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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Application of multi-level model in study of relationship between soil cadmium contamination and people's urinary cadmium level].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Based on the characteristics of hierarchical data, a multilevel model was used to analysis possible influencing factors of urinary cadmium levels in one county population, and to discuss the advantages of multilevel model for processing hierarchical data in practical problems.
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Aberrant expression and potential therapeutic target of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 in triple-negative breast cancers.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Triple receptor-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) generally have poor prognoses because of the loss of therapeutic targets. As lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling has been shown to affect breast cancer initiation and progression, we try to evaluate the potential roles of LPA receptors in TNBCs. We examined mRNA and protein expressions of LPA receptors 1-3, using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analyses in normal (n = 37), benign disease (n = 55), and breast cancer tissues (n = 82). Carcinomas expressed higher levels of LPA2 and LPA3 mRNAs (0.17 ± 0.070 and 0.05 ± 0.023, respectively) than did normal breast tissue (0.13 ± 0.072 and 0.02 ± 0.002, respectively). Enhanced immunohistochemical staining for LPA2 and LPA3 protein was also consistently observed in carcinomas. The LPA3 overexpression was associated with lymph node metastases, and absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression. TNBC tissues and cell lines showed the highest LPA3 expression compared with luminal-type A and B breast cancers. Suppression of LPA3 by shRNA did not influence cell growth in breast cancer cells. However, the migration and invasion of TNBC cells were significantly inhibited by LPA3-shRNA or inhibitor, which had no or less effect on normal and non-TNBC breast cells. In conclusion, our data indicated that the expression of LPA receptor 3 was increased in human TNBCs and is associated with tumor metastatic ability, and this implies that LPA3 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of TNBCs.
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Natriuretic peptide receptor A as a novel target for cancer.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The receptor for the cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A), has been reported to be expressed in lung cancer, prostate cancer and ovarian cancer. NPR-A expression and signaling is important for tumor growth; its deficiency protects C57BL/6 mice from lung, skin and ovarian cancers. This suggests that NPR-A is a new marker and a new target for cancer therapy. Recently, NPR-A has been demonstrated to be expressed in pre-implantation embryos and in embryonic stem cells, which has a novel role in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. A nanoparticle-formulated interfering RNA for NPR-A attenuated B16 melanoma tumors in mice. Ectopic expression of a plasmid encoding NP73-102, the NH2-terminal peptide of the ANP prohormone which downregulates NPR-A expression, also suppressed lung metastasis of A549 cells in nude mice and tumorigenesis of Line 1 cells in immunocompetent BALB/c mice. These results suggest that NPR-A is involved in tumorigenesis and a new target for cancer therapy. This review focuses on structure, abnormal functions and carcinogenic mechanisms of NPR-A to investigate its role in tumorigenesis.
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Expression of natriuretic peptide receptor-A in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and the relationship with tumor invasion and migration.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) has been investigated as a receptor of natriuretic peptides in the cardiovascular system. In this study, however, we analyze the expression status of NPRA and the relationship with tumor invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) for the first time.
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[Correlations between tumor infiltrating Th17 cells and clinicopathological parameters in patients with colorectal cancer].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To observe the correlations between the percentage of tumor infiltrating Th17 cells and clinicopathological parameters in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).
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Tumor-colonizing bacteria: A potential tumor targeting therapy.
Crit. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Abstract In 1813, Vautier published his observation of tumor regression in patients who had suffered from gas gangrene. Since then, many publications have described the use of bacteria as antitumor therapy. For example, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium have been shown to selectively colonize tumors and to reduce tumor size. In addition, recent studies have focused on the use of genetic engineering to induce the expression of pro-drug converting enzymes, cytokines, specific antibodies, or suicide genes in tumor-colonizing bacteria. Moreover, some animal experiments have reported the treatment of tumors with engineered bacteria, and few side effects were observed. Therefore, based on these advances in tumor targeting therapy, bacteria may represent the next generation of cancer therapy.
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[Expressions of Sonic hedgehog and maixmetallo proteinase 2 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the clinicopathological implications].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To investigate the expressions of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and maixmetallo proteinases 2 (MMP2) in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and their association with the clinicopathological features.
