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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantitative analysis of sitagliptin using the (19)F-NMR method: a universal technique for fluorinated compound detection.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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To expand the application scope of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology in quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical ingredients, (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance ((19)F-NMR) spectroscopy has been employed as a simple, rapid, and reproducible approach for the detection of a fluorine-containing model drug, sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (STG). ciprofloxacin (Cipro) has been used as the internal standard (IS). Influential factors, including the relaxation delay time (d1) and pulse angle, impacting the accuracy and precision of spectral data are systematically optimized. Method validation has been carried out in terms of precision and intermediate precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), robustness, and stability. To validate the reliability and feasibility of the (19)F-NMR technology in quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical analytes, the assay result has been compared with that of (1)H-NMR. The statistical F-test and student t-test at 95% confidence level indicate that there is no significant difference between these two methods. Due to the advantages of (19)F-NMR, such as higher resolution and suitability for biological samples, it can be used as a universal technology for the quantitative analysis of other fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals and analytes.
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Toward practical application of functional conductive polymer binder for a high-energy lithium-ion battery design.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this report, only 2% (by weight) functional conductive polymer binder without any conductive additives was successfully used with a micron-size silicon monoxide (SiO) anode material, demonstrating stable and high gravimetric capacity (>1000 mAh/g) for ?500 cycles and more than 90% capacity retention. Prelithiation of this anode using stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) improves the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of a SiO/NMC full cell from ?48% to ?90%. The combination enables good capacity retention of more than 80% after 100 cycles at C/3 in a lithium-ion full cell.
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[FLT3 mutation in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with extramedullary relapse].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To evaluate the role of FLT3 gene mutation in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients with extramedullary relapse.
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Synthesis of benzobicycloheptanones via the trap of photogenerated ketene methide intermediate with olefins.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Irradiation of ortho-formyl dienes with UV light led to benzobicycloheptanones in high yields and chemoselectivities via a photogenerated ketene methide/Diels-Alder cascade reaction. The reaction mechanism was proposed to be a [1,5]-H shift process rather than a radical pathway based on control experiments. DFT calculations indicate that the energy of transition states is responsible for the high chemoselectivity observed in this protocol.
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Overexpression of fibrinogen-like protein 2 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes tumor progression in colorectal carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The main cause of death in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients is tumor metastasis; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In the present study, a novel metastasis-related gene, fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2), was characterized for its role in CRC metastasis and underlying molecular mechanisms. The clinical significance of FGL2 was investigated using tissue microarray analysis of samples from 82 patients with CRC. The molecular effects of FGL2 in CRC cells were determined using RNA interference and ectopic expression of FGL2. The overexpression of FGL2 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 82 CRC patients, and it was determined to be an independent predictor of overall survival (P < 0.05). The depletion of FGL2 expression inhibited tumor progression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo, while ectopic overexpression of FGL2 enhanced cell invasion and induced EMT in vitro. Our results suggest that FGL2 plays an important oncogenic role in CRC aggressiveness by inducing EMT, and FGL2 could be employed as a novel prognostic marker and effective therapeutic target for CRC.
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Long-term outcomes of peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia in pediatric patients: a prospective, single-center study.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been developed to provide a less-invasive myotomy for achalasia in adults but seldom has been used in pediatric patients.
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The ameliorative effects of exogenous melatonin on grape cuttings under water-deficient stress: antioxidant metabolites, leaf anatomy, and chloroplast morphology.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Grapes are an important economic crop and are widely cultivated around the world. Most grapes are grown in arid or semi-arid regions, and droughts take a heavy toll in grape and wine production areas. Developing effective drought-resistant cultivation measures is a priority for viticulture. Melatonin, an indoleamine, mediates many physiological processes in plants. Herein, we examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve the resistance of wine grape seedlings grown from cuttings to polyethylene glycol-induced water-deficient stress. The application of 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) markedly inhibited the growth of cuttings, caused oxidative stress and damage from H2 O2 and O2?-, and reduced the potential efficiency of Photosystem II and the amount of chlorophyll. Application of melatonin partially alleviated the oxidative injury to cuttings, slowed the decline in the potential efficiency of Photosystem II, and limited the effects on leaf thickness, spongy tissue, and stoma size after application of PEG. Melatonin treatment also helped preserve the internal lamellar system of chloroplasts and alleviated the ultrastructural damage induced by drought stress. This ameliorating effect may be ascribed to the enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, increased levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants, and increased amount of osmoprotectants (free proline). We conclude that the application of melatonin to wine grapes is effective in reducing drought stress.
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Prednisone induced two-way myocardial development in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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We present a series of echocardiography images to demonstrate the myocardial response to a high dose of prednisone. A young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with interventricular septal hypertrophy exhibited a high pressure gradient between the ascending aorta and left ventricular outflow tract as well as significant systolic anterior motion (SAM) and mitral regurgitation (MR) during high-dose prednisone treatment. However, the pressure gradient decreased dramatically and the MR disappeared rapidly when the dose of prednisone was reduced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only adult case of myocardial hypertrophy that is assumed to be related to prednisone use.
