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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of treatment strategies on cephalosporin and tetracycline resistance gene quantities in the bovine fecal metagenome.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The study objective was to determine the effects of two treatment regimens on quantities of ceftiofur and tetracycline resistance genes in feedlot cattle. The two regimens were ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) administered to either one or all steers within a pen and subsequent feeding/not feeding of therapeutic doses of chlortetracycline. A 26-day randomized controlled field trial was conducted on 176 steers. Real-time PCR was used to quantify bla(CMY-2), bla(CTX-M), tet(A), tet(B), and 16S rRNA gene copies/gram of feces from community DNA. A significant increase in ceftiofur resistance and a decrease in tetracycline resistance elements were observed among the treatment groups in which all steers received CCFA treatment, expressed as gene copies/gram of feces. Subsequent chlortetracycline administration led to rapid expansion of both ceftiofur and tetracycline resistance gene copies/gram of feces. Our data suggest that chlortetracycline is contraindicated when attempting to avoid expansion of resistance to critically important third-generation cephalosporins.
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Escherichia coli O26 in Feedlot Cattle: Fecal Prevalence, Isolation, Characterization, and Effects of an E. coli O157 Vaccine and a Direct-Fed Microbial.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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Abstract Escherichia coli O26 is second only to O157 in causing foodborne, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infections. Our objectives were to determine fecal prevalence and characteristics of E. coli O26 in commercial feedlot cattle (17,148) that were enrolled in a study to evaluate an E. coli O157:H7 siderophore receptor and porin (SRP(®)) vaccine (VAC) and a direct-fed microbial (DFM; 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/animal/day of Lactobacillus acidophilus and 10(9) CFU/animal/day of Propionibacterium freudenreichii). Cattle were randomly allocated to 40 pens within 10 complete blocks; pens were randomly assigned to control, VAC, DFM, or VAC+DFM treatments. Vaccine was administered on days 0 and 21, and DFM was fed throughout the study. Pen-floor fecal samples (30/pen) were collected weekly for the last 4 study weeks. Samples were enriched in E. coli broth and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) designed to detect O26-specific wzx gene and four major virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) and to a culture-based procedure that involved immunomagnetic separation and plating on MacConkey agar. Ten presumptive E. coli colonies were randomly picked, pooled, and tested by the multiplex PCR. Pooled colonies positive for O26 serogroup were streaked on sorbose MacConkey agar, and 10 randomly picked colonies per sample were tested individually by the multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of E. coli O26 was higher (p<0.001) by the culture-based method compared to the PCR assay (22.7 versus 10.5%). The interventions (VAC and or DFM) had no impact on fecal shedding of O26. Serogroup O26 was recovered in pure culture from 23.9% (260 of 1089) of O26 PCR-positive pooled colonies. Only 7 of the 260 isolates were positive for the stx gene and 90.1% of the isolates possessed an eae? gene that codes for intimin subtype ?, but not the bfpA gene, which codes for bundle-forming pilus. Therefore, the majority of the O26 recovered from feedlot cattle feces was atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, and not STEC.
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Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and associated virulence genes in feces of commercial feedlot cattle.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups and associated virulence genes in feces of commercial feedlot cattle. During March to May 2011, fecal samples were collected from individual cattle (n=960) in 10 cohorts (cattle subpopulations within a feedlot) comprising 17,148 total steers that originated from 48 backgrounding operations in six U.S. states. Fecal samples were enriched in E. coli broth and subjected to two detection protocols: (1) an 11-gene multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that identifies seven O serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) and four virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) applied to extracted total DNA ("direct PCR"); and (2) cultural procedures that involve immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with O26, O103, and O111 beads, plating on a nondifferential MacConkey agar, followed by the multiplex PCR of pooled colonies ("culture-based method"). Generalized linear mixed models were used to adjust prevalence estimates for clustering. Based on direct PCR detection, O157 (49.9%) was the most prevalent O serogroup followed by O26 (20.3%), O103 (11.8%), O121 (10.7%), O45 (10.4%), O145 (2.8%), and O111 (0.8%). Cumulative adjusted prevalence estimates were 22.3, 24.6, and 0.01% for O26, O103, and O111 serogroups, respectively, based on culture-based methods. However, prevalence varied significantly by cohort (p-values<0.05) for O26, O121, and O157 based on direct PCR, and for O26, O103, and O111 serogroups based on culture-based methods. Results of this study indicate that all seven STEC serogroups were identified in feedlot cattle feces, with O157, O26, and O103 being the most prevalent serogroups. A substantial proportion of serogroup-positive samples did not harbor Shiga toxin genes; thus, additional elucidation of the potential human health risk is required. Further evaluation of diagnostic methods for non-O157 STEC is needed given their impact on prevalence estimation.
