone, 10? ? M) for 30?min before treatment with corticosterone (150?nM). In the absence of immune stimuli, the chemotactic and phagocytic activities of macrophages were markedly enhanced by low concentrations of corticosterone (30 and 150?nM) when compared with vehicle-treated controls. However, these effects were not observed at a high concentration of corticosterone (3? ? M). Furthermore, blocking GR activity inhibited 150?nM corticosterone-enhanced chemotaxis and phagocytosis of macrophages. Meanwhile, after treatment with corticosterone (150?nM) for 1?h and 3?h, GR protein expression increased to 1.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared to untreated macrophages. These effects were inhibited by RU486. However, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) protein expression was not influenced by 150?nM corticosterone. These results demonstrate that low concentrations of corticosterone exert stimulatory effects on macrophage function in the absence of immune stimuli, and GR is at least partially responsible for these effects.
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Improvement of the enzymatic hydrolysis of furfural residues by pretreatment with combined green liquor and hydrogen peroxide.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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A potential commercial pretreatment for furfural residues (FRs) was investigated by using a combination of green liquor and hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2). The results showed that 56.2% of lignin removal was achieved when the sample was treated with 0.6 g H2O2/g-DS (dry substrate) and 6 mL GL/g-DS at 80 °C for 3 h. After 96 h hydrolysis with 18 FPU/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27 CBU/g-cellulose for ?-glucosidase, the glucose yield increased from 71.2% to 83.6%. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was used to reduce the degradation of H2O2, the glucose yield increased to 90.4% after the addition of 1% (w/w). The untreated FRs could bind more easily to cellulase than pretreated FRs could. The structural changes on the surface of sample were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the surface lignin could be effectively removed during pretreatment, thereby decreasing the enzyme-lignin binding activity. Moreover, the carbonyl from lignin plays an important role in cellulase binding.
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[Correlations between miRNAs and TGF-?1 in tumor microenvironment of esophageal squamous cell cancer].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To detect the levels of mir-18a-5p, mir-23a-3p, mir-24-3p, mir-25-3p and TGF-?1 in tumor microenvironment of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) patients and explore their clinical significances and correlations.
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Physico-chemical characterization of the temperature dependent hydration kinetics of Gleditsia sinensis gum.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The physico-chemical properties and hydration kinetics of Gleditsia sinensis gum were investigated to evaluate its temperature dependence. The increase of temperature resulted in improved solubility of G. sinensis gum, and the dissolved galactomannan showed decreased degree of galactose substitution (DSGal) and increased molecular weight (p<0.05, ANOVA). The solubility of G. sinensis galactomannan at 25, 45, 60 and 80°C was 73.4, 83.8, 98.1, and 99.4%, respectively. Weibull and Logarithmic models were well fitted (R(2)>0.96), and the hydration index t0.8 at different temperatures varied in the range of 51-302min. It was found that galactomannan with low DSGal and high molecular weight exhibited slow hydration rate and poor solubility.
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Differences between brainstem gliomas in juvenile and adult rats.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Clinical studies have shown that gliomas of the brainstem behave differently in children and adults. The aim of the present study was to compare and analyze the differences between these gliomas in juvenile and adult rats with regard to tumor growth, survival, pathology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 25 juvenile and 25 adult Wistar rats were divided into groups A (15 juvenile rats), B (10 juvenile rats), C (15 adult rats) and D (10 adult rats). The rats of groups A and C (experimental) were injected with glioma cells, while groups B and D (control) were injected with a physiological saline solution. Rat neurological signs, survival time, tumor size, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemical staining for MMP-2, MMP-9 and ?-catenin were compared. The survival time of group A was 19.47±2.232 days, whereas that of group C was 21.47±2.232 days (P<0.05). The tumor sizes were 4.55 and 4.62 mm (P>0.05) in groups A and C, respectively. HE and immunohistochemical staining revealed no differences between the groups. The results suggest that the growth patterns and invasiveness of brainstem gliomas may vary in children compared with adults due to the varied biological behaviors of the tumor cells.
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Opposite Effects of Single-Dose and Multidose Administration of the Ethanol Extract of Danshen on CYP3A in Healthy Volunteers.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single- and multidose administration of the ethanol extract of danshen on in vivo CYP3A activity in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, and three-period pharmacokinetic interaction study design was used based on 12 healthy male individuals. The plasma concentrations of midazolam and its metabolite 1-hydroxymidazolam were measured. Treatment with single dose of the extract caused the mean C max of midazolam to increase by 87% compared with control. After 10 days of the danshen extract intake, the mean AUC0-12, C max, and t 1/2 of midazolam were decreased by 79.9%, 66.6%, and 43.8%, respectively. The mean clearance of midazolam was increased by 501.6% compared with control. The in vitro study showed that dihydrotanshinone I in the extract could inhibit CYP3A, while tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce CYP3A. In conclusion, a single-dose administration of the danshen extract can inhibit intestinal CYP3A, but multidose administration can induce intestinal and hepatic CYP3A.