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Metal(II) complexes synthesized based on quinoline-2,3-dicarboxylate as electrocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Based on quinoline-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (H2L), two metal(II) complexes formulated as MnL(phen)(H2O)·H2O (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) (1) and Co(HL)2(PPA)·4H2O (PPA = N(1),N(4)-di(pyridin-4-yl)terephthalamide) (2) were synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both complexes 1 and 2 exhibit one-dimensional (1D) chain-like structures, in which stable five-membered rings are observed. Different chains are linked by strong ?-? stacking interactions into a three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular architecture. Both complexes can increase the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO), which is expected to be associated with their electrocatalytic activities for the H2 evolution reaction from water.
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Analysis of Nasal Septal Deviation in Cleft Palate and/or Alveolus Patients Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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This study was performed to analyze features of nasal septal deviation of patients with different cleft types and noncleft controls.
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PGC-1-Related Coactivator (PRC) Is an Important Regulator of Microglia M2 Polarization.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Microglia can be driven to adopt M1 and M2 phenotypes. While the distinct functions of M1 and M2 microglia have been intensively studied, the former are considered proinflammatory and the latter anti-inflammatory. PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC), an important member in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1 (PGC-1) family, plays an essential role in metabolic regulation and cell proliferation. The effects of PRC on microglia M2 polarization are still unknown. In this study, we found that PRC expression was robustly induced in M2 microglia. Overexpression of PRC promotes microglia M2 polarization by increasing the expression of arginase-1 (Arg1), resistin-like ? (Retnla, Fizz1), and chitinase 3-like 3 (Chi3l3, Ym1). In contrast, the silence of PRC attenuates microglia M2 polarization. Mechanistically, PRC was found to cooperate with signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) to induce an M2 genetic program. Overall, our findings identify PRC as what we believe to be a novel regulator of microglia M2 polarization.
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[Analysis of imaging findings in jaw bone islands].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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To provide reference data on frequency and distribution of bone islands (BIs) and investigate their relationship with age, gender, and localization.
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Immune control strategies for vaccinia virus-related laboratory-acquired infections.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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While presenting biological characteristics of vaccinia virus and laboratory-acquired infections during related research processes, this paper focuses on benefits and risks of vaccinia virus immunization in relation to laboratory-acquired infections, describes characteristics and the adaptation of vaccinia virus vaccine, analyses the role vaccinia virus immunization plays in the prevention and control of laboratory-acquired infections, and finally proposes solutions and countermeasures to further promote and implement immune control strategies. The problem related to immune strategy and laboratory- acquired infections which is being raised, analyzed and explored plays an active and instructive role in vaccinia virus related researches and laboratory- acquired infections, and also helps to recommend and develop relevant immune strategy for future vaccine control of such infections.
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Cellular mechanisms of a new pyrazinone compound that induces apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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We screened a small molecular library that was designed and independently synthesized in vitro and found a new drug (MY-03-01) that is active against ovarian cancer. We established that MY-03-01 effectively inhibited SKOV-3 cell survival in a dose-dependent manner, based on cell viability rates, and that it not only induced SKOV-3 apoptosis by itself, but also did so synergistically with paclitaxel. Secondly, when MY-03-01 was applied at 40 ?M, its hemolytic activity was less than 10%, compared with the control, and there was almost no damage to normal cells at this concentration. In addition, we used DAPI staining and flow cytometry to show that MY- 03-01 could significantly induce apoptosis of SKOV-3 cells. Finally, we found that MY-03-01 likely induced SKOV-3 apoptosis by activating caspase3 and caspase9 through the mitochondrial pathway.
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Timing of early angiography in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.
J Invasive Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We aimed to determine the best time period for an early invasive intervention in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) patients.
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The Effect of Sound Intensity on Velopharyngeal Function in Normal Individuals.
J Voice
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Velopharyngeal closure is an important physiological process contributing to the normal function of speech and swallowing. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of sound intensity on velopharyngeal function in normal individuals.
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Parametric study on responses of a self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of a hanger.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The girder of self-anchored suspension bridge is subjected to large compression force applied by main cables. So, serious damage of the girder due to breakage of hangers may cause the collapse of the whole bridge. With the time increasing, the hangers may break suddenly for their resistance capacities decrease due to corrosion. Using nonlinear static and dynamic analysis methods and adopting 3D finite element model, the responses of an actual self-anchored suspension bridge to sudden breakage of hangers are studied in this paper. The results show that the sudden breakage of a hanger causes violent vibration and large changes in internal forces of the bridge. In the process of the vibration, the maximum tension of hanger produced by breakage of a hanger exceeds 2.22 times its initial value, and the reaction forces of the bearings increase by more than 1.86 times the tension of the broken hanger. Based on the actual bridge, the influences of some factors including flexural stiffness of girder, torsion stiffness of girder, flexural stiffness of main cable, weight of girder, weight of main cable, span to sag ratio of main cable, distance of hangers, span length, and breakage time of hanger on the dynamic responses are studied in detail, and the influencing extent of the factors is presented.