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Prevalence of Escherichia coli O-types and Shiga toxin genes in fecal samples from feedlot cattle.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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While efforts to control foodborne illness associated with the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 through processes and procedures implemented at harvest facilities have been very successful, there is concern about the burden of illness associated with other Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service announced plans to classify an additional six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli as adulterants. Little is known about the prevalence and distribution of these E. coli in the animal production environment. An investigation of the prevalence of O157 and the six major non-O157 E. coli serogroups was conducted in 21 feedlots over the period July 2011 to October 2011. Individual fecal swabs were collected from cattle approximately 60 days after their arrival in the feedlot and were pooled for evaluation using a polymerase chain reaction assay to identify the presence of seven E. coli O-types (O157, O45, O103, O121, O145, O26, and O111) and four virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eaeA, and ehxA). Overall, 1145 fecal pools were evaluated, with 506 (44.2%) being positive for one or more of the E. coli O-serogroups. The pool prevalences for E. coli O157, O45, O26, O103, O121, O145, and O111 were 19.7%, 13.8%, 9.9%, 9.3%, 5.5%, 1.1%, and 0.5%, respectively. Nearly all pools were positive for ehxA (99.7%) or stx2 (98.6%). The pool level prevalence for stx1 and eae was 65.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Pools that were positive for one or more of the other E. coli O-serogroups were 1.37 times more likely to be positive for E. coli O157. Conversely, pools that were positive for E. coli O157 were 1.43 times more likely to be positive for at least one of the other E. coli O-serogroups evaluated. These data will be useful to understand the expected prevalence of potential Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in cattle feedlots.
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Effects of Ceftiofur and Chlortetracycline Treatment Strategies on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and on tet(A), tet(B), and bla CMY-2 Resistance Genes among E. coli Isolated from the Feces of Feedlot Cattle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A randomized controlled field trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two sets of treatment strategies on ceftiofur and tetracycline resistance in feedlot cattle. The strategies consisted of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) administered to either one or all of the steers within a pen, followed by feeding or not feeding a therapeutic dose of chlortetracycline (CTC). Eighty-eight steers were randomly allocated to eight pens of 11 steers each. Both treatment regimens were randomly assigned to the pens in a two-way full factorial design. Non-type-specific (NTS) E. coli (n?=?1,050) were isolated from fecal samples gathered on Days 0, 4, 12, and 26. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined using a microbroth dilution technique. PCR was used to detect tet(A), tet(B), and bla CMY-2 genes within each isolate. Chlortetracycline administration greatly exacerbated the already increased levels of both phenotypic and genotypic ceftiofur resistance conferred by prior CCFA treatment (P<0.05). The four treatment regimens also influenced the phenotypic multidrug resistance count of NTS E. coli populations. Chlortetracycline treatment alone was associated with an increased probability of selecting isolates that harbored tet(B) versus tet(A) (P<0.05); meanwhile, there was an inverse association between finding tet(A) versus tet(B) genes for any given regimen (P<0.05). The presence of a tet(A) gene was associated with an isolate exhibiting reduced phenotypic susceptibility to a higher median number of antimicrobials (n?=?289, median?=?6; 95% CI?=?4-8) compared with the tet(B) gene (n?=?208, median?=?3; 95% CI?=?3-4). Results indicate that CTC can exacerbate ceftiofur resistance following CCFA therapy and therefore should be avoided, especially when considering their use in sequence. Further studies are required to establish the animal-level effects of co-housing antimicrobial-treated and non-treated animals together.
