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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Protective Effects of Kojic Acid on the Periphery Blood and Survival of Beagle Dogs after Exposure to a Lethal Dose of Gamma Radiation.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In previous studies, it has been shown that pretreatment with kojic acid (KA) not only increased the 30 day survival rate of mice after exposed to a lethal dose of gamma radiation but also had significant radioprotective effects on the hematopoietic system, the immune system and DNA of mice exposed to a 4 Gy sublethal dose of radiation. Furthermore, pretreatment with KA has also been shown to protect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against ionizing radiation-induced damage. In this investigation, beagle dogs were used to evaluate whether KA could also be radioprotective in a large animal model. Dogs in the group pretreated with kojic acid after whole-body exposure to a lethal dose of 3 Gy gamma radiation had a 51 day survival rate of 66.7% versus the dogs in the 3 Gy irradiation only group, which all died within 16 days of postirradiation. General vital signs (body weight or temperature) of animals in the kojic acid pretreated group reduced and increased maximally at day 14 postirradiation and then reverted to normal levels gradually. The hematopoiesis studies indicated that the white blood cells/red blood cells, hemoglobin content and hematocrit of dogs pretreated with kojic acid decreased sharply at day 23/day 21 postirradiation, and then gradually elevated. In addition, the DNA content of dogs pretreated with KA were significantly increased compared with that of dogs in the irradiation group at day 4 postirradiation and the number of micronuclei in the group pretreated with kojic acid declined sharply compared with that of the irradiation only group. KA appears to possess marked protective effects from radiation-induced damage and therefore, may be a promising novel radioprotective agent.
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Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov., an agar-digesting bacterium isolated from seaweed, and emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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A taxonomic study was carried out on strain YN3T, which was isolated from a seaweed sample on the coast of Weihai, China. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, and could grow at pH 5.0-10.0 and 4-32 °C in presence of 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain YN3T was positive for hydrolysis of polysaccharides, such as agar, starch and xylan. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. The major fatty acids were C16:1?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH, C16:0 and C18:1?7c. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, and two unidentified glycolipids. The genomic DNA G + C content was 49.4 mol %. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YN3T should be assigned to the genus Gilvimarinus. 'Gilvimarinus agarilyticus' KCTC 23325T and Gilvimarinus chinensis QM42T had the closest phylogenetic relationship with strain YN3T, and showed 97.9 % and 95.8 % sequence similarities, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, we propose that strain YN3T represents a novel species of the genus Gilvimarinus, for which the name Gilvimarinus polysaccharolyticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YN3T (= KCTC 32438T = JCM 19198T). An emended description of the genus Gilvimarinus is also presented.
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Efficient Generation of Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants Using an Improved Transposon-Mediated Transgene Reintegration Strategy.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Marker-free transgenic plants can be developed through transposon-mediated transgene reintegration, which allows intact transgene insertion with defined boundaries and requires only a few primary transformants. In this study, we improved the selection strategy and validated that the maize Ac/Ds transposable element can be routinely used to generate marker-free transgenic plants. A Ds-based gene of interest (GOI) was linked to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in T-DNA, and a GFP-aided counter-selection against T-DNA was used together with PCR-based positive selection for the GOI to screen marker-free progeny. To test the efficacy of this strategy, we cloned the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) ð-endotoxin gene into the Ds elements and transformed transposon vectors into rice cultivars via Agrobacterium. PCR assays of the transposon empty donor site exhibited transposition in somatic cells in 60.5% to 100% of the rice transformants. Marker-free (T-DNA-free) transgenic rice plants derived from unlinked germinal transposition were obtained from the T1 generation of 26.1% of the primary transformants. Individual marker-free transgenic rice lines were subjected to TAIL-PCR to determine Ds(Bt) reintegration positions, RT-PCR and ELISA to detect Bt expression levels, and bioassays to confirm resistance against the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Overall, we efficiently generated marker-free transgenic plants with optimized transgene insertion and expression. The transposon-mediated marker-free platform established in this study can be used in rice and possibly in other important crops.
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Psychologic health status of patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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The appearance and dysfunction of deformities may cause psychologic disorders in patients. The aim of this study was to assess the psychologic health status of patients undergoing orthognathic surgery and its relationship with demographic characteristics, social activityof the individuals, and severity of maxillofacial deformity.
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Development of a Remodeled Caspar Retractor and Its Application in the Measurement of Distractive Resistance in an In Vitro Anterior Cervical Distraction Model.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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In vitro biomechanical study of cervical intervertebral distraction using a remodeled Caspar retractor.
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Preparation and Enantioseparation Characteristics of a Novel ?-Cyclodextrin Derivative Chiral Stationary Phase in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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A novel cyclodextrin (CD) derivative mono(6(A)-N-allylamino-6(A)-deoxy)per-3-chlorine-4-methyl-phenylcarbamoylated-?-CD was synthesized and chemically immobilized onto the surface of ?-mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica gel step by step. The products were all purified and characterized and then got a substance with definitional structure. This chiral stationary phase (CSP) of 3-chlorine-4-methyl-phenylcarbamoylated-?-CD bonded on silica gel exhibited excellent separation capability for several chiral compounds in high-performance liquid chromatography. In the enantiomeric separations of five racemates with a mixture of methanol and aqueous KH2PO4 buffer as the mobile phase, this CSP presented good chiral recognition performance.
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[Analysis on depression of patients with advanced schistosomiasis and its influencing factors].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To explore the status of depression in patients with advanced schistosomiasis and its influencing factors, so as to provide the evidence for improving psychological interventions.
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Heterometallic cluster-based indium-organic frameworks.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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With the help of the ligand-oriented method, we have successfully embedded independent copper-based units into the indium-organic framework system for the first time, in which the Cu4I4 clusters and In3O(CO2)6 clusters coexist. This heterometallic cluster-based framework has a large porosity with extra-open channels along the c-axis, and its sorption capacity has also been investigated.