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Endoscopic mucosal resection with circumferential incision for treatment of rectal carcinoid tumours.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is simple and quick and has low complication rates. However, the disadvantage of local recurrence or remnant rate limits the use of this technique. We aimed to analyse the outcomes of conventional EMR and EMR with circumferential incision (CIEMR), a simplified modification of EMR, in the endoscopic treatment of rectal carcinoid tumours.
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Association between Tissue Characteristics of Coronary Plaque and Distal Embolization after Coronary Intervention in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The predictive value of plaque characteristics assessed by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) including fibrous tissue (FT), fibrofatty (FF), necrotic core (NC) and dense calcium (DC) in identifying distal embolization after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is still controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the association of pre-PCI plaque composition and post-PCI distal embolization in acute coronary syndrome patients.
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Expression of Notch Family Proteins in Placentas From Patients With Early-Onset Severe Preeclampsia.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Objectives:This study is aimed to identify the expression of Notch family proteins in placentas from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia.Study Design:The expression of Notch family proteins in placentas was investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results:The profile of distribution of all Notch family proteins in placentas from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia is similar to that in normal placentas. All Notch family proteins are expressed in placental trophoblasts. Moreover, Notch1 and Jagged1 (Jag1) are detected in placental endothelial cells. Real-time RT-PCR showed that messenger RNA levels of Notch2 and Delta-like4 (Dll4) in placentas from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia are lower than that of normal placentas. Western blotting showed a significant increase in Notch3 expression and a significant decrease in Notch2 expression in placentas from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia relative to those in normal placentas.Conclusion:The results suggest that Notch2 and Notch3 may play some roles in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
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Simultaneous measurement of curvature and strain based on fiber Bragg grating in two-dimensional waveguide array fiber.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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We report on the fabrication of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with multiple resonances in a two-dimensional waveguide array microstructured optical fiber containing 91 cores. Theoretical investigation reveals that these resonances originate from the identical and nonidentical mode couplings between forward-propagating and backward-propagating LP0m-like (m=1, 2, 3; LP refers to linearly polarized) supermodes. Since both the central wavelength and minimum transmission of these resonant dips respond differently to curvature and axial strain, this FBG can be applied in the simultaneous measurement of curvature and axial strain.
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Demethylating agent decitabine induces autologous cancer testis antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) are a novel group of tumor associated antigens. Demethylating agent decitabine was reported to be able to up-regulate CTAs through its hypomethylation mechanism, thus enhance the immunogenicity of leukemia cells. However, few researches have ever focused on the questions that whether this immunostimulatory effect of decitabine could induce autologous CTA specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vivo, and if so, whether this effect contributes to disease control. In this study, we aimed to show that decitabine could induce specific autologous CTLs against some mouse CTAs in leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.
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Rapid detection of AML1 associated fusion genes in patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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This study was aimed to detect the expression of AML1 fusion genes in the patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and further to investigate their association with the progression and prognosis of AML. Bone marrow samples were collected from 168 patients with de novo adult AML, and the expression of AML1 ETO, AML1-EVI1, AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, AML1-LRP16, AML1-CLCA2 and AML1-PRDX4 was analyzed by a novel multiplex nested RT-PCR. Positive samples and minimal residual disease were further examined by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that the AML1 fusion genes were found in 10.7% (18/168) patients. Among them, AML1-ETO in 12 (7.1%) cases were detected, AML1-EVI1 in 2 cases (1.2%), and AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, and AML1-CLCA2 in 1 case (0.6%) each were detected. Among the patients with AML1-ETO, 10 patients (10/12, 83.33%) achieved complete remission (CR) after one cycle of chemotherapy, while 2 patients achieved CR after 2 cycles of chemotherapy. The 2 patients with AML1-EVI1 failed to achieve CR after one cycle of chemotherapy. Patients with AML1-MDS1, AML1-MTG16, AML1-PRDM16, or AML1-CACL2 did not achieve CR after one cycle of chemotherapy. It is concluded that AML1 fusion genes are more frequent and can provide the molecular markers for diagnostics and prognosis evaluation of AML and for monitoring MRD.
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[Simultaneous quantitative analysis of five alkaloids in Sophora flavescens by multi-components assay by single marker].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To establish a new method for quality evaluation and validate its feasibilities by simultaneous quantitative assay of five alkaloids in Sophora flavescens.
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Meta-analysis of Barretts esophagus in China.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To investigate the epidemiology and characteristics of Barretts esophagus (BE) in China and compare with cases in the west.