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Oncogene and non-oncogene addiction in inflammation-associated cancers.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Many cancers originate in tissues that are chronically inflamed, and the inflammatory microenvironment is considered to promote the progression of malignancy, including initiation, growth, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism of inflammation-induced progression of cancers has been widely discussed. Oncogene and non-oncogene addiction have been proposed as two distinct but complementary theories to explain the initiation and development of cancers. Furthermore, they also play a role in cancer-associated inflammation. A solid understanding of oncogene and non-oncogene addiction in cancer-associated inflammatory microenvironments will help to exploit cancer drug targets for cancer prevention and clinical treatment.
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Three-dimensional Ni/SnOx/C hybrid nanostructured arrays for lithium-ion microbattery anodes with enhanced areal capacity.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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The areal capacity of lithium-ion microbatteies (LIMBs) can be potentially increased by adopting a three-dimensional (3D) architectured electrode. Herein, we report the novel 3D Ni/SnOx/C hybrid nanostructured arrays that were built directly on current collectors via a facile hydrothermal method followed by a calcination-reduction process. Branched SnO2 nanorods grew uniformly on Ni2(OH)2CO3 nanowall arrays, resulting in the formation of precursors with a 3D interconnected architecture. By using ethylene glycol as the reducing agent, the glucose-coated SnO2/Ni2(OH)2CO3 precursors were evolved into an interesting 3D Ni/SnOx/C hybrid nanostructured arrays within the calcination treatment. Compared to conventional 2D SnOx/C nanorod arrays, the electrode of 3D Ni/SnOx/C hybrid nanostructured arrays exhibited enhanced lithium storage capacity per unit area, preferable rate capability and improved cycling performance when tested for LIMBs. The superior performance might be attributed to the open-up Ni frameworks that can not only serve as effective channels for electrons transport and Li+ diffusion but also help to accommodate the large volume changes upon lithiation/delithiation.
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Inhibitory effects of gypenosides on seven human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Among the various possible causes for drug interactions, pharmacokinetic factors such as inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, are regarded as the most frequent and clinically important. Gypenosides is widely used as functional food and over-the-counter drug in East Asia. In this study, the in vitro inhibitory effects of gypenosides on the major human CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) activities in human liver microsomes were examined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Gypenosides showed the strongest inhibition of CYP2D6, followed by CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. The IC50 values were 1.61 ?g/mL, 20.06 ?g/mL, 34.76 ?g/mL (CYP3A4/midazolam), 46.73 ?g/mL (CYP3A4/testosterone), and 54.52 ?g/mL, respectively. Gypenosides exhibited competitive inhibition of CYP2D6 (Ki=1.18). In conclusion, Gypenosides might cause herb-drug interactions via inhibition of CYP2D6. An in vivo study is needed to examine this further.
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Acoustic attenuation, phase and group velocities in liquid-filled pipes III: nonaxisymmetric propagation and circumferential modes in lossless conditions.
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Equations for the nonaxisymmetric modes that are axially and circumferentially propagating in a liquid-filled tube with elastic walls surrounded by air/vacuum are presented using exact elasticity theory. Dispersion curves for the axially propagating modes are obtained and verified through comparison with measurements. The resulting theory is applied to the circumferential modes, and the pressures and the stresses in the liquid-filled pipe are calculated under external forced oscillation by an acoustic source. This provides the theoretical foundation for the narrow band acoustic bubble detector that was subsequently deployed at the Target Test Facility (TTF) of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), TN.
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Regulation of plasminogen activator activity and expression by cyclic mechanical stress in rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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To investigate the mechanism of cartilage degradation induced by overloading in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), the effect of cyclic mechanical compressive stress on the activity of plasminogen activator (PA) and the expression of the predominant components of the PA system were analyzed in cultured mandibular condylar chondrocytes (MCCs) in rats. MCCs were exposed to cyclic mechanical compressive stress (2000, 4000 and 6000 µ strain) at 0.5 Hz by a four?point bending system. The activity of PA was determined by hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate H?D-Val-Leu-Lys?pNA (S?2251). The mRNA and protein expression levels of urokinase?type PA (uPA), tissue?type PA (tPA), uPA receptor (uPAR) and PA inhibitor 1 (PAI?1) were detected by qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Cyclic mechanical stress at 4000 and 6000 µ strain induced the expression of uPA, tPA and uPAR, and increased the activity of PA. Furthermore, cyclic mechanical stress at 6000 µ strain also inhibited the expression of PAI?1. Analysis of pericellular proteolytic activity demonstrated that PA functioned as the active enzyme in excessive mechanical stress responsiveness (e.g., 4000 and 6000 µ strain) largely via uPAR, not PAI?1. Cyclic mechanical stress at 2000 µ strain induced the expression of tPA and PAI?1; however, it did not change the activity of PA. These results suggested that the mechanical induction of uPA, tPA and uPAR upregulated PA activity, which may provide a proteolytic environment of extracellular matrix components and subsequently contribute to the cartilage degradation in TMJ osteoarthritis.