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Tomato-Pseudomonas syringae interactions under elevated CO2 concentration: the role of stomata.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) in agricultural and natural ecosystems is known to reduce plant stomatal opening, but it is unclear whether these CO2-induced stomatal alterations are associated with foliar pathogen infections. In this study, tomato plants were grown under ambient and elevated [CO2] and inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000, a strain that is virulent on tomato plants. We found that elevated [CO2] enhanced tomato defence against P. syringae. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that stomatal aperture of elevated [CO2] plants was considerably smaller than their ambient counterparts, which affected the behaviour of P. syringae bacteria on the upper surface of epidermal peels. Pharmacological experiments revealed that nitric oxide (NO) played a role in elevated [CO2]-induced stomatal closure. Silencing key genes involved in NO generation and stomatal closing, nitrate reductase (NR) and guard cell slow-type anion channel 1 (SLAC1), blocked elevated [CO2]-induced stomatal closure and resulted in significant increases in P. syringae infection. However, the SLAC1-silenced plants, but not the NR-silenced plants, still had significantly higher defence under elevated [CO2] compared with plants treated with ambient [CO2]. Similar results were obtained when the stomata-limiting factor for P. syringae entry was excluded by syringe infiltration inoculation. These results indicate that elevated [CO2] induces defence against P. syringae in tomato plants, not only by reducing the stomata-mediated entry of P. syringae but also by invoking a stomata-independent pathway to counteract P. syringae. This information is valuable for designing proper strategies against bacterial pathogens under changing agricultural and natural ecosystems.
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Cross-talk between HDAC4 and STAT6 in the transcriptional regulation of arginase-1 during mouse dendritic cell differentiation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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L-Arginine and L-arginine-metabolizing enzymes play important roles in the biology of some types of myeloid cells, including macrophage and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this study, we provided evidence that arginase-1 (Arg1) is required for the differentiation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Expression of Arg1 was robustly induced during monocyte-derived DC differentiation. Ectopic expression of Arg1 significantly promoted monocytic DC differentiation in GM-CSF culture system, and also facilitated the differentiation of CD8?(+) conventional DC in the presence of Flt3 ligand. Knock-down of Arg1 reversed these effects. Mechanistic studies showed that the induced expression of Arg1 in differentiating DCs was caused by enhanced recruitment of HDAC4 to the Arg1 promoter region, which led to reduction in the acetylation of both histone 3 and STAT6 proteins, and subsequent transcriptional activation of Arg1. Further investigation identified a novel STAT6 binding site within the Arg1 promoter, which mediated its regulation by STAT6 and HDAC4, These observations suggest that the cross-talk between HDAC4 and STAT6 is an important regulatory mechanism of Arg1 transcription in DCs. Moreover, overexpression of Arg1 clearly abrogated the ability of HDAC inhibitor to suppress DC differentiation. In conclusion, we show that Arg1 is a novel regulator of myeloid DC differentiation.
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Development of molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensors based on Fe3O4@MWNT-COOH/CS nanocomposite layers for detecting traces of acephate and trichlorfon.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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In this study, we developed a novel biomimetic electrochemical sensor sensitized with a Fe3O4@carboxyl-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube/chitosan nanocomposite layer using a molecularly imprinted film as a recognition element for the rapid detection of acephate and trichlorfon. The performance of the imprinted sensor was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, and the results indicated that the sensor exhibited fast responses to both acephate and trichlorfon. The imprinted sensor had good linear current responses to acephate and trichlorfon concentrations in the ranges from 1.0 × 10(-4) to 1.0 × 10(-10) M and 1.0 × 10(-5) to 1.0 × 10(-11) M, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the imprinted sensor had low limits of detection (signal to noise ratio, S/N = 3) of 6.81 × 10(-11) M for acephate and 8.94 × 10(-12) M for trichlorfon. The developed method was successfully applied to detect acephate and trichlorfon spiked in fortified kidney bean and cucumber samples with good recoveries ranging from 85.7% to 94.9% and relative standard deviations of 3.46-5.18%.
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The assessment of material-handling strategies in dealing with sudden loading: the effect of uneven ground surface on trunk biomechanical responses.
Ergonomics
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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As a major risk factor of low back injury, sudden loading often occurs when performing manual material-handling tasks on uneven ground surfaces. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a laterally slanted ground on trunk biomechanical responses during sudden loading events. Thirteen male subjects were subjected to suddenly released loads of 3.4 and 6.8 kg, while standing on a laterally slanted ground of 0°, 15° and 30°. The results showed that 8.3% and 5.6% larger peak L5/S1 joint compression forces were generated in the 30° condition compared with the 0° and 15° conditions, respectively. The increase of L5/S1 joint moment in the 30° condition was 8.5% and 5.0% greater than the 0° and 15° conditions, respectively. Findings of this study suggest that standing on a laterally slanted ground could increase mechanical loading on the spine when experiencing sudden loading. Practitioner Summary: Sudden loading is closely related to occupational low back injuries. The results of this study showed that the increase of slanted ground angle and magnitude of load significantly increase the mechanical loading on the spine during sudden loading. Therefore, both of these two components should be controlled in task design.
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Advanced signaling technologies for high-speed digital fiber-optic links.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We summarize the most recent research of the Georgia Tech Terabit Optical Networking Consortium and the state-of-the-art in fiber telecommunications. These results comprise high-capacity single-mode fiber systems with digital coherent receivers and shorter-reach multimode fiber links with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers. We strongly emphasize the capabilities that sophisticated digital signal processing and electronics add to these fiber-based data transport links.
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Controllably Interfacing with Metal: A Strategy for Enhancing CO Oxidation on Oxide Catalysts by Surface Polarization.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Heterogeneous catalysis often involves charge transfer from catalyst surface to adsorbed molecules, whose activity thus depends on the surface charge density of catalysts. Here, we demonstrate a unique solution-phase approach to achieve controllable interfacial lengths in oxide-metal hybrid structures. Resulting from their different work functions, surface polarization is induced by the Ag-CuO interface and acts to tailor the surface charge state of CuO. As a result, the designed hybrid catalysts exhibit enhanced intrinsic activities in catalyzing CO oxidation in terms of apparent activation energy, as compared with their counterparts. Moreover, the CO conversion rate can be enhanced by maximizing the Ag-CuO interfacial length and thus the number of active sites on the CuO. This work provides a new strategy for tuning catalytic performance by controlling interface in hybrid catalysts.