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Verification of the Tokyo guidelines for acute cholangitis secondary to benign and malignant biliary obstruction: experience from a Chinese tertiary hospital.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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The lack of widely-accepted guidelines for acute cholangitis largely lags behind the progress in medical and surgical technology and science for the management of acute cholangitis. This study aimed to verify the Tokyo guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis of 2007 edition (TG07) in patients with obstructive cholangitis due to benign and malignant diseases.
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[Clinical analysis of 44 cases of leukemia complicated with active tuberculosis-a single-center report].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To analyze the prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis, potential risk factors, anti-tuberculosis treatment efficacy and prognosis of the patients with leukemia complicated with active tuberculosis (TB).
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[Central composite design-response surface method optimize of fang-bing nasal inhalant from components of traditional Chinese medicine for sedative and sleep aiding].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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To obtain the optimal preparation technology of Fang-bing nasal inhalant from components of traditional Chinese medicine by central composite design, with an apparatus containing nasal inhalant that simulated the expiration and inspiration of nose, the dissolution in vitro of different optimized inhalant samples designed through central composite design were investigated. The accumulative release of linalool, borneol, menthol was detected with GC. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions of preparation technology by establishing multiple linear regression and second-order quadratic models. Then, deviation was carried out through comparing the observed and predicted values. It was showed that the coefficient of correlation of second-order quadratic model was high. The related coefficient reached 0.999 3, 0.998 0, 0.944 9, separately. The optimum conditions of preparation technology were as following: 84.39% of alcohol concentration, the weight of starch 1.45 g and the weight of carmellose sodium (CMC-Na for short) 1.22 g. The deviations between observed and predicated values showed -0.36%, 1.52%, 2.40%, separately. In this experiment, the established model can describe the good relation between factors and indexes from preparation technology of Fang-bing nasal inhalant and the outcome of prediction is well. This optimal Fang-bing nasal inhalant was used to study its in vivo effect on model rats deprived from sleep and showed sedative and sleep aiding, which will bring an instruction on inhalants of components from traditional Chinese medicine.
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Preparation and characterization of self-supporting thermochromic films composed of VO2(M)@SiO2 Nanofibers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Nanofibers of VO2(A) with the diameter and length averagely at 100 nm and 10-20 ?m were prepared via a facile one-step hydrothermal method by reducing NH4VO3 with 1,3-propylene glycol in an acidic solution. The obtained VO2(A) was coated by SiO2 to form VO2(A)@SiO2 core-shell nanocomposites, which were then transformed into VO2(M)@SiO2 by annealing under nitrogen atmosphere. The resulted composites maintained the original fibrous morphology, particularly with a large amount of pores emerging inside the fiber due to the volume shrinkage during the phase transition, which may improve its thermal insulation ability in real applications. The VO2(M)@SiO2 nanofibers were arranged into a self-supporting film by filtration, which shows excellent thermochromic properties.
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[Role of spinal MAPK-ERK signal pathway in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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To explore the role of spinal MAPK-ERK signal pathway in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury.
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[Clinical observation of decitabine-treating patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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This study was purposed to investigate the clinical efficiencies and adverse reactions of treating the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by using decitabine. The clinical data of 12 MDS and AML patients treated with decitabine were analyzed retrospectively. Among 12 patients there were 1 case of MDS-RA, 2 cases of MDS-RAEB-I, 3 cases of MDS-RAEB-II, 2 cases of AML-M4, 2 cases of AML-M5, 1 case of AML-M6 and 1 case of AML-M0. In decitabine chemotherapy program for 5 days (n = 8), decitabine 20 mg/(m(2)·d) × 5 days was applied, 4 weeks for 1 cycle; in program for 3 days (n = 2), decitabine 15 mg/m(2), once 8 h for 3 days, 6 weeks for 1 cycle; another program (n = 2), decitabine 20 mg/(m(2)·d) every other day for 5 times. For 1 patient achieved complete remission (CR) after treatment with decitabine, ID4 gene methylated level was detected by MS-PCR and ML-PCR before and after treatment. The results showed that 2 cases achieved CR, 1 case partial remission, 5 cases stable disease, 1 case progress of disease and 3 cases died. Disease control rate was 66.67% (8/12), the effective rate 25% (3/12). The average survival time was (11.5 ± 2.1) months. 1-year OS rate was 40%, 2-year OS rate was 16.7%. MS-PCR detection showed that the decitabine could significantly reduce the ID4 gene methylation level. It is concluded that decitabine can stabilize disease status of MDS patients, reduce blood transfusion dependence and improve the life quality of patients, and even some patients who transformed from MDS to leukemia achieved CR after treatment with decitabine. Decitabine can reduce the ID4 gene methylation level. The main adverse reaction of decitabine was myelosuppression, infection and so on. So the blood transfusions, antibiotics and other supportive treatments for these patients are needed. Most of patients well tolerate the adverse effects of decitabine after active symptomatic and supportive treatment. The efficacy and survival rate of patients in this study were similar to that of application of decitabine to treat MDS in other domestic studies.