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Evaluation of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for the quantification of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle feces.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Cattle are asymptomatic reservoirs for Escherichia coli O157, a major foodborne pathogen. The organism generally colonizes the hindgut of cattle and is shed in the feces at low concentrations. The objective of this research was to evaluate a multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction (mqPCR) assay for quantification of E. coli O157 in cattle feces using stx1, stx2, and rfbE gene targets. Primer efficiency and analytical sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with a single or pooled (five strain) culture of E. coli O157. In pure culture, the minimum detection limit of the assay was 1.4×10(3) CFU/mL and 3.6×10(3) CFU/mL for the single and five-strain mixture of E. coli O157, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity was analyzed using DNA extracted from cattle feces spiked with E. coli O157. In feces spiked with the pooled mixture of five E. coli O157 strains, the minimum detection limit was 3.6×10(4) CFU/g. We also evaluated the assay with feces from cattle experimentally inoculated with E. coli O157 by comparing the results to a culture-based method. For the majority of samples tested, the concentration of E. coli O157 detected by the real-time and culture methods was within one log difference. However, the assay could only be evaluated for cattle shedding high concentrations of E. coli O157. In conclusion, the mqPCR quantifying E. coli O157 in cattle feces using stx1, stx2, and rfbE gene targets may have use in detecting and quantifying super shedders, but is not applicable for quantification in animals shedding low concentrations (10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g feces).
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Applicability of a multiplex PCR to detect O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157 serogroups of Escherichia coli in cattle feces.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), particularly O157, are major food borne pathogens. Non-O157 STEC, particularly O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145, have also been recognized as a major public health concern. Unlike O157, detection procedures for non-O157 have not been fully developed. Our objective was to develop a multiplex PCR to distinguish O157 and the top six non-O157 serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) and evaluate the applicability of the multiplex PCR to detect the seven serogroups of E. coli in cattle feces. Published sequences of O-specific antigen coding genes, rfbE (O157) and wzx and wbqE-F (non-O157), were analyzed to design serogroup-specific primers. The specificity of amplifications was confirmed with 138 known STEC strains and the reaction yielded the expected amplicons for each serogroup. In feces spiked with pooled 7 STEC strains, the sensitivity of the detection was 4.1 × 10(5)CFU/g before enrichment and 2.3 × 10(2) after 6h enrichment in E. coli broth. Additionally, 216 fecal samples from cattle were collected and tested by multiplex PCR and cultural methods. The multiplex PCR revealed a high prevalence of all seven serogroups (178 [O26], 108 [O45], 149 [O103], 30 [O111], 103 [O121], 5 [O145], and 160 [O157]) of 216 samples in fecal samples. Cultural procedures identified 33.1% (53/160) and 35.5% (11/31) of PCR-positive samples for E. coli O157 and non-O157 serogroups, respectively. Samples that were culture-positive were all positive by the multiplex PCR. The multiplex PCR can be used to identify serogroups of putative STEC isolates.
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Characterization of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in various tissues of Anoectochilus roxburghii.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2011
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Accurate quantification of transcript profiling with quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) relies on the reliable normalization of an appropriate reference gene. This study reported the identification and validation of nine reference genes, including ?-tubulin (?-TUB), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1?), elongation factor 1 beta (EF-1?), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ubiquitin (UBQ), actin 1/2(ACT-1 and ACT-2), 18S rRNA, and 26S rRNA, from Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl., a valuable herb remedy widely used for various diseases treatment in traditional Chinese medicine. Transcriptional levels of the candidate reference genes were examined using qRT-PCR analysis and revealed differential expression of the genes in the leaf, stem, root, flower, and peduncle tissues. The relative quantities data were subjected to geNorm software for ranking the expression stability of the reference genes and the results showed that EF-1? and ACT-2 were the two best stable genes whereas GAPDH and 26S rRNA did not favor normalization of qRT-PCR in these tissues. The expression pattern of a squalene synthase encoding gene (SS) was also determined in parallel. The analyses were in great consistency when the qRT-PCR data was normalized to the expression of each or both of EF-1? and ACT-2 as the internal control, further confirming the reliability of EF-1? and ACT-2 as the best internal control. The present study provided the first important clues for accurate data normalization in transcript profiling in A. roxburghii, which will be essential to further functional genomics study in the valuable medicinal plant.