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Atrial natriuretic peptide modulates the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells via KCNQ1 expression.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain NP (BNP) belong to the NP family that regulates mammalian blood volume and blood pressure. ANP signaling through NP receptor A (NPR-A)/cyclic guanosine 35-monophosphate (cGMP)/ cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activates various downstream effectors involved in cell growth, apoptosis, proliferation and inflammation. Evidence has shown the critical role of plasma K(+) channels in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation. However, the role of ANP in the proliferation of gastric cancer cells is not clear. In the present study, the expression of NPR-A in the human gastric cancer cell line, AGS, and the effect of ANP on the proliferation of AGS cells were investigated using western blotting, immunofluorescence, qPCR and patch clamp assays. The K(+) current was also analyzed in the effect of ANP on the proliferation of AGS cells. NPR-A was expressed in the human gastric cancer AGS cell line. Lower concentrations of ANP promoted the proliferation of the AGS cells, although higher concentrations decreased their proliferation. Significant increases in the levels of cGMP activity were observed in the AGS cells treated with 10(-10), 10(-9) and 10(-8) M ANP compared with the controls, but no significant differences were observed in the 10(-7) and 10(-6) M ANP groups. The patch clamp results showed that 10(-9) M ANP significantly increased the tetraethylammonium (TEA)- and 293B-sensitive K(+) current, while 10(-6) M ANP significantly decreased the TEA- and 293B-sensitive K(+) current. The results showed that 10(-10) and 10(-9) M ANP significantly upregulated the expression of potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) at the protein and mRNA levels, although 10(-7) and 10(-6) M ANP significantly downregulated the expression of KCNQ1. The data indicated that lower and higher concentrations of ANP have opposite effects on the proliferation of AGS cells through cGMP-dependent or -independent pathways. KCNQ1 upregulation and downregulation by lower and higher concentrations of ANP, respectively, have separate effects on the promotion and inhibition of proliferation.
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An 11 kg Phyllodes tumor of the breast in combination with other multiple chronic diseases: Case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are a rare type of tumor that account for <1% of breast tumors in females and usually present as a large lump of 3-5 cm in size. Surgery is the first line of treatment for PTs, and chemotherapy and irradiation may be useful in certain patients but not all. In the present study, the case of a 63-year-old female patient with a huge PT in the left breast is described. On physical examination, the patient presented with a huge mass of ?45 cm in diameter, weighing ?11 kg, and a composite of multiple chronic diseases. The breast and pectoris major and minor were excised. Post-operatively, the patient recovered well and to date there has been no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis.
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ANP-NPRA signaling pathway--a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of malignancy.
Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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It was well established that the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) signaling pathway controls natriuretic, diuretic, vasorelaxant, and anti-proliferative responses in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system by previous studies. Yet in recent years, more and more evidence has shown that the ANP/NPRA signaling pathway plays an important role in human cancer. For example, NPRA is abundantly expressed on tumorigenic mouse and human prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but not in nontumorigenic prostate epithelial cells and down-regulation of NPRA-induced apoptosis in PCa cells. Dexamethasone can increase the expression of ANP markedly, and that is the reason why dexamethasone is the cornerstone in the treatment of multiple myeloma. NPRA deficiency can substantially protect C57BL/6 mice from lung, skin, and ovarian cancers. These results strongly suggest ANP and NPRA may play an anti-cancer and carcinogenesis role, respectively, and this signaling pathway could be a more potent target for cancer therapy. In light of these new insights, this review will summarize the structures, functions, and their regulation by cell signaling, and their different impacts on tumors.
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The paradoxical role of Nrf2 in tumor biology.
Crit. Rev. Eukaryot. Gene Expr.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Nrf2 is used as a cell protector by mediating many downstream genes which express phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. Recently, large numbers of experiments have shown Nrf2 and its downstream genes are found to be overexpressed in many human tumors. Numerous evidences unveil that Nrf2 protects the normal cells while promoting the malignant tumors progression. The paradoxical role of Nrf2 has not been clearly elucidated before. Here, we review the suppressor or oncogene roles of Nrf2 in different stages of specific tumors with respect to the newest studies. Further, we suspect that the hypoxic microenvironment around the tumors is the main crux which determines the role of Nrf2 in the tumor initiation, invasion, and metastasis. In the initiation of tumors, Nrf2 or Keap1 genes get mutations under the oxidative stress; as a result, the tumor cells obtain the advantage to growth. At the later stages, the hypoxic microenvironment around the malignant tumors has a profound influence on the character of Nrf2. Under the hypoxic microenvironment, expression of certain downstream genes of Nrf2 involved in angiogenesis are obviously elevated; other transcription factors derived from hypoxic microenvironment interact with Nrf2 and in that way promote or inhibit the invasion and metastasis.
