Phosphonate is a commonly used corrosion and scale inhibitor for a circulating cooling water (CCW) system. Its discharge could cause eutrophication of receiving waters. The iron-carbon (Fe/C) micro-electrolysis technology was used to degrade and remove phosphonate from discharged CCW. The influences of initial pH, Fe/C ratio (FCR) and temperature on phosphonate removal were investigated in a series of batch tests and optimized by response surface methodology. The quadratic model of phosphonate removal was obtained with satisfactory degrees of fitness. The optimum conditions with total phosphorus removal efficiency of 95% were obtained at pH 7.0, FCR of 1.25, and temperature of 45 °C. The phosphonate removal mechanisms were also studied. Phosphonate removal occurred predominantly via two consecutive reactive phases: the degradation of phosphonate complexes (Ca-phosphonate) and the precipitation of Fe/C micro-electrolysis products (PO?(3-), Ca²? and Fe³?).
Mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) often acquire oncogenic activities, conferring drug resistance and/or promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Although it has been well established that such a gain of function is mainly achieved through interaction with transcriptional regulators, thereby modulating cancer-associated gene expression, how the mutp53 function is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) bound common mutp53 (e.g. R175H and R273H) and, subsequently, suppressed their oncogenic activities. ATF3 repressed mutp53-induced NFKB2 expression and sensitized R175H-expressing cancer cells to cisplatin and etoposide treatments. Moreover, ATF3 appeared to suppress R175H- and R273H-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion as a consequence of preventing the transcription factor p63 from inactivation by mutp53. Accordingly, ATF3 promoted the expression of the metastasis suppressor SHARP1 in mutp53-expressing cells. An ATF3 mutant devoid of the mutp53-binding domain failed to disrupt the mutp53-p63 binding and, thus, lost the activity to suppress mutp53-mediated migration, suggesting that ATF3 binds to mutp53 to suppress its oncogenic function. In line with these results, we found that down-regulation of ATF3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis in TP53-mutated human lung cancer. We conclude that ATF3 can suppress mutp53 oncogenic function, thereby contributing to tumor suppression in TP53-mutated cancer.
The clinical use of cisplatin was severely limited by its associated nephrotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether the pseudoginsenoside F11 had protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. To clarify it, one in vivo model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure was performed. The results showed that pretreatment with F11 reduced cisplatin-elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, as well as ameliorated the histophathological damage. Further studies showed that F11 could suppress P53 activation, inverse the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and the anti-oxidative and free radical levels induced by cisplatin, which in turn inhibited tubular cell apoptosis. Importantly, F11 enhanced rather than inhibited the anti-tumor activity of cispaltin in murine melanoma and Lewis lung cancer xenograft tumor models. Our findings suggested that administering F11 with cisplatin might alleviate the associated nephrotoxicity without compromising its therapeutic efficiency. This finding provides a novel potential strategy in the clinical treatment of cancer.
Chronic pharyngitis is chronic inflammation that is often caused by repeated occurrences of acute pharyngitis or upper respiratory tract infections, including Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Yanshu spraying agent (Yanshu) in relieving chronic pharyngitis, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. The results revealed that Yanshu inhibited chronic inflammation in ammonia-induced chronic pharyngitis in rabbits and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue formation in rats. Yanshu also demonstrated antibacterial effects on Streptococcus and Staphylococcus in vitro. Yanshu did not exhibit any effects on the immune system, including the spleen and thymus indexes, immunocyte count and monocyte-macrophage function, when compared with the effects of dexamethasone. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that Yanshu may relieve chronic pharyngitis via its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities.
Doxorubicin (Dox) has been clinically observed to exert marked anticancer activity. However, it is severely restricted by its associated dose?dependent cardiotoxicity, which may be attenuated by decreasing the cumulative dosage via combining with a non?toxic sensitizer. We previously reported that ocotillol is capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of Dox; however, the effects of ocotillol on its cardiotoxicity remain unclear. In the current study, the effects of ocotillol on the toxicity of Dox were investigated, particularly its role in cardiotoxicity. In the acute injury model, pre?administration of ocotillol prolonged the survival time. In the chronic animal model, pre?administration of ocotillol decreased the elevated levels of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and CK?MB, as well as attenuated the pathological changes that occurred. Pre?treatment with ocotillol ameliorated the decreased glutathione level and reduced the cumulated malondialdehyde in the heart tissue. In addition, pre?treatment with ocotillol restored the lowered white blood cell count. The results indicate that Dox co?treatment with ocotillol may effectively alleviate its associated toxic injury, particularly cardiotoxicity. Thus, co?administration of Dox with ocotillol may be a potential therapeutic strategy.