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Characterization of a new disease syndrome associated with porcine circovirus type 2 in previously vaccinated herds.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) encompasses a group of wasting syndromes linked to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). This paper describes a new PCV2 disease syndrome, called acute pulmonary edema (APE), which, unlike other PCVAD syndromes, has a peracute onset and is associated with herds vaccinated for PCV2.
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Bovine abortion associated with Nocardia farcinica.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
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Nocardia spp. are recognized as a cause of bovine mastitis, cutaneous or subcutaneous abscesses, pneumonia, and disseminated disease. Abortion caused by Nocardia spp. is uncommon, and only a few sporadic cases have been reported in horses, pigs, and cattle. In all previous reports, of nocardial abortion, the causative agent was identified as Nocardia asteroides. The current report describes an aborted bovine fetus that was infected with Nocardia farcinica. Placenta, abomasal fluid, lung, liver, and kidney specimens from a late-term bovine abortion were submitted to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The gross findings included purulent exudate in the placenta and numerous abscesses in lung. Histologically, there was necrotizing and suppurative placentitis, pyogranulomatous pneumonia, and nephritis with numerous intralesional branching and filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria. Nocardia farcinica was isolated by bacteriology, and the bacteriology result was confirmed by 2 established polymerase chain reaction protocols and by DNA sequencing.
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Aphid feeding activates expression of a transcriptome of oxylipin-based defense signals in wheat involved in resistance to herbivory.
J. Chem. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Damage by the Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, significantly reduces wheat and barley yields worldwide. In compatible interactions, virulent RWA populations flourish and susceptible plants suffer extensive leaf chlorophyll loss. In incompatible interactions, RWA reproduction and population growth are significantly reduced and RWA-related chlorophyll loss in resistant plants is minor. The objectives of this study were to develop an understanding of the molecular and phytochemical bases of RWA resistance in plants containing the Dnx resistance gene. Microarray, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and phytohormone assays were conducted to identify transcriptome components unique to RWA-infested Dnx plants and susceptible (Dn0) plants, and to identify and characterize putative genes involved in Dnx plant defense responses. We found that RWA-infested Dnx plants upregulated >180 genes related to reactive oxygen species, signaling, pathogen defense, and arthropod allelochemical and physical defense. The expression of several of these genes in RWA-infested Dnx plants increased significantly from 6- to 24-h post infestation (hpi), but their expression in Dn0 plants, when present, was delayed until 48- to 96 hpi. Concentrations of 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, trans-methyl-12-oxophytodienoic acid, and abscisic acid were significantly greater in Dnx foliage than in Dn0 foliage after RWA infestation, suggesting that Dnx RWA defense and resistance genes may be regulated via the oxylipin pathway. These findings provide a foundation for the elucidation of the molecular basis for compatible- and incompatible plant-aphid interactions.
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A multiplex PCR procedure for the detection of six major virulence genes in Escherichia coli O157:H7.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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A multiplex PCR procedure that detects six major virulence genes, fliC, stx1, stx2, eae, rfbE, and hlyA, in Escherichia coli O157:H7 was developed. Analyses of the available sequences of the six major virulence genes and the published primers allowed us to develop the six-gene, multiplex PCR protocol that maintained the specificity of each primer pair. The resulting six bands for fliC, stx1, stx2, eae, rfbE, and hlyA were even and distinct with product sizes of 949, 655, 477, 375, 296, and 199 bp, respectively. The procedure was validated with a total of 221 E. coli strains that included 4 ATCC, 84 cattle, and 57 human E. coli O157:H7 strains as well as 76 non-O157 cattle and human E. coli strains. The results of all 221 strains were similar to the results generated by established multiplex PCR methods that involved two separate reactions to detect five virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, fliC, and hlyA). Specificity of the O antigen was indicated by amplification of only O157, and not O25, O26, O55, O78, O103, O111, O127, and O145 E. coli serotypes. Sensitivity tests showed that the procedure amplified genes from a fecal sample spiked with a minimum of 10(4)CFU/g (10 cells/reaction) of E. coli O157. After a 6-h enrichment of E. coli O157-spiked samples, a sensitivity level of 10 CFU/g was achieved.