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One-step fabrication of sub-10-nm plasmonic nanogaps for reliable SERS sensing of microorganisms.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Nanoscale gaps in noble metal films can produce intense electromagnetic enhancement. When Raman-active molecules are positioned in these regions, their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals can be dramatically enhanced. However, the lack of convenient and reliable fabrication methods with ultrasmall nanogaps (<10 nm) severely block the application of SERS. Here, we propose a cost-effective and reproducible technique to fabricate the large-area Ag SERS-active substrates which are full of the high-density, sub-10-nm nanogaps by high pressure sputtering, and the enhancement factor (EF) is testified to improve by 10(3) times compared to the continuous Ag film with a smooth surface (the roughness is 0.5 nm) and without nanogaps. Since there are no chemicals used during fabrication, this substrate has a clean surface, which is crucial for acquiring reliable SERS spectra. This SERS-active substrate has then been applied to identify a series of microorganisms, and excellent, reproducible SERS spectra were obtained. Finally, a set of piecewise-linear equations is provided according to the correlation between SERS intensity and rhodamine 6G (R6G) concentration, and the detection limit is calculated to be 0.2×10(-8)M. These results suggest that the high pressure sputtering is an excellent, reliable technique for fabricating sub-10-nm plasmonic nanogaps, and the SERS-based methodology is very promising for being used in biological sensing field.
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The noncytotoxic dose of sorafenib sensitizes Bel-7402/5-FU cells to 5-FU by down-regulating 5-FU-induced Nrf2 expression.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a serious therapeutic obstacle in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
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[Research advances on Th17 cells in tumor].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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The Th17 cells, identified recently as a novel CD4? T cell lineage, are characteristic of their production of IL-17 and distinct from Th1 and Th2 lineages. Their involvement in autoimmune and chronic inflammation diseases has been well observed. Recent evidence suggests that Th17 cells are also involved in tumor immunology. However, it remains unclear that how these cells regulate immune responses to tumor growth. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings about the biologics of the Th17 cells in tumor development with a hope of providing new insights into future development of effective new cancer immunotherapies.
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Mechanisms of Apoptin-induced cell death.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2011
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Apoptin, a 13.6-kD protein encoded by chicken anemia virus, is paid more and more attention, since it selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells while abolishes cytotoxic effect in normal cells. In addition, Apoptin shows different localization in tumor cells and normal cells: it predominantly accumulates in nucleus of tumor cells, whereas in normal cells, it is detected mainly in cytoplasm. There are various mechanisms implicated in the program of Apoptin-mediated cell death. Up to now, the interpretations have been recognized including that the particular domains control nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Apoptin, phosphorylation on specific residue and varies relevant signaling contribute to Apoptins activity, and the partners interacted with Apoptin regulate activity or subcellular localization of Apoptin. In this review, we make a comprehensive survey of the existing evidence about mechanisms of Apoptins action, which might provide scientific basis to make progress in novel targeted tumor therapy.
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Eight RGS and RGS-like proteins orchestrate growth, differentiation, and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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A previous study identified MoRgs1 as an RGS protein that negative regulates G-protein signaling to control developmental processes such as conidiation and appressorium formation in Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we characterized additional seven RGS and RGS-like proteins (MoRgs2 through MoRgs8). We found that MoRgs1 and MoRgs4 positively regulate surface hydrophobicity, conidiation, and mating. Indifference to MoRgs1, MoRgs4 has a role in regulating laccase and peroxidase activities. MoRgs1, MoRgs2, MoRgs3, MoRgs4, MoRgs6, and MoRgs7 are important for germ tube growth and appressorium formation. Interestingly, MoRgs7 and MoRgs8 exhibit a unique domain structure in which the RGS domain is linked to a seven-transmembrane motif, a hallmark of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We have also shown that MoRgs1 regulates mating through negative regulation of G? MoMagB and is involved in the maintenance of cell wall integrity. While all proteins appear to be involved in the control of intracellular cAMP levels, only MoRgs1, MoRgs3, MoRgs4, and MoRgs7 are required for full virulence. Taking together, in addition to MoRgs1 functions as a prominent RGS protein in M. oryzae, MoRgs4 and other RGS and RGS-like proteins are also involved in a complex process governing asexual/sexual development, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity.