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A comparison of steep and shallow needle trajectories in blind axillary vein puncture.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Previously developed techniques for pacemaker lead introduction usually require some form of image guidance to facilitate the axillary vein puncture process. The existing blind vein puncture methods have not gained widespread acceptance. We aimed to investigate whether our blind vein puncture approach is effective and safe.
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Midterm effects and clinical benefits of left ventricular vs biventricular pacing in heart failure.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Although left ventricular pacing (LVP) leads to a greater acute hemodynamic response than does biventricular pacing (BVP), the long-term effects are diverse. We aimed to assess the efficacy of LVP and BVP in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy and determine which patients would benefit more from LVP or BVP.
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[Analysis of associated factors of lymph node metastasis in intramucosal early gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To analyze the associated predictive factors of lymph node metastasis in intramucosal early gastric cancer, and to provide reference for individualized treatment protocol.
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Radiographic healing after a root canal treatment performed in single-rooted teeth with and without ultrasonic activation of the irrigant: a randomized controlled trial.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of a root canal treatment with and without additional ultrasonic activation of the irrigant.
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Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC), a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-? producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+) T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.
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[Application of multiplex nested RT-PCR for fast detection of PDGFR? fusion gene in myeloproliferative neoplasms].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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This study was aimed to explore the applicable value of multiplex nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (multiplex nested RT-PCR)for the detection of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) fusion gene in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Bone marrow or peripheral blood samples from 146 patients with MPN were analyzed by using a novel multiplex nested RT-PCR. The result showed that PDGFR? fusion gene was found in 6 out of the 146 bone marrow or peripheral blood samples, the positive rate was 4.11%, 4 from the 6 patients received treatment with imatinib and showed therapeutic effect. It is concluded that the multiplex nested RT-PCR has a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, specificity, and time-saving, and can be applied for determination of the molecular type of MPN, and also for the diagnosis and therapy of MPN.
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[Application of reverse transcription-multiplex nested PCR to detect PDGFRB gene rearrangement in myeloproliferative disorders].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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In order to explore the value of reverse transcription(RT)-multiplex nested PCR for detecting PDGFRB gene rearrangement in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), the PDGFRB rearrangement was detected qualitatively in 146 MPD cases by reverse transcription multiplex nested PCR. The results showed that 8 cases with PDGFRB fusion gene were found in 146 cases, the positive rate was 5.5%. Out of 8 cases with PDGFRB fusion gene, TEL-PDGRB fusion gene was found in 3 cases; HIP1-PDGFRB fusion gene in 2 cases; GIT2-PDGFRB, TP53BP1-PDGFRB and WDP48-PDGFRB fusion gene in 1 case, respectively. It is concluded that RT-multiplex nested PCR is a powerful tool for the detection of PDGFRB rearrangement, which helps to tentatively diagnose MPD and to provide the clues for targeting therapy.
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[Preliminary studies on pathogenic microorganisms laboratory-acquired infections cases in recent years and its control strategies].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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To analyze and study types, infections routes and causes of global pathogenic microorganisms laboratory-acquired infections cases reported in the literatures from 2000 to 2009 and to discuss prevention and control strategies.
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Effect of prophylactic dexamethasone on nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic gynecological operation: meta-analysis.
Middle East J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Sex of female and laraproscopic surgery are both risk factors related to postoperative nausea and vomiting, and dexamethasone is used as anti-emetic in some operations. A meta-analysis of randomized trials was performed to determine the effect of prophylactic dexamethasone administration on postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain and complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological operation.
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Timing of early invasive intervention in patients with moderate to high risk acute coronary syndromes.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Although international guidelines recommend an early invasive intervention for the treatment of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the optimal timing of this intervention remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the best time period for an early invasive intervention in ACS patients.
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[Ananlysis on the molecular characteristics of CVA9 virus in Tibet].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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To study the molecular characterization of CVA9 virus in Tibet.
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[Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of 5 cases of primary pneumonic plague in Tibet in 2010].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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To explore the clinical manifestations, the feature of chest X-ray, the clinical outcome, and the clinical treatments of severe pneumonic plague.
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CASCADE_SCAN: mining signal transduction network from high-throughput data based on steepest descent method.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Signal transduction is an essential biological process involved in cell response to environment changes, by which extracellular signaling initiates intracellular signaling. Many computational methods have been generated in mining signal transduction networks with the increasing of high-throughput genomic and proteomic data. However, more effective means are still needed to understand the complex mechanisms of signaling pathways.
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Tunable microwave generation based on a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode fiber laser using a phase-shifted grating on a triangular cantilever.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Frequency tunable microwave signal generation, based on a dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser, incorporating a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PS-FBG) with two ?-phase shifts, is demonstrated. In the proposed configuration, the PS-FBG with two ultranarrow transmission bands is embedded in a triangular cantilever to serve as a wavelength spacing tunable filter with a fixed center wavelength by applying various strains on the cantilever. A section of unpumped EDF is employed as a saturable absorber to ensure SLM operation in each of the two lasing lines. By beating the two wavelengths at a photodiode, a tunable microwave signal ranging from 8.835 to 24.360 GHz is successfully achieved.