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Diagnostic microarray for human and animal bacterial diseases and their virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Rapid diagnosis and treatment of disease is often based on the identification and characterization of causative agents derived from phenotypic characteristics. Current methods can be laborious and time-consuming, often requiring many skilled personnel and a large amount of lab space. The objective of our study was to develop a spotted microarray for rapid identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance genes. Our spotted microarray consists of 489 70mer probes that detect 40 bacterial pathogens of medical, veterinary and zoonotic importance (including 15 NIAID Category A, B and C pathogens); associated genes that encode resistance for antimicrobial and metal resistance; and DNA elements that are important for horizontal gene transfer among bacteria. High specificity and reliability of the microarray was achieved for bacterial pathogens of animal and human importance by validating MDR pathogenic bacteria as pure cultures or by following their inoculation in complex and highly organic sample matrices, such as soil and manure.
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Tsn1-mediated host responses to ToxA from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis.
Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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The toxin sensitivity gene Tsn1 interacts with Ptr ToxA (ToxA), a host-selective toxin produced by the necrotrophic fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. The molecular mechanisms associated with cell death in sensitive wheat cultivars following ToxA application are not well understood. To address this question, we used the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array to compare gene expression in a sensitive wheat cultivar possessing the Tsn1 gene with the insensitive wheat cv. Nec103, which lacks the Tsn1 gene. This analysis was performed at early timepoints after infiltration with ToxA (e.g., 0.5 to 12 h postinfiltration [hpi]); at this time, ToxA is known to internalize into mesophyll cells without visible cell death symptoms. Gene expression also was monitored at later timepoints (24 to 48 hpi), when ToxA causes extensive damage in cellular compartments and visible cell death. At both early and late timepoints, numerous defense-related genes were induced (2- to 197-fold increases) and included genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway, lignification, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, a subset of host genes functioning in signal transduction, metabolism, and as transcription factors was induced as a consequence of the Tsn1-ToxA interaction. Nine genes known to be involved in the host defense response and signaling pathways were selected for analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the expression profiles of these genes confirmed the results obtained in microarray experiments. Histochemical analyses of a sensitive wheat cultivar showed that H(2)O(2) was present in leaves undergoing cell death, indicating that ROS signaling is a major event involved in ToxA-mediated cell death. The results suggest that recognition of ToxA via Tsn1 triggers transcriptional reprogramming events similar to those reported for avirulence-resistance gene interactions, and that host-derived genes play an important role in the modulation of susceptibility to P. tritici-repentis.
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Detection of genomic deletions in rice using oligonucleotide microarrays.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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The induction of genomic deletions by physical- or chemical- agents is an easy and inexpensive means to generate a genome-saturating collection of mutations. Different mutagens can be selected to ensure a mutant collection with a range of deletion sizes. This would allow identification of mutations in single genes or, alternatively, a deleted group of genes that might collectively govern a trait (e.g., quantitative trait loci, QTL). However, deletion mutants have not been widely used in functional genomics, because the mutated genes are not tagged and therefore, difficult to identify. Here, we present a microarray-based approach to identify deleted genomic regions in rice mutants selected from a large collection generated by gamma ray or fast neutron treatment. Our study focuses not only on the utility of this method for forward genetics, but also its potential as a reverse genetics tool through accumulation of hybridization data for a collection of deletion mutants harboring multiple genetic lesions.