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Exposure to the Chinese famine in early life and the risk of hypertension in adulthood.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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Maternal famine exposure has been associated with higher blood pressure in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of early life exposure to the 1959-1961 Chinese famine with the risk of hypertension in later life, and to examine whether a nutritional rich environment in later life modifies this association.
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Histologic tumor involvement of superior mesenteric vein/portal vein predicts poor prognosis in patients with stage II pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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Studies have shown that superior mesenteric vein (SMV)/portal vein (PV) resection with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is safe and feasible for patient with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC). However, the prognostic significance of tumor involvement of the resected vein in patients who received neoadjuvant therapy is unclear.
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Prostacyclin administration as a beneficial supplement to the conventional cancer chemotherapy.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) and its analogues protect from cardiovascular disease through pleiotropic effects such as vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion, and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Additionally, prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and PGI(2) also possess anti-cancer properties. As of late (2009-2010), numerous studies have identified the deleterious side-effects of chemotherapy on the cardiovascular system, which have been deemed as a serious clinical issue. Cardiomyocyte damage, induced by oxidative stress, is one of the clinical consequences caused by routine cancer chemotherapy. Previous studies indicate iloprost, a PGI(2) analogue, can protect against doxorubicin-induced (DOX) cardiomyocyte injury in vitro and in vivo without compromising tumor suppression. Therefore, we hypothesize PGI(2) can be used as a cardioprotective supplement to attenuate the damaging cardiac effects caused by the traditional cancer chemotherapy regimen.
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Two phosphodiesterase genes, PDEL and PDEH, regulate development and pathogenicity by modulating intracellular cyclic AMP levels in Magnaporthe oryzae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling plays an important role in regulating multiple cellular responses, such as growth, morphogenesis, and/or pathogenicity of eukaryotic organisms such as fungi. As a second messenger, cAMP is important in the activation of downstream effector molecules. The balance of intracellular cAMP levels depends on biosynthesis by adenylyl cyclases (ACs) and hydrolysis by cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEases). The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae contains a high-affinity (PdeH/Pde2) and a low-affinity (PdeL/Pde1) PDEases, and a previous study showed that PdeH has a major role in asexual differentiation and pathogenicity. Here, we show that PdeL is required for asexual development and conidial morphology, and it also plays a minor role in regulating cAMP signaling. This is in contrast to PdeH whose mutation resulted in major defects in conidial morphology, cell wall integrity, and surface hydrophobicity, as well as a significant reduction in pathogenicity. Consistent with both PdeH and PdeL functioning in cAMP signaling, disruption of PDEH only partially rescued the mutant phenotype of ?magB and ?pka1. Further studies suggest that PdeH might function through a feedback mechanism to regulate the expression of pathogenicity factor Mpg1 during surface hydrophobicity and pathogenic development. Moreover, microarray data revealed new insights into the underlying cAMP regulatory mechanisms that may help to identify potential pathogenicity factors for the development of new disease management strategies.
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Tumor-targeted delivery of TAT-Apoptin fusion gene using Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to colorectal cancer.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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In view of the high incidence and mortality of the colorectal cancer, the limited efficacy and serious adverse effect of the conventional treatment, a novel alternative treatment needs to be developed. Recent studies have demonstrated that the targeted therapy as an alternative treatment showed a promising prospect. We hypothesized that construct a recombination non-pathogenic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN), inserting a fusion gene TAT-Apoptin into this probiotic vector, as a targeted therapy strategy for patients of colorectal cancer. Compared with conventional treatments for tumors, the recombination EcN containing TAT-Apoptin fusion gene is capable of tumor-specific colonization, secretary expression and efficient intracellular delivery and therefore able to reduce the incidence of side effect and promote the efficiency of treatment.
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Expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients in rural areas in Chinas antiretroviral therapy programs.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
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The Chinese government has provided health services to those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) under the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care policy since 2003. Detailed research on the actual expenditures and costs for providing care to patients with AIDS is needed for future financial planning of AIDS health care services and possible reform of HIV/AIDS-related policy. The purpose of the current study was to determine the actual expenditures and factors influencing costs for untreated AIDS patients in a rural area of China after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) under the national Free Care Program (China CARES).