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Contrast analysis of open reduction and internal fixation and non-surgical treatment of condylar fracture: a meta-analysis.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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To take surgical treatment or non-surgical treatment on condylar fracture, clinicians are faced with a difficult choice. Traditional treatment on condylar fracture advocated non-surgical treatment, including intermaxillary traction and intermaxillary fixation, which relies mainly on condylar rebuilt. In recent years, with the development of rigid internal fixation, open reduction and internal fixation technique has been well applied in the treatment of condylar fracture and has obtained an optimistic therapeutic effect. More and more of patients with condylar fracture are advised to undergo surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment sometimes causes some discomforts and complications to patients. Is surgery treatment inevitable for condylar fracture? We, in this study, adopted a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of open reduction and fixation surgical treatment with that of the non-surgical treatment on condylar fracture to give a reference to clinic.
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Requirement of CRTC1 coactivator for hepatitis B virus transcription.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Transcription of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) template is essential for its replication. Suppressing the level and transcriptional activity of cccDNA might have anti-HBV effect. Although cellular transcription factors, such as CREB, which mediate HBV transcription, have been well described, transcriptional coactivators that facilitate this process are incompletely understood. In this study we showed that CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 1 (CRTC1) is required for HBV transcription and replication. The steady-state levels of CRTC1 protein were elevated in HBV-positive hepatoma cells and liver tissues. Ectopic expression of CRTC1 or its homolog CRTC2 or CRTC3 in hepatoma cells stimulated the activity of the preS2/S promoter of HBV, whereas overexpression of a dominant inactive form of CRTC1 inhibited HBV transcription. CRTC1 interacts with CREB and they are mutually required for the recruitment to the preS2/S promoter on cccDNA and for the activation of HBV transcription. Accumulation of pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and cccDNA was observed when CRTC1 or its homologs were overexpressed, whereas the levels of pgRNA, cccDNA and secreted HBsAg were diminished when CRTC1 was compromised. In addition, HBV transactivator protein HBx stabilized CRTC1 and promoted its activity on HBV transcription. Our work reveals an essential role of CRTC1 coactivator in facilitating and supporting HBV transcription and replication.
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Development of a Microsphere-Based Fluorescence Immunochromatographic Assay for Monitoring Lincomycin in Milk, Honey, Beef and Swine Urine.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The residue of lincomycin (LIN) in edible animal foodstuffs caused by the widespread use of veterinary drugs is in need of rapid, simple and sensitive detection methods. In the present work, we introduce a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA) for detecting LIN in different samples based on the competitive immunoreaction on the chromatography test strip. The residues of LIN in different samples compete with the bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled LIN conjugates on the T-line to bind to the anti-LIN monoclonal antibody labeled fluorescent microspheres (FM-mAbs). Captured FM-mAbs on the T-line represent the fluorescent intensity, which is detected under UV-light and quantified by a fluorescent reader. Under optimized conditions, the dynamic range is from 1.35 ng/mL to 3.57 ng/mL, and 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) is 2.20 ng/mL. This method has 4.4% cross-reactivity with clindamycin and negligible cross-reactivity (< 0.1%) with other analogues. To reduce the matrix effects, a dilution method is used to pretreat the samples, and the recoveries range from 73.92% to 120.50% with coefficient of variations less than 21.76%. Comparing with the results of ELISA and colloidal gold immunoassay, FMIA has obvious advantages such as easy operation, time-saving, high sensitivity and specificity, and a broader prospect.
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[Effects of plant-derived smoke water on accumulation of biomass and active substance of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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To study the effect of plant-derived smoke water on the accumulation of biomass and active substance of Salvia miltiorrhiza f. alba, seedlings of S. miltiorrhiza were treated with different concentrations of smoke water (1:500, 1: 1 000, 1: 2 000). The fresh weight and dry weight of underground part, the number of split-root, maximum root diameter, average root diameter, average root length, the content of lipophilic components and water-soluble components were measured. Results showed that fresh weight and dry weight of underground part were respectively improved by 98.01%, 44.32% and 85.71%, 28.57% with significant difference by smoke water treatment with concentration of 1: 500 and 1: 1 000. Maximum root diameter and dry weight of underground part were respectively enhanced by 58.44% and 85.71% by smoke water with concentration of 1:500. The content of tanshinone I and tanshinone II(A) were improved by smoke water treatment, however there were no significantly difference on the content of cryptotanshinone and dihydrotan shinone. This study indicates that smoke water treatment could be used to improve the accumulation of biomass and active substance content of S. miltiorrhiza f. alba, which could provide new ideas for its green cultivating.
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Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from an algal bloom in the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, and an emended description of the genus Maribacter.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, designated strain HT7-2T, was isolated from Ulva prolifera collected from the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, during its bloom. Cells were rod-shaped (1.9-3.5 × 0.4-0.6 ?m), non-sporulating, and motile by gliding. Strain HT7-2T was able to grow at 4-50 °C (optimum 40-42 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), 0-8% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3%) and 0.5-10% (w/v) sea salts (optimum 2.5%). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HT7-2T belonged to the genus Maribacter with sequence similarity values of 94.5-96.6%, and was most closely related to Maribacter aestuarii GY20T (96.6%). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the main isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and unknown ECL 13.565. The polar lipids of strain HT7-2T consisted of one phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), four unidentified lipids (L1~4) and one unidentified aminolipid (AL). On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain HT7-2T (= CGMCC 1.12207T = JCM 18466T) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Maribacter is also proposed.
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Synthesis of iron oxide coated fluoridated HAp/Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanocomposites for biological applications.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Fluorescent-magnetic iron oxide coated fluoridated HAp/Ln(3+) (Ln = Eu or Tb) nanocomposites were prepared. After transforming hydrophobic fluoridated HAp/Ln(3+) nanorods into hydrophilic ones, iron oxide particles were coated on their surface via thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3. Fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites developed in this study demonstrate excellent fluorescent-magnetic properties and prominent biocompatibility.
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Fetal echocardiography for congenital heart disease diagnosis: a meta-analysis, power analysis and missing data analysis.
Eur J Prev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Prenatal ultrasonography is the most widely available diagnostic test for fetal congenital heart disease (CHD), but the factors influencing its diagnostic accuracy remain uncertain despite extensive research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of demographic, clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics on diagnostic yields for detecting CHD.
