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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
MicroRNA-15b promotes neurogenesis and inhibits neural progenitor proliferation by directly repressing TET3 during early neocortical development.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of mouse brain development. However, their precise roles in this context remain to be elucidated. Through screening of expression profiles from a miRNA microarray and experimental analysis, we show here that miR-15b controls several aspects of cortical neurogenesis. miR-15b inhibits cortical neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and promotes cell-cycle exit and neuronal differentiation. Additionally, miR-15b expression decreases the number of apical progenitors and increases basal progenitors in the VZ/SVZ. We also show that miR-15b binds to the 3' UTR of TET3, which plays crucial roles during embryonic development by enhancing DNA demethylation. TET3 promotes cyclin D1 expression, and miR-15b reduces TET3 expression and 5hmC levels. Notably, TET3 expression rescues miR-15b-induced impaired NPC proliferation and increased cell-cycle exit in vivo. Our results not only reveal a link between miRNAs, TET, and DNA demethylation but also demonstrate critical roles for miR-15b and TET3 in maintaining the NPC pool during early neocortical development.
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Autophagy-related gene Atg5 is essential for astrocyte differentiation in the developing mouse cortex.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Astrocyte differentiation is essential for late embryonic brain development, and autophagy is active during this process. However, it is unknown whether and how autophagy regulates astrocyte differentiation. Here, we show that Atg5, which is necessary for autophagosome formation, regulates astrocyte differentiation. Atg5 deficiency represses the generation of astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, Atg5 overexpression increases the number of astrocytes substantially. We show that Atg5 activates the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by degrading the inhibitory protein SOCS2. The astrocyte differentiation defect caused by Atg5 loss can be rescued by human Atg5 overexpression, STAT3 overexpression, and SOCS2 knockdown. Together, these data demonstrate that Atg5 regulates astrocyte differentiation, with potential implications for brain disorders with autophagy deficiency.
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BMP2-SMAD signaling represses the proliferation of embryonic neural stem cells through YAP.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Previous studies have shown that the Hippo pathway effector yes-associated protein (YAP) plays an important role in maintaining stem cell proliferation. However, the precise molecular mechanism of YAP in regulating murine embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) remains largely unknown. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) treatment inhibited the proliferation of mouse embryonic NSCs, that YAP was critical for mouse NSC proliferation, and that BMP2 treatment-induced inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation was abrogated by YAP knockdown, indicating that the YAP protein mediates the inhibitory effect of BMP2 signaling. Additionally, we found that BMP2 treatment reduced YAP nuclear translocation, YAP-TEAD interaction, and YAP-mediated transactivation. BMP2 treatment inhibited YAP/TEAD-mediated Cyclin D1 (ccnd1) expression, and knockdown of ccnd1 abrogated the BMP2-mediated inhibition of mouse NSC proliferation. Mechanistically, we found that Smad1/4, effectors of BMP2 signaling, competed with YAP for the interaction with TAED1 and inhibited YAP's cotranscriptional activity. Our data reveal mechanistic cross talk between BMP2 signaling and the Hippo-YAP pathway in murine NSC proliferation, which may be exploited as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.
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The crucial role of Atg5 in cortical neurogenesis during early brain development.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Autophagy plays an important role in the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how autophagy regulates cortical neurogenesis during early brain development. Here, we report that autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5) expression increased with cortical development and differentiation. The suppression of Atg5 expression by knockdown led to inhibited differentiation and increased proliferation of cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Additionally, Atg5 suppression impaired cortical neuronal cell morphology. We lastly observed that Atg5 was involved in the regulation of the ?-Catenin signaling pathway. The ?-Catenin phosphorylation level decreased when Atg5 was blocked. Atg5 cooperated with ?-Catenin to modulate cortical NPCs differentiation and proliferation. Our results revealed that Atg5 has a crucial role in cortical neurogenesis during early embryonic brain development, which may contribute to the understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by autophagy dysregulation.
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Ezh2 regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Adult neurogenesis is thought to be crucial for preserving cognitive functions, which is tightly controlled by various epigenetic regulators. As the methyltransferase of histone H3K27, the role of Ezh2 in neurogenesis of adult mice and its mechanism of action are largely unknown. Here, we show that Ezh2 is expressed in actively dividing neural stem cells (NSCs)/progenitor cells as well as mature neurons, but not in quiescent NSCs in the subgranular zone. The deletion of Ezh2 in NSCs/progenitor cells results in a reduction in progenitor cell proliferation. Furthermore, we found that Ezh2 regulates progenitor cell proliferation by suppressing Pten expression and promoting the activation of Akt-mTOR. Moreover, the loss of Ezh2 in progenitor cells leads to a decrease in the number of neurons, which was observed by long-term tracing. Strikingly, conditional knockout of Ezh2 ultimately results in impairments in spatial learning and memory, contextual fear memory, and pattern separation. Our findings demonstrate the essential role of Ezh2 in the proliferation of progenitor cells, thus providing insight into the molecular mechanisms of adult neurogenesis in preserving cognitive functions.
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Retinoic acid receptor ? (Rarg) and nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 (Nr5a2) promote conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to neurons and various other cell types with retrovirus or lentivirus. The limitation of this technology is that these genome-integration viruses may increase the risk of gene mutation and cause insertional mutagenesis. We recently found that non-integration adenovirus carrying neuronal transcription factors can induce fibroblasts to neurons. However, the conversion efficiency by the adenovirus is lower than that of the retrovirus or lentivirus. Therefore, it is crucial to identify other factors or chemical compounds to obtain neurons with high efficiency. In this study we show that the combination of Rarg (retinoic acid receptor ?) and Nr5a2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2; also known as Lrh-1 (liver receptor homologue 1)) rapidly promote the iN cell maturation within 1 week and greatly facilitate the conversion with neuronal purities of ?50% and yields of >130%. They also improve neuronal pattern formation, electrophysiological characteristics, and functional integration in vivo. Moreover, the chemical compound agonists to Rarg and Nr5a2 function effectively as well. This approach may be used for the generation and application of iN cells in regenerative medicine.