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Nonadditive expression of homoeologous genes is established upon polyploidization in hexaploid wheat.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Effects of polyploidy in allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have primarily been ascribed to increases in coding sequence variation and potential to acquire new gene functions through mutation of redundant loci. However, regulatory variation that arises through new promoter and transcription factor combinations or epigenetic events may also contribute to the effects of polyploidization. In this study, gene expression was characterized in a synthetic T. aestivum line and the T. turgidum and Aegilops tauschii parents to establish a timeline for such regulatory changes and estimate the frequency of nonadditive expression of homoeologous transcripts in newly formed T. aestivum. Large-scale analysis of nonadditive gene expression was assayed by microarray expression experiments, where synthetic T. aestivum gene expression was compared to additive model values (mid-parent) calculated from parental T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii expression levels. Approximately 16% of genes were estimated to display nonadditive expression in synthetic T. aestivum. A certain fraction of the genes (2.9%) showed overdominance or underdominance. cDNA-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis was applied to measure expression of homoeologous transcripts and further verify microarray data. The results demonstrate that allopolyploidization, per se, results in rapid initiation of differential expression of homoeologous loci and nonadditive gene expression in T. aestivum.
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A co-printed oligomer to enhance reliability of spotted microarrays.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Successful printing and hybridization is essential for efficient and reliable data acquisition in a spotted microarray experiments. In this study we demonstrated that printing a 25 mer (printed 25 mer) with a standard 70 mer probe in each spot followed by the use of a fluorescently labeled 25 mer complement in the hybridization mixture ensures monitoring overall printing quality of the chip. This system can also be used as a control to evaluate adequate hybridization, washing, and alignment of spots to position the tracking grids during scanning. A print correction value incorporated in data analysis enhances consistency and reliability of results.
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Determination of internal control for gene expression studies in equine tissues and cell culture using quantitative RT-PCR.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has become a basic, reliable and sensitive modern technique, in both biological research and clinical diagnosis, for investigation of gene expression and validation of cDNA microarray analysis. Accurate mRNA quantification using quantitative RT-PCR commonly requires data normalization through stable housekeeping genes (HKGs). Selection of HKGs for data normalization is critical for accurate mRNA quantification. Our objective was to evaluate a set of candidate HKGs as internal controls for gene expression studies using quantitative RT-PCR in equine tissues and cell culture. One-step quantitative RT-PCR for 6 HKGs was performed using total RNA from equine tissue samples and cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The stability of HKGs was mainly evaluated by analysis of variance, analyses of the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of Ct, and change of Ct of HKGs between control and treated samples. 18S rRNA consistently showed the smallest standard deviation and coefficient of variation, and the least change of Ct between control and treated samples, thus was identified as the most stable HKG for mRNA data normalization in quantitative RT-PCR for studying gene expression in equine tissues and cultured PBMCs.
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Applicability of a multiplex PCR to detect the seven major Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli based on genes that code for serogroup-specific O-antigens and major virulence factors in cattle feces.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
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An 11-gene multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was developed based on genes that code for serogroup-specific O-antigens and four major virulence factors (intimin, enterohemorrhagic hemolysin, and Shiga toxins [Stx] 1 and 2), to detect O157 and the "top six" non-O157 (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The assay specificity was validated with pure cultures of seven major STEC (185 strains), 26 other STEC (65 strains), non-STEC (five strains), and 33 strains of other genera and species. Sensitivity of the assay with cattle fecal sample spiked with pooled cultures of seven major STEC was 10? colony-forming units (CFU)/g before enrichment and 10² CFU/g after enrichment. The applicability of the assay to detect STEC in fecal samples (n=50), before and after enrichment, was evaluated by comparing with culture-based methods for O26, O111, and O157. The mPCR assay of 50 fecal samples showed seven (14%) positive before enrichment and 23 (46%) positive after enrichment for one or more of the seven O-groups. Overall, 17 isolates from 17 fecal samples and 27 isolates (four for O26, three for O45, and 20 for O103) from 19 fecal samples were obtained, by culture-based methods, for O157 and non-O157 serogroups, respectively. None of the 27 non-O157 isolates possessed the stx genes, suggesting that cattle harbor Shiga toxin-negative E. coli belonging to the "top six" non-O157 serogroups. Our data, although based on a limited number of samples, suggest that the sensitivities of the mPCR and culture-based methods in detecting the seven serogroups of STEC in feces differed between O-groups. An obvious limitation of our mPCR is that the concurrent detection of virulence genes and the serogroups in a sample does not necessarily associate the virulence genes with the prevalent serogroups in the same sample. The major application of our 11-gene mPCR assay may be in identifying putative colonies of STEC obtained by culture-based methods.
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