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Ribavirin enhances myeloid-derived suppressor cell differentiation through CXCL9/10 downregulation.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Abstract Elevation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) was observed in some viral infectious diseases. In this study, we studied whether ribavirin, a widely used clinical antiviral drug, could impact the differentiation of human MDSCs in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ribavirin treatment (5-20?µg/ml) significantly enhanced the differentiation of monocytic MDSCs in a dose-dependent manner. The ribavirin-generated MDSCs were immune-suppressive toward autologous T cells. The mRNA expression of some cytokines was further examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We observed a significant down-regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 (CXCL9) and CXCL10 mRNA in ribavirin-generated MDSCs, when compared with control. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from clinical chronic hepatitis C patients subjected to ribavirin therapy also displayed a similar suppression in CXCL9/10 mRNA expression. Administration of recombinant CXCL9/10 proteins clearly counteracted the effect of ribavirin on MDSCs. In summary, this study showed that ribavirin enhanced human MDSCs differentiation in vitro, which may be attribute to the down-regulation of CXCL9/10 expression.
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Acetylation-defective mutant of Ppar? is associated with decreased lipid synthesis in breast cancer cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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In our prior publications we characterized a conserved acetylation motif (K(R)xxKK) of evolutionarily related nuclear receptors. Recent reports showed that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) deacetylation by SIRT1 is involved in delaying cellular senescence and maintaining the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. However, it still remains unknown whether lysyl residues 154 and 155 (K154/155) of the conserved acetylation motif (RIHKK) in Ppar?1 are acetylated. Herein, we demonstrate that Ppar?1 is acetylated and regulated by both endogenous TSA-sensitive and NAD-dependent deacetylases. Acetylation of lysine 154 was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) while deacetylation of lysine 155 by SIRT1 was confirmed by in vitro deacetylation assay. An in vivo labeling assay revealed K154/K155 as bona fide acetylation sites. The conserved acetylation sites of Ppar?1 and the catalytic domain of SIRT1 are both required for the interaction between Ppar?1 and SIRT1. Sirt1 and Ppar?1 converge to govern lipid metabolism in vivo. Acetylation-defective mutants of Ppar?1 were associated with reduced lipid synthesis in ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that the conserved lysyl residues K154/K155 of Ppar?1 are acetylated and play an important role in lipid synthesis in ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells.
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d-Amino Acids Modulate the Cellular Response of Enzymatic-Instructed Supramolecular Nanofibers of Small Peptides.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Peptides made of d-amino acids, as the enantiomer of corresponding l-peptides, are able to resist proteolysis. It is, however, unclear or much less explored whether or how d-amino acids affect the cellular response of supramolecular nanofibers formed by enzyme-triggered self-assembly of d-peptides. In this work, we choose a cell compatible molecule, Nap-l-Phe-l-Phe-l-pTyr (LLL-1P), and systematically replace the l-amino acids in this tripeptidic precursor or its hydrogelator by the corresponding d-amino acid(s). The replacement of even one d-amino acid in this tripeptidic precursor increases its proteolytic resistance. The results of static light scattering and TEM images show the formation of nanostructures upon the addition of alkaline phosphatase, even at concentrations below the minimum gelation concentration (mgc). All these isomers are able to form ordered nanostructures and exhibit different morphologies. According to the cell viability assay on these stereochemical isomers, cells exhibit drastically different responses to the enantiomeric precursors, but almost same responses to the enantiomeric hydrogelators. Furthermore, the different cellular responses of LLL-1P and DDD-1P largely originate from the ecto-phosphatases catalyzed self-assembly of DDD-1 on the surface of cells. Therefore, this report not only illustrates a new way for tailoring the properties of supramolecular assemblies, but also provides new insights to answering the fundamental question of how mammalian cells respond to enzymatic formation of nanoscale supramolecular assemblies (e.g., nanofibers) of d-peptides.
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The relationship between the plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and alternative oxidase in tomato basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.
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Draft genomic DNA sequence of strain Halomonas sp. FS-N4 exhibiting high catalase activity.
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Halomonas sp. FS-N4 is a bacterium, which can grow in the medium Marine Broth 2216 with 5M initial hydrogen peroxide concentration, shows a strong oxidation resistance, and the crude enzyme activity can reach as high as 13.33katal/mg. We reported the draft genome sequence of H. sp. FS-N4, showing that it contains 3434 protein-coding genes, including the genes putatively involved in the response to the oxidative stress, among which a phytochrome-like gene might be a key point to survive in the environment with high concentration of hydrogen peroxide and exhibit high catalase activity.
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Spirometric reference values for healthy Han children aged 5-15 years in Guangzhou, southern China.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Reliable interpretation of spirometry rests on appropriate reference values, but there are few published reference values for healthy children in China.
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Digitalized design of extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a computer-based simulation and cadaveric study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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This study aims to investigate the feasibility of a novel lumbar approach named extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ELIF), a newly emerging minimally invasive technique for treating degenerative lumbar disorders, using a digitalized simulation and a cadaveric study.
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Oral cavity infection: an adverse effect after the treatment of oral cancer in aged individuals.
J Appl Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The immune compromised patients after treatment of oral cancer may have a chance of infection by drug-resistant opportunistic microbes. We investigated the occurrence of opportunistic microorganisms in aged individuals receiving follow-up examinations after treatment of oral cancer in China.
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Mechanisms for U2AF to define 3' splice sites and regulate alternative splicing in the human genome.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The U2AF heterodimer has been well studied for its role in defining functional 3' splice sites in pre-mRNA splicing, but many fundamental questions still remain unaddressed regarding the function of U2AF in mammalian genomes. Through genome-wide analysis of U2AF-RNA interactions, we report that U2AF has the capacity to directly define ~88% of functional 3' splice sites in the human genome, but numerous U2AF binding events also occur in intronic locations. Mechanistic dissection reveals that upstream intronic binding events interfere with the immediate downstream 3' splice site associated either with the alternative exon, to cause exon skipping, or with the competing constitutive exon, to induce exon inclusion. We further demonstrate partial functional impairment with leukemia-associated mutations in U2AF35, but not U2AF65, in regulated splicing. These findings reveal the genomic function and regulatory mechanism of U2AF in both normal and disease states.