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Self-reported prevalence of childhood allergic diseases in three cities of China: a multicenter study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Several studies conducted during the 1990s indicated that childhood allergic diseases were increasing worldwide, but more recent investigations in some Western countries have suggested that the trend is stabilizing or may even be reversing. However, few data are available on the current status of allergic disease prevalence in Chinese children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in children of three major cities of China, to determine the status of allergic diseases among Chinese children generally, and to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases in children of different ages.
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Fumonisin detection and analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) in Zhejiang Province of China.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by a number of Fusarium species, including several pathogens of asparagus plants. China is one of the largest asparagus producers in the world. In this study, we analysed the contamination of fumonisins and fumonisin-producing fungi in asparagus spear samples from Zhejiang Province, the major asparagus production province in China.
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Correlation of Nrf2, HO-1, and MRP3 in gallbladder cancer and their relationships to clinicopathologic features and survival.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Gallbladder cancer (GC) is considered a relatively rare malignancy with extensively poor prognosis. To guide clinicians in selecting treatment options for GC patients, reliable markers predictive of poor clinical outcome are desirable. This study analyzed the correlation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and multidrug resistance-related protein 3 (MRP3) in GC and their relationships to clinicopathologic features and survival.
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Primary adenomyoepithelioma of tonsil.
Head Neck Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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We present a case of adenomyoepithlioma (AME) arising from the tonsil. AME is an uncommon tumor that typically arises in breast, but rarely found in salivary glands, lung, and skin. Its biological features have not been thoroughly characterized. Here we describe a primary AME originating from the tonsil. The pathologic changes were characterized by hypercellularity, the dominance of both epithelial and myoepithelial cells. Malignancy was evidenced by the presence of a high mitotic rate and invasive growth. The epithelial cells express high levels of cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). The myoepithelial cells show positive staining for calponin, p63, vimentin, and S-100. A thorough review of the literature indicates that this is likely the first reported case of AME from the tonsil. Following descriptions of the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this specific case, pathologic and clinical characteristics of AME from other tissues are also compiled and discussed.
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Ulcerated epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the right armpit in childhood.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas are unique vascular tumors characterized by epithelioid or histiocytoid endothelial cells that mainly affect adults. This low-grade malignant vascular tumor was described as a distinctive condition in 1982 by Weiss and Enzinger. Although the tumor is classified in between an angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia and an epithelioid angiosarcoma, it sometimes takes a clinical course resembling that of angiosarcoma. We describe that case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with an approximately 6-month history of a spontaneous chronic lesion in his right armpit and became a painful ulceration in the prior 2-month period. The histopathologic examination revealed small nests and cords of spindling epithelioid endothelial cells, intracytoplasmic lumina containing erythrocytes, pinocytotic vesicles and a necrotic area. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for the endothelial markers CD31, CD34, CK(+), and vim(+). On the basis of these findings the diagnosis of EHE was made. After surgery, pathologic examination revealed metastasis in the lymph nodes. So polychemotherapy was started. As our case report shows, it is possibility that cutaneous ulceration of a malignant tumor such as EHE should be considered, even in children.
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Evaluation of gallbladder lipid level during carcinogenesis by an infrared spectroscopic method.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is sensitive to the molecular composition of tissue and has the potential to identify premalignant tissue. Our previous studies found that the lipids band of FTIR decreased in malignant tissues compared to normal tissue but increased in the cell line.
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Multiple phytohormone signalling pathways modulate susceptibility of tomato plants to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici.
J. Exp. Bot.
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Three phytohormone molecules - ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) - play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL.
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The changes of Th17 cells and the related cytokines in the progression of human colorectal cancers.
BMC Cancer
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The role of Th17 cells in colorectal tumorigenesis and development still remains unclear, despite the fact that it has been established in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
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miR-518b is down-regulated, and involved in cell proliferation and invasion by targeting Rap1b in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
FEBS Lett.
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional levels. Recent studies show that miRNAs may function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-518b was down-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and correlated with metastasis and survival. miR-518b suppressed the proliferation by inducing apoptosis and repressed the invasion in ESCC cells, but had no effect on the cell cycle. Furthermore, Rap1b was revealed to be directly regulated by miR-518b. These findings indicate that miR-518b may function as a tumor suppressor by targeting Rap1b in the development of ESCC and has important clinical and prognostic value.
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Analysis of potential fumonisin-producing Fusarium species in corn products from three main maize-producing areas in eastern China.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
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Fusarium species are common fungal contaminants of maize and a number of them can produce mycotoxin fumonisins. China is one of the largest maize producers in the world. This study investigated the contamination of maize samples from three areas in eastern China by Fusarium and fumonisin-producing fungi as well as their fumonisin-producing potential.