The use of doxorubicin (Dox) was severely constrained by dose-dependent side effects, which might be attenuated by combining a "sensitizer" to decrease its cumulative dosage. In this study, it was investigated whether ocotillol could enhance the antiproliferation activity of Dox. MTT assays and xenograft tumor model were firstly conducted to evaluate the effect of ocotillol on the antitumor activity of Dox. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining assays were then performed to assess cell apoptosis. Western blot and real-time PCR were finally used to detect the expression of p53 and its target genes. Our results showed ocotillol to enhance Dox-induced cell death in p53 wild-type cancer cells. Compared with Dox alone, Dox with ocotillol (Dox-O) could induce much more cell apoptosis and activate p53 to a much greater degree, which in turn markedly increased expression of proapoptosis genes. The enhanced cytotoxic activity was partially blocked by pifithrin- ? , which might be through attenuating the increased apoptosis. Furthermore, ocotillol significantly increased the antitumor activity of Dox in A549 xenograft tumor in nude mice. These findings indicated that ocotillol could potentiate the cytotoxic effect of Dox through p53-dependent apoptosis and suggested that coadministration of ocotillol with Dox might be a potential therapeutic strategy.
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between quercetin (Que) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathway and to explore its regulating effect on secondary oxidative stress following acute spinal cord injury (SCI), so as to elucidate the protective effects and mechanism associated with Que treatment during acute SCI.
The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI), huperzine A has been used in the treatment of the cognitive deterioration associated with Alzheimers disease (AD). However, the side-effects of huperzine A associated with increased cholinergic activity, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, are evident. It is not yet known how quickly these side-effects become tolerated; this information would provide guidance to doctors on how to use huperzine A so as to attenuate the adverse events. The present study aimed to observe the effects of huperzine A on gastrointestinal motility and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in mice. After oral administration of huperzine A with single and multiple dosing, the gastrointestinal motility and AChE activity of the mice were examined. The results revealed that, following a single dose of huperzine A, the AChE activity in the stomach and duodenum were significantly inhibited and the gastrointestinal motility was significantly increased. However, following multiple doses (7 or 28 doses, one dose per day), no significant changes in the AChE activity and gastrointestinal motility were identified. These findings indicate that the gastrointestinal adverse effects of huperzine A may be well-tolerated relatively quickly and do not recur. Additionally, it suggests that patients with AD are likely to have minimal gastrointestinal side-effects after taking multiple doses of huperzine A.
This study aimed to investigate the correlation between ginkgolide B (GB) and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and to explore its regulating effect on secondary cell apoptosis following spinal cord injury (SCI), to elucidate the protective mechanism GB against acute SCI. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham-operated group, an SCI group, an SCI + GB group, an SCI + methylprednisolone (MP) group, and an SCI + specific JAK inhibitor AG490 group. A rat model of acute SCI was established using the modified Allens method. At 4 h, 12 h, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and 14 days after injury, injured T10 spinal cord specimens were harvested. GB significantly increased inclined plane test scores and Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale scores in SCI rats from postoperative day 3 to day 14. The effect was equal to that of the positive control drug, MP. Western blot analysis showed that JAK(2) was significantly phosphorylated from 4 h after SCI, peaked at 12 h and gradually decreased thereafter, accompanied by phosphorylation of STAT(3) with a similar time course. GB was shown to significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of JAK(2) and STAT(3) in rats with SCI. It significantly increased the ratio of B cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) protein expression at 24 h, led to an obvious down-regulation of caspase-3 gene and protein expression at 3 days, and significantly decreased the cell apoptosis index at each time point after SCI. This effect was similar to that obtained with the JAK-specific inhibitor, AG490. Our experimental findings indicated that GB can protect rats against acute SCI, and that its underlying mechanism may be related to the inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling pathway activation, improvement of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased caspase-3 gene and protein expression and further inhibition of secondary cell apoptosis following SCI.
Acute pharyngitis is characterized by an inflammation of the mucous membranes in the pharynx. Yanshu spraying agent was prepared according to the traditional Chinese formulation for the treatment of acute pharyngitis. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Yanshu in xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats by measuring the degree of edema in the animal models. The histopathology and the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the hind paws of the carrageenan-treated rats were also analyzed. The results showed that Yanshu significantly reduced ear edema in the mice and paw edema in the rats. Furthermore, treatment with Yanshu also reduced the number of inflammatory cells in tissue and decreased the production of PGE2 and COX-2. These results suggest that Yanshu possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity mediated by the inhibition of COX-2 expression which, in turn, downregulates the inflammatory mediator PGE2.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is considered as one of the best antineoplastic agents. However, its clinical use is restricted by its associated cardiotoxicity, which is mediated by the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) was explored whether it had protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. In vitro study on H9C2 cell line, as well as in vivo investigation in one mouse and one rat model of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy, was carried out. The results showed that pretreatment with Rh2 significantly increased the viability of DOX-injured H9C2 cells. In the mouse model, Rh2 could suppress the DOX-induced release of the cardiac enzymes into serum and improved the occurred pathological changes through ameliorating the decreased antioxidant biomolecules and the cumulated lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde in heart tissues. In the rat model, Rh2 could attenuate the change of ECG resulting from DOX administration. Furthermore, Rh2 enhanced the antitumor activity of DOX in A549 cells. Our findings thus demonstrated that Rh2 pretreatment could effectively alleviate heart injury induced by DOX, and Rh2 might act as a novel protective agent in the clinical usefulness of DOX.
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