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Responsiveness to methacholine, but not leukotriene D4 , correlates with fractional exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Correlation between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and responsiveness to inhaled leukotriene D4 (LTD4 ) and methacholine (MCh) might be different. This study aims to determine the correlation between FeNO and airway responsiveness to LTD4 and MCh, and to compare the airway responsiveness to inhaled LTD4 and MCh and FeNO in non-smokers, patients without rhinitis and non-smokers without rhinitis.
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Factors Affecting the Non-Linear Force Versus Distraction Height Curves in an In Vitro C5-6 Anterior Cervical Distraction Model.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In vitro biomechanical study of cervical intervertebral distraction.
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[Assessment of tooth bleaching efficacy with spectrophotometer].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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To analyze the changes in CIE L*, a*, and b* at cervical, body, and incisal sites after tooth bleaching by using a spectrophotometer.
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L-3-n-butylphthalide improves cognitive impairment of APP/PS1 mice by BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/AKT pathway.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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L-3-n-butylphthalide (L-NBP), an extract from seeds of Apium graveolens Linn (Chinese celery), has been shown to have neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemic, vascular dementia and amyloid-beta (Abeta)-induced animal models by inhibiting oxidative injury, neuronal apoptosis and glial activation, regulating amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) processing and reducing Abeta generation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-3-n-butylphthalide on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF), kinaseB (TrkB), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt in APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse models. APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were administered 30 mg/kg•d L-NBP and 10 mg/kg•d L-NBP for one month. The learning and memory ability were studied using the water maze test. Protein expression and transcript levels of genes in the mice hippocampus were evaluated using western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. The results demonstrated that both 30 mg/kg•d L-NBP and 10 mg/kg•d L-NBP doses of L-NBP significantly increased memory capability and the expression of hippocampal BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/AKT in mice The results suggested that L-NBP treatment may reverse memory impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/AKT, may be involved in this process.
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Carbonic Anhydrase II Mediates Malignant Behavior of Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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In normal lung, the predominant cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozyme, CAII, is highly expressed in amine and peptide producing pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) where its role involves CO2 sensing. Here we report robust cytoplasmic expression of CAII by immunohistochemistry in the tumor cells of different native neuroendocrine tumor (NET) types including typical and atypical carcinoids and small cell lung carcinomas, and in NET and non-NET tumor cell lines. Since, in both PNEC and related NETs the hypercapnia - induced secretion of bioactive serotonin (5-HT) is mediated by CAII, we investigated the role of CAII in the biological behavior of a carcinoid cell line H727 and the type II cell derived A549 using both in vitro clonogenicity and in vivo xenograft model. We show that shRNA mediated downregulation of CAII resulted in significant reduction in clonogenicity of H727 and A549 cells in vitro, and marked suppression of tumor growth in vivo. CAII-shRNA cell derived xenografts showed significantly reduced mitosis (phosphohistone H3 marker), proliferation (Ki67 marker) and significantly increased apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Using an apoptosis gene array we found no association with caspases 3 and 8 but with a novel association of CAII mediated apoptosis with specific mitochondrial apoptosis associated proteins. Furthermore, these xenografts showed a significantly reduced vascularization (CD31marker). Thus CAII may play a critical role in NET lung tumor growth, angiogenesis and survival, possibly via 5-HT, known to drive autocrine tumor growth. Thus CAII is a potential therapeutic target for the difficult to treat lung NETs.
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Statin use and risk of gallstone disease: A meta-analysis.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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There is emerging evidence from animal and human studies that current statins can decrease the formation of gallbladder cholesterol gallstones and subsequently decrease the risk of gallstone disease, but consistent results have not been reported. We performed a meta-analysis to provide an overview of the relevant studies.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and essential tremor.
Neuroepidemiology
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to be inversely related to Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, both of which may share common mechanisms with essential tremor (ET). Use of these medications has not been studied in ET cases vs. controls.
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Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Sl?-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Sl?-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Sl?-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Sl?-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Sl?-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Sl?-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Sl?-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Sl?-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.
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Does long time spending on the electronic devices affect the reading abilities? A cross-sectional study among Chinese school-aged children.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Home literacy environment (HLE) is one of most important modifiable risk factors to dyslexia. With the development in technology, we include the electronic devices usage at home, such as computers and televisions, to the definition of HLE and investigate its impact on dyslexia based on the on-going project of Tongji's Reading Environment and Dyslexia Study. The data include 5063 children, primary school students (grade 3-grade 6), from a middle-sized city in China. We apply the principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the large dimension of variables in HLE, and find the first three components, denoted as PC1, PC2 and PC3, can explain 95.45% of HLE information. PC1 and PC2 demonstrate strong positive association with 'total time spending on electronic devices' and 'literacy-related activity', respectively. PC3 demonstrates strong negative association with 'restrictions on using electronic devices'. From the generalized linear model, we find that PC1 significantly increases the risk of dyslexia (OR=1.043, 95% CI: 1.018-1.070), while PC2 significantly decreases the risk of dyslexia (OR=0.839, 95% CI: 0.795-0.886). Therefore, reducing the total time spending on electronic devices and increasing the literacy-related activity would be the potential protective factors for dyslexic children in China.
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An improved sensitive assay for the detection of PSP toxins with neuroblastoma cell-based impedance biosensor.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins are well-known sodium channel-blocking marine toxins, which block the conduction of nerve impulses and lead to a series of neurological disorders symptoms. However, PSP toxins can inhibit the cytotoxicity effect of compounds (e.g., ouabain and veratridine). Under the treatment of ouabain and veratridine, neuroblastoma cell will swell and die gradually, since veratridine causes the persistent inflow of Na(+) and ouabain inhibits the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Therefore, PSP toxins with antagonism effect can raise the chance of cell survival by blocking inflow of Na(+). Based on the antagonism effect of PSP toxins, we designed an improved cell-based assay to detect PSP toxins using a neuroblastoma cell-based impedance biosensor. The results demonstrated that this biosensor showed high sensitivity and good specificity for saxitoxins detection. The detection limit of this biosensor was as low as 0.03ng/ml, which was lower than previous reported cell-based assays and mouse bioassays. With the improvement of biosensor performance, the neuroblastoma cell-based impedance biosensor has great potential to be a universal PSP screening method.