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Glomus tumor of the stomach: a case treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Glomus tumors, as a type of quite rare neoplasms, originate from modified smooth muscle cells of the glomus body whose function is to regulate blood flow within arteries according to the body temperature. Although these tumors most commonly occur in the peripheral soft tissues, especially in the distal parts of extremities, there have been rare reports of visceral involvement (Lorber et al., 2005) [1]. We report a case of gastric glomus tumor, which was preoperatively diagnosed by ultrasonic endoscopy as a gastric stromal tumor and treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).
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N-containing compounds of macromycetes.
Nat Prod Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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This review surveys the chemical, biological, and mycological literature dealing with the isolation, structural elucidation, biological activities, and synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds from the fruiting bodies or the culture broths of macromycetes.
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Isoprenylated cyclohexanoids from the basidiomycete Hexagonia speciosa.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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Nine oxygenated cyclohexanoids, speciosins L-T (1-9) as well as a 5H-furan-2-one metabolite, 5-O-acetylaporpinone A (10), together with known analogs, speciosins A, B, D, E, F, I and K (11-17), and aporpinone A (18), were isolated from a scale-up cultures of the basidiomycete Hexagonia speciosa. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR. Speciosin B (12) showed significant cytotoxicity against several tumor cell lines with IC(50) values in the range 0.23-3.30?M.
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The influence of the ultrasonic intensity on the cleaning efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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It is not clear whether increasing the ultrasonic intensity would enhance the cleaning efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) inside a root canal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the ultrasonic intensity on PUI to remove dentin debris and whether there is any lateral effect beyond the ultrasonic tip.
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Comparison of CRT and CRT-D in heart failure: systematic review of controlled trials.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Few studies have directly compared cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) with combined CRT-cardioverter defibrillator therapy (CRT-D) in patients with left ventricular (LV) impairment. We performed a systematic analysis to assess the therapeutic effects of CRT and CRT-D in patients with LV impairment and heart failure.
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Surgical outcomes and prognostic factors of transsphenoidal surgery for prolactinoma in men: a single-center experience with 87 consecutive cases.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Context Little systematic data on male prolactinomas treated with surgery are available. Objective To clarify the clinical features and confirm the efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery for male prolactinomas and predictive factors after initial surgery. Patients and methods This retrospective study included 87 male patients with prolactinoma treated by transsphenoidal surgery at an academic medical center. Hormonal and visual status, remission rates, and the rate of tumor relapse, as well as predictive factors, were evaluated. Results Postoperative initial remission was achieved in 52.9% of patients. The remission rate was markedly higher in microadenomas (83.3%) than in macroadenomas (44.9%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the predictive factors of the early negative outcomes were high preoperative prolactin (PRL) levels and tumor invasion. After a median follow-up of 45 months, the long-term remission rate was 42.5%, and relapse of hyperprolactinemia occurred in 19.6% of the cured patients. The 5-year recurrence-free survival was 78.2% (95% confidence interval, 62.3-88.1%). When surgery was followed by adjuvant treatment in uncured and recurrent patients, 78.8% of patients in the entire group in the absence of dopamine agonists obtained biochemical remission at the end of follow-up. Conclusion Transsphenoidal surgery is a viable treatment alternative for male prolactinomas. The remission rates of male patients with microadenomas and/or intrasellar macroprolactinomas by surgery alone remain excellent, and surgery followed by adjuvant therapy as necessary is required for optimizing management of male prolactinomas, especially for extrasellar macroprolactinomas. The early negative results are associated with preoperative PRL levels and tumor invasion.
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[The analysis of the clinical features between survivors and non-survivors with the severe form of new influenza A (H1N1) viral infection].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
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To understand the clinical features of critically ill patients with pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) and investigate the risk factors associated with death cases.
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Analysis of inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg gratings (IGAFBGs) are numerically studied using the transfer matrix method and fabricated by the commonly used phase-mask scanning technique in a single-step scanning process. The IGAFBG can serve as a dual-wavelength passband filter, whose wavelength spacing can be continuously tuned by introducing a tunable chirp through applying a strain gradient in principle. Also, an IGAFBG with identical dual passbands having 0.144nm wavelength spacing is experimentally achieved. We also show that an IGAFBG can act as a multipassband filter with varied free spectral ranges (FSRs), and the largest FSR variation of this IGAFBG is nearly seven times more than that in a comparable FBG pair filter. An IGAFBG with varied FSRs of approximately 16.125, approximately 12.25, approximately 8.5, and approximately 6.375GHz is fabricated. This multipassband varying-FSR IGAFBG filter can find applications in step-tunable microwave generations.