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HDAC as a therapeutic target for treatment of endometrial cancers.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
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Accumulating evidence suggested that epigenetic changes such as promoter-specific DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation cause tumor suppressor gene silencing and contribute to malignant transformation. Treatment of cancer cells with HDAC inhibitors can reactivate the expression of silenced genes, block the cell cycle, and induce cell apoptosis. In vitro experiments in cancer cell cultures and in vivo studies using mouse xynograft model have shown that HDAC inhibitors deliver potent anti-cancer effects. Clinical trials have led to approval of SAHA (Vorinostat) for treatment of lymphoma. Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent malignancy in womens reproductive tract. EC is known for extensive epigenetic alterations, including overexpression of HDAC and DNMT enzymes, and the frequent epigenetic silencing of DNA repair genes such as MLH1, tumor suppressor genes PTEN, and progesterone receptor, which suggests a potentially high sensitivity of this type of cancer to HDAC inhibitors. Indeed, studies from many laboratories using various models have shown that HDAC inhibitors are promising chemotherapy reagents for endometrial cancers. This review summarizes the results from these studies, with an emphasis to provide an update on the new findings from new drugs. Background information on HDAC expression in EC, and features of HDAC inhibitors are presented based on their relevance to our focused topic. The combined application of HDAC inhibitors with radiation therapy and other conventional therapeutic reagents are also discussed.
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Epigenetic Interventions Increase the Radiation Sensitivity of Cancer Cells.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
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Epigenetic changes including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and microRNAs play critical roles in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Reversal of epigenetic changes sensitizes some tumor cells to radiation. DNMT-I enhances the response of tumor cells to radiotherapy. AZA demethylated promoters of genes related to ionizing radiation response, such as p16 and hMLH1. The genes expression of the p53, RASSF1, and DAPK gene families was increased by 5-aza-CdR, which induces G2-M phase arrest and increased apoptosis. HDAC-I has both anti-tumor activity and radiation sensitization activity. HDAC-I disrupts both DNA damage sensing and repair processes: HDAC-I disrupts the association between HDAC enzyme and DNA sensor proteins 53BP1 and ATM. HDAC-I changes the acetylation status of both proteins involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway which include BRCA1, Rad51, and Rad50, and proteins involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway which include Ku70, and DNA-PK. HDACs are also implicated as essential components in the DNA repair process itself. Besides the radiosensitizing mechanism of intervention of DNA repair, other possible mechanisms including cell cycle redistribution, acetylation of Hsp90, increased apoptosis, and decreased survival signals are also suggested. Some miRNAs also regulate the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Inhibition of miR-34 expression or function, downregulation of miR-155, upregulation of miR-18a, Overexpression let-7g or knocking down LIN28B, and ectopically overexpressed miR-10 in cells with low endogenous miR-101 level increase the response of cells to irradiation. For radiation-resistant cancer cells, miR-7 sensitizes the radiation for cells which activated EGFR-PI3K-AKT signaling pathway;
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Relations between GPR4 Expression, microvascular density (MVD) and Clinical Pathological Characteristics of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma (EOC).
Curr. Pharm. Des.
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G-protein coupled receptor 4 (GPR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Later studies indicated that GPR4 can serve as a proton sensor. GPR4 has been known to play a critical role in the tube formation of vascular endothelial cells, and GPR4 overexpression is observed in various types of malignancies, suggesting its involvement in the cancer- related angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the GPR4 expression levels in blood vessels of ovarian cancer, and analyzed the relationship between GPR4 expression and the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC). Results from immunohistochemistry showed that GPR4 is detectable in the endothelium of vessels of both EOC and benign ovarian tumor tissue, but the expression levels were significantly increased in EOC. Moreover the increased expression is accompanied by a higher microvascular density (MVD) in EOC compared to that in the benign ovarian tumors. We demonstrated a positive correlation between GPR4 expression density and MVD in EOC, but not benign ovarian tumor tissues. Further analyses indicated that GPR4 expression and MVD in EOC were correlated to the status of lymph node metastasis and clinical stage, but not significantly correlated to the pathological classifications, histopathological grades, the amounts of ascites, status of peritoneal cytology, tumor sizes, or patients ages. These results suggested that GPR4 may play an important role in the development of EOC, and its overexpression might be required for the angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis of EOC.
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