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[Study on the prevalence of childhood overweight and underweight, and the association with family socio-economic status (SES)].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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To analysis the prevalence of childhood overweight and underweight, and the association with family socio-economic status (SES) over years.
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Devosia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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A novel bacterial strain, NH131(T), was isolated from deep-sea sediment of South China Sea. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped and motile with a single lateral flagellum. Strain NH131(T) grew optimally at pH 6.5-7.0 and 25-30 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NH131(T) belonged to the genus Devosia, sharing the highest sequence similarity with the type strain, Devosia geojensis BD-c194(T) (96.2%). The predominant fatty acids were C(18?:?1)?7c, 11-methyl C(18?:?1)?7c, C(18?:?0) and C(16?:?0). Ubiquinone 10 was the predominant ubiquinone. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipid, three glycolipids and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain NH131(T) was 63.0 mol%. On the basis of the results of polyphasic identification, it is suggested that strain NH131(T) represents a novel species of the genus Devosia for which the name Devosia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NH131(T) (?=?JCM 19305(T)?=?KCTC 32437(T)).
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Paracoccus sediminis sp. nov., isolated from Pacific Ocean marine sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Strain CMB17(T) was a short rod-shaped bacterium isolated from marine sediment of the Pacific Ocean. Cells were Gram-stain-negative and non-motile. Optimal growth occurred at 25-30 °C, pH 6.5-7 and 0.5-1% (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acid was C(18?:?1)?7c (87.59%), and ubiquinone-10 was detected as the only isoprenoid quinone. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 62.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CMB17(T) is most closely related to Paracoccus stylophorae KTW-16(T) (96.7%), P. solventivorans DSM 6637(T) (96.4%) and P. saliphilus YIM 90738(T) (96.4%). Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain CMB17(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, denominated Paracoccus sediminis sp. nov. (type strain CMB17(T)?=?JCM 18467(T)?=?DSM 26170(T)?=?CGMCC 1.12681(T)).
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Draft genome sequence of Microbulbifer elongatus strain HZ11, a brown seaweed-degrading bacterium with potential ability to produce bioethanol from alginate.
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Microbulbifer elongatus strain HZ11, was a new strain of M. elongates DSM 6810(T), which has the ability to degrade brown seaweeds such as Laminaria japonica into single cell detritus particles. Here we report a high quality draft genome of M. elongatus strain HZ11, which comprises 4,223,108bp in 9 contigs with the G+C content of 56.70%. A total of 3293 protein-coding sequences were predicted, including nine alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3), five agarases (EC 3.2.1.81), 2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconate kinase (EC 2.7.1.45) and all enzymes involved in the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Our results suggest that strain HZ11 has the potential ability to produce bioethanol from alginate with moderate genetic modification, which may significantly increase the yield of bioethanol from brown seaweed and the utilization rate of brown seaweeds.
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[Parental smoking and adolescent smoking: the intergenerational transmission of heath-risk behaviors].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To determine the impact of parental smoking on adolescent smoking.
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Vibronic coherence in oxygenic photosynthesis.
Nat Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Photosynthesis powers life on our planet. The basic photosynthetic architecture consists of antenna complexes that harvest solar energy and reaction centres that convert the energy into stable separated charge. In oxygenic photosynthesis, the initial charge separation occurs in the photosystem II reaction centre, the only known natural enzyme that uses solar energy to split water. Both energy transfer and charge separation in photosynthesis are rapid events with high quantum efficiencies. In recent nonlinear spectroscopic experiments, long-lived coherences have been observed in photosynthetic antenna complexes, and theoretical work suggests that they reflect underlying electronic-vibrational resonances, which may play a functional role in enhancing energy transfer. Here, we report the observation of coherent dynamics persisting on a picosecond timescale at 77 K in the photosystem II reaction centre using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. Supporting simulations suggest that the coherences are of a mixed electronic-vibrational (vibronic) nature and may enhance the rate of charge separation in oxygenic photosynthesis.
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Thalassomonas eurytherma sp. nov., a marine proteobacterium.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Two Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17, were isolated from seawater of the East China Sea. Cells of Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17 were approximately 1.5-2.0 µm×0.5-0.7 µm and motile by a single polar flagellum. Strains grew optimally at pH 7.5-8.0, 28 °C, and in the presence of 2.5-3.0% (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the predominant respiratory quinone of strains Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17 was ubiquinone-8 (>97%), and the major fatty acids were C(14?:?0), C(16?:?1)?7c and/or iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH, C(16?:?0) and C(17?:?1)?8c. Their DNA G+C contents were 42.7 mol% and 42.8 mol%, respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the genus Thalassomonas and showed the highest sequence similarity to Thalassomonas loyana CBMAI 722(T) (95.9%). Strains Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17 could be differentiated from T. loyana CBMAI 722(T) according to their phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, DNA G+C contents and fatty acid composition. On the basis of these features, we propose strains Za6a-12(T) and Za6a-17 to be representatives of a novel species of the genus Thalassomonas with the name Thalassomonas eurytherma sp. nov. suggested. Strain Za6a-12(T) (?=?CGMCC 1.12115(T)?=?JCM 18482(T)) is the type strain of this novel species.
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Novel humanized recombinant T cell receptor ligands protect the female brain after experimental stroke.
Transl Stroke Res
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Transmigration of peripheral leukocytes to the brain is a major contributor to cerebral ischemic cell death mechanisms. Humanized partial major histocompatibility complex class II constructs (pMHC), covalently linked to myelin peptides, are effective for treating experimental stroke in males, but new evidence suggests that some inflammatory cell death mechanisms after brain injury are sex-specific. We here demonstrate that treatment with pMHC constructs also improves outcomes in female mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). HLA-DR2 transgenic female mice with MCAO were treated with RTL1000 (HLA-DR2 moiety linked to human MOG-35-55 peptide), HLA-DRa1-MOG-35-55, or vehicle (VEH) at 3, 24, 48, and 72 h after reperfusion and were recovered for 96 h or 2 weeks post-injury for measurement of histology (TTC staining) or behavioral testing. RTL1000- and DRa1-MOG-treated mice had profoundly reduced infarct volumes as compared to the VEH group, although higher doses of DRa1-MOG were needed for females vs. males evaluated previously. RTL1000-treated females also exhibited strongly improved functional recovery in a standard cylinder test. In novel studies of post-ischemic ultrasonic vocalization (USV), as measured by animal calls to their cage mates, we modeled in mice the post-stroke speech deficits common in human stroke survivors. The number of calls was reduced in injured animals relative to pre-MCAO baseline regardless of RTL1000 treatment status. However, call duration was significantly improved by RTL1000 treatment, suggesting benefit to the animal's recovery of vocalization capability. We conclude that both the parent RTL1000 molecule and the novel non-polymorphic DR?1-MOG-35-55 construct were highly effective immunotherapies for treatment of transient cerebral ischemia in females.