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Rapid genotyping of three polymorphisms in the LBP gene using a triplex pyrosequencing approach.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We described a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and triplex pyrosequencing assay which allowed a simultaneous determination of three tag single nuleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) in the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene: rs1780623, rs11536972 and rs2232618. This method enables a fast and cost-effective genotyping and a simultaneous determination of the three tag SNPs.
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Structural elucidation of a novel water-soluble fructan isolated from Wedelia prostrata.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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A new heteropolysaccharide, WPP60A, with a molecular weight of 2.4 kDa, was isolated from Wedelia prostrata by hot water extraction, and purified by DEAE Sepharose fast flow and Sephacryl S-200 high-resolution chromatography. Compositional analysis, and methylation analysis, combined with (1)H, (13)C NMR spectroscopy including 2D NMR (COSY, TOCSY, HMQC, NOESY, and HMBC) experiments demonstrated that WPP60A was composed of primarily fructose and low glucose. Results indicated that this new heteropolysaccharide consists of a repeating unit with the following structure: [Formula: see text].
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Non-Abelian topological superconductors from topological semimetals and related systems under the superconducting proximity effect.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Non-Abelian topological superconductors are characterized by the existence of zero-energy Majorana fermions bound in the quantized vortices. This is a consequence of the nontrivial bulk topology characterized by an odd Chern number. It is found that in topological semimetals with a single two-band crossing point all the gapped superconductors are non-Abelian ones. Such a property is generalized to related but more generic systems which will be useful in the search for non-Abelian superconductors and Majorana fermions.
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Differences in metabolites of different tongue coatings in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Tongue coating is one of the important foundations of tongue diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and plays an important role in reflecting the occurrence, development, and prognosis of the disease. However, its material basis is still poorly understood. In this study, a urinary metabonomic method based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed. The distinct clustering in metabolic profile was observed from Group A (thick yellow coating in patients with chronic hepatitis B), Group B (thick white coating in patients with chronic hepatitis B), and Group C (thin white coating with healthy humans) using orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). Based on the variable of importance in the project (VIP) values, some significantly changed metabolites have been identified. These changes were related to the disturbance in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and gut microflora, which were helpful to understand the material basis leading to the formation of tongue coating. This study demonstrated that tongue coating may have an objective material basis.
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Exploration of macro-micro biomarkers for dampness-heat syndrome differentiation in different diseases.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Increased attention is being paid to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a complementary and alternative medicine to provide an effective approach for personalized diagnosis and clinical treatment. TMC performs treatment based on differentiation of TCM syndrome (ZHENG), which may identify special phenotypes by symptoms and signs of patients even if they are in different diseases. There has, however, been skepticism and criticism because syndrome classification only depends on observation, knowledge, and clinical experience of TCM practitioners, which lacks objectivity and repeatability. In order to transform syndrome classification into mainstream medicine, we introduce a macro-micro approach that combines symptoms, clinical indicators, and metabolites. The present paper explores the macro-micro biomarkers of dampness-heat syndrome in chronic hepatitis B and nonalcoholic fatty liver patients, which could provide the basis for developing a possible population-screening tool for selecting target individuals and creating an evaluation index for personalized treatment.
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Inhibiting PTEN protects hippocampal neurons against stretch injury by decreasing membrane translocation of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The AMPA type of glutamate receptors (AMPARs)-mediated excitotoxicity is involved in the secondary neuronal death following traumatic brain injury (TBI). But the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in GluR2-lacking AMPARs mediated neuronal death was investigated through an in vitro stretch injury model of neurons. It was indicated that both the mRNA and protein levels of PTEN were increased in cultured hippocampal neurons after stretch injury, which was associated with the decreasing expression of GluR2 subunits on the surface of neuronal membrane. Inhibition of PTEN activity by its inhibitor can promote the survival of neurons through preventing reduction of GluR2 on membrane. Moreover, the effect of inhibiting GluR2-lacking AMPARs was similar to PTEN suppression-mediated neuroprotective effect in stretch injury-induced neuronal death. Further evidence identified that the total GluR2 protein of neurons was not changed in all groups. So inhibition of PTEN or blockage of GluR2-lacking AMPARs may attenuate the death of hippocampal neurons post injury through decreasing the translocation of GluR2 subunit on the membrane effectively.
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