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Temporal association of elevated cholecystokininergic tone and adolescent trauma is critical for posttraumatic stress disorder-like behavior in adult mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Adolescent trauma (AT) is a common risk factor for adult-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the vulnerability to AT among different individuals varies dramatically, indicating that other cofactors are important. Despite extensive studies, the identification of those cofactors has had little success. Here, we found that after subjected to traumatic stress at postnatal day 25 (P25), a stage that is comparable to the human adolescent period, inducible/reversible forebrain-specific cholecystokinin receptor-2 transgenic (IF-CCKR-2 tg) mice exhibited a significantly higher level of PTSD-like behavior at a later life (adult) stage compared with their wild-type littermates. Moreover, in these traumatized IF-CCKR-2 tg mice, both the glucocorticoid negative feedback inhibition and spatial learning and memory were impaired. Interestingly, if the CCKR-2 transgene was specifically suppressed during the time of AT exposure, these observations were largely diminished, indicating that a temporal association of the elevated CCKergic tone and AT is pathogenically critical. Treatment of traumatized IF-CCKR-2 tg mice with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, for a period of 4 wk significantly attenuated the PTSD-like behavior and the impaired glucocorticoid negative feedback inhibition, but not the memory deficit, implying that the memory deficit is an independent post-AT clinical entity and not a consequence of PTSD. Taken together, these results reveal a dynamic role of the CCKergic system in the development of post-AT psychopathologies and suggest that a timely antagonism of CCKR-2 activity during AT exposure is a potential preventive strategy for post-AT psychopathologies including PTSD and cognitive dysfunction.
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Effect of VIP on intracellular [Ca2+], extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, and secretion in cultured rat conjunctival goblet cells.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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To determine the intracellular signaling pathways that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) uses to stimulate high molecular weight glycoconjugate secretion from cultured rat conjunctival goblet cells.
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The role of microRNAs in neural stem cells and neurogenesis.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Neural stem cells give rise to neurons through the process of neurogenesis, which includes neural stem cell proliferation, fate determination of new neurons, as well as the new neurons migration, maturation and integration. Currently, neurogenesis is divided into two phases: embryonic and adult phases. Embryonic neurogenesis occurs at high levels to form the central nervous system. Adult neurogenesis has been consistently identified only in restricted regions and occurs at low levels. As the basic process for embryonic neurodevelopment and adult brain maintenance, neurogenesis is tightly regulated by many factors and pathways. MicroRNA, short non-coding RNA that regulates gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, appears to be involved in multiple steps of neurogenesis. This review summarizes the emerging role of microRNAs in regulating embryonic and adult neurogenesis, with a particular emphasis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells.
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WITHDRAWN: Adenoviral gene delivery can convert adult human fibroblasts to neurons.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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This article has been withdrawn at the request of the authors. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
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Infant maternal separation impairs adult cognitive performance in BALB/cJ mice.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Early life adversity, such as early abuse or parental loss, is thought to increase risk for developing psychiatric disorders in adulthood including mood and anxiety disorders. Human retrospective studies also suggest that early life adversity predicts poor response to antidepressants in adulthood.
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Antidepressant response to chronic citalopram treatment in eight inbred mouse strains.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
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The antidepressant response exhibits a characteristic delay. BALB/cJ mice respond to chronic, but not subchronic, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), providing a model of antidepressant onset. Identification of other mouse strains exhibiting this phenotype will provide additional tools for studying mechanisms of the antidepressant response.
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Embryonic and adult neural stem cell research in China.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Neural stem cells (NSCs) are one specific type of multipotential stem cells that have the ability to proliferate for a long time and to differentiate into neural cells, including neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. These NSCs exist in both the embryonic and adult central nervous system (CNS) of all mammalian species. Progress has been made in the understanding of the developmental regulation of NSCs and their function in neurogenesis. This review discusses recent progress in this area, with emphasis on work done by investigators in China.
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Direct lineage conversion: induced neuronal cells and induced neural stem cells.
Protein Cell
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Cellular reprogramming to neural cells is an area of ongoing study in developmental neuroscience, and recent research has generated remarkable achievements. Several studies have shown that the ectopic expression of specific neural transcription factors can convert terminally differentiated cells into neural cells. Here, we review the most recent progress in the field of induced neuronal (iN) cells and induced neural stem (iNS) cells and their potential clinical applications.
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Neuronal transcription factors induce conversion of human glioma cells to neurons and inhibit tumorigenesis.
PLoS ONE
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Recent findings have demonstrated that the overexpression of lineage-specific transcription factors induces cell fate changes among diverse cell types. For example, neurons can be generated from mouse and human fibroblasts. It is well known that neurons are terminally differentiated cells that do not divide. Therefore, we consider how to induce glioma cells to become neurons by introducing transcription factors. Here, we describe the efficient generation of induced neuronal (iN) cells from glioma cells by the infection with three transcription factors: Ascl1, Brn2 and Ngn2 (ABN). iN cells expressed multiple neuronal markers and fired action potentials, similar to the properties of authentic neurons. Importantly, the proliferation of glioma cells following ABN overexpression was dramatically inhibited in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition, iN cells that originated from human glioma cells did not continue to grow when they were sorted and cultured in vitro. The strategies by which glioma cells are induced to become neurons may be used to clinically study methods for inhibiting tumor growth.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.