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Response--dose ratio is a surrogate of cumulative provocative dosage for bronchial provocation tests in asthma.
Lung
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Response-dose ratio (RDR) and cumulative provocative dosage (PD) are useful indices reflecting airway responsiveness in asthma.
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Evaluation of "top-down" treatment of early Crohn's disease by double balloon enteroscopy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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To assess "top-down" treatment for deep remission of early moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD) by double balloon enteroscopy.
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[Clinical evaluation of glass fiber-reinforced composites for fixed orthodontic lingual retainers].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The purpose of this clinical evaluation was to assess the clinical effect of application of everStick Ortho glass fiber-reinforced composites for orthodontic lingual retainer.
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Aging and age-related diseases--from endocrine therapy to target therapy.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Aging represents an important health issue not only for the individual, but also for society in general. Burdens associated with aging are expanding as longevity increases. This has led to an enhanced focus on issues related to aging and age-related diseases. Until recently, anti-aging endocrine-therapy has been largely limited to hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) that is associated with multiple side effects, including an increased risk of cancer. This has greatly limited the application of HRT in anti-aging therapy. Recently, the focus of anti-aging research has expanded from endocrine signaling pathways to effects on regulatory gene networks. In this regard, the GHRH-GH-IGF-1/Insulin, TOR-S6K1,NAD(+)-Sirtuin, P53, Klotho and APOE pathways have been linked to processes associated with age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and neurodegenerative diseases, all of which directly influence health in aging, and represent key targets in anti-aging therapy.
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Evaluation of specific fecal protein biochips for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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To develop and initially test a potential fecal protein biochip for the screening of colorectal cancer (CRC).
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[Effects of hydrogen peroxide-containing bleaching on the growth of Streptococcus mutans biofilm on enamel disc surface].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To evaluate the effects of a commercial bleaching agent containing 35% (mass fraction) hydrogen peroxide on the growth of Streptococcus mutans biofilm on enamel disc surface.
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Synergistic effect of nanosecond pulsed electric field combined with low-dose of pingyangmycin on salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in salivary glands. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) combined with pingyangmycin (PYM) on salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC), ACC high metastatic cell line (SACC-LM) and low metastatic cell line (SACC?83) were tested by CCK-8 assay, cell clonogenic assay, flow cytometry and Transwell assay. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression was tested by western blotting to verify the synergistic mechanism of nsPEF and PYM. The results showed that nsPEF inhibited the cell proliferation of both cell lines, and the inhibitory effect was strongly associated with time and electrical field strength. Moreover, PYM combined with nsPEF may enhance the suppression effect significantly, even at a very low dose (0.01 µg/ml). The synergistic effects may contribute to the downregulation of EMMPRIN expression resulting from the application of nsPEF. For SACC, nsPEF combined with chemotherapy agents may be a valuable strategy not only to improve the treatment effect and prognosis, but also to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy.
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Loss of the TNF? function inhibits Wnt/?-catenin signaling, exacerbates obesity development in adolescent spontaneous obese mice.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) is an adipokine involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and lipid metabolism, but its specific role has not been clearly understood. We validated a hypothesis that loss of TNF? function would inhibit Wnt/?-catenin signaling and accelerate adipogenesis in adolescent genetic obese mice. Epididymal white adipose tissues (eWAT) from TNF? deficient (TNF?(-/-)), leptin receptor deficient (db/db) and double gene mutant (db/db/TNF?(-/-), DT) male mice were used for comparative analysis of key molecules in Wnt/?-catenin signaling and adipogenic markers by qRT-PCR and western blot techniques. Compared with TNF?(-/-) and WT mice of 28 days old, an obese trait was observed in both db/db and DT mice, while the latter showed more significant body weight gain and eWAT hypertrophy. The mRNA level of key molecules in Wnt/?-catenin pathway was reduced in both obese groups, while the DT group was the lowest. Expression of adipocyte-specific genes was up-regulated during obese development in the two obese groups, while the DT group revealed more correlation than that of db/db group. At the protein level, a down regulation of Wnt10b and ?-catenin in obese eWAT showed similar tendency with that of mRNA level. Compared with the lean groups, the levels of adiponectin and PPAR?2 for the obese groups were down-regulated at 21-day-old age, while they were elevated at older age. Our results suggested that deficiency in TNF? inhibited Wnt/?-catenin signaling of the obese eWAT and up-regulated expression of adipokines, and accelerated adipogenesis in genetic obese mice on a chow diet.
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EFFECTS OF FREQUENCY, IRRADIATION GEOMETRY AND POLARISATION ON COMPUTATION OF SAR IN HUMAN BRAIN.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The power absorbed by the human brain has possible implications in the study of the central nervous system-related biological effects of electromagnetic fields. In order to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) of radio frequency (RF) waves in the human brain, and to investigate the effects of geometry and polarisation on SAR value, the finite-difference time-domain method was applied for the SAR computation. An anatomically realistic model scaled to a height of 1.70 m and a mass of 63 kg was selected, which included 14 million voxels segmented into 39 tissue types. The results suggested that high SAR values were found in the brain, i.e. ?250 MHz for vertical polarisation and 900-1200 MHz both for vertical and horizontal polarisation, which may be the result of head resonance at these frequencies.