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Association of supervillin with KIR2DL1 regulates the inhibitory signaling of natural killer cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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Inhibitory signaling is crucial in the regulation of the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we show that KIR2DL1, an inhibitory receptor of NK cells, associates with supervillin, an F-actin binding protein. Interaction of supervillin with KIR2DL1 is dependent on the KIR2DL1 receptor stimulation and requires the phosphorylation of tyrosines in both ITIM motifs. "Knockdown" of expression of supervillin by RNA interference (RNAi) restores the KIR2DL1-suppressed cytotoxicity of NK cells. Inhibition of supervillin by RNAi also enhances the polarization of cytolytic granules (both granzyme B and perforin) to the synapse formed between YTS-GFP-KIR2DL1 NK cells and 721.221-HLA-Cw4 target cells. Further study reveals that supervillin is required for KIR2DL1-mediated inhibition of Vav1 and ERK phoshorylation. Moreover, we have found that binding of supervillin with KIR2DL1 facilitates the recruitment of SHPs especially SHP-2 to KIR2DL1 receptor. Thus, our findings demonstrate that supervillin is a novel molecule that associates with KIR2DL1 receptor and regulates the inhibitory signaling in NK cells.
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A new isoprenyl phenyl ether riboside from the culture of basidiomycete Laccaria amethystea.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
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A new isoprenyl phenyl ether riboside, 3-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)-4-O-alpha-D-ribofuranose benzoic acid methyl ester (1), was isolated from the culture of basidiomycete Laccaria amethystea. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis.
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Resazurin metabolism assay for root canal disinfectant evaluation on dual-species biofilms.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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Endodontic infections are caused by polymicrobial biofilms. Therefore, novel root canal disinfectants should be evaluated not only on single-species biofilms but also on dual- or mixed-species biofilms. A simple, high-throughput assay is urgently needed for this. In this study, the application of the resazurin metabolism assay was investigated for the evaluation of a root canal disinfectant on dual-species biofilms.
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An evaluation of the effect of pulsed ultrasound on the cleaning efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Multiple activations of the irrigant by using pulsed ultrasound may enhance the removal of dentin debris because of repeated acceleration of the irrigant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed ultrasound on passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) in its ability to remove artificially placed dentin debris from a simulated apical oval extension within standardized root canals.
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Randomized controlled trials on the therapeutic effects of adult progenitor cells for myocardial infarction: meta-analysis.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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We performed a systematic meta-analysis to assess the therapeutic effects of progenitor cell therapy after myocardial infarction (MI).
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In vivo characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae genes involved in the pathogenesis of meningitis by differential fluorescence induction.
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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To further understand the pathogenesis of pneumococcal meningitis, and provide some target candidates for the development of drugs.
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CD147 expression in pituitary adenomas and its significance for clinical outcome.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of receptors, is involved in invasion and angiogenesis of some types of tumors; but its roles and clinicopathologic significance in pituitary adenomas are not clear. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we measured the expression of CD147, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and Ki-67 in 74 pituitary adenomas and evaluated the associations of CD147 with matrix metalloproteinase-2, Ki-67 labeling index, clinicopathologic characteristics, and prognosis. The CD147 protein was expressed in 35 (87.5%) of 40 invasive and in 16 (47.1%) of 34 noninvasive pituitary adenomas; and matrix metalloproteinase-2, in 32 (80.0%) and in 14 (41.2%) of 34, respectively. The Ki-67 labeling index was 3.93% +/- 2.48% for invasive samples and 1.32% +/- 1.04% for noninvasive ones. In addition, the expression of CD147 was positively correlated with matrix metalloproteinase-2, Ki-67 labeling index, or both in invasive pituitary adenomas (P< .01 and P< .01, respectively). All of the 4 recurrent adenomas were concurrently positive for CD147 and matrix metalloproteinase-2, and the Ki-67 labeling indexes of all were greater than 3%. Thus, CD147 may play a pivotal role in the development and progression of invasive pituitary adenomas and also be a useful prognostic biomarker.
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Pneumocephalus after interventional therapy in esophageal cancer.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Pneumocephalus has been reported to have many causes. To our knowledge, a case of tension pneumocephalus caused by subarachnoid-esophagus fistula has not been reported previously. In this report, an unusual case of tension pneumocephalus, which appeared after esophageal cancer disrupting paravertebral tissue resulted in subarachnoid-esophagus fistula, is presented and the involvements in tension pneumocephalus are discussed.
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Influence of the oscillation direction of an ultrasonic file on the cleaning efficacy of passive ultrasonic irrigation.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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The cleaning mechanisms and characteristics of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) are not yet completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the oscillatory direction of the ultrasonically driven file had an influence on dentin debris removal from artificially made grooves in standardized root canals.
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Vibralactones D-F from cultures of the basidiomycete Boreostereum vibrans.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Three new metabolites, vibralactones D-F (1-3) were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Boreostereum vibrans. The relative configuration of 1 was established on the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis, while the absolute configurations of 1-3 were assigned using a modified Moshers method. Compound 1 showed weak inhibitory activities against isozymes of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSD) with IC(50) values of 85.7 microM (human HSD1), 295.2 microM (mouse HSD1), and 87.1 microM (human HSD2).
