R-spondins are a family of secreted Wnt agonists. One of the family members, R-spondin 2 (RSPO2), has an important role in embryonic development, bone formation and myogenic differentiation; however, its role in human cancers remains largely unknown. Here we show that RSPO2 expression is downregulated in human colorectal cancers (CRCs) due to promoter hypermethylation, and that the RSPO2 reduction correlates with tumour differentiation, size and metastasis. Overexpression of RSPO2 suppresses CRC cell proliferation and tumorigenicity, whereas the depletion of RSPO2 enhances tumour cell growth. RSPO2 has an inhibitory effect on Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the CRC cells that show suppressed cell proliferation. In human CRC cells, the RSPO2-induced inhibition of Wnt signaling depends on leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5); RSPO2 interacts with LGR5 to stabilize the membrane-associated zinc and ring finger 3 (ZNRF3). Our data suggest that RSPO2 functions as a tumour suppressor in human CRCs, and these data reveal a RSPO2-induced, LGR5-dependent Wnt signaling-negative feedback loop that exerts a net growth-suppressive effect on CRC cells.
Natural products represent an important source for agents of cancer prevention and cancer treatment. More than 60% of conventional anticancer drugs are derived from natural sources, particularly from plant-derived materials. In this study, 2?, 3?, 19?, 23?-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (THA), a novel triterpenoid from the leaves of Sinojackia sarcocarpa, was isolated, and its anticancer activity was investigated both in vitro and in vivo.
Osteopetrosis, a disorder of skeletal bone, can cause death during childhood. We previously described a new spontaneous autosomal recessive osteopetrosis mouse mutant, "new toothless" (ntl). In this study, we reported for the first time the identification, cloning and characterization of the coiled-coil domain-containing 154 (CCDC154), a novel gene whose deletion of ~5 kb sequence including exons 1-6 was completely linked to the ntl mutant. The CCDC154 was conserved between mouse and human and is wildly expressed in mouse tissues. The cellular localization of CCDC154 was in the early endosomes. Overexpression of CCDC154 inhibited cell proliferation of HEK293 cells by inducing G 2/M arrest. CCDC154 also inhibited tumor cell growth, and the soft agar assay revealed a significant decrease of the colony size of Hela cells upon transfection of CCDC154. Our results indicate that CCDC154 is a novel osteopetrosis-related gene involved in cell cycle regulation and tumor suppression growth.
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