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Hydroxy-safflor yellow A inhibits neuroinflammation mediated by A????? in BV-2 cells.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Inflammation is an important contributor to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Anti-inflammatory medication may offer promising treatment for AD. Hydroxy-safflor yellow A (HSYA), a chemical component of the safflower yellow pigments, has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. This study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of HSYA in A?????-treated BV-2 microglia cells. The mRNA levels of IL-1?, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-?, COX-2 and iNOS were detected by real-time PCR. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of COX-2, TNF-?, iNOS, Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2), p-JAK2, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and p-STAT3. BV2-conditioned medium was used to treat SH-SY5Y cells and primary neuronal cells in indirect toxicity experiments. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed using MTT assay and Annexin V/PI staining respectively. The results demonstrated that HSYA significantly reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediators and inhibited A?????-induced neuroinflammation. Moreover, HSYA protected primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. HSYA also enhanced the phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway and inhibition of JAK2 by AG 490 attenuated the anti-inflammatory effects of HSYA. Overall, our findings suggested that HSYA inhibited A?????-induced inflammation and conferred neuroprotection partially through JAK2/STAT3 pathway, indicating that HSYA could be a potential drug for the treatment of AD.
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Unusual pore structure and sorption behaviour in a hexanodal zinc-organic framework material.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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A highly porous metal-organic framework structurally consists of three topological kinds of 3-connected 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate ligands, Zn2(COO)4, Zn3O(COO)6 and Zn4O(COO)6 SBUs, featuring a new 3,3,3,4,4,6-c hexanodal topology. Sorption behaviour in this complicated microporous MOF material has also been investigated.
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Leukotriene D4 inhalation challenge for predicting short-term efficacy of montelukast: a pilot study.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The convenient measure to predict efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist is lacking.
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Immunohistochemical Characterization of the Chemosensory Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Bodies in the Naked Mole-Rat Reveals a Unique Adaptive Phenotype.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+) via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT), and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR), Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates). The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR) to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1) NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2) NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3) NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4) NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the neurogenic gene (MASH1) indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional and developmental state, reminiscent of a persistent fetal state that extends postnatally.
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Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood.
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A fine decision tree consisted of CK5/6, IMP3 and TTF1 for cytological diagnosis among reactive mesothelial cells, metastatic adenocarcinoma of lung and non-lung origin in pleural effusion.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The utility of combination with CK5/6, IMP3 and TTF1 to differentiate among reactive mesothelial cells (RMs), metastatic adenocarcinoma of lung (LAC) and non-lung (NLAC) origin was investigated by using immunocytochemistry (ICC) and conventional PCR (C-PCR) in pleural effusion. A total of 108 cell blocks (32 RMs, 51 LAC and 25 NLAC were evaluated by ICC for CK5/6, IMP3 and TTF1 protein expression. In addition, we further performed C-PCR for amplification of CK5/6, IMP3 and TTF1 DNA from 28 specimens (9 MAC and 7 RMs, 6 LAC and 6 NLAC) for molecular diagnosis. CK5/6 staining was observed in the majority of reactive specimens (78.1%) and was rare in adenocarcinoma cells (14.5%), whereas the opposite was true for IMP3 and TTF1. We found a high frequency of TTF1 positivity (76.5%) in LAC, but not in NLAC (4.0%); while there was no significant difference of IMP3 expression in LAC (88.2%) and NLAC (88.0%). The 487 bp DNA fragments of IMP3 was expected to be amplified in 6/9 of adenocarcinoma cases showed negative in ICC; and the 394 bp DNA fragments of CK5/6 was also expected to be amplified in 4/7 of RMs cases showed negative in ICC. Consistent with ICC results, there was significant difference of TTF1 expression in the LAC and NLAC compared with IMP3 expression. The combination with CK5/6, IMP3 and TTF1 immunostaining appears to be useful to improve the accuracy of cytological diagnoses between RMs, metastatic adenocarcinoma of lung and non-lung origin in pleural effusion. In addition, C-PCR may act as a useful supplemental approach for ICC, especially negative cases in ICC for differential cytological diagnosis.
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Study on the inhibitory effect of allicin on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 and its mechanism.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Allicin is the main active constituent of Allium sativum L., which is characterized by broad antibacterial spectrum (MarkosN et al., 2008; Chen et al., 2008); it also has apparent inhibitory effects on a variety of tumors. The Objective of the paper is to study the inhibitory effect of allicin on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901.
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Macrolide therapy in adults and children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macrolide therapy in adults and children with bronchiectasis.
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Open Pentameric Calixarene Nanocage.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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A novel open helmetlike coordination cage has been synthesized based on Co4-calixarene shuttlecock-like secondary building units and in situ generated phosphate anions, where the opening of the cage comprises a large 16-membered ring. The above unprecedented Co20 nanocage presents the first pentameric calixarene coordination compound. Sorption behavior and magnetic properties are also investigated.
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[Single-breath and rebreathing methods for measurement of pulmonary diffusing function: a comparative study].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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To compare the difference of pulmonary diffusing capacity measured by single-breath (SB) and re-breathing (RB) in normal subjects, patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Obesity occurring in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice has mild effects on fertility.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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The Apolipoprotein (Apo) family is implicated in lipid metabolism. There are five types of Apo: Apoa, Apob, Apoc, Apod, and Apoe. Apoe has been demonstrated to play a central role in lipoprotein metabolism and to be essential for efficient receptor-mediated plasma clearance of chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnant particles by the liver. Apoe-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice develop atherosclerotic plaques spontaneously, followed by obesity. In this study, we investigated whether lipid deposition caused by Apoe knockout affects reproduction in female mice. The results demonstrated that Apoe(-/-) mice were severely hypercholesterolemic, with their cholesterol metabolism disordered, and lipid accumulating in the ovaries causing the ovaries to be heavier compared with the WT counterparts. In addition, estrogen and progesterone decreased significantly at D 100. Quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that at D 100 the expression of cytochromeP450 aromatase (Cyp19a1), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd3b), mechanistic target of rapamycin (Mtor), and nuclear factor-?B (Nfkb) decreased significantly, while that of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (Bad) and tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2) increased significantly in the Apoe(-/-) mice. However, there was no difference in the fertility rates of the Apoe(-/-) and WT mice; that is, obesity induced by Apoe knockout has no significant effect on reproduction. However, the deletion of Apoe increased the number of ovarian follicles and the ratio of ovarian follicle atresia and apoptosis. We believe that this work will augment our understanding of the role of Apoe in reproduction.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.