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Fabrication of a compact reflective long-period grating sensor with a cladding-mode-selective fiber end-face mirror.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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A long-period grating (LPG) based compact optical fiber sensor working in reflection mode is demonstrated. A technique to make a mirror on the cladding region of a fiber end-face to reflect only the cladding modes was realized by growing a polymeric microtip on the core region of the fiber end-face, by photopolymerization, followed by coating the fiber end-face with an aluminum film. Using the cladding-mode-selective fiber end-face mirror, the transmission spectrum of the LPG was "inverted" and reflected. Preliminary results of using the sensor to measure the refractive index of glycerol/water solutions were successfully demonstrated.
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Two new cleistanthane diterpenes and a new isocoumarine from cultures of the basidiomycete Albatrellus confluens.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Two new cleistanthane-type diterpenes, 3alpha,5alpha,8beta-trihydroxycleistanth-13(17),15-dien-18-oic acid (1) and 8beta-hydroxy-18-norcleistanth-4(5),13(17),15-trien-3-one (2), a new isocoumarine, 3R-(2R-hydroxypropyl)-8-hydroxyl-7-methyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarine (3), along with three known aurovertins, aurovertins B (4), C (5) and E (6), four known polyesters, orbuticin (7), BK223A (8), BK223B (9) and 15G256alpha-2-me (10), and a known isocoumarine, 3R-6-hydroxymellein (11), were isolated from cultures of the basidiomycete Albatrellus confluens. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods.
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Cloning, in vitro expression, and bioactivity of interleukin-18 isolated from a domestic porcine breed found in Henan.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
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To evaluate the effects of recombinant porcine interleukin-18 (rpIL-18) on the replication of viruses in host cells and proliferation of lymphocytes, porcine IL-18 (pIL-18) isolated from a domestic big-white porcine breed found in the Henan province (HN) was cloned using a reverse transcriptase-PCR. The cloned HN pIL-18 contained an ORF of 579 base pairs encoding a 192-amino-acid precursor protein. The amino acid sequence of HN pIL-18 was compared with all the other pIL-18 amino acid sequences and varied by at least one amino acid to the consensus of all the others available. HN pIL-18 mature protein gene was inserted into a prokaryotic vector pGEX-4T-1 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The expression of glutathione-S-transferase-pIL18 fusion protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. The rpIL-18 induced in vitro proliferation of concanavalin-A-stimulated porcine splenocytes, as revealed by the MTT assay. We studied the antiviral activities of the rpIL-18 on the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV) cultured in two homologous cell lines. The results suggested that rpIL-18 can stimulate the proliferation of lymphocytes and inhibit viral pathogens infecting the porcine population.
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Speciosins A-K, oxygenated cyclohexanoids from the basidiomycete Hexagonia speciosa.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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Eleven new oxygenated cyclohexanoids, speciosins A-K (1-11), and aporpinone A (12) were isolated from broth cultures of the basidiomycete Hexagonia speciosa. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, while the structure of 8 was additionally confirmed by analysis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data.
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Identifying the local structures formed during lithiation of the conversion material, iron fluoride, in a Li ion battery: a solid-state NMR, X-ray diffraction, and pair distribution function analysis study.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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The structural transformations that occur when FeF(3) is cycled at room temperature in a Li cell were investigated using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, and magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy. Two regions are seen on discharge. The first occurs between Li = 0 and 1.0 and involves an insertion reaction. This first region actually comprises two steps: First, a two-phase reaction between Li = 0 and 0.5 occurs, and the Li(0.5)FeF(3) phase that is formed gives rise to a Li NMR resonance due to Li(+) ions near both Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) ions. On the basis of the PDF data, the local structure of this phase is closer to the rutile structure than the original ReO(3) structure. Second, a single-phase intercalation reaction occurs between Li = 0.5 and 1.0, for which the Li NMR data indicate a progressive increase in the concentration of Fe(2+) ions. In the second region, the conversion reaction, superparamagnetic, nanosized ( approximately 3 nm) Fe metal is formed, as indicated by the XRD and NMR data, along with some LiF and a third phase that is rich in Li and F. The charge process involves the formation of a series of intercalation phases with increasing Fe oxidation state, which, on the basis of the Li NMR and PDF data, have local structures that are similar to the intercalation phases seen during the first stage of the discharge process. The solid-state NMR and XRD results for the rutile phase FeF(2) are presented for comparison, and the data indicate that an insertion reaction also occurs, which is accompanied by the formation of LiF. This is followed by the formation of Fe nanoparticles and LiF via a conversion reaction.
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[Research on the structure equation model of tendency on drug abuse and related influencing factors in middle school students].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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To understand the relationship of tendency on drug abuse and related influencing factors for middle school students.
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